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Archive for the ‘IPS Cell Therapy’ Category

Cellular Therapy – fujifilmcdi.com

iPSCells Represent a Superior Approach

iPS cell-derived cardiomyocyte patch demonstrates spontaneous and synchronized contractions after 4 days in culture.

One of the greatest promises of human stem cells is to transform these early-stage cells into treatments for devastating diseases. Stem cells can potentially be used to repair damaged human tissues and to bioengineer transplantable human organs using various technologies, such as 3D printing. Using stem cells derived from another person (allogeneic transplantation) or from the patient (autologous transplantation), research efforts are underway to develop new therapies for historically difficult to treat conditions. In the past, adult stem and progenitor cells were used, but the differentiation of these cell types has proven to be difficult to control. Initial clinical trials using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells indicate that they are far superior for cellular therapy applications because they are better suited to scientific manipulation.

CDIs iPS cell-derived iCell and MyCell products are integral to the development of a range ofcell therapyapplications. A study using iCell Cardiomyocytesas part of a cardiac patch designed to treat heart failure is now underway. This tissue-engineered implantable patch mayemerge as apotential myocardial regeneration treatment.

Another study done with iPS cell-derived cells and kidney structures has marked an important first step towards regenerating, and eventually transplanting, a functioning human organ. In this work, iCell Endothelial Cellswere used to help to recapitulatethe blood supply of a laboratory-generated kidney scaffold. This type of outcome will be crucial for circulation and nutrient distribution in any rebuilt organ.

iCell Endothelial Cells revascularize kidney tissue. (Data courtesy of Dr. Jason Wertheim, Northwestern University)

CDI and its partners are leveraging iPS cell-derived human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to develop and manufacture autologous treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The mature RPE cells will be derivedfrom the patients own blood cells using CDIs MyCell process. Ifapproved by the FDA, this autologous cellular therapy wouldbe one of the first of its kind in the U.S.

Learn more about the technologybehind the development of these iPScell-derived cellular therapies.

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Cellular Therapy – fujifilmcdi.com

Kotton Lab – Boston University Medical Campus | Boston …

The Kotton labs goal is advancing our understanding of lung disease and developmental biology with a focus on stem cell biology and gene therapy. We believe that novel treatments for many lung diseases can be realized based on a better understanding of how the lung develops as well as regenerates after lung injury.

We are particularly interested in understanding how lung cells decide and remember who they are. To this end, one focus of our group is defining the genomic and epigenomic programs that regulate lung cell fate. A longer term goal is the de novo generation of the full diversity of lung lineages and transplantable 3D lung tissues from pluripotent stem cells. Our Principal Investigator, Dr. Darrell Kotton, also serves as the founding Director of the Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM). Take a full tour of the CReM by clicking on our logo above.

Click on the menu to learn more about our research areas and our team

Have forty five minutes for an overview of our last decade? Listen here to Darrells ATS Discovery Series Lecture, Lung Regeneration: An Achievable Mission.

Open Source Works! Click here to access our:iPS Cell Lines, Lentiviral Vectors, Bioinformatics Datasets, or Detailed Protocols!

or read more about our Open Source Biology Philosophyor a recent interview on Darrells approach to sharing our cells

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Kotton Lab – Boston University Medical Campus | Boston …

Market Players Developing iPS Cell Therapies – BioInformant

1. Cellular Dynamics International, Owned by FujiFilm Holdings

Founded in 2004 and listed on NASDAQ in July 2013, Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) is headquartered in Madison, Wisconsin. The company is known for its extremely robust patent portfolio containing more than 900 patents.

According to the company, CDI is the worlds largest producer of fully functional human cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.[1] Their trademarked, iCell Cardiomyocytes, derived from iPSCs, are human cardiac cells used to aid drug discovery, improve the predictability of a drugs worth, and screen for toxicity. In addition, CDI provides: iCell Endothelial Cells for use in vascular-targeted drug discovery and tissue regeneration, iCell Hepatocytes, and iCell Neurons for pre-clinical drug discovery, toxicity testing, disease prediction, and cellular research.[2]

Induced pluripotent stem cells were first produced in 2006 from mouse cells and in 2007 from human cells, by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University,[3] who also won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for his work on iPSCs.[4] Yamanaka has ties to Cellular Dynamics International as a member of the scientific advisory board of iPS Academia Japan. IPS Academia Japan was originally established to manage the patents and technology of Yamanakas work, and is now the distributor of several of Cellular Dynamics products, including iCell Neurons, iCell Cardiomyocytes, and iCell Endothelial Cells.[5]

Importantly, in 2010 Cellular Dynamics became the first foreign company to be granted rights to use Yamanakas iPSC patent portfolio. Not only has CDI licensed rights to Yamanakas patents, but it also has a license to use Otsu, Japan-based Takara Bios RetroNectin product, which it uses as a tool to produce its iCell and MyCell products.[6]

Furthermore, in February 2015, Cellular Dynamics International announced it would be manufacturing cGMP HLA Superdonor stem cell lines that will support cellular therapy applications through genetic matching.[8] Currently, CDI has two HLA super donor cell lines that provide a partial HLA match to approximately 19% of the population within the U.S., and it aims to expand its master stem cell bank by collecting more donor cell lines that will cover 95% of the U.S. population.[9] The HLA super donor cell lines were manufactured using blood samples and used to produce pluripotent iPSC lines, giving the cells the capacity to differentiate into nearly any cell within the human body.

On March 30, 2015, Fujifilm Holdings Corporation announced that it was acquiring CDI for $307 million, allowing CDI to continue to run its operations in Madison, Wisconsin, and Novato, California as a consolidated subsidiary of Fujifilm.[14] A key benefit of the merger is that CDIs technology platform enables the production of high-quality fully functioning iPSCs (and other human cells) on an industrial scale, while Fujifilm has developed highly-biocompatible recombinant peptides that can be shaped into a variety of forms for use as a cellular scaffold in regenerative medicine when used in conjunction with CDIs products.[15]

Additionally, Fujifilm has been strengthening its presence in the regenerative medicine field over the past several years, including a recent A$4M equity stake in Cynata Therapeutics and an acquisition of Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd. in December 2014. Most commonly called J-TEC, Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd. successfully launched the first two regenerative medicine products in the country of Japan. According to Kaz Hirao, CEO of CDI, It is very important for CDI to get into the area of therapeutic products, and we can accelerate this by aligning it with strategic and technical resources present within J-TEC.

Kaz Hirao also states, For our Therapeutic businesses, we will aim to file investigational new drugs (INDs) with the U.S. FDA for the off-the-shelf iPSC-derived allogeneic therapeutic products. Currently, we are focusing on retinal diseases, heart disorders, Parkinsons disease, and cancers. For those four indicated areas, we would like to file several INDs within the next five years.

Finally, in September 2015, CDI again strengthened its iPS cell therapy capacity by setting up a new venture, Opsis Therapeutics. Opsis is focused on discovering and developing novel medicines to treat retinal diseases and is a partnership with Dr. David Gamm, the pioneer of iPS cell-derived retinal differentiation and transplantation.

In summary, several key events indicate CDIs commitment to developing iPS cell therapeutics, including:

Australian stem cell company Cynata Therapeutics (ASX:CYP) is taking a unique approach by creating allogeneic iPSC derived mesenchyal stem cell (MSCs) on a commercial scale. Cynatas Cymerus technology utilizes iPSCs provided by Cellular Dynamics International, a Fujifilm company, as the starting material for generating mesenchymoangioblasts (MCAs), and subsequently, for manufacturing clinical-grade MSCs. According to Cynatas Executive Chairman Stewart Washer who was interviewed by The Life Sciences Report, The Cymerus technology gets around the loss of potency with the unlimited iPS cellor induced pluripotent stem cellwhich is basically immortal.

On January 19, 2017, Fujifilm took an A$3.97 million (10%) strategic equity stake in Cynata, positioning the parties to collaborate on the further development and commercialization of Cynatas lead Cymerus therapeutic MSC product CYP-001 for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). (CYP-001 is the product designation unique to the GVHD indication). The Fujifilm partnership also includes potential future upfront and milestone payments in excess of A$60 million and double-digit royalties on CYP-001 product net sales for Cynata Therapeutics, as well as a strategic relationship for the potential future manufacture of CYP-001 and certain rights to other Cynata technology.

