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Disease Prevention & Treatment 5th Edition: Life Extension …

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70% Off Life Extension Promo Codes | Top 2019 Coupons @PromoCodeWatch

Thank you for visiting PromoCodeWatch on your hunt for Life Extension promo codes. We hope that one of our 13 Life Extension coupons for April, 2019 helped you save on your purchase. You can rest assured that weve searched everywhere to find all available Life Extension deals. This includes tracking mentions of Life Extension coupons on social media outlets like Twitter and Instagram, visiting blogs and forums related to Life Extension products and services, and scouring top deal sites for the latest Life Extension promo codes.

When shopping online for Life Extension products and services, it is a wise decision to visit PromoCodeWatch before checking out. Weve saved our visitors an average of 2 million dollars a year, many of which never knew Life Extension discounts were so easily available until visiting our site. Now that you are in the know, bookmark this page and check PromoCodeWatch before all of your online purchases.

If you seek more than just Life Extension coupon codes, we provide coupons and discounts for over 50,000 brands and retailers. Check out these related stores, or visit our complete directory to search our database of over one million coupon codes.

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Life Extension Mix, 360 capsules | Life Extension

Studies show that people who eat the most fruits and vegetables enjoy healthier and longer lives, but getting the recommended five servings a day is difficult for even the healthiest diets. That's why we created Life Extension Mix, a daily supplement that provides all the high-potency vitamins and minerals needed to form the cornerstone of a comprehensive health maintenance program.

Benefits at a Glance:

Our formula saves time and money by combining the most important nutrients including unique vegetable, fruit, and botanical extracts into one product, eliminating the need to take dozens of separate supplements.

More facts about Life Extension Mix

Life Extension Mix is a state-of-the-art multi-nutrient formula jam-packed with the purest and most potent forms of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and unique vegetable, fruit, and botanical extracts. In every daily dose of Life Extension Mix, you'll get an extensive array of nutrients:

Bioactive quercetin phytosome

Life Extension Mix contains 5 mg of quercetin that has been integrated into a phytosome. A phytosome is a phospholipid sphere that encases a botanical compound, aiding in its absorption and making it more bioavailable: this quercetin is up to 50 times more bioavailable than standard quercetin. Quercetin supports cellular health, endothelial health, and healthy immune function.


Found in dark red fruits, delphinidins are potent anthocyanin compounds that activate the production of nitric oxide, promoting vascular relaxation and blood pressure support.14 They can also help inhibit inflammatory factors58 and glycation,9 support immune health, and help maintain healthy blood sugar levels within normal range.

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

Glycation is a normal part of the aging process that can affect your health.1014 To help inhibit glycation, each daily dose of Life Extension Mix provides 100 mg of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate a metabolically active B6 that has been shown to help inhibit glycation reactions.15-17

Standardized pomegranate extract

Pomegranate supports healthy cardiovascular function32-37 and DNA structure in prostate cells.18-23 Our pomegranate extract is standardized to provide the biologically active punicalagins that are so unique to this fruit. These punicalagins are 100% water-soluble, have a remarkable 95% absorption rate,24 and are highly potent at inhibiting free radicals.25

Blueberry extracts

Blueberry anthocyanin compounds help inhibit free radicals, while blueberry's other active constituents promote healthy lipid and glucose levels for those already within normal range.26-29 Even more exciting: these blueberry constituents may help protect DNA structure.30-34 Life Extension Mix features the wild blueberry extract packed with active blueberry constituents.

Standardized green tea extract

In recent years, the active polyphenol compounds in green tea have been found to help inhibit LDL oxidation, neuronal peroxidation, and help maintain healthy DNA structure.35-44 Life Extension Mix's daily dose contains 325 mg of a decaffeinated green tea extract standardized to provide 98% of the active polyphenols that scientists attribute to green tea's multiple health benefits.

Standardized vegetable extracts

Life Extension Mix offers a wide array of vegetable extracts, including 8 mg of luteolin, a flavonoid found in parsley, basil, celery, and other foods. Luteolin has been shown to inhibit DNA oxidation45 and to inhibit excess levels of cytokines such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-13.46

Our formula features a concentrated broccoli mixture with standardized extracts of sulforaphane and glucosinolates, compounds attributed to broccoli's detoxification, DNA,47-50 and other health benefits,51-71 as well as chlorophyll.72-83A daily dose also provides 200 mg of calcium D-glucarate (supplying 175 mg of D-glucarate), a phytonutrient found in grapefruit, apples, oranges, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. D-glucarate supports detoxification processes.84-86

Life Extension Mix also contains lutein and lycopene. Lutein, an extract found in in leafy greens such as kale and spinach, has been shown to help maintain critical pigments in the eye macula.87 Lycopene from tomatoes helps to maintain DNA structure and protect against LDL oxidation.88-98

Standardized fruit extracts

In addition to our standardized pomegranate and wild blueberry extracts, Life Extension Mix also features fruit extracts such as bilberry, grape seed, and citrus bioflavonoids to promote healthy circulation help maintain healthy DNA.

Our unique formula is fortified with maqui berry and tart cherry for their antioxidant benefits for heart health as well as muscle and joint function support.99-118 It also includes a customized blend of blackberry, cranberry, plum, elderberry, persimmon, cherry, and other fruits that studies indicate provide multiple favorable effects on the body.

Numerous studies have pointed toward the many benefits of olive polyphenols, and Life Extension Mix contains an olive extract standardized to provide polyphenols like hydroxytyrosol that have been shown to help inhibit LDL oxidation, free radicals, and promote healthy cell membranes.119-131

Sesame seed lignan extract

Sesame lignans promote healthy levels of gamma tocopherol,132,133 enhance the beneficial effects of fish oils, and helping to maintain already-normal cholesterol/LDL levels.134-143 Life Extension Mix provides 10 mg of a sesame lignan extract to supply the direct benefits of the lignans and to augment the effects of vitamin E174 and other nutrients such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

Nutrients to maintain healthy blood glucose levels

Chromium, magnesium, and biotin help maintain healthy blood sugar for those already within normal range.145-156 In addition to highly absorbable forms of magnesium and biotin, Life Extension Mix contains 500 mcg of Crominex 3+, a biologically active chromium complex. Studies on the benefits of chromium supplementation show that doses exceeding 200 mcg a day are required for optimal effects.157-159

High-potency vitamin D3

Researchers today are concerned that many people are not supplementing with enough vitamin D, a critical nutrient for maintaining bone density and healthy cell division.160-167 Currently, most experts in the field believe that intakes of between 1,000 and 10,000 IU for adults will lead to a more healthy level of serum 25(OH)D, at approximately 50-80 ng/mL.168-170

Each daily dose of Life Extension Mix provides 2,000 IU of vitamin D3. What's more, this formula contains only 500 IU of preformed vitamin A. Preformed (not beta-carotene) vitamin A may interfere with the benefits of vitamin D, yet most multivitamins contain between 5,000 and 25,000 IU of preformed vitamin A.171

Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G)

Life Extension Mix contains 1.25 mg of C3G to support eye health. Found in blackberries and black currants, this potent compound promotes healthy levels of rhodopsin a compound that absorbs light in the retina and enhance night vision.172-176

In one study, just 50 mg of a berry extract concentrate containing C3G helped aging individuals see better in the darkness after 30 minutes.177 Bioavailable C3G also supports other body functions,178-191 has potent antioxidant properties,192,193 and supports endothelial cell health.194,195

5-MTHF (5-methyltetrahydrofolate)

Folate helps maintain homocysteine levels within the normal range. One dose of our formula contains 400 mcg of the bioactive 5-MTHF form of folate, which is up to 7 times more bioavailable than ordinary folic acid.

Selenium and Apigenin

Life Extension Mix contains three potent forms of selenium (SelenoExcell, Se-methyl-selenocysteine, and sodium selenite). Also newly included is apigenin, a powerful bioflavonoid found in many vegetables and fruits which boosts cell protection.

Why choose Life Extension Mix?

The ingredients in Life Extension Mix are based on over 35 years of clinical research, and we've selected the purest and most potent forms of plant extracts, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients for maximum absorption. Discover the extensive benefits of Life Extension Mix!

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Life Extension Mix, 360 capsules | Life Extension

Life Extension | SNC-Lavalin

CANDU reactors can operate economically and reliably for up to 60 years. After about 30 years of operation, reactor components are replaced and refurbished, extending the life of a reactor for another 30 years. This process is called life extension.

During life extension, the reactors pressure tubes, calandria tubes and end fitters are removed and replaced. Our experts have designed and delivered multi-tonne, remotely controlled tooling systems to accomplish this in a safe and effective manner. The outage also allows operators to refurbish other key reactor components, and make system upgrades.

All utilities that operate CANDU reactors are currently undergoing or will at some point consider life extension work on their reactors.

One of the worlds top-performing CANDU stations, the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station supplies 20% of Ontarios energy needs. Its refurbishment is crucial to deliver the power required to serve the provinces residents. Refurbishment operations began in the fall of 2016; it is the largest clean energy project in Canada.

This life extension project will allow Argentinas Embalse Nuclear Station to continue producing safe, reliable, low-carbon power for up to another 30 years. The Embalse CANDU 6 reactor began commercial operation in January 1984 and the single-unit has a gross output of 648 Mwe. The station shut down for this project in December 2015; the outage is expected to last until December 2017.

Bruce Power is Ontarios lowest cost source of nuclear, currently generating over 30% of the provinces electricity. Extending the operational life of the Bruce Power Units 3-8 will ensure long-term price stability. We are currently working with Bruce Power to solidify our scope for the Bruce Power major component replacement(MCR) project and look forward to concluding negotiations in late 2016.

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Life Extension | SNC-Lavalin

Generate Fresh Mitochondria with PQQ – Life Extension

In 1983, Life Extension introduced a relatively little-known compound called coenzyme Q10. Our review of the literature back then had unearthed data confirming its power to boost the health and energy output of the mitochondria.

Today, scientists recognize mitochondrial dysfunction as a key biomarker of aging.1-6 To take one instance, researchers have recorded evidence of 50% more mitochondrial damage in the brain cells of humans over 70 compared to middle-aged individuals.7 Mitochondrial dysfunction and death are now definitively linked to the development of virtually all killer diseases of aging, from Alzheimers and type 2 diabetes to heart failure.8-11

The good news is that mitochondrial dysfunction can be reversed.12 The scientific literature is now filled with studies documenting the therapeutic power of CoQ10 to thwart degenerative disease by boosting mitochondrial health and bioenergetic (energy-producing) capacity.13-16

The latest advance in the area of mitochondrial bioenergetics is the coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone or PQQ.

PQQs critical role across a range of biological functions has only gradually emerged. Like CoQ10, it is a micronutrient whose antioxidant capacity provides extraordinary defense against mitochondrial decay.

But the most exciting revelation on PQQ emerged early in 2010, when researchers found it not only protected mitochondria from oxidative damageit stimulated growth of fresh mitochondria!17

In this article, you will learn of this novel coenzymes ability to combat mitochondrial dysfunction. You will find out how it protects the brain, heart, and muscles against degenerative disease. You will also discover its potential to reverse cellular aging by activating genes that induce mitochondrial biogenesisthe spontaneous formation of new mitochondria in aging cells!

PQQ is ubiquitous in the natural world. Its presence in interstellar stardust has led some experts to hypothesize a pivotal role for PQQ in the evolution of life on Earth.18 It has been found in all plant species tested to date. Neither humans nor the bacteria that colonize the human digestive tract have demonstrated the ability to synthesize it.19 This has led researchers to classify PQQ as an essential micronutrient.20

PQQs potential to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis was foreshadowed by repeated early findings indicating its central role in growth and development across multiple forms of life.

It has been shown to be a potent growth factor in plants, bacteria, and higher organisms.21,22 Pre-clinical studies reveal that when deprived of dietary PQQ, animals exhibit stunted growth, compromised immunity, impaired reproductive capability, and most importantly, fewer mitochondria in their tissue. Rates of conception, the number of offspring, and survival rates in juvenile animals are also significantly reduced in the absence of PQQ.23-25 Introducing PQQ back into the diet reverses these effects, restoring systemic function while simultaneously increasing mitochondrial number and energetic efficiency.

As the primary engines of almost all bioenergy production, the mitochondria rank among the physiological structures most vulnerable to destruction from oxidative damage. PQQs formidable free radicalscavenging capacity furnishes the mitochondria with superior antioxidant protection.

At the core of this capacity is an extraordinary molecular stability.30 As a bioactive coenzyme, PQQ actively participates in the energy transfer within the mitochondria that supplies the body with most of its bioenergy (like CoQ10).

Unlike other antioxidant compounds, PQQs exceptional stability allows it to carry out thousands of these electron transfers without undergoing molecular breakdown. It has been proven especially effective in neutralizing the ubiquitous superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.31 According to the most recent research, PQQ is 30 to 5,000 times more efficient in sustaining redox cycling (mitochondrial energy production) . . . than other common [antioxidant compounds], e.g. ascorbic acid.21 A consistent finding in the scientific literature is that nutrients like PQQ provide more wide-ranging benefits than conventional antioxidants the general public relies on.

PQQs dual capacity as a cell signaling modulator and a superior antioxidant renders it optimally effective in combating degenerative disease and age-related declines in the bodys most energetic organs: the heart and brain.

The revelation of its ability to favorably affect system-wide cell development, metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis affords an explanation for a wealth of data on its neuroprotective and cardioprotective benefits.

PQQ has been shown to optimize health and function of the entire central nervous system. It reverses cognitive impairment caused by chronic oxidative stress in pre-clinical models, improving performance on memory tests.32 It has also been shown to safeguard the Parkinsons disease gene, DJ-1, from self-oxidationan early step in the onset of disease.33

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), like reactive oxygen species, impose severe stresses on damaged neurons.34 They arise spontaneously following stroke and spinal cord injuries and have been shown to account for a substantial proportion of subsequent long-term neurological damage. PQQ suppresses RNS in experimentally induced strokes.35 It also provides additional protection by blocking gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a major source of RNS, following spinal cord injury.36

PQQ powerfully protects brain cells against oxidative damage following ischemia-reperfusion injurythe inflammation and oxidative damage that result from the sudden return of blood and nutrients to tissues deprived of them by stroke.37 Given immediately before induction of stroke in animal models, PQQ significantly reduces the size of the damaged brain area.38

PQQ also interacts in a beneficial manner with our brains neurotransmitter systems. In particular, PQQ protects neurons by modifying the important NMDA receptor site.39,40 NMDA is a powerful mediator of excitotoxicity, a response to long-term overstimulation of neurons that is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases and seizures.41-43 PQQ also protects against neurotoxicity induced by other toxins, including mercury.44,45

A mounting body of evidence points to PQQ as a potent intervention in Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Both are triggered by accumulation of abnormal proteins that initiate a cascade of oxidative events resulting in brain cell death. PQQ prevents development of a protein (alpha-synuclein) associated with Parkinsons disease.46 It also protects nerve cells from the oxidizing ravages of the amyloid-beta protein linked with Alzheimers disease.47 A 2010 study revealed that PQQ could prevent formation of amyloid beta molecular structures.48

PQQ has also been shown to protect memory and cognition in both aging animals and humans.49,50 It stimulates production and release of nerve growth factor in cells that support neurons in the brain.51 This may partially explain why PQQ supplementation of aging rats resulted in marked improvement of their memory function.49

In humans, supplementation with 20 mg per day of PQQ resulted in improvements on tests of higher cognitive function in a group of middle-aged and elderly people.50 These effects were significantly amplified when the subjects also took 300 mg per day of CoQ10.

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Generate Fresh Mitochondria with PQQ - Life Extension

Federal Shelf Life Extension Program Fact Sheet | State …

Fact Sheet Overview

The federal Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) extends the expiration dates on qualifying drugs and other materiel in federal stockpiles. SLEP is administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in cooperation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).1 The program is an acknowledgement that the actual shelf life of drugs and other medical products may be longer than their stated expiration date, depending on their storage conditions. The purpose of SLEP is to defer replacement costs of stockpiled drugs by extending their useful life.

The program was established in 1986 through an interagency agreement between the DoD and the FDA in response to a Congressional directive to address U.S. Air Force drug stockpiles.2 This initial SLEP program was intended to extend the useful shelf life of medicines with limited commercial use (e.g., chemical agent antidotes) or which the government held in such large quantities that the manufacturer would not accept them for credit when the drugs expired.3 Since then, other federal agencies have entered into a memorandum of agreement with the DoD to participate in SLEP, including other branches of the military, the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the U.S. Postal Service, and the Bureau of Federal Prisions.2

SLEP is currently available only for federally-maintained stockpiles, although there have been ongoing deliberations between the federal government and the states about extending SLEP to state-maintained stockpiles or creating a separate SLEP-like program for state stockpiles. (See State Stockpiles discussion below.)

Note: As of March 2012, Congress is in the process of reauthorizing the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), which may impact a number of laws and programs described below. Please see ASTHO EUA Current Issues Winter 2012 for more information about reauthorization and its potential impact on EUAs and related issues. (Download a printable PDF.)

SLEP is a fee-for-service program. Participating agencies are required to pay for the FDAs periodic, comprehensive testing and analysis of the drugs and other medical materiel in the SLEP process. Items eligible for SLEP are tested by the FDA. Products that pass testing are granted extended expiration dates but must undergo ongoing testing to monitor their continued shelf life.4 Products that fail testing at any time are destroyed.4 Products that do not receive additional extensions of their expiration dates or are not tested for SLEP are destroyed at their final expiration dates.4 Maintaining controlled storage conditions appropriate for the product(s) is an important factor in the SLEP process.

The program is operated by the DoD Defense Medical Materiel Program Office (DMMPO) (formerly the Defense Medical Standardization Board [DMSB]) and regularly interacts with the FDA and agencies participating in SLEP.2,5 The DMMPO/DoD role in SLEP is to conduct programmatic and administrative functions, including but not limited to: (1) identifying products eligible for testing to FDA; (2) updating the SLEP expiration database; (3) conducting a cost-benefit analysis of extending a drugs expiration date; (4) ordering labels for relabeled drugs; and (5) billing participant agencies.2

The FDA is responsible for testing and evaluating drugs for SLEP. Specifically, the FDA: (1) determines the appropriate tests and methods for the candidate drugs; (2) conducts tests on samples of the candidate drugs; (3) analyzes test results and determines whether and for how long extension is possible; and (4) performs other research to address SLEP issues.2

Not every item stockpiled is a candidate for SLEP. Because of the costs involved in testing, the program is primarily designed for large stockpiles of drugs and medical materiel that are housed in environmentally controlled facilities.2 FDA-approved prescription drugs are most frequently designated for SLEP testing by program participants. Biological products such as vaccines, serums, and nutritional products or items with a history of poor SLEP performance are not eligible for testing.2,4 Items where testing would be time or cost prohibitive are not accepted.4 The focus on testing has been on products that are militarily significant, have limited commercial use, are purchased in large quantities (e.g., antivirals), or are used only if there is an event requiring their administration.2

The procedure to determine whether a drug or other medical materiel is eligible for extension under SLEP involves testing by the FDA. If an extension is granted, the approval document identifies the length of the extension and relabeling requirements. Products under SLEP are regularly retested and must be destroyed if at any time they fail testing.2

An Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) is a type of permission under FD&C Act 564 that allows for the use of an unapproved medical product or an unapproved use of an approved medical product (drugs, biologics [e.g., vaccines], and devices [e.g., diagnostics]) during certain types of emergencies. Products extended under SLEP through the exercise of FDA enforcement discretion receive a new expiration date that is different than the one originally contained on the products labeling and is considered a deviation from the items prior approved use. Similarly, some SNS products may have been stored in conditions that exceeded labeled temperature ranges. Currently, an EUA is required to ensure that SLEP-extended drugs are not in violation of the FD&C Act. (See also ASTHO Current Issues and UpdatesSummer 2011Evolving Policy Issues.) During the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, Tamiflu (in capsules and suspension form) that was held in the SNS, much of which had been tested and extended under SLEP, was distributed to states and localities.2 The FDA issued an EUA that allowed the use of these products beyond the labeled expiration date without requiring that they be relabeled.

States have developed and maintained their own stockpiles of medicines and supplies in addition to those provided by the federal government through the SNS. In preparation for a pandemic, the federal government offered states a 25 percent subsidy to purchase additional antivirals through the SNS program. However, stockpiles held by states, whether purchased with state or federal funds, are not eligible for SLEP.10 In 2006, the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation Plan directed the HHS, the DoD, the VA, and the states to explore expanding SLEP to state stockpiles.11 Similarly, in a report about antiviral strategies for a pandemic, the Institute of Medicine recommended that the SLEP program be extended to other public and private stockpiles.10 That report also suggested using the information gained through SLEP to facilitate the use of properly stored recently expired drugs held outside SLEP.10 These recommendations acknowledged the high cost of replacing expired stockpiles and the potential scarcity of the drugs during a severe pandemic as important reasons for seeking to extend the drugs expiration dates.10

An FDA-led interagency workgroup that included the DoD, the CDC, and the VA determined that including state antiviral stockpiles in SLEP is not currently feasible.2 Reasons cited for the decision included programmatic, resource, quality, and legal considerations:

In addition to evaluating the feasibility of including states in SLEP, the HHS has been analyzing the feasibility of creating a separate SLEP-like program for extending state stockpiles. The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) within the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) has been evaluating the infrastructure necessary to support a new program for states and analyzing the comparative cost effectiveness of shelf-life testing to repurchasing for state inventories.12 Cost factors to be considered include laboratory testing, storage site inspection, state personnel, relabeling for extended products, destruction for products not extended, and transportation for products being tested or destroyed.12 The HHS, BARDA, and the states conducted a detailed analysis with state-specific data in 2011, but no results have been released as of March 2012.12

SLEP currently impacts states primarily through SNS deployments containing medicines that have received, or subsequently receive, shelf-life extensions. Shelf-life-extended products that have an expired label date or that have been relabeled may cause concern among healthcare providers and the public about the safety and efficacy of the extended items. Liability fears can arise among healthcare providers and others dispensing the shelf-life-extended items. Furthermore, complications can arise in determining what products are eligible for SLEP when SNS assets have been mixed with non-SNS assets in state, local, or regional stockpiles.

While extending expiration dates potentially saves money for states by reducing the frequency of replacing expired stockpiled medicines, if state stockpiles are eventually included in the federal SLEP or a similar program for states, states will also have to consider the logistical, personnel, and financial implications of participating in such an initiative.

Note: This document was compiled from JuneDecember 2011 and reflects the laws and programs current then. It reflects only portions of the laws relevant to public health emergencies and is not intended to be exhaustive of all relevant legal authority. This resource is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for professional legal or other advice. The document was funded by CDC Award No. 1U38HM000454 to the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials; Subcontractor PI Elliott, Logan Circle Policy Group LLC.

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Federal Shelf Life Extension Program Fact Sheet | State ...

London Underground train life extension Rail Engineer

As is often seen on heritage railways, it is possible to keep old rail vehicles in service virtually indefinitely, although to do so often involves extensive repair and restoration work. Sometimes, circumstances are such that it is necessary for trains in front line operation to undergo similar extensive work.

It was with this thought in mind that Rail Engineer recently visited London Undergrounds project team to view some of the work taking place on the forty-year-old Bakerloo line trains to keep them in service for at least another 10 years.


The Bakerloo line (Baker Street to Waterloo Railway) opened just over 110 years ago in 1906. Since then, it has been extended, had a branch opened, been truncated and eventually settled on its current route from Elephant and Castle in south east London to Harrow and Wealdstone in north east London. From Queens Park to Harrow and Wealdstone, it runs over Network Rails tracks, shared with London Overgrounds Class 378 trains.

Stabling sidings are provided at London Road, Lambeth, and at Queens Park. The main depot at Stonebridge Park is unique in that it is connected to Network Rails track and not to London Undergrounds.

The Bakerloo line is operated by a fleet of 36, seven-car, 1972 tube stock trains originally delivered in 1973/74. These trains are made up of a four-car unit and a three-car unit coupled together. They were designed for a nominal life of 36 years.

At 42 years, the Bakerloo trains are the oldest on the Underground, and amongst the oldest operating anywhere in the UK (other than heritage railways). Their design was based on the original Victoria line fleet, and has an aluminium-framed body with aluminium cladding mounted on a steel underframe.

They have four motor cars, each with four DC motors controlled by a camshaft-operated resistance controller and fitted with rheostatic braking. In addition, the entire train has electro-pneumatic brakes with a Westinghouse emergency brake, and there are electro-pneumatic sliding doors, and train protection is provided by tripcocks.

The fleet of 36 trains is made up of 33 Mk II and three Mk I units. The differences are superficial, and have mostly been eradicated over the years, but there are still some left to catch out anyone thinking they are all the same. They last had major work in the mid-1990s when they were refurbished an extensive visual modernisation whilst eliminating materials that were a fire hazard. For this work they were hauled over the National Rail network to the dockyard at Rosyth, which included travelling over the historic Forth Bridge.

The trains were originally planned for replacement by 2019 as part of the former PPP contracts, and then as the first use of the New Tube for London project. However, in 2013, London Underground decided to extend the life of the Bakerloo line trains to at least 2026.

Current projects

It was to understand more about what it takes to extend the life of a Tube train that Rail Engineer visited London Underground to talk to the project team and see the works over two days in May 2016.

The life extension project is just one of many projects that LU is carrying out on its older trains. LU has set up a Rolling Stock Renewals programme team to manage them all. The teams head, David Caulfield, outlined the various projects being carried out by his team. These include significant modifications to the Central line trains, upgrading 1960s and 1970s battery locomotives, and creating a Rail Adhesion Train (RAT) from some old District line cars to apply Sandite during the autumn leaf fall season.

The aim with all these projects is to keep older trains going to help Keep London Moving (from the Mayors Transport Strategy). David explained how LU is approaching these works.

LU has always carried out modifications to trains and has generally determined the sourcing strategy for each project on a one-off basis. For the future, LU has carried out a strategic review and has decided that it will invest in facilities to manage and execute work in house, bringing in specialist design and implementation resources or using in-house labour as appropriate.

This approach delivers a number of benefits including not having to send trains off site, which can add a week to each trains time out of service. LU train fleets achieve high utilisation and few trains are available to be taken out of service for modifications. An extra week in transit could add a year or more to a programme for fleets the size of LUs.

Bakerloo line

Back to the 42-year old Bakerloo line trains. One of the reasons that life extension was considered was, perversely, because extensive work was already under way to repair cracks and corrosion on the underframe and body. One might imagine these problems would hasten their demise, but the work was essential simply to keep the trains in service until the earliest date that new trains could be delivered.

In designing repairs, it is usually easiest to restore the original strength of the structure. It would be harder, and almost certainly no cheaper, to try and design repairs that would last just, say, five years. Thus the repair works deliver bodies that are structurally as good as new. As such, the work will easily last for the additional time required. Anything else necessary in sub-systems and components can and will be dealt with during routine maintenance, following proper engineering assessment of those components not normally replaced but being required to last beyond their normal lifespan.

The main consequence of extending the life beyond 2020 is the need to carry out modifications to comply with the Rail Vehicle Accessibility Regulations (2010). This contains similar requirements to those in the Technical Specification for Interoperability for People of Reduced Mobility TSIs do not apply to LU.

The RVAR work was explained by Paul Summers, project sponsor from the Asset Strategy and Investment team, and Zoe Dobell, RVAR project engineer (yes, my daughter!). The RVAR requires a number of features that make it easier to use such as handholds, passenger information displays, priority seats and provision for wheelchairs. Compliance is mandatory by 2020.

However, the Regulations recognise that strict compliance may not be possible for older trains. LU has therefore carried out extensive feasibility studies on the RVAR elements. These studies were then discussed with the Department for Transport with the aim of maximising the degree of compliance whilstnot incurring excessive cost for minimal benefit; DfT has been really supportive.