One of the key inventors of Cynatas technology is Igor Slukvin, MD, Ph.D., Scientific Founder of Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) and Cynata Therapeutics. Dr. Slukvin has released more than 70 publications about stem cell topics, including the landmark article in Cell describing the now patented Cymerus technique. Dr. Slukvins co-inventor is Dr. James Thomson, the first person to isolate an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and one of the first people to create a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC). Dr. James Thompson was the Founder of CDI in 2004.

There are three strategic connections between Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) and Cynata Therapeutics, which include:

Recently, Cynata received advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) that its Phase I clinical trial application has been approved, titled An Open-Label Phase 1 Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of CYP-001 for the Treatment of Adults With Steroid-Resistant Acute Graft Versus Host Disease. It will be the worlds first clinical trial involving a therapeutic product derived from allogeneic (unrelated to the patient) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

Participants for Cynatas upcoming Phase I clinical trial will be adults who have undergone an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) to treat a hematological disorder and subsequently been diagnosed with steroid-resistant Grade II-IV GvHD. The primary objective of the trial is to assess safety and tolerability, while the secondary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of two infusions of CYP-001 in adults with steroid-resistant GvHD.

Using Professor Yamanakas Nobel Prize-winning achievement of ethically uncontentious iPSCs and CDIs high-quality iPSCs as source material, Cynata has achieved two world firsts:

Cynata has also released promising pre-clinical data in Asthma, Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack), and Critical Limb Ischemia.

There are four key advantages of Cynatas proprietary Cymerus MSC manufacturing platform. Because the proprietary Cymerus technology allows nearly unlimited production of MSCs from a single iPSC donor, there is batch-to-batch uniformity. Utilizing a consistent starting material allows for a standardized cell manufacturing process and a consistent cell therapy product. Unlike other companies involved with MSC manufacturing, Cynata does not require a constant stream of new donors in order to source fresh stem cells for its cell manufacturing process, nor does it require the massive expansion of MSCs necessitated by reliance on freshly isolated donations.

Finally, Cynata has achieved a cost-savings advantage through its unique approach to MSC manufacturing. Its proprietary Cymerus technology addresses a critical shortcoming in existing methods of production of MSCs for therapeutic use, which is the ability to achieve economic manufacture at commercial scale.

On June 22, 2016, RIKEN announced that it is resuming its retinal induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) study in partnership with Kyoto University.

2013 was the first time in which clinical research involving transplant of iPSCs into humans was initiated, led by Masayo Takahashi of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB) in Kobe, Japan. Dr. Takahashi and her team were investigating the safety of iPSC-derived cell sheets in patients with wet-type age-related macular degeneration. Although the trial was initiated in 2013 and production of iPSCs from patients began at that time, it was not until August of 2014 that the first patient, a Japanese woman, was implanted with retinal tissue generated using iPSCs derived from her own skin cells.

A team of three eye specialists, led by Yasuo Kurimoto of the Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, implanted a 1.3 by 3.0mm sheet of iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells into the patients retina.[196] Unfortunately, the study was suspended in 2015 due to safety concerns. As the lab prepared to treat the second trial participant, Yamanakas team identified two small genetic changes in the patients iPSCs and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells derived from them. Therefore, it is major news that the RIKEN Institute will now be resuming the worlds first clinical study involving the use of iPSC-derived cells in humans.

According to the Japan Times, this attempt at the clinical study will involve allogeneic rather than autologous iPSC-derived cells for purposes of cost and time efficiency. Specifically, the researchers will be developing retinal tissues from iPS cells supplied by Kyoto Universitys Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, an institution headed by Nobel prize winner Shinya Yamanaka. To learn about this announcement, view this article from Asahi Shimbun, a Tokyo- based newspaper.

In November 2015 Astellas Pharma announced it was acquiring Ocata Therapeutics for $379M. Ocata Therapeutics is a biotechnology company that specializes in the development of cellular therapies, using both adult and human embryonic stem cells to develop patient-specific therapies. The companys main laboratory and GMP facility are in Marlborough, Massachusetts, and its corporate offices are in Santa Monica, California.

When a number of private companies began to explore the possibility of using artificially re-manufactured iPSCs for therapeutic purposes, one such company that was ready to capitalize on the breakthrough technology was Ocata Therapeutics, at the time called Advanced Cell Technology. In 2010, the company announced that it had discovered several problematic issues while conducting experiments for the purpose of applying for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to use iPSCs in therapeutic applications. Concerns such as premature cell death, mutation into cancer cells, and low proliferation rates were some of the problems that surfaced. [17]

As a result, the company shifted its induced pluripotent stem cell approach to producing iPS cell-derived human platelets, as one of the benefits of a platelet-based product is that platelets do not contain nuclei, and therefore, cannot divide or carry genetic information. While the companys Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Human Platelet Program received a great deal of media coverage in late 2012, including being awarded the December 2012 honor of being named one of the 10 Ideas that Will Shape the Year by New Scientist Magazine,[178]. Unfortunately, the company did not succeed in moving the concept through to clinical testing in 2013.

Nonetheless, Astellas is clearly continuing to develop Ocatas pluripotent stem cell technologies involving embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). In a November 2015 presentation by Astellas President and CEO, Yoshihiko Hatanaka, he indicated that the company will aim to develop an Ophthalmic Disease Cell Therapy Franchise based around its embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) technology. [19]

What other companies are developing iPSC derived therapeutics and products? Share your thoughts in the comments below.

BioInformant is the first and only market research firm to specialize in the stem cell industry. BioInformant research has been cited by major news outlets that include the Wall Street Journal, Nature Biotechnology, Xconomy, and Vogue Magazine. Serving Fortune 500 leaders that include GE Healthcare, Pfizer, and Goldman Sachs. BioInformant is your global leader in stem cell industry data.

Footnotes[1] CellularDynamics.com (2014). About CDI. Available at: http://www.cellulardynamics.com/about/index.html. Web. 1 Apr. 2015.[2] Ibid.[3] Takahashi K, Yamanaka S (August 2006). Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 126 (4): 66376.[4] 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Press Release. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 7 Feb 2014. Available at: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2012/press.html. Web. 1 Apr. 2015.[5] Striklin, D (Jan 13, 2014). Three Companies Banking on Regenerative Medicine. Wall Street Cheat Sheet. Retrieved Feb 1, 2014 from, http://wallstcheatsheet.com/stocks/3-companies-banking-on-regenerative-medicine.html/?a=viewall.%5B6%5D Striklin, D (2014). Three Companies Banking on Regenerative Medicine. Wall Street Cheat Sheet [Online]. Available at: http://wallstcheatsheet.com/stocks/3-companies-banking-on-regenerative-medicine.html/?a=viewall. Web. 1 Apr. 2015.[7] Cellular Dynamics International (July 30, 2013). Cellular Dynamics International Announces Closing of Initial Public Offering [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.cellulardynamics.com/news/pr/2013_07_30.html.%5B8%5D Investors.cellulardynamics.com,. Cellular Dynamics Manufactures Cgmp HLA Superdonor Stem Cell Lines To Enable Cell Therapy With Genetic Matching (NASDAQ:ICEL). N.p., 2015. Web. 7 Mar. 2015.[9] Ibid.[10] Cellulardynamics.com,. Cellular Dynamics | Mycell Products. N.p., 2015. Web. 7 Mar. 2015.[11]Sirenko, O. et al. Multiparameter In Vitro Assessment Of Compound Effects On Cardiomyocyte Physiology Using Ipsc Cells.Journal of Biomolecular Screening 18.1 (2012): 39-53. Web. 7 Mar. 2015.[12] Sciencedirect.com,. Prevention Of -Amyloid Induced Toxicity In Human Ips Cell-Derived Neurons By Inhibition Of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases And Associated Cell Cycle Events. N.p., 2015. Web. 7 Mar. 2015.[13] Sciencedirect.com,. HER2-Targeted Liposomal Doxorubicin Displays Enhanced Anti-Tumorigenic Effects Without Associated Cardiotoxicity. N.p., 2015. Web. 7 Mar. 2015.[14] Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. Fujifilm Holdings To Acquire Cellular Dynamics International, Inc.. GlobeNewswire News Room. N.p., 2015. Web. 7 Apr. 2015.[15] Ibid.[16] Cyranoski, David. Japanese Woman Is First Recipient Of Next-Generation Stem Cells. Nature (2014): n. pag. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.[17] Advanced Cell Technologies (Feb 11, 2011). Advanced Cell and Colleagues Report Therapeutic Cells Derived From iPS Cells Display Early Aging [Press Release]. Available at: http://www.advancedcell.com/news-and-media/press-releases/advanced-cell-and-colleagues-report-therapeutic-cells-derived-from-ips-cells-display-early-aging/.%5B18%5D Advanced Cell Technology (Dec 20, 2012). New Scientist Magazine Selects ACTs Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell-Derived Human Platelet Program As One of 10 Ideas That Will Shape The Year [Press Release]. Available at: http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/06/science/sci-stemcell6. Web. 9 Apr. 2015.[19] Astellas Pharma (2015). Acquisition of Ocata Therapeutics New Step Forward in Ophthalmology with Cell Therapy Approach. Available at: https://www.astellas.com/en/corporate/news/pdf/151110_2_Eg.pdf. Web. 29 Jan. 2017.