The main elements that will be installed are the wheelchair spaces (which will be in the trailer car of the three car unit), and an audio/visual passenger information system. The biggest challenge of all is the gap between the train and the platform. LUs practice on other lines is to use a mixture of platform humps and manual boarding ramps depending on the curvature and other factors. For the Bakerloo, LU has agreed with the DfT that no boarding aids will be provided where there is no interchange and no foreseeable prospect of providing street to platform step free access.

With agreement on all these features, the scope of the works is now frozen and work will start in mid-2018 for completion early in 2020, based on having two trains out of service at a time. To provide the wheelchair positions involves removing the seats on one side of the middle seat bay of the designated trailer cars. In common with all LU tube gauge cars, there is equipment under the seats this will have to be relocated and new flooring fitted to match the new floors being fitted as part of the body repairs (see below). Installing the passenger information system will involve work on all cars, and, although mandated by RVAR, will be of benefit to all passengers.

Acton Works

It was with considerable nostalgia that I set off from Acton Town station towards the large Acton Works complex, having first made that journey nearly 47 years ago.

The purpose was to see some of the repair works under way, a programme that will cost LU some 60 million or just over 200,000 per car. I was met by the underframe and body repairs project engineer Rob Bonarski, who is charged, inter alia, with making sure there is an approved repair system for every structural fault found.

Rob took me to shop AC15, which old timers like me will recall as the Heavy Repair shop. On the way, we visited some of the other workshops in which we saw Central line bogies being overhauled, Bakerloo line bogies being repaired, some battery locomotives being refurbished, D stock cars being converted for the new RAT and some 1938 tube stock cars being overhauled for the London Transport Museum.

Since I was last at Acton, AC15 shop has had extensive work carried out to prepare it for the Bakerloo line repairs. In former times, cars would have been lifted in Actons lifting shop and moved by traverser to the relevant workshop. This is no longer possible because the lifting shop was demolished many years ago to make way for LUs Railway Equipment overhaul Workshop (REW). The old wood block floor has been replaced with reinforced concrete to support the Mechan jacks that LU bought to lift the cars (four sets of 4 x 10 tonne jacks for passenger vehicles and one set of 4 x 20 tonne jacks that can also lift battery locomotives). There are nine roads, most of which can accommodate two cars. There has also been extensive work to improve lighting, and provide services for electric and pneumatic power tools.

Incompatible Train Movements

Bakerloo line trains start their journey for repairs at Stonebridge Park Depot in northwest London. From here, they make an overnight journey to Acton via Baker Street, Elephant and Castle, back to Baker Street, onto the Jubilee line to Wembley Park, onto the Metropolitan line to Rayners Lane, where they reverse and then travel via the Piccadilly line to Acton Town (see map right).

They travel overnight because there is no signalling nor train protection on the Jubilee line for Bakerloo line trains (Jubilee line trains use in-cab signalling with ATO and ATP). They travel over the Jubilee line section under special rules called an Incompatible Train Movement Plan.

On arrival at Acton Works, the cars are uncoupled on the reception road next to AC15 and moved via a traverser into AC15 where they are lifted. Here the real work starts.

Swan necks, floor traps and fasteners

Rob explained the voyage of discovery on the first few trains as they discovered the true extent of repairs required and the differences between apparently identical cars. Even he had been surprised by the extent of the work required, despite being involved since the beginning of the job. It soon became clear that what had to be done could only be confirmed, individually on each car, once they were stripped. During myvisit, they were working on train five, and Rob was confident that most of the problems had been discovered. Underframe swan neck repairs: Sole bars are straight, but the underframe also has two steel girders, approximately 300mm deep and 12mm thick, running the length of the car. In the main, as one would expect, the girders are under the floor but, over the bogies, this structure is above floor level and forms the seat risers for the longitudinal seats. The joint that connects the underfloor frame to the above floor frame is known as the swan neck. They are all cracked along the welds. The metal forming the joint is being cut out and replaced by a steel bracket of exactly the right shape machined from solid by WECS Precision of Epsom.

This allows welding to be carried out in locations where stresses are somewhat lower than they were in the original weld locations. The photo of the cut out section shows the cracks; anyone used to welding will not be surprised that they cracked.

Body pillars: Despite coatings applied during manufacture to protect against electrolytic corrosion between aluminium panels and the steel frame and underframes, the accumulation of moisture and cleaning fluids over 40 years has led to corrosion and cracks. These are being cut out and repaired. One of the challenges has been finding fittings that can be used in place of the hot rivets used on the original construction, especially where access is only available on one side. Fortunately, Alcoa Huck BOM fittings (rather like giant pop rivets) came to the rescue.

Body ends: Some of the body end brackets connecting the body end to the underframe have cracked. Investigations showed that many of the underframes were slightly distorted as a result of welding during manufacture and the brackets were adjusted to fit. They have cracked at the point of the adjustment. Rob explained that the replacements are being refitted with a metal putty being used to level the headstock plate.

Floors: The floor fitted during the 1990s refurbishment is a composite of polymer cladding and fire retardant ply on top of stainless steel in doorways and mild steel in seating bays. When the vehicles were stripped, it was found that the cladding was hiding a multitude of sins. The covering and ply is all stripped and the mild steel floor plates in the end seat bays are being replaced. From here, the entire floor is rebuilt with new fire retardant ply and a covering of Tiflex Treadmaster TM7 (see below). A feature of this era of tube train is trapdoors in the floor to access equipment on the underframe. One of the improvements made has been to rationalise the different designs of trapdoors used from 21 to seven.

Roofs: Over 40 years, some of the roof fasteners have become loose and these are being replaced by heavy duty blind fixings and fire retardant Terostat sealant (formerly Sikaflex).

Asbestos: Most of the materials containing asbestos are being replaced. Heat-barrier material is being replaced by Promat DURASTEEL, and the saloon heaters are being replaced by AmTecs low voltage heaters connected in series across the 600V traction supply.

Compressors: The three Mk I trains use a different, less reliable compressor than the remainder of the fleet, and the opportunity is being taken to replace them with compressors recovered from D stock trains (which are being replaced by S stock). This involves welding new mounts onto the underframe.

Drawings: As-built drawings lacked most of the detail necessary to source new parts and, as a result, over 600 new drawings have been produced.

The next challenge is to replace all the removed equipment, including the doors. The doors are a particular issue. Despite putting each door back in the same position from which it was removed, the scale of works on the vehicle has introduced small distortions that necessitate adjustments to each door so that it runs freely without binding.

From here its a case of testing each car, reassembling the vehicles into trains (in the right order!), testing as a train, and returning the trainto Stonebridge Park, from which it can enter service more or less immediately.

Rob told me that the plan is to increase the number of trains in work from one to two. This will have a great benefit in terms of both getting the work done more quickly and in terms of utilisation of the specialist teams who work on the trains. The repair work is due to be completed in 2018.

It was evident that the very high quality work being carried out will, in all probability, provide a structure that is stronger than new. The Bakerloo line structural repairs team are to be congratulated on what they have achieved.

Interior refresh

In parallel with the repair works, the interiors of the Bakerloo trains are being refreshed at Stonebridge Park Depot. Even things as apparently simple as new seat and floor coverings needed significant engineering input from the engineering team based in the LU operations department.

The seats, supplied by Pro Style, Coventry, had both to comply with modern fire standards and be comfortable. The floor had to be cleanable and slip resistant, and there is also a requirement to have a colour contrast between doorways and seating areas, to comply with the RVAR. Conventional wisdom was that the doorways had a higher footfall, would be more prone to dirt and so should be darker than seating areas.

In practice, cleaning around nooks and crannies in seating areas meant that the seated areas were not as clean as they ought to be, so following a trial, the lighter floor was specified for the doorway areas. In addition, to improve slip resistance, a new groove pattern was specified which also contributes to draining water from the floor to the outside.

On a final point, the observant reader might be wondering why the RVAR works were not merged with the weld repairs. It is simply a matter of urgency and timing. The structural repairs were urgent, couldnt be delayed and were under way before the decision was made to extend the life. In contrast, the RVAR works only became necessary as a result of the life-extension decision and a lot of feasibility work had to be completed before the scope could be decided and the works authorised. The teams are making every effort to make these two works streams as integrated as possible.

Thanks to LUs David Caulfield and his team, especially Guy Harris and Rob Bonarski, to Paul Summers from the Asset Strategy and Investment team, and to Sean Long from Operations LU Engineering for their assistance in preparing this article.

Written by Malcolm Dobell

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London Underground train life extension Rail Engineer

The Ethics of Life Extension | TalkDeath

Be it through literature, film, or television, the idea of life extension has been nothing short of prolific. The concept has become so ingrained in our cultural psyche that most give its presence little thought. In North America, the average life expectancy today is 78 years of age. Even though our current life expectancy is much higher in the West than in other parts of the world, we nonetheless continue to be fascinated, and in some cases, obsessed with the idea of extending our lives beyond what is currently possible. Today when we hear of someone living to 100, it is considered almost miraculous. But as scientific developments continue to progress, the idea of life extension well beyond 100 may become a reality.

The average age a person could live until would increase to roughly 115 years old.

Scientific studies and technology have since developed even further, and brought hope to those seeking a way to extend human life. That being said, there a lot of questions that are raised when we think about life extension. Will everyone have an equal opportunity to benefit from these scientific discoveries? How will this affect the planet? Or society? Because of these questions, the pursuit of life extension is a highly controversial debate that will only become more important with the growth of technological advancements.


One of the underlying sentiments behindlife extension is the idea the life isgoodanddeath isbad. For those who are pro-life extension (life extensionists), this perspective is a response to our current experiences and expectations given our limited maximum lifespans. From their perspective, if we were able to live longer lives (and perhaps have better health throughout), this would change how, and if, we perceive deaths as tragic. If we couldlive to 150, woulddying at 90 make us feel the same sadness as it does today?

Another argument amongst life extensionists is thatdeath is a waste sincewe loseaccumulated knowledge, experiences, and memories. Scientist Victoria Stevenswas quoted as saying, "I think the prospect of death it just seems like an awful waste after people spend their lives learning and progressing" (source). For some life extensionists, prolonging human life allows us topreserve the memories and accomplishments of humankind, resulting in positive social consequences. For instance, people may feel a greater sense ofpersonal responsibility and accountabilityfor their actions if they lived longer. If we think about the current state of the environment, this point definitely strikes a chord. If we expect to live longer, we may be more likely to care about how our actions and behaviours influence others, ourselves, and the planet (no more of that, "let the next generation figure it out" mentality).


Not only wouldonly certainpeople in society be able to afford life extension, but certain societieswill be unable to afford itat all.

If humans were to somehow have indefinite life spans, the question of life's meaning may become even more complex and confoundingthan it already is. And what would we do with the time that we have? Though it may seem to open us up to endless possibilities, the reality is that our lives would be similar to how they are now - just longer. We would have the same joys, but also the same struggles.


There is also the argument that life extension technologies and treatments will createsocial problemsdue to the likely cost of these services. At first, they will undoubtedly be very expensive, essentially meaning that they wouldonly beaccessible to higher-incomeindividuals.This presents society with a wholemyriad of issues, as only certainpeople in society would be able to afford life extension, and certain societies (such as third worldcountries, for instance) would be unable to afford itat all. This couldcause greater social inequality, and greater social unrest. Disparities between rich and poor individuals, communities, and countries wouldgrow - the implications of which we cannot possibly know or predict. But it's likely safe to say that whatever these implications would be, they would not be positive.

There are alsoenvironmentalconcerns to consider. Our planet is suffering greatly from climate change. Earth is over-populated, and does not have enough natural resources to continue to support the current population (that is growing exponentially each year!) So, if life extension is thrown into the mix, what does this mean? If everyone is able to live longer lives, there would have to be entire generations of human beings that were unable to reproduce in order to avoid further overcrowding our world. We would also have to reevaluate how our resources are distributed and preserved. Needless to say, there would have to be a great deal of thinking and rethinking regarding our planet's population and use of resources in order for life extension to be at all a reasonable pursuit.


According to scholar Shai Lavi, one of the biggest changes in the 20th century was the way that death came to be seen as a failure, while medicine and science offered an intelligible hope in the face of a hopeless existence. While life extensionists want to showcase a highly optimistic future, the arguments against extending life are worthy of serious consideration. Our new will to master death goes hand-in-hand with the ways in which we avoid death. But as those in the Death Positive movement have tried to argue, death acceptance can bring us a long way towards fulfillment in life, and even hope in death (to say nothing of the role of religion in this respect).

A shift in our values and ethics will be unavoidable in the face of such a dramatic change in the way we live. Additionally, even if we live until 178 instead of 78, human beings are still just that: humans. Radical life-extensionist Aubrey de Grey acknowledges that humans will always be subject to violence, war, suicide, and accidents (Source). Life extension is not the same as invincibility. The extension of our human lives may makeus feel more than human, but that is what we will remain all the same.

With these arguments in mind, and regardless of which side of the debate you are on, it is important to consider how life extension will affect how human beings think about themselves and each other.

Originally posted here:
The Ethics of Life Extension | TalkDeath

Life Extension | Superpower Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Life ExtensionPower/Ability to:

extend one's life

The power to extend one's life. Sub-power of Lifespan Manipulation. Variation of Immortality. Opposite to Life Reduction.

User can somehow extend their or others' lifespan significantlyor maybe even indefinitelyin order to live longer.

By continuously bathing in the Lazarus Pits, Ra's al Ghul (DC Comics) has extended his life for over 600 years.

Toki (Fist of the North Star) was able to use his knowledge of pressure points to extend the mortally wounded Rei's life by a few days.

By continuously lengthening her telomeres, Tomiko Asahina (From the New World) has extended her life for over 200 years.

Lachesis (Valkyrie Crusade) can extend the years of life of anyone she wants as much as she wants.

Heart of Atlantis (Atlantis: The Lost Empire) provides phenomenal longevity, with the ability to extend an individual's lifespan by almost 500 times.

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Life Extension | Superpower Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach: Durk …

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life extension | eBay

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eBay determines trending price through a machine learned model of the products sale prices within the last 90 days. "New" refers to a brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item, and "Used" refers to an item that has been used previously.

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life extension | eBay

Life Extension Reviews – Is it a Scam or Legit?

About Life Extension

Life Extension is a dietary supplements manufacturer that claims to offer the highest quality award-winning, science-based vitamins and supplements. As their name suggests, they and their Life Extension Foundation (more about this in the following section) are focused on anti-aging research and integrative health, and many of their supplements reflect this.

Life Extension is based out of Fort Lauderdale, FL, and claims to have been in business for more than 34 years. During this time, they claim to have reinvested $125 million into helping find cures for age-related diseases. The company is listed with the Better Business Bureau under Life Extension Foundation Buyers Club, Inc., and has an A+ rating, with just one closed complaint over the past three years. Unusually, despite the length of time the company has been in business, we were unable to locate any online customer reviews during our research.

By sourcing only the highest quality raw materials from all over the world, Life Extension claims to manufacture over 350 of the highest quality supplements available on the market, all of which are clinically validated and tested. In addition, the company claims that their supplements are created by scientists who analyze thousands of scientific studies every week, and who are on the forefront of medical research. In fact, the company claims to maintain a Certificate of Analysis on file for each one of their products, which guarantees potency and purity.

When talking about the company, its important to remember that the Life Extension Buyers Club is the consumer-focused portion, while the nonprofit Life Extension Foundation is an organization dedicated to extending human life, controlling aging, and eradicating disease.

At the time of this writing, the most popular Life Extension supplements included:

According to the companys website, all Life Extension products are GMP certified, and include dosages that accurately replicate the most successful results obtained in scientific studies for maximum efficacy.

In addition to products, Life Extension also offers blood testing services, as well as cutting-edge clinical trials that you can apply for, most of which are compensated.


With more than 350 products in their catalog, Life Extension supplements can vary greatly in price. However, based on a moderate sample size, most supplements appear to range between $10 and $82. Keep in mind that the more you buy, the lower per-bottle price youll pay.

During the checkout process, youll be required to become a Life Extension member in order to complete the purchase. As such, youll have six different options:

Whichever option you choose, membership allows you to save 25%-50% when compared to health food store prices. All options other than a monthly membership will also give you access to two free bonuses:

Disease Prevention & Treatment, a 1,400-page book that bridges the gap between cutting-edge science and mainstream medicine.Life Extension Directory, which details all of the companys supplements.

US-based basic shipping costs $5.50, while 2nd Day Air is priced at $12.50 and Overnight at $21.50.

All Life Extension products come with a one-year, 100% satisfaction guarantee. You can also sign up for VIP AutoShip, which allows you to receive your favorite supplements on a recurring basis.

To set yourself up on the AutoShip program or to begin the refund process, youll need to contact customer service at 800-226-2370, or use their online contact form.

With all of this in mind, whats the bottom line: Is Life Extension a scam? While nothing we encountered during our research would lead us to believe this is the case, keep the following in mind:

First, Life Extension is a very big company, and has been in business for more than 34 years, so its products clearly resonate with a large percentage of the population. To drive home this fact, according to this article, as of 2009 it had assets of over $25 million andnetted more than $3 million on revenue of more than $18 million that year.

Regardless of the companys size though, the nutritional supplements industry is rife with unsubstantiated claims. For those with clinical studies that appear to support their claims, many are based on thin science, or on studies not conducted on humans. Were not saying this is the case with Life Extension, but its a rampant problem within the industry. Also, when factoring in the specific makeup of individuals, keep in mind that not all supplements will work for every consumer.

Furthermore, the Life Extension Foundation has a long history of legal woes in its relationship with the FDA, many of which date back more than 25 years. On top of this, the Foundations tax exempt status was revoked in May 2013, although this appears to have more to do with funding than it does with anything related to their products.

Finally, we were unable to locate any legitimate online customer reviews about Life Extension, which is surprising considering the companys age. However, the good news is that you can be a star by writing about your experience with Life Extension. So go ahead and share your experience with the world now!


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Life Extension Reviews - Is it a Scam or Legit?

Melatonin – Impressive Health Benefits | Life Extension …

New research indicates that melatonin does much more than help some people sleep better. Exciting studies show that melatonins multifaceted effects may improve treatment outcomes in cancer patients and extend their lives. Additional applications of melatonin include guarding the nervous system against degenerative diseasessuch as Alzheimers disease and strokeand preventing debilitating migraines.

Melatonin is secreted from the pineal gland deep inside the brain. For more than a quarter-century, scientists have been intrigued by melatonins ability to coordinate the bodys physiological rhythms that help set the brains biological clock.

The principal factor affecting melatonin is light, which inhibits the secretion of this hormone. Darkness has the opposite effect from light, resulting in signaling to the pineal gland to increase melatonin secretion. The normal cycles of melatonin production are altered due to factors including aging, medications, and light exposure at night. While the long-term health effects of disrupted melatonin secretion are not yet fully known, some scientists have suggested that years of working nights could lead to adverse effectseven cancer.

Fortunately, melatonin supplements can safely and effectively restore balance to the bodys circadian rhythm of this important hormonehelping achieve a restful nights sleep and keeping your biological clock ticking throughout a long, healthy life span.

Melatonin is a powerful and versatile antioxidant produced within the body. Melatonin protects both lipids and proteins against damage, and can scavenge some of the most dangerous free radicals in the bodyincluding hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin easily diffuses into all cells, and even crosses the blood-brain barrier to protect the delicate brain.1

Unfortunately, levels of naturally produced melatonin decline with advancing age, leaving older adults with limited antioxidant protection against conditions associated with oxidative stress, particularly neurodegenerative diseases.1 Supplementing with melatonin may thus help older adults enhance their antioxidant protection against some of the most ravaging diseases of aging, such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and stroke.

Melatonin levels are particularly low in patients with Alzheimers disease. Nearly half of affected individuals suffer from sleep disturbances and sundowningincreased confusion, agitation, and other symptoms in the afternoon and evening.2 Not surprisingly, melatonin supplementation benefits patients with Alzheimers disease by improving sleep and reducing late-day aggravation of symptoms. Melatonin has also been found to decrease cognitive deterioration in individuals with Alzheimers disease, possibly by protecting brain cells from the toxic protein, beta-amyloid.2

Melatonin may likewise play an important role in assisting patients suffering from Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons disease is associated with disrupted melatonin secretion in the brain, and supplemental melatonin may help improve sleep efficiency in affected adults.3

The brain can suffer dramatic, irreparable damage when an individual suffers a stroke. Utilizing animal models of stroke, scientists have found that melatonin may offer important protection against stroke-related damage and deterioration. When administered at the time of stroke, melatonin limited the area of brain tissue damage, decreased brain cell death, lessened behavioral deficits, and reduced the rate of stroke-related death. These investigators believe that melatonins protective actions stem from its free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, and suggest that melatonin may hold promise in improving stroke outcomes in humans.4

Melatonin may help manage one of the leading risk factors for strokeelevated blood pressure. While an earlier study reported that hypertensive men taking melatonin experienced reduced nighttime blood pressure, a newer study confirms the same benefit for women.5 In a randomized, double-blind study, 18 women

(aged 47 to 63) with either normal blood pressure or treated high blood pressure received a three-week course of slow-release melatonin (3 mg) or placebo, one hour before bedtime. Researchers recorded blood pressure readings for 41 hours at the end of the trial. While the daytime blood pressure readings remained unchanged com-pared to placebo, the melatonin treatment significantly decreased nighttime blood pressure, without modifying heart rate.6

One of melatonins most important applications is in fighting a wide array of cancers, including breast and liver cancers, non-small-cell lung cancer, and brain metastases from solid tumors.7

When women with metastatic breast cancer who had failed to respond to tamoxifen received melatonin supplements (20 mg every evening), they demonstrated an improved response to the chemotherapy drug. More than one quarter of the subjectswhose disease otherwise was expected to progress rapidlybegan responding to the chemotherapy treatment. Most of the women also experienced anxiety relief from the melatonin supplementation.8 Laboratory studies suggest that melatonin may help fight hormone-responsive breast cancers by inhibiting the aromatase enzyme, which is responsible for the local synthesis of estrogens.9,10

Emerging research suggests that melatonin may help fight one of the most common malignancies in aging menprostate cancer. In the laboratory, scientists treated androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells with pharmacological concentrations of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin dramatically reduced the number of prostate cancer cells, while the remaining cells displayed signs of slowed replication and increased differentiationcharacteristics of healthy, non-cancerous cells. Melatonin may thus hold promise against prostate cancers, whether they are hormone-sensitive or hormone-insensitive.11

Scientists conducted a meta-analysis of 10 randomized, controlled trials examining melatonins effects (alone or as an adjuvant treatment) on patients with various types of cancer. Supplementation with melatonin reduced the relative risk of death at one year by an impressive 34%regardless of the type of cancer or the melatonin dosage. Importantly, no adverse effects were reported.12

In addition to its benefits for cancer survival, melatonin may also help counteract the toxicity of chemotherapy treatment. Two-hundred-fifty individuals undergoing chemotherapy for advanced cancers of the lung, breast, gastrointestinal tract, or head and neck received chemotherapy, either alone or in combination with melatonin (20 mg/day). After one year, the melatonin-supplemented individuals demonstrated a higher rate of survival, and were significantly protected against many of the side effects associated with chemotherapy, including decreased platelet count, neurotoxicity, heart damage, mouth sores, and fatigue.13

A promising study suggests that migraine sufferers may be able to reduce the frequency and severity of their headaches by using melatonin. Researchers gave 34 migraine sufferers (29 women and 5 men) a 3-mg dose of melatonin, 30 minutes before bedtime, for three months. Of the 32 patients who finished the study, more than two thirds experienced at least a 50% reduction in number of headaches per month. Additionally, the intensity and duration of headaches decreased. The scientists believe that melatonins anti-inflammatory effect and free-radical-scavenging effects contribute to its headache-relieving benefits.14

Obtaining sufficient amounts of quality sleep is an absolute necessity for good health, yet many of us experience sleep difficulties on occasion. Insomnia occurs due to a variety of factorsranging from long hours of work or travel to sleep-disruptive conditions, such as urinary frequency and stressful events. Elderly adults may be particularly susceptible to difficulty sleeping and nighttime awakenings, due to the decline in melatonin levels associated with aging.15 Melatonin can help promote healthy sleep patterns in some people, regardless of the cause of insomnia.

A large analysis revealed several of melatonins sleep-enhancing benefits. Reviewing 15 studies of sleep in healthy adults, scientists noted that melatonin administration significantly reduced sleep latency (the amount of time needed to fall asleep), while boosting sleep efficiency (the percentage of time in bed spent asleep) and increasing total sleep duration.16

Men with benign prostatic enlargement often experience poor sleep due to nighttime urinary frequency. Scientists from the United Kingdom found that melatonin may offer an effective solution. When 20 older men were treated with 2 mg of melatonin each day for one month, they experienced a significant decrease in nighttime urination, and reported that their condition was less bothersome than before treatment.15

Individuals who work the night shift are often chronically tired due to difficulty falling asleep during the daytime. Supplementing with melatonin has helped improve the length and quality of daytime sleep in these individuals. These findings demonstrate an important characteristic of melatonin: the hormone exerts its hypnotic (sleep-inducing) and sedative (anxiety-relieving) effects, regardless of dosage time.7

Traveling to different time zones often leads to the fatigue and insomnia known as jet lag. Supplementing with melatonin can help prevent or reduce jet lag, particularly when traveling across several time zones. Melatonin works by helping re-synchronize the bodys circadian rhythms, helping the traveler adapt to the local time.7

Melatonin is used in doses ranging from 0.3-5.0 mg to promote sleep, with doses of 1-3 mg most common.17 Studies examining melatonins effects on cancer have utilized doses of 3-50 mg/day.7

Melatonin has a sedating effect, which may be magnified by the use of benzodiazepines or other sedating drugs such as antihistamines or antidepressants. Similarly, the use of melatonin with valerian, 5-hydroxytryptophan, or alcohol may increase sedation.17

The bioavailability of oral melatonin is increased by co-administration of the antidepressant drug fluvoxamine (Luvox).17 Beta blockers, as well as aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may decrease melatonin production in the body.17

A factor in restorative sleep, melatonins benefits extend to neuroprotection and fighting cancer. Its powerful antioxidant effect offers important enhancements to the brain and nervous system, helping protect against age-related damage. Most exciting are melatonins benefits for cancer patientsrelieving anxiety and improving survival from an array of cancers. Finally, migraine sufferers using melatonin may enjoy a vast decline in the frequency and severity of their headachesleading to a tremendously improved quality of life.

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Melatonin - Impressive Health Benefits | Life Extension ...

Relief of Overactive Bladder – page 1 | Life Extension …

A common and frustrating complaint we at Life Extension hear is how to stop urinary incontinence.

Our frustration has been that despite aggressive research, we could not identify a safe solution to this problem that plagues so many aging women (and men to a lesser extent).

Even more numerous are inquiries we receive from people seeking relief from frequent daytime and nighttime urinary urges.

In a breakthrough discovered by Japanese scientists, a natural plant extract combination has been shown to reduce incontinent episodes by up to 79%,1 daytime urination by up to 39%,2 and nighttime urination by up to 68%.3

This article will discuss the research findings on maturing women who found significant relief after taking this novel supplement for only six to eight weeks.

Additionally, this article will discuss more limited data obtained when men suffering from nighttime urinary urgencies were given this same plant extract.

Urinary frequency becomes more common with advancing age, with nearly half of people over 60 reporting to suffer from nocturia (two or more episodes of urination during the night).

Urinary incontinence is defined as an involuntary loss of urine. It represents a major social and hygiene problem in the aging population. About 48% of women and 17% of men over age 70 suffer urinary incontinence.4

Overactive bladder affects one in six adults over age 40, and is defined as having an urgent need to empty the bladder during the day-night, along with incontinence. Those afflicted with an overactive bladder have to go to the bathroom frequently, leak urine into their clothes, and report feeling depressed, stressed, and sleep-deprived.