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Market Players Developing iPS Cell Therapies – BioInformant

IPS and G-CON Launch iCON Cell Therapy Facility Platform

BERcellFLEX24

COLLEGE STATION, Texas (PRWEB) September 05, 2018

Following up on the launch of the iCON Turnkey Facility Platform for a mAb manufacturing facility late last year, IPS-Integrated Project Services, LLC and G-CON Manufacturing have successfully designed and delivered the first BERcellFLEX PODs for the manufacturing of autologous cell therapies. The iCON solution provides a pre-fabricated modular cleanroom infrastructure for the drug manufacturers requirements for both clinical and commercial manufacture of critical therapies. Following the iCON model, IPS provided the engineering design while G-CON built, tested and delivered the BERcellFLEX CAR-T processing suites in both twelve (12) foot and twenty-four (24) foot wide POD configurations.

This is an exciting time for our companies as the iCON platform is being adopted by clients who recognize that new innovative approaches are needed to meet the growing demand for cell and gene therapy manufacturing said Dennis Powers, Vice President of Business Development and Sales Engineering at G-CON Manufacturing Inc. We believe that the iCON platform approach with its faster and more predictable project schedules for new facility construction are essential for supplying life changing therapies to the patients that need them.

The gene therapy industry needs standardized solutions to meet its speed to market requirements, said Tom J. Piombino, Vice President & Process Architect at IPS. In addition to our larger 2K mAb facility platform that we rolled out earlier this year, the BERcellFLEX12 and 24 represent a line of gene/cell therapy products that operating companies can buy today, ready-to-order, in either an open or closed-processing format with little to no engineering time we start fabricating almost immediately after URS alignment. Multiple cellFLEX units can be installed to scale up/out from Phase 1 Clinical production to Commercial Manufacturing and serve the needs of thousands of CAR-T patients per year. Being able to meet this critical need is consistent with our vision; were thrilled to be able to offer this modular solution to help our clients get therapies to their patients.

About iCONThe iCON platform, the collaborative efforts of IPS and G-CON Manufacturing, Inc., is redefining facility project execution for the biopharma industry where there is a growing need for more rapidly deployable and flexible manufacturing capability. iCON has launched turnkey designs for monoclonal antibody facilities and autologous cell therapies, and is developing platforms for cell and gene therapies, vaccines, OSD, and aseptic filling. An iCON solution can be deployed for:

About G-CONG-CON Manufacturing designs, produces and installs prefabricated cleanroom PODs. G-CONs cleanroom POD portfolio encompasses a variety of different dimensions and purposes, from laboratory environments to personalized medicine and production process platforms. The POD cleanroom units are unique from traditional cleanroom structures due to the ease of scalability, mobility and the ability to repurpose the PODs once the production process reaches the end of its lifecycle. For more information, please visit the Company’s website at http://www.gconbio.com.

About IPSIPS is a global leader in developing innovative facility and bioprocess solutions for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Through operational expertise and industry-leading knowledge, skill and passion, IPS provides consulting, architecture, engineering, construction management, and compliance services that allow clients to create and manufacture life-impacting products around the world. Headquartered in Blue Bell, PA-USA, IPS is one of the largest multi-national companies servicing the life sciences industry with over 1,100 professionals in the US, Canada, Brazil, UK, Ireland, Switzerland, Singapore, China, and India. Visit our website at http://www.ipsdb.com.

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IPS and G-CON Launch iCON Cell Therapy Facility Platform

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS Cell): 2018-2022 …

Dublin, Aug. 02, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The “Global Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS Cell) Industry Report 2018-19” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering.

Groundbreaking experimentation in 2006 led to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These are adult cells which are isolated and then transformed into embryonic-like stem cells through the manipulation of gene expression, as well as other methods. Research and experimentation using mouse cells by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab at Kyoto University in Japan was the first instance in which there was a successful generation of iPSCs.

In 2007, a series of follow-up experiments were done at Kyoto University in which human adult cells were transformed into iPSCs. Nearly simultaneously, a research group led by James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison accomplished the same feat of deriving iPSC lines from human somatic cells.

Since the discovery of iPSCs a large and thriving research product market has grown into existence, largely because the cells are non-controversial and can be generated directly from adult cells. While it is clear that iPSCs represent a lucrative product market, methods for commercializing this cell type are still being explored, as clinical studies investigating iPSCs continue to increase in number.

iPS Cell Therapies

2013 was a landmark year in Japan because it saw the first cellular therapy involving the transplant of iPS cells into humans initiated at the RIKEN Center in Kobe, Japan. Led by Masayo Takahashi of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB). Dr. Takahashi was investigating the safety of iPSC-derived cell sheets in patients with wet-type age-related macular degeneration.

Although the study was suspended in 2015 due to safety concerns, in June 2016 RIKEN Institute announced that it would resume the clinical study using allogeneic rather than autologous iPSC-derived cells, because of the cost and time efficiencies.

In a world-first, Cynata Therapeutics received approval in September 2016 to launch the world’s first formal clinical trial of an allogeneic iPSC-derived cell product, called CYP-001. The study involves centers in the UK and Australia. In this trial, Cynata is testing an iPS cell-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product for the treatment of GvHD.

On 16 May 2018, Nature News then reported that Japan’s health ministry gave doctors at Osaka University permission to take sheets of tissue derived from iPS cells and graft them onto diseased human hearts. The team of Japanese doctors, led by cardiac surgeon Yoshiki Sawa at Osaka University, will use iPS cells to create a sheet of 100 million heart-muscle cells. From preclinical studies in pigs, the medical team determined that thin sheets of cell grafts can improve heart function, likely through paracrine signaling.

Kyoto University Hospital in Kobe, Japan also stated it would be opening an iPSC therapy center in 2019, for purposes of conducting clinical studies on iPS cell therapies. Officials for Kyoto Hospital said it will open a 30-bed ward to test the efficacy and safety of the therapies on volunteer patients, with the hospital aiming to initiate construction at the site in February of 2016 and complete construction by September 2019.

iPS Cell Market Competitors

In 2009 ReproCELL, a company established as a venture company originating from the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University was the first to make iPSC products commercially available with the launch of its human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, which it called ReproCario.

Cellular Dynamics International, a Fujifilm company, is another major market player in the iPSC sector. Similar to ReproCELL, CDI established its control of the iPSC industry after being founded in 2004 by Dr. James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who in 2007 derived iPSC lines from human somatic cells for the first time ever (the feat was accomplished simultaneously by Dr. Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Japan).

A European leader within the iPSC market is Ncardia, formed through the merger of Axiogenesis and Pluriomics. Founded in 2001 and headquartered in Cologne, Germany, Axiogenesis initially focused on generating mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cells and assays. After Yamanaka’s groundbreaking iPSC technology became available, Axiogenesis was the first European company to license and adopt Yamanaka’s iPSC technology in 2010.

Ncardia’s focus lies on preclinical drug discovery and drug safety through the development of functional assays using human neuronal and cardiac cells, although it is expanding into new areas. Its flagship offering is its Cor.4U human cardiomyocyte product family, including cardiac fibroblasts.

In summary, market leaders have emerged in all areas of iPSC development, including:

iPS Cell Commercialization

Key Findings

Key Topics Covered

1. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY

2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3. BACKGROUND – iPSC RESEARCH

4. MARKET ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT CATEGORY

5. MARKET ANALYSIS BY APPLICATION

6. MARKET ANALYSIS BY GEOGRAPHY

7. PATENTS

8. COMPANIES

9. COMPANY PROFILES

10. CONCLUSIONS

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/njhzjc/induced?w=12

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS Cell): 2018-2022 …

CTERP International Conference – 2018: About

CTERP INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCEApril 11-13, 2018Moscow, Russia

In recent years there have been rapid advances in applying the discoveries in cell technologies field into medical practice. Cell technologies are progressing as the result of multidisciplinary effort of scientists, clinicians and businessmen,with clinical applications of manipulated stem cells combining developments in transplantation and gene therapy.Challenges address not only thetechnology itself but also compliancewith safety and regulatory requirements.

The Conference will provide a platform for scientists from basic and applied cell biology fields, practical doctors, and biotech companies to meet and share their experience, to discuss the research associated with developing biomedical clinical products and translating this research into novel clinical applications, challenges of such translational efforts and foundation of bioclusters assisting further developments in cell technology.

The official language of the conference is English.

Conference materials will be published in the Russian Journal of Developmental Biology.

Please download your abstracts in accordance with the journal guidelines (english, russian) for authors provided on their website.

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CTERP International Conference – 2018: About

Stem Cell Treatment/Therapy COST in India| DheerajBojwani.Com

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Medical science has come a long way since its practice began thousands of years ago. Scientists are finding superior and more resourceful ways to cure diseases of different organs. Stem cells are undifferentiated parent cells that can transform into specialized cell types, divide further and produce more stem cells of the same group. Stem Cell therapy is performed to prevent or treat a health condition. Stem Cell Treatment is a reproductive therapy where nourishing tissues reinstate damaged tissues for relief from incurable diseases. Stem cell treatment is one of the approaches with a potential to heal a wide range of diseases in the near future. Science has always provided ground-breaking answers to obdurate health conditions, but the latest medical miracle that the medical fraternity has gifted to mankind is the Stem Cell Therapy.

Stem cell therapy is an array of techniques intended to replace cells damaged or destroyed by disease with healthy functioning ones. Even though the techniques are relatively new, their applications and advantages are broad and surprising the medical world with every new research. Stem cells are obtained from bone marrow or human umbilical cord. They are also known as the fundamental cells of our body and have the power to develop into any type of tissue cell in the body. Stem cell treatment is based on the principle that the cells move to the site of injury and transform themselves to form new tissue cells to replace the damaged ones. They have the capacity to proliferate and renew themselves indefinitely and can form mature muscle cells, nerve cells, and blood cells. In this type of therapy, they are derived from the body, kept under artificial conditions where they mature into the type of cells that are required to heal a certain part of the body or disease.

Stem cells are being studied and used to treat different types of cancers, disorders related to the blood, immune disorders, and metabolic disorders. Some other diseases and health conditions that may be healed using stem cell treatment are,

Recently, a team of researchers successfully secured the peripheral nerves in the upper arms of a patient suffering peripheral nerve damage, by using skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) and a previously developed collagen tube, premeditated to successfully bridge gaps in injured nerves.

A research has found potential in bone marrow stem cell therapy to treat TB. Patients injected with new mesenchymal stromal cells derived from their own bone marrow showed positive response against the TB bacteria. The therapy also didnt show any serious adverse effects.

Stem cells are also used to treat hair loss. A small amount of fat is taken from the waist area of the patient by a mini-liposuction process. This fat contains dormant stem cells, and is then spun to separate the stem cells from the fat. An activation solution is added to the cells, and may be multiplied in number, depending on the size of the bald area. Once activated, the solution is washed off so that only cells remain. Now, the stem cells are injected into the scalp. One can find some hair growth in about two to four weeks.

Damaged cones in retinas can be regenerated and eyesight restored through stem cell. Stem cell therapy could regenerate damaged cones in people, especially in the cone-rich regions of the retina that provide daytime/color vision.

Kidney transplants have become more common and easier thanks stem cell therapy. Normally patients who undergo organ transplants need a lifetime of costly anti-rejection drugs but the new procedure may negate this need, with organ donors stem cells. Unless there is a perfect match donor, patients have to wait long for an organ transplant. Though still in early stages, the stem cell research is being considered as a potential player in the field of transplantation.

Transplanted stem cells serve as migratory signals for the brain’s own neurogenic cells, guiding the new host cells towards the injured brain tissue. Stem cells have the potential to give rise to many different cell types that carry out different functions. While the stem cells in adult bone marrow tend to develop into the cells that make up the organ system from which they originated. These multipotent stem cells can be manipulated to take up the characteristics of neural cells.

Experts are using Stem cell Transplant to treat the symptoms of spinal cord injury by transplantation of cells directly into the gray matter of the patients spinal cord. Expectedly, the cells will integrate into the patients own neural tissue and create new circuitry to help transmit nerve signals to muscles. The transplanted cells may also promote reorganization of the spinal cord segmental circuitry, possibly leading to improved motor function.

Stem cells are capable of differentiating into a variety of different cell types, and if the architecture of damaged tendon is restored, it would improve the management of patients with these injuries significantly.

A promising benefit of stem cell therapy is its potential for cardiac tissue regeneration to reverse tissue loss underlying the development of heart failure after cardiac injury. Possible mechanisms of recovery include generation of heart muscle cells, stimulation of new blood vessels growth, secretion of growth factors.

It is a complex and multifarious procedure, with several risks and complications involved and is thus recommended to a few patients when other treatments have failed. Stem Cell therapy is recommended when other treatments fail to give positive results. The best candidates for Stem cell Treatment are those in good health and have stem cells available from a sibling, or any other family member.

India has been recognized as the new medical destination for Stem Cell therapies. Hundreds of international patients from around the world visit to India for high quality medical care at par with developed nations like the US, UK, at the most affordable costs. The Hospitals in India have the most extensive diagnostic and imaging facilities including Asias most advanced MRI and CT technology. India provides services of the most leading doctors and Stem Cell Therapy professionals at reasonable cost budget in the following cities

India offers outstanding Stem Cell Treatment at rates far below that prevailing in USA or other Western countries. Even with travel expenses taken into account, the comprehensive medical tourism packages still provide a savings measured in the thousands of dollars for major procedures. A cost comparison can give you the exact idea about the difference:

There are many reasons for India becoming a popular medical tourism spot is the low cost stem cell treatment in the area. When in contrast to the first world countries like, US and UK, medical care in India costs as much as 60-90% lesser, that makes it a great option for the citizens of those countries to opt for stem cell treatment in India because of availability of quality healthcare in India, affordable prices strategic connectivity, food, zero language barrier and many other reasons.

The maximum number of patients for Stem Cell Treatment comes from Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, USA, UK, Australia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

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Stem Cell Treatment/Therapy COST in India| DheerajBojwani.Com

iPS Cell Therapy: Is Japan the Market Leader?

Although there are key players in markets like the U.S., Australia, and the EU, Japan continues to accelerates its position as a hub for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) therapy with generous funding, acquisitions, and strategic partnerships.

Pluripotent stem cells are cells that are capable of developing into any type of cell or tissue in the human body. These cells have the capability to replicate and help in repairing damaged tissues within the body. In 2006, the Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka demonstrated that an ordinary cell can be turned into a pluripotent cell by genetic modification. These genetically reprogrammed cells are known as induced pluripotent cells, also called iPS cells or iPSCs.

An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) is a type of pluripotent stem cell that has the capacity to divide indefinitely and create any cell found within the three germ layers of an organism. These layers include the ectoderm (cells giving rise to the skin and nervous system), endoderm (cells forming gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, endocrine gland, liver, and pancreas), and mesoderm (cells forming bones, cartilage, most of the circulatory system, muscles, connective tissues, and other related tissues.).

iPS cells have significant potential for therapeutic applications. For autologous applications, the cells are extracted from the patients own body, making them genetically identical to the patient and eliminating the issues associated with tissue matching and tissue rejection.

iPS cells have the potential to be used to treat a wide range of diseases, including diabetes, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, and neural complications, such as Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease.

Over the past few years, Japan has accelerated its position as a hub for regenerative medicine research, largely driven by support from Prime Minister Shinzo Abe who has identified regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as key to the Japans strategy to drive economic growth.

The Prime Minister has encouraged a growing range of collaborations between private industry and academic partners through an innovative legal framework approved last fall.

He has also initiated campaigns to drive technological advances in drugs and devices by connecting private companies with public funding sources. The result has been to drive progress in both basic and applied research involving induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and related stem cell technologies.