In women, stress incontinence (involuntary loss of urine during physical activity such as sneezing or exercise) is usually caused by a weakening of the bladder sphincter and pelvic floor muscles. Shrinkage (atrophy) of tissues where the bladder and urethra meet also contributes to the problem. Hormonal changes occurring after menopause are thought to be an underlying cause of these anatomical changes in the bladder sphincter that lead to urinary incontinence.

In postmenopausal women, decreased androgen (testosterone) levels weaken the pelvic floor and sphincter muscles, while an estrogen deficit induces atrophy of the urethra.

Mainstream medicine offers only mediocre therapies to address urinary incontinence. Drugs commonly used for this condition are expensive and side-effect-prone. Only a small proportion of the affected population seeks treatment because most people consider their urinary symptoms a consequence of normal aging.

Fortunately, a safe, natural, and low-cost approach has been developed that has demonstrated remarkable benefits in human clinical trials.

Pumpkin seeds were traditionally used by Native American tribes to facilitate passage of urine. A European herbal encyclopedia first mentioned the use of pumpkins seeds to treat urinary problems in the year 1578. The German health regulators approve pumpkin seed as a treatment for irritable bladder.

Pumpkin seed oil has been included in products used to alleviate urinary difficulties. While some effects have been shown when using the fat-soluble (oil) fraction of the pumpkin seed, it is the water-soluble portion that demonstrated impressive symptomatic effects in recent studies.

Japanese scientists have patented a method to obtain the water-soluble constituents of the pumpkin seed, which are absorbed far more efficiently into the bloodstream.

Urinary incontinence worsens after menopause. While menopausal problems are usually associated with estrogen deficit, low levels of testosterone and progesterone are also underlying culprits.

Water-soluble pumpkin seed extract exerts an anabolic (tissue-building) effect on the pelvic floor muscles via several mechanisms. By inhibiting the aromatase enzyme, it may make more testosterone available to strengthen the pelvic muscles.5

Secondly, this water-soluble pumpkin seed fraction binds to the androgen receptor on pelvic muscle cells, thus inducing a strengthening effect. This is important because androgen receptors are expressed in the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract in humans.6 By promoting androgenic activity, water-soluble pumpkin seed extract may play an important role in female pelvic floor structural integrity and lower urinary tract disorders.5

Nitric oxide is a molecule critically involved in lower urinary tract functions. For the urination muscles to relax when the bladder is full, nitric oxide is required. When nitric oxide synthesis is inhibited, the result is bladder hyperactivity and reduced bladder volume.

The dual mechanisms of strengthening pelvic floor muscles, while increasing nitric oxide synthesis,5 help explain how water-soluble pumpkin seed extract alleviated urinary incontinence in three separate studies on aging women.1-3

Soy extracts provide standardized phyoestrogens that are potentially effective in ameliorating geriatric symptoms relating to estrogen deficit.

The ingestion of standardized soy extract has been hypothesized to decrease the atrophy of tissues where the bladder and urethra meet and thus alleviate frequent urinary urges and incontinence.

A study was done to evaluate the effects of water-soluble pumpkin seed extract in anesthetized rats to determine bladder functionality.7

As measured by a cystometrogram, bladder parameters showed a dramatic 54.5% improvement in rats receiving water-soluble pumpkin extract compared to other agents.

When the excretion frequency was measured, a 60% reduction in urine excretion frequency occurred after administration of water-soluble pumpkin seed extract. No improvement was seen in the group given inactive solvent.

Conclusions from the study showed that water-soluble pumpkin extract significantly increases maximum bladder capacity while decreasing urination frequency.

A study of 39 incontinent females (aged 55-79 years) using water-soluble pumpkin seed and soy isoflavone extracts was conducted over a six-week period.1 The objective was to evaluate the effects on frequency of daytime and nighttime urinations and number of incontinent episodes.

After six weeks, the number of nighttime urinations was reduced from 3.3 to 2.0 a 39% improvement. Daytime urinations went from 8.0 to 6.7 after six weeks a modest 16% improvement.

The number of incontinent episodes, however, plunged to a remarkably low number. Prior to receiving the water-soluble pumpkin seed-soy extract, these women experienced an average of 7.3 incontinent episodes a day. After six weeks of using this supplement, daily incontinent episodes averaged only 1.5 an astounding 79% decrease in urinary incontinence!

When these women were questioned about the effects they noticed in response to taking water-soluble pumpkin seed-soy extract, there was a 73% subjective improvement in the highest fulfilled category. When the global improvement ratio was evaluated, which included degree of satisfaction after sleeping, 81.8% of women with two to four episodes of nightly urinations reported that they were markedly improved.

A study of 50 incontinent women (aged 35-84 years) was conducted using the same water-soluble pumpkin seed-soy extract supplement to evaluate the effect on stress incontinence episodes.3

Before the pumpkin seed-soy supplement was given, these women averaged 2.1 incontinent events each day. After taking the supplement for six weeks, incontinent events fell to an average of only 0.7 a day a remarkable 67% decrease in stress-induced incontinent episodes!

A consumer test of 10 women (aged 45-65 years) was conducted using the same water-soluble pumpkin seed and soy extract supplement.2

After eight weeks, daytime urinations went from 9.3 to 5.6 a 39% reduction. Nighttime urinations went from 2.0 to 0.8 a 60% reduction.

Prior to initiating the pumpkin seed-soy supplement, there was an average of 2.3 incontinent episodes each day. After eight weeks, the frequency of incontinent episodes declined to only 1.0 per day a 57% reduction!

Relief of Overactive Bladder - page 1 | Life Extension ...

Kariba project 92pc complete – The Herald

Dr Undenge

From Walter Nyamukondiwa in KARIBAThe Kariba South Extension Project is now 92 percent complete and on course for commissioning by end of December as Government moves to clear the power deficit.

This is part of an eight-pronged approach to increasing power generation amid indications that about $500 million is being mobilised for the Hwange Life Extension project.

With a daily deficit of between 300MW and 600MW, the shortfall is being reduced progressively.In an interview on the sidelines of the Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers biennial congress here yesterday, Energy and Power Development Minister Dr Samuel Undenge hailed the collaboration between the contractors and Zesa management.

We are very pleased with the progress so far and to date we know that the Kariba South Extension Project is now 92 percent complete and everything is on course for its commissioning on 24 December, 2017, said Dr Undenge.

We applaud the focused work and effort that is being exhibited by the contractor (Sinohydro) and Zesa management that has seen so much progress.

He said initial challenges of foreign currency to pay suppliers were being overcome with the involvement of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. The two new units will add a further 300MW to the national grid.

Zimbabwe has not had load-shedding for the last 20 months, as more than 300MW are being imported to offset the supply deficit.Expansion works and implementation of new projects ties in with regional efforts within SADC to offset the 8 247MW deficit.

This is largely due to lack of meaningful investment in power generation over the last two decades.Zimbabwes major investment in the power sector was in 1987 when Hwange Stage II was commissioned.

Dr Undenge said load-shedding is a major cost and inconvenience to consumers, undermines economic growth and suppresses foreign and local investment.The Hwange Life Extension seeks to recondition the power plant and add another 25 years to its productive life.

There are also plans to increase the thermal plants generation capacity from 550MW to 750MW.Government is implementing eight strategies including optimising existing generation plants, development of renewable energy and conservation among others.

This also includes guaranteeing production at Harare II and III (40MW), Bulawayo (25MW) and Munyati (30MW) thermal power stations.The Energy minister revealed that tendering for the Batoka Gorge South Bank which will add a further 1 400MW to the national grid will be out soon.

In terms of the Batoka Gorge project there are feasibility studies that have just been completed, then tenders will be send out. So that process is underway, said the Minister.

Other projects in the pipeline include the Devils Gorge (1 000MW), Hwange Western Area (1 200MW), Tokwe-Mukosi Hydro (15MW) and Gairezi Small Hydro (30MW).

Dr Undenge said the Minister of Finance and Economic Development Patrick Chinamasa was working on incentives to make investment into the energy sector attractive.

The Minister (Chinamasa) is trying to come up with a regime of incentives so that we make investment into the energy sector by private players more attractive. We need them to augment what Government is doing, said Minister Undenge.

Originally posted here:
Kariba project 92pc complete - The Herald

Biopower in the Era of Biotech – lareviewofbooks


TWO TRENDS are on the rise, and one is about to make the other worse.

The first is epitomized in a July 2017 report in The Economist on the United Statess urban-rural divide, which noted that deaths of despair suicide, heart disease, and drug overdoses are increasing in the southeastern corner of West Virginia. Life expectancy for men is now 16.5 years lower than in neighboring Arlington. Christian H. Coopers moving essay in Nautilus entitled Why Poverty Is Like a Disease, Karin Goodwins journalism in the Guardian, and James Bloodworths op-ed in New Scientist have piled on additional accounts of how chronic stress and loss of a sense of control can be our undoing.

Meanwhile, in the second trend, biotechs rise, ever more powerful tools are being developed for in vitro fertilization, and for anti-aging and cancer technologies. Some of the latter run to six figures, which means some insurance companies may not cover them.

As economist Thomas Piketty noted in 2014, and so many have since Trumps election, the United States is embroiled in an intensifying era of class struggle, which expresses itself not only in differential impacts on health as pegged to class, but also in the growing unlikelihood that the rural poor, and indeed the poor in general, can securely provide for their children, no doubt a factor in the declining fertility rate. At the same time, the commercialization of science steadily escalates, along with its corollary: the commercialization of human life. Many life scientists hope to start a company and strike it rich. Many have. Entrepreneurial scientists now count themselves among the wealthiest of Americans, and, as the market so freely allows, some of them build their careers on the development and sale of biotech solutions. Offering a route to positive eugenics, longer life, and interventions into deadly diseases, these life-saving and life-enhancing technologies will assuredly widen the public health gap.

First, consider birth. In December 2015, I attended a meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in which a member of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine stood up to proclaim that parents have a right to use the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 and in vitro, or IVF, technologies to have a genetically connected child. These technologies could be used, he explained, to repair the code for deleterious genes that run in certain families or improve older parents chances of a birth. Bioethicist Hille Haker argued that there is a difference between a negative right, which is a freedom from harm or tyranny, and a full positive right, which is a freedom to access potential benefits. Having a healthy child is a negative right, according to Haker, meaning a right you have unless someone (such as the Chinese government) takes it away, but not a full positive right. If it were a full positive right, society would be hidebound in debt to pay for each of its citizens to have children, applying genetic tests and in vitro techniques as needed. Almost no one would contend that society has such a responsibility, she argued. You may disagree with me, but as an ethicist I put the consequential assessment in terms of rights and obligations, Haker said. There is no right to a genetically related child, it is a high value, not a right.

In August, Shoukhrat Mitalipov, at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland,controversially became the first scientist in the United States to use the gene modification system CRISPR to alter a human embryo. He modified the gene MYBPC3; when mutated in a single copy of that gene, it can increase your risk for a rare heart condition. Forty-two of the 58 embryos he altered, or 72 percent, had two mutation-free copies of the gene in every cell, and, most importantly, there were no unintended mutations. This study suggests that any technical limitations will soon be overcome, which will then open up a landslide of ethical questions related to equity. Keep in mind that many of us carry a genetic variant that predicts risk for a serious condition. Will insurance companies pay for these gene modifications, and to what extent? Or will the wealthy alone be able to afford to modify their embryos?

This past winter, the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine published a report entitled Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance that signals support for gene editing to the heritable, or germline, code, but only in cases where no safer options are available. In her book, A Crack in Creation, Jennifer Doudna, one of the inventors of CRISPR-Cas9, also signaled her openness to CRISPR-ized babies through gene modification.

Already, insurance coverage of in vitro fertilization varies widely by state, and now gene modification techniques may further challenge the concept of what is medically necessary. A mutated APP gene can predict early-onset Alzheimers. A mutated BRCA gene can predict breast or ovarian cancer. A disrupted PCSK9 can lower LDL cholesterol. The Food and Drug Administration actually thinks of CRISPR as a drug rather than a device, so in the United States, CRISPR must pass through a regulatory process for each target it modifies, even in an embryo. For some single-gene or Mendelian diseases such as Tay-Sachs and cystic fibrosis, or the immune disorders NEMO or X-SCID, CRISPR technology could be a fairly straightforward new treatment modality in vitro. Keep in mind, however, that generating an embryo without a heritable mutation can, in the vast majority of cases, already be accomplished by screening embryos before implantation. This raises the question of when CRISPR would be indispensable. In fact, genetic variants in BRCA, which tend to run in high-risk families, are nested in complex so-called epistatic relationships involving the interaction of multiple genetic variants. It would be impossible to know whether altering that single gene reduces cancer in a family in future generations. And if it did, would poor families be able to afford it? Probably not.

Marcy Darnovsky, director of the Center for Genetics and Society in Berkeley, California,and her team have counted as many as 45 countries that ban germline modification. The United States is not one of them, and instead it handles germline editing in vitro much as it does stem cell research by prohibiting funding to scientists to do this research and prohibiting funding to the FDA to review applications for clinical trials of CRISPR babies. We can be sure that entrepreneurial scientists who stand to cash in on such technologies are working to alter such policies. Using gene-editing techniques in a test tube is arguably safer than using gene modification techniques on a living person in a test tube, youre modifying a clump of 64 cells or fewer, rather than trillions of cells, and eliminating the risk of an immune reaction. But those test tube techniques still require genetic diagnostics to know something about a familys risk, not to mention requiring the capital outlay to pay for expensive genetic diagnosis and IVF treatments in short, not particularly realistic or affordable for most of us.

Ultimately, none of this would help living people who develop a disease such as cancer. New technologies such as genetically engineered T-cells combined with CRISPR will enable doctors to coax the bodys immune system into fighting cancer,the first of which wasapprovedonAugust 30, which Novartis will sell in the U.S. for$475,000, a drug price that is nine times the median income in the United States. This means that high-cost medicines will create wealthy scientists and just as surely will exacerbate the health divide. This may be the reality if the Trump administration repeals the Affordable Care Act, but it may also be the reality in a single-payer system such as the National Health Service in Britain, which isnt prepared to pay for these high-priced medicines either. Indeed, oncologist and author Siddhartha Mukherjee warned this summer at the annual American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting about dividing the world into the rich who can afford personalized cancer treatment and the poor who cannot. If health insurance is unequal or inadequate, the only solution may be to use the power of the state to regulate the cost of cancer drugs. A drug price fairness initiative is in fact already on the ballot in Ohio; and transparency laws, established in Vermont, are clarifying their cost. We may have to cap them by executive order.