2013 was a landmark year in Japan, because it saw the first cellular therapy involving transplant of iPS cells into humans initiated at the RIKEN Center in Kobe, Japan.[1]Led by Masayo Takahashi of theRIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB).Dr. Takahashi and her team wereinvestigating the safety of iPSC-derived cell sheets in patients with wet-type age-related macular degeneration.

To speed things along, RIKEN did not seek permission for a clinical trial involving iPS cells, but instead applied for a type of pretrial clinical research allowed under Japanese regulations.The RIKEN Center is Japans largest, most comprehensive research institution, backed by both Japans Health Ministry and government.

This pretrial clinical research allowed the RIKEN research team to test the use of iPS cells for the treatment of wet-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on a very small scale, in only a handful of patients.Unfortunately, the study was suspended in 2015 due to safety concerns. As the lab prepared to treat the second trial participant, Yamanakas team identified two small genetic changes in the patients iPSCs and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells derived from them.

However, in June 2016 RIKEN Institute announced that it would be resuming the clinical study involving the use of iPSC-derived cellsin humans.According to theJapan Times, this second attempt at the clinical studyis using allogeneic rather than autologous iPSC-derived cells, because of the greater cost and time efficiencies.

Specifically,the researchers will be developing retinal tissues from iPS cells supplied by Kyoto Universitys Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, an institution headed by Nobel prize winner Shinya Yamanaka.

Japan has a unique affection for iPS cells, as the cells were originally discovered by the Japanese scientist, Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University. Mr. Yamanaka was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012, an honor shared jointly with John Gurdon, for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.

In addition, Japans Education Ministry said its planning to spend 110 billion yen ($1.13 billion) on induced pluripotent stem cell research during the next 10 years, and the Japanese parliament has been discussing bills that would speed the approval process and ensure the safety of such treatments.[3]

In April, Japanese parliament even passed a law calling for Japan to make regenerative medical treatments like iPSC technology available for its citizens ahead of the rest of the world.[4] If those forces were not enough, Masayo Takahashi of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, who is heading the worlds first clinical research using iPSCs in humans, was also chosen by the journal Natureas one of five scientists to watch in 2014.[5]

Clearly, Japan is the global leader in iPS cell technologies and therapies. However, progress with stem cells has not been without setbacks within Japan, including a recent scandal at the RIKEN Institute that involved falsely manipulated research findings and a hold on the first clinical trial involving transplant of an iPS cell product into humans.

Nonetheless, Japan has emerged from these troubles to become the most liberalized nation pursuing the development of iPS cell products and services.

iPS cells represent one of the most promising advances within the field of stem cell research, because of their diverse ability to differentiate into any of the approximately 200 cell types that compose the human body.

Even though there is growing evidence to support the safety of iPS cells within cell therapy applications,some people remain concerned that patients who receive implants of iPS derived cells might be at risk of cancer, as genetic manipulation is required to create the cell type.

In a world-first, Cynata Therapeutics (ASX:CYP) received approval in September 2016 to launch a clinical trial in the UK with the worlds first first formal clinical trial of an allogeneic iPSC-derived cell product, which it calls CYP-001.The study involves centers in both the UK and Australia.

In this landmark trial, the Australian regenerative medicine company is testing an iPS cell-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product for the treatment of Graft-vs-Host-Disease (GvHD).Not surprisingly, the Japanese conglomerate Fujifilm is also involved with this historic trial.

Headquartered in Tokyo, Fujifilm is one of the largest players in regenerative medicine field and has invested significantly into stem cells through their acquisition of Cellular Dynamics International (CDI). Additionally, Fujifilm has invested in Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd. (J-Tec), giving it a broad base in regenerative medicine across multiple therapeutic areas.

For a young company like Cynata, having validation from an industry giant like Fujifilm is a huge boost. As stated by Cynata CEO, Dr. Ross Macdonald, The decision by Fujifilm confirms that our technology is very exciting in their eyes. It is a useful yardstick for other investors as well. Of course, the effect of the relationship with Fujifilm on our balance sheet is also important.

If Fujifilm exercises their option to license Cynatas GvHD product, then the costs of the product and commercialization will become the responsibility of Fujifilm. Cynata would also receive milestone payments from Fujifilm of approximately $60M AUS and a double-digit royalty payment.

Cynata was also the first to scale-up manufacture of an allogeneic cGMP iPS celll line. It sourced the cell line from Cellular Dynamics International (CDI) when CDI was still an independent company listed on NASDAQ. In April 2015, CDI was subsequently acquired by Fujifilm, who as mentioned, is a major shareholder in Cynata and its strategic partner for GvHD.

Although Cynata is showing promising early-stage data from its GvHD trial, methods for commercializing iPS cells are still being explored and clinical studies investigating iPS cells remain extremely low in number.

Footnotes[1] Dvorak, K. (2014).Japan Makes Advance on Stem-Cell Therapy [Online]. Available at: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323689204578571363010820642. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.[2] Note: In the United States, some patients have been treated with retina cells derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to treat macular degeneration. There was a successful patient safety test for this stem cell treatment last year that was conducted at the Jules Stein Eye Institute in Los Angeles. The ESC-derived cells used for this study were developed by Advanced Cell Technology, Inc, a company located in Marlborough, Massachusetts.[3] Dvorak, K. (2014).Japan Makes Advance on Stem-Cell Therapy [Online]. Available at: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323689204578571363010820642. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.[4] Ibid.[5] Riken.jp. (2014).RIKEN researcher chosen as one of five scientists to watch in 2014 | RIKEN [Online]. Available at: http://www.riken.jp/en/pr/topics/2014/20140107_1/. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

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iPS Cell Therapy: Is Japan the Market Leader?

Cell Therapy Companies – BioInformant

Cell therapy companies have been rapidly populating over the past few years, making the cell therapy market a high-value, fast-growth market. Key drivers for the market include high rates of cell therapy clinical trials, accelerated pathways for cell therapy product approvals, new technologies to support cell therapy manufacturing, and the potential for cell therapies to revolutionize healthcare.

Additionally, the market gained recent momentum when the Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis made history as the first company to win FDA approval for a CAR-T cell therapy in the U.S. in August 2017 (Kymriah).In October 2017, Kite Pharma became the second company to get FDA approval of a CAR-T cell therapy (Yescarta).

These historic events demonstrate to investors, the public and funding providers alike that cell therapy is a market that has emerged, no longer one that is evolving in the future.Today, there are nearly 40 companies developing redirected T cells or NK cells for therapeutic use. There are nearly 70 companies developing stem cell therapeutics (45% of all cell therapy companies). Finally, direct cell reprogramming is gaining popularity as a therapeutic strategy, because of its safety and efficacy advantages.

Because of this rapid market growth, BioInformant has released a global database featuring 150+ cell therapy companies worldwide. It was originally developed in-house for our own purposes, but we have had more and moreclients requesting access to it. For this reason, we updated and expanded it with additional company details. Now, we have officially launched it to the public.

Cell Therapy Companies CAR-T, CAR-NK, Stem Cells, Direct Reprogramming

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Cell Therapy Companies – BioInformant

iPS Cell Therapy – Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy

iPS Cells and Therapeutic Applications for Duchenne

We are currently in the optimization/validation phase of pre-clinical development.

This research is being done in the lab of Dr. Rita Perlingeiro at the University of Minnesota, in partnership with the University of Minnesota Center for Translational Medicine and the Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics Facility. This work is currently funded by the Department of Defense (DoD).

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are adult cells that have been reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state.There has been tremendous excitement for the therapeutic potential of iPS cells in treating genetic diseases. Our current research builds on our successful proof-of-principle studies for Duchenne performed with mouse wild-type and dystrophic iPS cells as well as control (healthy) human iPS cells. These studies demonstrate equivalent functional myogenic engraftment to that observed with their embryonic counterparts following their transplantation into dystrophic mice.

Our goal now is to apply this technology to clinical grade GMP-compliant iPS cells, and generate a cell product, iPS-derived myogenic progenitors, that can be delivered to muscular dystrophy patients.

Optimization of methodology, characterization of cell product, scalability with GMP-compliant method, followed by safety and efficacy studies. Once these have been achieved, we will be ready to move into a clinical trial.

2-3 years (it depends largely on how much funding we have available to conduct these studies).

University of Minnesota

In the first phase, adults with confirmed diagnosis of Duchenne (> 18 years old).

You can learn more about this research at the website for Dr. Perlingeiros lab: http://www.med.umn.edu/lhi/research/PerlingeiroLab/index.htm

http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov will post all clinical trials once they are actively recruiting patients.

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iPS Cell Therapy – Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy

New Jersey Stem Cell Therapy – Stem Cell Center Of NJ

COPD

Over 32 million Americans suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also known as COPD). COPD is a progressive lung disease, however regenerative medicine, such as lung regeneration therapies using stem cells are showing potential for COPD by encouraging tissue repair and reducing inflammation to the diseased lung tissue.

Following up with stem cell therapy and exome therapy immediately in the first 36 to 48 hours after stroke symptoms surface has proven to be crucial to long-term recovery and regaining mobility again. Cell therapy also calms post-stroke inflammation in the body, and reduces risk of serious infections.

Parkinsons is a neurodegenerative brain disorder caused by the gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. It afflicts more than 1 million people in the U.S., and currently, there is no known cure. Stem cell therapies have been showing incredible progress. Using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, a mature cell can be reprogrammed into an embryonic-like, healthy and highly-functioning state, which has the potential to become a dopamine-producing cell in the brain.

A thick, full head of hair is possible, naturally! Stem cell and exosome therapy promotes healing from within to naturally stimulate hair follicles, which encourages new hair growth. Using your own stem cells, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and exosomes, you can regrow your own healthy, thick hair naturally and restore your confidence!

Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue to improve performance and sensation.

If chronic joint pain is derailing your active lifestyle, then youre not alone. Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to reduce inflammation, promote natural healing and regenerate healthy tissue surrounding the joint for relief.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) affects 400,000 people in the U.S., and occurs when the body has an abnormal immune system response and attacks the central nervous system. Regenerative medicine now offers treatment for MS with stem cell therapy, which is an exciting and rapidly developing field of therapy. Stem cells work to repair damaged cells these new cells can become replacement cells to restore normal functionality.

Spinal cord injuries are as complex as they are devastating. Today, cellular treatments, usually a combination of therapies, such as stem cell, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and exosome therapy with growth factors are showing promise in contributing to spinal cord repair and reducing inflammation at the site of injury.

If you have chronic nerve injury pain that doesnt fade, your health care provider may recommend surgery to reverse the damage. However, regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option to repair damaged tissue and reduce inflammation at the site of injury. Stem cell therapy commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue.

Neuropathy also called peripheral neuropathy occurs when nerves are damaged and cant send messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, skin and other parts of the body. Simply put, the two areas stop communicating. Stem cell and exosome therapies treat damaged nerves affected by neuropathy, and they have the ability to replicate and create new, healthy cells, while repairing damaged tissue.

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New Jersey Stem Cell Therapy – Stem Cell Center Of NJ

Stem Cell Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy …

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and serious form of muscular dystrophy. One out of every 3500 boys is born with the disorder, and it is invariably fatal. Until recently, there was little hope that the widespread muscle degeneration that accompanies this disease could be combated.

However, stem cell therapy now offers that hope. Like other degenerative disorders, DMD is the result of loss of cells that are needed for correct functioning of the body. In the case of DMD, a vital muscle protein is mutated, and its absence leads to progressive degeneration of essentially all the muscles in the body.

To begin to approach a therapy for this condition, we must provide a new supply of stem cells that carry the missing protein that is lacking in DMD. These cells must be delivered to the body in such a way that they will engraft in the muscles and produce new, healthy muscle tissue on an ongoing basis.

We now possess methods whereby we can generate stem cells that can become muscle cells out of adult cells from skin or fat by a process known as reprogramming. Reprogramming is the addition of genes to a cell that can dial the cell back to becoming a stem cell. By reprogramming adult cells, together with addition to them of a correct copy of the gene that is missing in DMD, we can potentially create stem cells that have the ability to create new, healthy muscle cells in the body of a DMD patient. This is essentially the strategy that we are developing in this proposal.

We start with mice that have a mutation in the same gene that is affected in DMD, so they have a disease similar to DMD. We reprogram some of their adult cells, add the correct gene, and grow the cells in incubators in a manner that will produce muscle stem cells. The muscle stem cells can be identified and purified by using an instrument that detects characteristic proteins that muscles make.

The corrected muscle stem cells are transplanted into mice with DMD, and the ability of the cells to generate healthy new muscle tissue is evaluated. Using the mouse results as a guide, a similar strategy will then be pursued with human cells, utilizing cells from patients with DMD. The cells will be reprogrammed, the correct gene added, and the cells grown into muscle stem cells. The ability of these cells to make healthy muscle will be tested by injection into mice with DMD that are immune-deficient, so they will accept a graft of human cells.

In order to make this process into something that could be used in the clinic, we will develop standard procedures for making and testing the cells, to ensure that they are effective and safe. In this way, this project could lead to a new stem cell therapy that could improve the clinical condition of DMD patients. If we have success with DMD, similar methods could be used to treat other degenerative disorders, and perhaps even some of the degeneration that occurs during normal aging

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Stem Cell Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy …

Lung Institute | Stem Cell Research Study for Lung Disease

The Problem with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disorder that often occurs as a result of prolonged cigarette smoking, second-hand smoke, and polluted air or working conditions. COPD is the most prevalent form of chronic lung disease. The physiological symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath (dyspnea), cough, and sputum production, exercise intolerance and reduced Quality of Life (QOL). These signs and symptoms are brought about by chronic inflammation of the airways, which restricts breathing. When fibrotic tissues contract, the lumen is narrowed, compromising lung function. As histological studies confirm, airway fibrosis and luminal narrowing are major features that lead to airflow limitation in COPD1-3.

Today, COPD is a serious global health issue, with a prevalence of 9-10% of adults aged 40 and older4. And the prevalence of the disease is only expected to rise. Currently COPD accounts for 27% of tobacco related deaths and is anticipated to become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide by 2030 5. Today, COPD affects approximately 600 million individualsroughly 5% of the worlds population 6. Despite modern medicine and technological advancements, there is no known cure for COPD.

The difficulty in treating COPD and other lung diseases rests in the trouble of stimulating alveolar wall formation15. Until recently, treatment has been limited by two things: a lack of understanding of the pathophysiology of these disease processes on a molecular level and a lack of pharmaceutical development that would affect these molecular mechanisms. This results in treatment focused primarily in addressing the symptoms of the disease rather than healing or slowing the progression of the disease itself.

The result is that there are few options available outside of bronchodilators and corticosteroids7. Although lung transplants are performed as an alternative option, there is currently a severe shortage of donor lungs, leaving many patients to die on waiting lists prior to transplantation. Lung transplantation is also a very invasive form of treatment, commonly offering poor results, a poor quality of life with a 5-year mortality rate of approximately 50%, and a litany of health problems associated with lifelong immunosuppression13.

However, it has been shown that undifferentiated multipotent endogenous tissue stem cells (cells that have been identified in nearly all tissues) may contribute to tissue maintenance and repair due to their inherent anti-inflammatory properties. Human mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to produce large quantities of bioactive factors including cytokines and various growth factors which provide molecular cueing for regenerative pathways. This affects the status of responding cells intrinsic in the tissue 18. These bioactive factors have the ability to influence multiple immune effector functions including cell development, maturation, and allo-reactive T-cell responses 19. Although research on the use of autologous stem cells (both hematopoietic and mesenchymal) in regenerative stem cell therapy is still in the early stages of implementation, it has shown substantive progress in treating patients with few if any adverse effects.

The Lung Institute (LI) provided treatment by harvesting autologous stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells) by withdrawing adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow or peripheral blood. These harvested cells are isolated and concentrated, and along with platelet-rich plasma, are then reintroduced into the body and enter the pulmonary vasculature (vessels of the lungs) where cells are trapped in the microcirculation (the pulmonary trap). Alternatively, nebulized stem cells are reintroduced through the airways in patients who have undergone an adipose (fat tissue) treatment.

Individuals diagnosed with COPD were tracked by the Lung Institute to measure the effects of treatment via either the venous protocol or adipose protocol on both their pulmonary function as well as their Quality of Life.

All PFTs were performed according to national practice guideline standards for repeatability and acceptability8-10. On PFTs, pre-treatment data was collected through on-site testing or through previous medical examinations by the patients primary physician (if done within two weeks). The test was then repeated by their primary physician 6 months after treatment.*

* Due to the examination information required from primary physicians, only 25 out of 100 patients are reflected in the PFT data.