In the 1970s, Michel Foucault developed the influential notions of biopower and biopolitics, which gave power its access even to the body. In his words, biopolitics is the endeavour, begun in the eighteenth century, to rationalize problems presented to governmental practice by the phenomena characteristic of a group of living human beings constituted as a population: health, sanitation, birth rate, longevity, race. He defines biopower as the techniques for achieving the subjugation of bodies and the control of populations. But even Foucault had yet to conceive of how new biotechnologies could be leveraged. The industrial revolution of the human genome initiates an era in which social divisions are amplified by means of genomics technologies.

Foucault was wrong about some things, such as health and mental illness being solely the result of social forces. But he may have been only partially wrong. As neuroscientist Robert Sapolsky and so many others have noted, stress is distributed unequally across the social spectrum. Hierarchies of wealth and power institutionalize certain forms of stress, including chronic forms, and, according to a spate of recent research, social hierarchies are then embedded in body chemistry through social imprinting. If this research holds up, then it seems clear that we cant undo the damages accrued by years of poverty or poor social status by giving more funding to wealthy scientists. Theres been a clear shift to funding genetics research into mental illness, but the fact is that this research supports the drug-maker model, which then mostly benefits those who control and sell those drugs. It supports their careers through generous amounts of public funding. It does not support the disenfranchised who may need more than drug-based interventions.

The philosopher Nick Bostrom defines transhumanism as the doctrine that

holds that current human nature is improvable through the use of applied science and other rational methods, which may make it possible to increase human health-span, extend our intellectual and physical capacities, and give us increased control over our own mental states and moods.

This not-so-subtle movement includes efforts by the National Institute of Mental Health to monetize the field of psychiatry by basing research on a molecular biomarker or gene target that can be pursued as a diagnostic test or drug target, an agenda that is, in fact, now in retreat because so few reliable biomarkers or targets have actually been discovered. Clinical biomarkers and biochemical transformations have failed to make a dent in suicide rates, not to mention in the incident rates or prognosis of serious psychiatric ills. The most promising discovery coming out of research into psychiatric drugs in recent years may be a street drug called ketamine, or Special K, a worldly knowledge that experts have expropriated from regular folks.

As for the budding life-extension industry, it is built around over-the-counter drugs, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), and the development of new drugs to degrade proteins that build up in brains and are associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease. In 2013, the Time magazine cover story Can Google Solve Death? became part of the transhumanist spectacle when it noted that, for CEO Larry Page, solving cancer may not be a big enough task. The article introduced life extension company Calico, which is currently working on ways to degrade proteins that build up in the brain and are correlated with age-related diseases. But insurers may not have an incentive to pay for life-extension techniques that add bonus years, since insurance is more costly when we are older. As a result, these pursuits only contribute to the trope that life extension is a luxury pursued by wealthy Silicon Valley entrepreneurs stymied by their own loss of control. The most potent real news is precisely the connection between income and longevity. In short: The fact that such studies have led to no major societal shifts in how we value life suggests that the longevity that drug makers pursue as a financial prospect is solely about extending life for the wealthy.

An urgent question, therefore, is the following: Are our scientific institutions working on behalf of the public and fairness, and so of distributive justice, or are they working for commercial interests? And another disturbing question: Are these interests being normalized before we can even debate them? The fact that scientists themselves like to appeal to economic interests when asking for public funding should offer one clue. And of course it doesnt help that scientists want to sell us stuff.

In the famous 1971 Chomsky-Foucault Debate, Foucault argued that those who take up social justice causes are in fact doing so only because they want to take power. Chomsky demurred:

I think its too hasty to characterize our existing systems of justice as merely systems of class oppression [] they also embody a kind of groping towards the true humanly valuable concepts of justice and decency and love and kindness and sympathy, which I think are real.

Of course, institutions can be applied to advance justice and fairness, or be exploited for special interests. If authority is broadly distributed and innate to the wellsprings of the mind, then institutions are an extension of principles that reside within us and should seek to ensure access and fairness. But if scientists are working toward selling biotech solutions at the highest price the market will allow, then scientific institutions may be exploited for power and profit and thats just capitalism.

The irony is that we may need the state to ensure fair access to medicines we fund, and to prohibit genetic enhancement or reproductive advantages if all of us cant afford or access them. This is no small problem. Political scientist Francis Fukuyama called transhumanism the worlds most dangerous idea, suggesting that the commercialization of biotech would create increasing unfairness. In his book Our Posthuman Future, he qualifies his original end of history thesis, arguing that human genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization might perpetuate social divisions, putting liberal democracy at risk. If there is one imperial power left on the world stage, Fukuyama argues, it is biotech. What should we do in response to biotechnology that in the future will mix great potential benefits with threats that are either physical and overt or spiritual and subtle? he asks. The answer is obvious: We should use the power of the state to regulate it.

Here are some recommendations: the price of biologic medicines (gene and cell therapies) should be fixed or capped that is, if the public is expected to subsidize their cost through National Institutes of Health funding. If that sounds too much like socialism, then we need to stop socializing the costs and risks of drug development through NIH funding. A second point: The federal legislators and the FDA should have strong regulatory control over the creation of gene modifications to the heritable code of newborns. For the moment, they are able to constrain those enterprises as mentioned earlier, the FDA regulates gene modifications as a drug, and any specific target must pass through an extensive regulatory process. Once approved, then some sort of public insurance must make them accessible to everyone, or else biotech will assuredly exacerbate social and economic inequality, thus affecting the Freedom Index in the United States.

Scientists are readily using taxpayer funding to advance their own economic interests, thereby institutionalizing power and wealth. Indeed, many managerial scientists count themselves among the wealthiest Americans with annual salaries in the six and seven figures. If the state has a role, it is to live up to the ideals which we are groping towards, the concepts of justice and decency, rather than the current reality of scientific institutions seeding biotech startups. The fact is that scientists are increasingly testing public trust. Whether they should continue to receive tax-exempt funding ought to depend on whether they are working toward fair and equal access to medicine, lest by the time science funding reaches a commercial shelf, life is simply up for sale.

Jim Kozubek is the author ofModern Prometheus: Editing the Human Genome withCrispr-Cas9,published by the Cambridge University Press.

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Biopower in the Era of Biotech - lareviewofbooks

Beware of the Overstated Service Life in the Cost Approach – Lexology (registration)

The cost approach requires the identity and quantification of three types of obsolescence physical, functional and economic. Assessors frequently account only for physical depreciation (although some assessors/appraisers apply a special factor in an attempt to capture functional and economic obsolescence). Physical depreciation is dependent upon accurately determining: (1) the effective age, which is the chronological age or the weighted chronological age (if physical improvements have been made) adjusted for physical condition; and (2) the appropriate service life of the facility (some also measure and apply remaining life). Needless to say, an assessor/appraiser can increase a propertys value by misstating any one of these factors. So, the taxpayer must closely review the assessment process to make sure that each factor reflects market realities and the facilitys physical condition. It is also essential that the assessor/appraiser apply an appropriate service life that considers the major components of the facility and their interaction on the life of the facility. A purchaser of the building only recognizes value to the extent that the building can continue to produce profitable net operating income at a required rate of return. An example is an old K Mart or Sears building. Physically, for retail purposes, they are likely to have short term life, as major reparations are likely necessary to make the facilities operable in todays demanding retail environment. Nonetheless, taxing jurisdictions often apply longer physical lives that are based on the effect of such reparations (i.e., life extension); even though, they have not yet been incurred and without accounting for their cost. This artificially boosts the facilitys valuation.

Bottom line, if the taxpayer does not accurately identify and quantify the physical age, condition and service life, its property will continue to be over valued by the assessor/appraiser. If economic life is applied, the appraiser needs to recognize and quantify the other non-physical forms of obsolescence captured in the economic life to avoid double counting.

Originally posted here:
Beware of the Overstated Service Life in the Cost Approach - Lexology (registration)

‘America’s Tall Ship’ – Virginia Connection Newspapers

The U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Eagle moors at Point Lumley Park in Old Town Sept. 4, marking the first time in 11 years that the vessel known as Americas Tall Ship returned to the Washington area.

Alexandria For the first time in 11 years, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Eagle arrived in the

Washington area, mooring at Old Towns Point Lumley Park Sept. 4 as part of the tall ships summer deployment.

Also known as Americas Tall Ship, Eagle is the largest tall ship flying the U.S. flag and the only active commissioned sailing vessel in American military service. Eagle is the only square-rigger in the U.S. military services and is used to train students at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn.

The Eagle has a fascinating history, said Old Town resident Hal Hardaway after touring the vessel Sept. 5. Eagle was hull #508 built in the Blohm and Voss shipyard in Hamburg in 1936. That yards next hull # 509 was Bismark.

Alexandria is Eagle's final stop in its summer deployment, which has spanned

five months and included 14 ports, including multiple ports along the Eastern Seaboard, Canada and Bermuda.

Also known as the Coast Guard Barque Eagle, the ship left Baltimore April 26 bound for New London to commence the 2017 cadet summer training program. Eagle and her crew, including Capt. Matthew Meilstrup as commanding officer, have been at the Coast Guard Yard facility in Baltimore as part of a Service Life Extension Project that will keep the ship away from its home port of New London for several years.

The ship was built in 1936 in Germany and commissioned as Horst Wessel, one of three sail training ships operated by the pre-World War II German navy. At the close of World War II, Horst Wessel was taken as a war reparation by the United States, recommissioned as the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Eagle and sailed to New London. The vessel is used for at-sea leadership and professional development training for future officers of the U.S. Coast Guard.

Eagle is scheduled to depart Point Lumley at approximately 4:30 a.m. Sept. 8. The Woodrow Wilson Bridge span will be raised at that time to allow Eagle to sail through as it makes its return to Baltimore.

For more information, visit

Continued here:
'America's Tall Ship' - Virginia Connection Newspapers

Want To Live Longer? Life Extension Drugs On Horizon; How They Work – Medical Daily

Imagine taking a pill that couldextend your lifespan. This plotline exists in the pages of science fiction novels, but a class of drugthat supports healthy aging, known as a senolytic drug, is currentlybeing tested, and if proven safe, could do more than add years to your life.A new studywhich showed the drugs preventedage-related bone loss in micehas important implications in treating a host of other diseases related to aging, researchers said.

Cells constantly divide, a process that allows us to grow and heal, but as we age, some cellsstop dividingand become senescent. These cellsalsoemit toxins that contribute to a number of health conditions such as cancer, dementia, and arthritis. The older we are, the more of these senescent cells we accumulate. Enter senolytic drugs.

These drugs are designed toclearaway senescentcells while leaving adjacentcells unharmed. According to the research,published online in Nature Medicine, these drugssupported healthy aging in mice and prevented bone loss. Considering that clearing senescent cells improves cardiovascular function and reduces frailty and other issues, this treatment could have important implications for treating not only osteoporosis, but other age-related problems, the authors wrote.

In a related article, the authors alsodescribea new screening platform to better identifyother potential senolytic drugs, which would help us address age-related conditions as a group, instead of one at a time.

"The emerging repertoire of senolytic drugs shows that they are having an impact on a huge range of diseases," said study researcher Dr. James Kirkland in a recent statement. "Our goal is to achieve the same success in humans as we have in preclinical animal models in efforts to prevent or delay the conditions associated with aging."

Moving forward, the researchers would like to further explore the potential of these drugs and figure out optimal drugcombinations forthe best results. Though"median lifespan" or "healthspan" aredifficult endpoints to determine in research,animal trials have given us a good idea of the drugs' potential therapeutic benefits.

This week has been exciting for the study of human aging and lifespan, as a recent Dutch article claimed to have found the maximum human lifespan:115.7 for women, and 114.1 for men, IFL Science reported. This number is based off a study of 75,000 now-deceased Dutch people, and while the researchers admit that people on average are living longer than before, this ceiling age still remains unchanged.

The research is controversial, with some researchers arguing thatit is possible to live beyond these ages, although rare.

The evidence points towards no looming limit. At present the balance of the evidence suggests that if there is a limit it is above 120, perhaps much above and perhaps there is not a limit at all,Jim Vaupel, a specialist in aging at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Germany, who wrote a paper criticizing these results, told The Guardian.

Regardless of what the ultimate age may be (or if it even exists), its still exciting that something as simple as a pill mayhelp us reach it. The senolytic drugs still need to be tested in human clinical trials, but according to CNN, it may be time to take that leap.

Source: Farr JN, Xu M, Weivoda MM, et al. Targeting cellular senescence prevents age-related bone loss in mice. Nature Medicine . 2017

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Want To Live Longer? Life Extension Drugs On Horizon; How They Work - Medical Daily

Want to Age Better? Look to Your Cells – The Good Men Project (blog)

This is paid content as part of a partnership between The Good Men Project and ChromaDex.

Do you feel yourself slowing down recently? Over time, sun exposure, excessive food and alcohol consumption, and jetting between time zones are just a few factors that can depress your metabolism and cellular health.

There is a clinically-studied vitamin that can help reduce the effects of aging and help your cells function like they did when they were younger. Is your metabolism missing this crucial component?

Men and women in their 40s and beyond are turning to a form of vitamin B3 called nicotinamide riboside (NR) to defend against the adverse effects of slowing metabolism.

Dr. Charles Brenner, the Roy J. Carver Chair of Biochemistry at the University of Iowa and the founding co-director of the University of Iowa Obesity Initiative, is responsible for discovering the link between NR and a co-enzyme called NAD+, which is a crucial key to human health.

Dr. Brenner is also the Chief Scientific Advisor behind TRU NIAGEN, the only NR supplement directly from the ingredients patent-holder.