Patients with progressive COPD will typically experience a steady decrease in their Quality of Life. Given this development, a patients Quality of Life score is frequently used to define additional therapeutic effects, with regulatory authorities frequently encouraging their use as primary or secondary outcomes17.

On quality of life testing, data was collected through the implementation of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) based survey17. The survey measured the patients self-assessed quality of life on a 0-6 scale, with adverse Quality of Life correlated in ascending numerical order. It was implemented in three stages: pre-treatment, 3-months post-treatment, and 6-months post-treatment. The survey measured two distinct outcomes: the QLS score, which measured the patients self-assessed quality of life score, and the QIS, a percentage-based measurement determining the proportion of patients within the sample that experienced QLS score improvements.

Over the duration of six months, the results of 100 patients treated for COPD through venous and adipose based therapies were tracked by the Lung Institute in order to measure changes in pulmonary function and any improvement in Quality of Life.

Of the 100 patients treated by the Lung Institute, 64 were male (64%) and 36 were female (36%). Ages of those treated range from 55-88 years old with an average age of 71. Throughout the study, 82 (82%) were treated with venous derived stem cells, while 18 (18%) were treated from stem cells derived from adipose tissue.

* The survey measured the patients self-assessed quality of life on a 0-6 scale, with adverse Quality of Life correlated in ascending numerical order.

Over the course of the study, the patient group averaged an increase of 35.5% to their Quality of Life (QLS) score within three months of treatment. While in the QIS, 84% of all patients found that their Quality of Life score had improved within three months of treatment (figure 1.3).

Within the PFT results, 48% of patients tested saw an increase of over 10% to their original pulmonary function with an average increase of 16%. During the three to six month period after treatment, patients saw a small decline in their progress, with QLS scores dropping from 35.5% to 32%, and the QIS from 84% to 77%.Fletcher and Petos work shows that patient survival rate can be improved through appropriate or positive intervention14 (figure 1.4). It remains to be seen if better quality of life will translate to longevity, but if one examines what factors allow for improved quality of life such as improvement in oxygen use, exercise tolerance, medication use, visits to the hospital and reduction in disease flare ups then one can see that quality of life improves in association with clinical improvement.

Currently the most utilized options for treating COPD are bronchodilator inhalers with or without corticosteroids and lung transplant each has downsides. Inhalers are often used incorrectly11, are expensive over time, and can only provide temporary relief of symptoms. Corticosteroids, though useful, have risk of serious adverse side effects such as infections, blood sugar imbalance, and weight gain to name a few 16. Lung transplants are expensive, have an adverse impact on quality of life and have a high probability of rejection by the body the treatment of which creates a new set of problems for patients. In contrast, initial studies of stem cells treatments show efficacy, lack of adverse side effects and may be used safely in conjunction with other treatments.

Through the data collected by the Lung Institute, developing methodologies for this form of treatment are quickly taking place as other entities of the medical community follow suit. In a recent study of regenerative stem cell therapy done by the University of Utah, patients exhibited improvement in PFTs and oxygen requirement compared to the control group with no acute adverse events12. Through the infusion of stem cells derived from the patients own body, stem cell therapy minimizes the chance of rejection to the highest degree, promotes healing and can improve the patients pulmonary function and quality of life with no adverse side effects.

Although more studies using a greater number of patients is needed to further examine objective parameters such as PFTs, exercise tests, oxygen, medication use and hospital visits, larger sample sizes will also help determine if one protocol is more beneficial than others. With deeper research, utilizing economic analysis along with longer-term follow up will answer questions on patient selection, the benefits of repeated treatments, and a possible reduction in healthcare costs for COPD treatment.

The field of Cellular Therapy and Regenerative Medicine is rapidly advancing and providing effective treatments for diseases in many areas of medicine.The Lung Institutes strives to provide the latest in safe, effective therapy for chronic lung disease and maintain a leadership role in the clinical application of these technologies.

In a landscape of scarce options and rising costs, the Lung Institute believes that stem cell therapy is the future of treatment for those suffering from COPD and other lung diseases. Although data is limited at this stage, we are proud to champion this form of treatment while sharing our findings.

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Lung Institute | Stem Cell Research Study for Lung Disease

Stem Cell Center Of NJ – New Jersey Stem Cell Therapy

COPD

Over 32 million Americans suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also known as COPD). COPD is a progressive lung disease, however regenerative medicine, such as lung regeneration therapies using stem cells are showing potential for COPD by encouraging tissue repair and reducing inflammation to the diseased lung tissue.

Following up with stem cell therapy and exome therapy immediately in the first 36 to 48 hours after stroke symptoms surface has proven to be crucial to long-term recovery and regaining mobility again. Cell therapy also calms post-stroke inflammation in the body, and reduces risk of serious infections.

Parkinsons is a neurodegenerative brain disorder caused by the gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. It afflicts more than 1 million people in the U.S., and currently, there is no known cure. Stem cell therapies have been showing incredible progress. Using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, a mature cell can be reprogrammed into an embryonic-like, healthy and highly-functioning state, which has the potential to become a dopamine-producing cell in the brain.

A thick, full head of hair is possible, naturally! Stem cell and exosome therapy promotes healing from within to naturally stimulate hair follicles, which encourages new hair growth. Using your own stem cells, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and exosomes, you can regrow your own healthy, thick hair naturally and restore your confidence!

Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue to improve performance and sensation.

If chronic joint pain is derailing your active lifestyle, then youre not alone. Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to reduce inflammation, promote natural healing and regenerate healthy tissue surrounding the joint for relief.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) affects 400,000 people in the U.S., and occurs when the body has an abnormal immune system response and attacks the central nervous system. Regenerative medicine now offers treatment for MS with stem cell therapy, which is an exciting and rapidly developing field of therapy. Stem cells work to repair damaged cells these new cells can become replacement cells to restore normal functionality.

Spinal cord injuries are as complex as they are devastating. Today, cellular treatments, usually a combination of therapies, such as stem cell, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and exosome therapy with growth factors are showing promise in contributing to spinal cord repair and reducing inflammation at the site of injury.

If you have chronic nerve injury pain that doesnt fade, your health care provider may recommend surgery to reverse the damage. However, regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option to repair damaged tissue and reduce inflammation at the site of injury. Stem cell therapy commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue.

Neuropathy also called peripheral neuropathy occurs when nerves are damaged and cant send messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, skin and other parts of the body. Simply put, the two areas stop communicating. Stem cell and exosome therapies treat damaged nerves affected by neuropathy, and they have the ability to replicate and create new, healthy cells, while repairing damaged tissue.

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Stem Cell Center Of NJ – New Jersey Stem Cell Therapy

Pluripotent Stem CellBased Therapy for Heart Disease …

Five million people in the U.S. suffer with heart failure, resulting in ~60,000 deaths/year at a cost of $30 billion/year. Heart failure occurs when the heart is damaged and becomes unable to meet the demands placed on it. Unlike other organs, the heart is unable to fully repair itself after injury. One of the common causes for the development of heart damage is a heart attack. After a myocardial infarction (heart attack), irreversible loss of contracting heart muscle cells occurs, resulting in scar formation and subsequently heart failure. Current therapies designed to treat heart attack patients in the acute setting include medical therapies and catheter-based technologies that aim to open the blocked coronary arteries with the hope of salvaging as much of the jeopardized heart muscle cells as possible. Unfortunately, despite advances over the past 2 decades, it is rarely possible to rescue the at-risk heart muscle cells from some degree of irreversible injury and death.

Attention has turned to new methods of treating heart attack and heart failure patients in both the acute and chronic settings after their event. Heart transplantation remains the ultimate approach to treating end-stage heart failure patients but this therapy is invasive, costly, some patients are not candidates for transplantation given their other co-morbidities, and most importantly, there are not enough organs for transplanting the increasing number of patients who need this therapy. As such, newer therapies are needed to treat the millions of patients with debilitating heart conditions. Recently, it has been discovered that stem cells may hold therapeutic potential for these patients. Experimental studies in animals have revealed encouraging results when pluripotent stem cells are introduced into the heart around areas of myocardial infarction. These therapies appear to result in improvement in the contractile function of the heart.

However, numerous questions remain unanswered concerning the use of pluripotent stem cells as therapy for patients with heart attack and heart failure. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells grow and divide indefinitely while maintaining the potential to develop into many tissues of the body, including heart muscle. They provide an unprecedented opportunity to both study human heart muscle in culture in the laboratory, and advance the possibility of their use in therapy for damaged heart muscle. We have developed methods for identifying and isolating specific types of human ES and iPS cells, stimulating them to become human heart muscle cells, and delivering these into the hearts of rodents that have had a heart attack. This research will refine and advance such approaches in small and large animals, develop clinical grade cells for use, and ultimately initiate clinical trials for patients suffering from heart disease.