We invite you to read our Q&A with Dr. Brenner to learn more about his discovery, cellular health and why NR should be part of your morning routine.

GMP: What is NR and why do people take it?

CB: NR is a vitamin that maintains and boosts the central regulator of metabolism: NAD+.

NAD+ is required for us to convert our fuels (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates) into the energy we need to move, think and stay in optimal health. NAD+ is also required to protect our DNA and maintain nerve and muscle function.

Levels of NAD+ naturally decline with age. In addition, our levels of NAD+ are challenged by many metabolic stresses including sun and alcohol exposure, toxins, overeating and jetting between time zones. People take NR to maintain their youthful metabolism and resilience as we age and experience stress.

What kind of results can one expect to see from taking NR and in what time period?

People who have started taking TRU NIAGEN report subtle changes in their overall feelings of well-being including improved sleep, consistent energy, improved mental clarity and alertness, and improved skin and digestive health within 2 to 4 weeks of taking their first dose.

Can you describe the best candidates for NR supplementation?

NR is not intended to treat any disease or condition. NR is for adults, and given a reduction of NAD+ with age, will likely benefit those age 40 and above more than younger people. NR is not a substitute for a bad diet or poor sleep and hygiene, but it helps to optimize health and smooth out some of the stressors in life.

Is there anyone who shouldnt consider taking NR?

NR is not contraindicated for any conditions. However, we recommend that you talk to your about NR if you have a disease or any concerns at all.

Does NR have common side effects?

Based on clinical studies, there are no known side effects of NR. This is very different from another, commonly known form of vitamin B3 called niacin, which notoriously causes the uncomfortable side effect called flushing (reddening of the skin, often accompanied by a burning or itching sensation).

What kind of studies have been done with NR to prove its efficacy?

In people, weve shown that NR safely boosts NAD+ levels in a dose-dependent manner. Many more human studies are in process with some nearing publication.

Without getting too technical, how does NR impact longevity?

Well start by taking a deep breath and assure you we will not make human longevity claims. We have no plans specifically to test NR as a life extension supplement in people, but rather, a health extension supplement. Its reasonable to consider that by boosting NAD+, NR can help people age better, increasing many functional metrics of living that are collectively termed healthspan.

What is the number one reason someone would consider supplementing with TRU NIAGEN?

It is nutritional support for healthy aging. Of course, you should also eat right, and stay physically and mentally active.

Learn more about TRU NIAGEN today.

ChromaDex, the worldwide patent-holder of NIAGEN (nicotinamide riboside), previously only sold NR to third-party brands, but recently made NR available directly to consumers under the brand name TRU NIAGEN. With TRU NIAGEN from ChromaDex, you can be sure that you are getting patented, extensively researched and rigorously tested NIAGEN straight from the company that pioneered it. Every bottle of TRU NIAGEN has to meet the highest standards for safety, potency, and purity.

NOTE: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


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Want to Age Better? Look to Your Cells - The Good Men Project (blog)

Biologists beat back death in fruit flies. Humans next? – New Atlas

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have figured out a way to extend the life of female fruit flies by 20 percent by manipulating what the school has called a "cellular time machine." The biologists who carried out the work are hopeful that their findings will have implications for human aging and help fight off age-related diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

The researchers focused on mitochondria, tiny structures that act a bit like digestive organs inside our cells. These "cellular power plants" take the chemicals and oxygen in our systems provided through food and respiration, and convert them into a molecule known as ATP, which the cell can then use as food. When mitochondria age however, they can become damaged and build up in the body, creating a toxic environment conducive to disease formation.

In the research, UCLA biologists studied the mitochondria in fruit flies and figured out that as the insects reach middle age which, for a fruit fly, is about one month old their mitochondria change shape, making it tough for their cells to clear them out when the organelles are no longer functioning properly.

"We think the fact that the mitochondria become larger and elongated impairs the cell's ability to clear the damaged mitochondria," said David Walker, a UCLA professor of integrative biology and physiology, and the study's senior author. "And our research suggests dysfunctional mitochondria accumulate with age, rather than being discarded."

So the scientists gave the flies a hand by increasing a protein called Drp1 for one week when they reached 30 days of age. The result was that the damaged mitochondria was broken up into smaller pieces that the flies were able to expel from their cells. This not only led female flies to live about 20 percent longer and male flies to live about 12 percent longer than their typical two-month lifespans, but the researchers also found that the flies had increased energy levels and endurance.

What's more, the boost in Drp1 also held off a condition in which the flies get leaky intestines about a week before they die. The condition is not only a precursor to death in fruit flies but it has also been implicated in the death of monkeys, worms and mice.

"It's like we took middle-aged muscle tissue and rejuvenated it to youthful muscle," said Walker. "We actually delayed age-related health decline. And seven days of intervention was sufficient to prolong their lives and enhance their health."

The biologists also further experimented with a protein called Mfn, which keeps mitochondria from clumping together and getting too big for cells to deal with. When they turned its production off in the flies, they saw similar benefits in terms of health and life extension.

"You can either break up the mitochondria with Drp1 or prevent them from fusing by inactivating Mfn," said Anil Rana, a UCLA project scientist and the study's lead author. "Both have the same effect: making the mitochondria smaller and extending lifespan."

The team hopes that it may eventually be possible to create a drug that would work in the same way as the proteins to not only extend and improve the lives of humans, but to help stave off age-related diseases. Walker points to the fact that the treatment worked so fast as a major plus, considering that it could lessen the negative effects often associated with the long-term use of pharmaceuticals.

The findings have been reported in the journal Nature Communications.

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Biologists beat back death in fruit flies. Humans next? - New Atlas

Lundin Mining Announces 2017 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve Estimates – MarketWatch

TORONTO, ONTARIO, Sep 05, 2017 (Marketwired via COMTEX) -- TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Sept. 5, 2017) - Lundin Mining Corporation (LUN)(omx:LUMI)("Lundin Mining" or the "Company") today reported its Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve estimates as at June 30, 2017. On a consolidated and attributable basis, contained metal in the Proven and Probable Mineral Reserve categories totaled 3,232 kt of copper, 3,415 kt of zinc and 130 kt of nickel.

Commenting on the update, Mr. Paul Conibear, President and CEO of Lundin Mining said "We are pleased that our exploration efforts continue to add great value to our assets. Exploration success at Candelaria has resulted in further significant increases in underground Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves that will allow us to continue to advance mine plan optimization and mine life extension in Chile. Study work and approval of the Zinc Expansion Project at Neves-Corvo and the Eagle East development at Eagle during the last year have contributed to increased Mineral Reserves at both mines. In the light of improved market conditions, we plan to accelerate exploration at all our mine sites in 2018 as well as advance at least two new copper-focused greenfield exploration projects".


Total Candelaria Measured and Indicated MineralResources have increased by approximately 7.5% to 740.9Mt at 0.70%Cu, from 689.0 Mt at 0.64% Cu reported as of June 30, 2016, reflecting thecontinued success of the exploration campaigns.

Total Candelaria Proven and Probable MineralReserves have increased by approximately 3% to 497.5Mt at 0.56% Cu,despite mining depletion. The open pit Proven and Probable MineralReserves, excluding stockpiles, have decreased to 315.9 Mt at 0.53% Cu, from337.6 Mt at 0.54% Cu reported as of June 30, 2016, reflecting 12 months ofdepletion by mining.

Total Candelaria Underground Proven and ProbableMineral Reserves now stand at 89.3 Mt at 0.88% Cu. This is a significantincrease of 38.1 Mt over last year reflecting continued explorationsuccess, particularly in the Candelaria Norte underground mine.

An initial Eagle East Probable Mineral Reservewas reported on April 10, 2017 containing 1.5Mt at 3.7% Ni and 3.0%Cu. The total combined Eagle and Eagle East Proven and Probable MineralReserves now stand at 4.7 Mt at 2.7% Ni and 2.3% Cu.

Copper Proven and Probable Mineral Reserves atNeves-Corvo increased to 29.1 Mt at 2.4% Cu from 26.1 Mt at 2.7% Cu reportedas of June 30, 2016, despite mining depletion.Zinc Proven and ProbableMineral Reserves have increased to 30.4 Mt at 7.7% Zn from 23.4 Mt at 7.2%Zn reported as of June 30, 2016, reflecting approval of the Zinc ExpansionProject.

Total copper Measured and Indicated MineralResources at Neves-Corvo has been reduced by mining depletion and geologicalre-interpretation to stand at 61.7 Mt at 2.4% Cu compared to 70.0 Mt at 2.7%Cu reported as of June, 2016.However, the total zinc Measured andIndicated Mineral Resources remain almost unchanged at 106.5 Mt at 6.1%Zn.

At Zinkgruvan, the zinc Proven and ProbableMineral Reserves have increased to 11.9 Mt at 7.2% Zn and 2.9% Pb andcopper Proven and Probable Mineral Reserves have increased to 5.3 Mt at1.8% Cu.

The tables attached to this release summarize the Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource estimates for each of the Company's mines as of June 30, 2017.

About Lundin Mining

Lundin Mining is a diversified Canadian base metals mining company with operations in Chile, the United States of America, Portugal, and Sweden, primarily producing copper, nickel and zinc. In addition, Lundin Mining holds an indirect 24% equity stake in the Freeport Cobalt Oy business, which includes a cobalt refinery located in Kokkola, Finland.

This is information that Lundin Mining Corporation is obliged to make public pursuant to the EU Market Abuse Regulation. The information was submitted for publication, through the agency of the contact persons on September 5, 2017 at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time.

Cautionary Statement in Forward-Looking Information

Certain of the statements made and information contained in this news release (including, but not limited to, the attached "Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves - June 30, 2017" tables and notes thereto) is "forward-looking information" within the meaning of the Canadian securities laws. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to the estimation of Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources, planned production increases, exploration, mine plan optimization, mine life extension, and project study and development.Forward-looking statements are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties which could cause actual events or results to differ from those reflected in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, risks and uncertainties relating to foreign currency fluctuations; risks inherent in mining including environmental hazards, industrial accidents, unusual or unexpected geological formations, ground control problems and flooding; risks associated with the estimation of Mineral Resources and Reserves and the geology, grade and continuity of mineral deposits; the possibility that future exploration, development or mining results will not be consistent with the Company's expectations; the potential for and effects of labour disputes or other unanticipated difficulties with or shortages of labour or interruptions in production; actual ore mined varying from estimates of grade, tonnage, dilution and metallurgical and other characteristics; the inherent uncertainty of production and cost estimates and the potential for unexpected costs and expenses, commodity price fluctuations; uncertain political and economic environments; changes in laws or policies, foreign taxation, delays or the inability to obtain and maintain necessary governmental permits; and other risks and uncertainties, including those described under "Risk and Uncertainties" section of the Company's most recently filed Annual Information Form and the "Managing Risks" section of each of its Management's Discussion and Analysis. Forward-looking information is in addition based on various assumptions including, without limitation, the expectations and beliefs of management, the assumed long term price of copper, nickel, lead and zinc; that the Company can access financing, appropriate equipment and sufficient labour and that the political environment where the Company operates will continue to support the development and operation of mining projects. Should one or more of these risks and uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described in forward-looking statements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that forward-looking information will prove to be accurate, and so readers are advised not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The Company does not undertake to update such forward-looking information unless required under applicable laws.

Cautionary Notes to Investors - Mineral Resource and Reserve Estimates

In accordance with applicable Canadian securities regulatory requirements, all Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource estimates of the Company disclosed or incorporated by reference in this news release have been prepared in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects adopted by the Canadian Securities Administrators ("NI 43-101") and are classified in accordance with the Canadian Institute of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum's "CIM Definition Standards for Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves" adopted on May 10, 2014 (the "CIM Standards").

Mineral Resources which are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. Pursuant to the CIM Standards, Mineral Resources have a higher degree of uncertainty than Mineral Reserves as to their existence as well as their economic and legal feasibility. Inferred Mineral Resources, when compared with Measured or Indicated Mineral Resources, have the least certainty as to their existence, and it cannot be assumed that all or any part of an Inferred Mineral Resource will be upgraded to an Indicated or Measured Mineral Resource as a result of continued exploration. Pursuant to NI 43-101, Inferred Mineral Resources may not form the basis of any economic analysis, including any feasibility study. Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of a Mineral Resource exists, will ever be converted into a Mineral Reserve, or is or will ever be economically or legally mineable or recovered.

To view the table "Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves - June 30, 2017", please click on the following link:

Notes on Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve Table

Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserve estimates are shown on a 100 percent basis for each mine. The Measured and Indicated Mineral Resources are inclusive of those Mineral Resources modified to produce the Mineral Reserves. All estimates are prepared as at June 30, 2017.

Estimates for all operations are prepared by or under the supervision of a Qualified Person as defined in National Instrument 43-101, or have been audited by independent Qualified Persons on behalf of Lundin Mining.

Mineral Reserves have been calculated using metal prices of US$2.75/lb copper, US$1.00/lb zinc, US$1.00/lb lead, US$8.00/lb nickel, US$1,000/oz gold and exchange rates of EUR/US$ 1.25, US$/SEK 7.00 and Chilean Peso/US$ 550.

Candelaria and Ojos

Open pit Mineral Resources are reported within a conceptual pit shell based on metal prices of US$3.16/lb copper and US$1,000/oz gold and are reported at a cut-off grade of 0.2% copper. Underground Mineral Resources are reported at a cut-off grade of 0.6% copper.Mineral Reserves for the open pit and underground for the Candelaria property are reported at cut-off grades of 0.28% and 0.6% copper, respectively. Underground Mineral Reserves for the Ojos del Salado property (Santos and Alcaparrosa mines) are reported at cut-off grades of 0.63% and 0.66% copper, respectively. Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves for Candelaria and Ojos del Salado were estimated by mine technical staff at Candelaria and Ojos, respectively.Patricio Caldern, Superintendent Resource Estimation, Yerko Peralta, Open Pit Mine Engineer and Cristian Erazo, Underground Mine Engineer, each of whom is a Registered Member, Chilean Mining Commission, employed by the Candelaria mining complex and a Qualified Person as defined under NI 43-101, supervised the preparation of the Mineral Resource, open pit Mineral Reserve and underground Mineral Reserve estimates respectively, and the scientific and technical information on Candelaria contained in this news release.

For further information, refer to the Technical Report entitled Technical Report for the Candelaria Copper Mining Complex, Atacama Province, Region III, Chile dated January 17, 2017, which is available on the Company's SEDAR profile at

Neves-Corvo and Semblana

The Mineral Resources are reported above cut-off grades of 1.0% for copper and 3.0% for zinc. The copper and zinc Mineral Reserves have been calculated using variable Net Smelter Return (NSR) values based on area and mining method.The NSR is calculated on a recovered payable basis taking in to account copper, lead, zinc and silver grades, metallurgical recoveries, prices and realization costs. The copper Mineral Reserves are reported above a site average cutoff grade equivalent to 1.3%. For zinc Mineral Reserves an average cutoff grade equivalent to 5.5% is used.Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources for Neves-Corvo were estimated by the mine geology and mine engineering departments at Neves-Corvo under the guidance of David Nicholls, Technical Services Manager, Nelson Pacheco, Chief Geologist, and Fernando Cartaxo, Chief Mine Planning Engineer, each of whom is employed by the Neves-Corvo mine.Nelson Pacheco EurGeol, prepared the Neves Corvo Mineral Resource estimate and Antonio Salvador, CEng MIMMM, Group Mining Engineer, Lundin Mining, reviewed and approved the Mineral Reserve estimate, and the scientific and technical information for Neves-Corvo contained in this news release. Both are Qualified Persons as defined under NI 43-101.

The Mineral Resources at Semblana are reported above a cut-off grade of 1.0% copper.The Mineral Resource estimate contained in this news release was prepared by Graham Greenway, Pr.Sci.Nat., Group Resource Geologist, Lundin Mining, who is a Qualified Person as defined under NI 43-101.

For further information, refer to the Technical Report entitled NI 43-101 Technical Report for the Neves-Corvo Mine, Portugal dated June 23, 2017, which is available on the Company's SEDAR profile at


The zinc Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are reported above a site average cut-off grade of 3.7% zinc equivalent. The copper Mineral Resources and Reserves are reported above cut-off grades of 1.0% and 1.5% respectively. The zinc Mineral Reserves have been calculated using variable NSR values based on area and mining method.The NSR is calculated on a recovered payable basis taking in to account copper, lead, zinc and silver grades, metallurgical recoveries, prices and realization costs.The Zinkgruvan Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve estimates are prepared by the mine's geology and mine engineering department under the guidance of Anja Hagerud, Resource Manager, and Jan Klre, Mine Manager, both employed by Zinkgruvan mine.Graham Greenway, Pr.Sci.Nat., Group Resource Geologist, Lundin Mining and David Allison, CEng MIMMM, Group Mining Engineer, Lundin Mining, each of whom is a Qualified Person as defined under NI 43-101, reviewed and approved the Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resource estimates and the scientific and technical information for Zinkgruvan contained in this news release.

For further information, refer to the Technical Report entitled NI 43-101 Technical Report for the Zinkgruvan Mine, Central Sweden dated January 18, 2013, which is available on the Company's SEDAR profile at

Eagle and Eagle East

The Eagle Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves are reported above a fixed NSR cut-off of US$116/t. The Eagle East Mineral Resources and Reserves are reported above a fixed NSR cut-offs of US$142/t and US$160/t respectively. The NSR is calculated on a recovered payable basis taking in to account nickel, copper, cobalt, gold and PGM grades, metallurgical recoveries, prices and realization costs. The Eagle Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve estimates are prepared by the mine's geology and mine engineering department under the guidance of Robert Mahin, CPG, Chief Geologist and Josh Lam, Senior Mine Engineer, both of whom are employees of the Eagle mine. The Eagle East Mineral Resource estimate was prepared by Graham Greenway, Pr.Sci.Nat., Group Resource Geologist, Lundin Mining.Robert Mahin prepared the Eagle Mineral Resource estimate and reviewed and approved the Eagle East Mineral Resource estimate and David Allison, CEng MIMMM, Group Mining Engineer, Lundin Mining, reviewed and approved the Eagle and Eagle East Mineral Reserve estimates and the scientific and technical information on Eagle and Eagle East contained in this news release. Both are Qualified Person as defined under NI 43-101.

For further information, refer to the Technical Report entitled Technical Report on the Eagle Mine, Michigan, U.S.A. dated April 26, 2017, which is available on the Company's SEDAR profile at

Mark Turner Director, Business Valuations and Investor Relations +1-416-342-5565 Sonia Tercas Senior Associate, Investor Relations +1-416-342-5583 Robert Eriksson Investor Relations Sweden +46 8 545 015 50

2017 Nasdaq, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Lundin Mining Announces 2017 Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve Estimates - MarketWatch

QuantumClean and ChemTrace to Exhibit at SEMICON Taiwan 2017 – Markets Insider

Validated Ultra-High Purity. Maximum Productivity.

QUAKERTOWN, Pennsylvania, Sept. 6, 2017 /PRNewswire/ --Quantum Global Technologies' companies,QuantumCleanandChemTrace,will exhibit at SEMICON Taiwan 2017 at the Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center from September 13 - 15 (booth 1718).

Logo -

This year, Quantum Global Technologies unveiled the world's most advanced semiconductor chamber parts cleaning, coating and analytical facility in Tainan.

"This plant is a 'Smart, Lean, Clean and Green' Center of Excellence, a first of its kind in its industry. The opening of this advanced facility is yet another milestone in our evolution. A demonstration of our continuous innovation, growth and value generation for our customers," states Scott Nicholas President and CEO, Quantum Global Technologies, LLC.

"Our Tainan cleaning, coating and analytical testingCenter of Excellencehelps our customersREDUCE cost-of-ownership.Analytically validated ultraclean parts result inFASTER chamber recoveryandLONGER Mean Time Between Cleans. Optimized cleaning methods and proprietary recoating technologiesEXTEND part life. Fast part turnaround timesREDUCE inventory costs. We are the only firm to offer ultra-high purity chamber part cleaning validated by aCertificate of Analysisfrom an accredited laboratory," explains Nicholas.

The Tainan site is Taiwan's only cleaning and coating service provider with an embedded microcontamination laboratory ChemTrace.

ChemTraceis an industry-leading semiconductor laboratory that provides critical insight into microcontamination issues. "The recent laboratory opening in Tainan allows regional semiconductor industry customers direct access to our advanced laboratories for rapid turnaround and expert analysis," explains Surjany Russell, ChemTrace's Director of Sales.

We welcome your visit to theQuantumCleanandChemTracebooth to learn more on how our service offerings can bring improvement to your operation by solving critical process chamber manufacturing challenges.

About Quantum Global Technologies, LLC

ChemTraceandQuantumCleanare divisions of Quantum Global Technologies, LLC headquartered in suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA.

QuantumCleanis the global leader in sub-10nm outsourced process tool chamber parts cleaning and coating services, tool part life extension and process tool part optimization solutions to the semiconductor wafer fabrication, OEM and OPM industries.

Founded in 2000,QuantumCleanoperates innovativeAdvanced Technology Cleaning Centersbuilt on the premise of providing customersprocess improvement through consistently cleaner partsthat exceed industry standards. These solutions dramatically reduce our customers' total cost-of-ownership. With 1,500 employees in 18 facilitieslocated in 8 countries,QuantumCleanprovides unsurpassed cleaning capability and convenience

For over 20 years,ChemTracehas provided independent and analytical verification of process tool chamber part cleaning effectiveness. Recognized as the leading reference analytical testing laboratory for the semiconductor, solar and related industries,ChemTracehas the solutions for FAB, OEM and OPM's critical cleaning issues and requirements. With more than 100 employees in 5 labs located in 3 countries,ChemTraceoffers unsurpassed microcontamination analysis of tool parts, wafers and depositions, chemicals, cleanroom materials, DI water and airborne molecular

Media Contacts

QuantumClean:Meg Cox, +1-215-892-9300, rel="nofollow">

ChemTrace:Robin Puri, +1-503-251-0979, rel="nofollow">

QuantumClean, ChemTrace, Advanced Technology Cleaning Centers, ATCC, Process Improvement through Consistently Cleaner Parts, Single Part Chemical Clean and SPCC are all registered trademarks of Quantum Global Technologies, LLC.

ACS, Atomically Clean Surfaces, Alternative TWAS, Analytical & Engineering Services, C-Coat, Cleancoat, Cleaning, Coating & Testing Center of Excellence, Environmentally Clean Process, ECP, Final Surface Finish, FSF, QGT, M-Coat, PartSmart, PT3, QualClean,Selective Deposition Removal, SDR, Service Request form, SRF, Solution Based Chemistry, TechBriefs, The Perfect Order, The Perfect Qual, The Perfect Process Transfer, Tight-Coat, V-Clean, VeriClean, Waterless Acid, Y-Coat, Z-Coat, Smart, Lean, Clean and Green, Center of Excellence and Validated Ultra-High Purity. Maximum Productivity are all trademarks of Quantum Global Technologies, LLC.

SOURCE QuantumClean

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QuantumClean and ChemTrace to Exhibit at SEMICON Taiwan 2017 - Markets Insider

STEHLIK: Thank you for smoking – Yale Daily News (blog)

Iwish more people at Yale took smoke breaks.

No, I am not a misanthrope, wishing premature death upon my classmates, nor do I long for the aesthetic of DeNiro gangster movies. I realize smoking is horrible 6 million deaths each year, with 80 percent of the disease burden falling on low and middle income countries. Who knows if my grandfather would have had a stroke last year if he hadnt smoked since 1949. And dont even get me started on the tobacco industry outright lying to people around the world and suing countries trying to pass smoking regulation. Honestly, just ask my smoker friends there is no one who professes life extension through smoking cessation as aggressively as I do.

Yet, as the stress and isolation of Yale hits me hard, I text friend after friend inviting them to meet up. And my heart sinks deeper as friend after friend politely lets me know how extremely busy they are. So I light up alone on the back porch of my Howe Street house god, I miss smokers.

None of my Yale friends smoke. Yalies are too rational for this short-term indulgence. The truth has nothing to do with rationality and everything to do with incentives. In the U.S., smoking is a stigmatized lower class habit and so putting down the cigarette is just another Canada Goose patch Yale students proudly wear. The only real smokers left at Yale are international students and dining hall workers.

Going to high school in Bosnia and Herzegovina a country that ranks 10th worldwide in cigarette consumption per capita I made some of my best friends while smoking. As much as I know that my friends will regret their tobacco habit 40 years down the road, I think there are also considerable positive externalities to this addiction.

For one, Ive never had a hard time asking my friends in Bosnia for five minutes of their time they literally needed to smoke every half-hour, so they might as well do it with me.

Smoking makes for a perfect way to meet new people. From light to ash, a cigarette takes six minutes. There is no shame about being silent with another person because smoking itself gives you a good enough occupation. It is the perfect way to get out of a party mingle hell and have an actual conversation with someone. The closest thing to a smoke break at Yale are 30-minute dining hall meals, which you must plan literally weeks in advance.

There is something liberatingly nihilistic about knowing how harmful smoking is and lighting up anyway. The cigarette in my Slovak friends hand is a raised middle finger to the idea of progress and universal betterness we toil for, 14 hours a day.

Since, apart from my two-house mates who ritually pretend to take drags from a cigarette about every two months, I know no Yale smokers. It is hard for me to say whether smoking would make us kinder to each other. Even if it did, it probably would not compensate for all the strokes, cancer and erectile dysfunction that would come with smoking. It would also not justify the inherent deception involved in nicotine addiction intensely pleasurable at first, but bland, necessary and somewhat deadly over time.

Setting up incentives so that fewer people smoke is a great achievement for the United States. Tobacco-free Yale is an excellent and important initiative and cost-free Nicotine Replacement Therapy under Yale Health coverage is surely a blessing for anyone trying to stop. But still, what would it be like here if we tried to chill out in less risky ways? I heard walks are pretty relaxing.

While Yales environment constructively discourages smoking, it unwillingly encourages overwork, perfectionism, low self-esteem and putting work ahead of friends. If only banning social climbing and status obsession was as easy as banning tobacco.

Mojmir Stehlikis a junior in Trumbull College. Contact him

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STEHLIK: Thank you for smoking - Yale Daily News (blog)

Houghton International gains EASA accreditation – BQ Live

Founded in 1984, Houghton International has expanded over the last 30 years into a multi-million pound, multinational business. Specialising in innovation in the repair, maintenance and life extension of rotating electrical machines, the company has grown from originally serving one customer to now working with over 200 customers globally in a broad range of sectors including power generation, renewables, industrial, oil & gas, marine and rail.

Having opened a large machine repair shop and invested over 300,000 in plant and machinery over the past year to improve performance and keep up with demand,EASA accreditation means that the companyhas successfully demonstrated that it complies with EASA AR100 and follows the prescribed good practices to consistently deliver quality electromechanical repairs that maintain or improve AC electric motor efficiency and reliability.

Michael Mitten, CEO of Houghton International, commented: With over 30 years experience in the repair, maintenance and life extension of electrical rotating machines, becoming an EASA accredited service centre reaffirms our commitment to delivering high quality repairs to our UK and global customer base.

EASA is the worlds leading authority in electro mechanical repair and maintenance, and represents the highest standard and best practice in this industry. Our customers can be assured that any work carried out in our shop meets with or exceeds these standards and be confident in our service.

Linda J. Raynes, CAE, EASA president and CEO said: "This achievement by Houghton International affirms the company's commitment to excellence. EASA's accreditation program offers external validation that the company adheres to good practices by submitting to an independent, third-party audit."

EASA is the electro-mechanical authority; an international trade organisation consisting of more than 1,800 electromechanical sales and service firms in 59 countries. EASA member companies provide repair, service, and sales for the operation and maintenance of electric motors, generators, drives, controls, pumps and other electromechanical equipment.

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Houghton International gains EASA accreditation - BQ Live