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Pluripotent Stem CellBased Therapy for Heart Disease …

Stem Cell Therapy & Treatment – Diseases and Conditions

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in the bone marrow and are responsible for bone and cartilage repair. On top of that, they can also produce fat cells. Early research suggesting that MSCs could differentiate into many other cell types and that they could also be obtained from a wide variety of tissues other than bone marrow have not been confirmed. There is still considerable scientific debate surrounding the exact nature of the cells (which are also termed Mesenchymal stem cells) obtained from these other tissues.

As of now, no treatments using mesenchymal stem cells are proven to be effective. There are, however, some clinical trials investigating the safety and effectiveness of MSC treatments for repairing bone or cartilage. Other trials are investigating whether MSCs might help repair blood vessel damage linked to heart attacks or diseases such as critical limb ischaemia, but it is not yet clear whether these treatments will be effective.

Several other features of MSCs, such as their potential effect on immune responses in the body to reduce inflammation to help treat transplant rejection or autoimmune diseases are still under thorough investigation. It will take numerous studies to evaluate their therapeutic value in the future.

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Stem Cell Therapy & Treatment – Diseases and Conditions

Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Cartilage Regeneration and …

Our initial application established the goals of our project and the reasons for our study. Arthritis is the result of degeneration of cartilage (the tissue lining the joints) and leads to pain and limitation of function. Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are among the most common of all health conditions and are the number one cause of disability in the United States. The annual economic impact of arthritis in the U.S. is estimated at over $120 billion, representing more than 2% of the gross domestic product. The prevalence of arthritic conditions is also expected to increase as the population increases and ages in the coming decades. Current treatment options for osteoarthritis are limited to pain reduction and joint replacement surgery. Stem cells have tremendous potential for treating disease and replacing or regenerating the diseased tissue. In this project our objective is to use cells derived from stems cells to treat arthritis. We have completed our experiments as per our proposed timeline and have met milestones outlined in our grant submission. We have established conditions for converting stem cells into cartilage tissue cells that can repair bone and cartilage defects in laboratory models. We have identified several cell lines with the highest potential for tissue repair. We optimized culture conditions to generate the highest quality of tissue. In our initial experiments we found no evidence of cell rejection response in vivo. We have testing efficacy of the most promising cell lines in regenerating healthy repair tissue in cartilage defects and have selected a preclinical candidate.The next step is to plan safety and efficacy studies for the preclinical phase, identify collaborators with the facilities to obtain, process, and provide cell-based therapies, and identify clinical collaborators in anticipation of clinical trials. If necessary we will also identify commercialization partners. We also anticipate that stem cells implanted in arthritic cartilage will treat the arthritis in addition to producing tissue to heal the defect in the cartilage. An approach that heals cartilage defects as well as treats the underlying arthritis would be very valuable. If our research is successful, this could lead to first treatment of osteoarthritis that alters the progression of the disease. This treatment would have a huge impact on the large numbers of patients who suffer from arthritis as well as in reducing the significant economic burden created by arthritis.

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Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Cartilage Regeneration and …

Cell Replacement Therapy For Parkinsons Disease And The …

The following was written withProf. Gerold Riempp, a professor of information systems who was diagnosed with Parkinsons disease 16 years ago at age 36. He is co-founder of a charitable organization in Germany that supports the development of therapies that aim to cure PD.

The idea behind cell replacement therapy(CRT) for PD is pretty simple: lack of mobility in PD is the result of the dysfunction and death of a specific kind of cell in the midbrain. While there are a few other things that go wrong in PD, the progressive loss of motor skills is the biggest problem most diagnosed face. Since we are reasonably sure that this lack of mobility results from the impairment and death of dopamine producing cells in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra,why not try to replace those cells?

A group of iPS cells grown from human skin tissue at Osaka University

Replacing those cells is one of three core problems that each person diagnosed with PD needs to address. They are:

1. Keeping remaining cells healthyOnce diagnosed, most people have already lost production of 50-80% of dopamine in their midbrain. The problem then is to stop further disease progression by figuring out how to get rid of everything that might be harming the remaining 20-50% of cells while giving their body everything it needs to keep those cells alive and active.

2. Clearing clogged cellsOf those 50-80% of non-dopamine producing cells, a portion are still alive, they are just not doing their job, producing dopamine. This impairment is a result of a range of interrelated factors that harm the cells and eventually lead to their death. Most researchers believe the problem can be boiled down to the clumping of a misfolded protein called alpha-synuclein. Many different methods are being tried in labs around the world to clear these clumps and stop more from accumulating. But this might only be part of the story since a wide variety of other factors also lead to cell death.

3. Replacing dead cellsThen we come to what to do about all of those dead cells. A couple of different options are being considered to get the brain tostimulate the production of new neurons orreplace the function of dead ones. However, the most promising therapy being developed is stem cell therapy, now commonly referred to as cell replacement therapy. It works by placing new dopamine producing neurons into the part of the brain where the dead neurons used to release dopamine.

If a patient manages to address problems one and two they might have no need for CRT. The reason for this is that he or she can likely rescue a considerable portion of the damaged but still living cells and thereby bring dopamine production back to a level that allows for normal movement. CRT will generally be for people who have had PD for a longer time and whose remaining healthy cells plus the rescued ones together are not capable of providing enough dopamine.

The late 80s and 90s saw a number of CRT trials for Parkinsons disease with mixed results. But we nowhave a much better understanding of what kind of cells to use, how to culture and store those cells, how to implant them, and who this therapy would be best for.

We also now have iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells). Discovered in 2006, these are cells that have been chemically reprogrammed, usually from adult skin tissue, back into pluripotent stem cells. (Pluripotent means they are capable of becoming almost any cell in the body). Using these cells for transplantation has two major advantages. One, it eliminates the need for potentially harmful immuno-suppressors. Two, it has none of the ethical issues that come with using fetal stem cells. But iPS cells are much more expensive and technically difficult to produce.

Despite all the progress made, cell replacement therapy is still very controversial and fraught with all sorts of technical issues. Luckily, CRT for PD is one of the only fields of medical science where the top labs around the world are cooperating with each other. An international consortium of labs has come together under a name that sounds like it was ripped out of a Marvel comic, the GForce-PD. Each lab in the GForce-PD aims to bring CRT for PD to clinical trial within the next few years.

Infographic made by PhD neuroscientist Kayleen Schreiber at kayleenschreiber.com

The GForce-PD

New York City Run by Dr. Lorenz Studer out of the Rockefeller research labs in New York City. Dr. Studer pioneered many of the reprogramming techniques being used around the world to convert pluripotent stem cells into dopamine producing neurons. His lab wasrecently announced to be part of a huge funding initiative from Bayer Pharmaceuticals to help speed up development of CRT. Studers lab is aiming to start transplantation of embryonic stem cells in human trials in early 2018.

Kyoto, Japan Dr. Jun Takahashis lab in Kyoto is working on producing several iPS lines for the Japanese population. One advantage they have is the relative homogeneity of Japanese people allows them to use a dozen or so iPS lines for almost everyone in the country. The lab recently made headlines with results from monkey trials that showed human iPS cells graft safely, with no signs of malignant growth, two years after transplantation.

Cambridge, England Dr. Roger Barkers lab has been working on cell replacement therapy for Parkinsons disease for a number of years through the Transeuro project. His lab is pushing forward with more embryonic stem cell transplantations expected to begin in 2020. They also work very closely with the team in Sweden.

Lund, Sweden The lab in Lund has been working on CRT for PD since the 80s and has been part of a number of human trials. The lab is now run by Dr. Malin Parmar whose team has also pioneered many of the techniques used in direct programming that will one day allow researchers to skip the stem cell phase all together and produce dopamine cells directly in the brain.

San Diego, California The team is moving rapidly towards iPS cell transplantation under Dr. Jeanne Loring at the Scripps research center. They are the only lab that uses patients own cells for transplantation. Another unique feature of this lab is that it has been a community funded initiative under theSummit For Stem Cellsfoundation.

(Dr. Roger Barker talking about CRT for PD)

Though there is a lot of excitement building around cell replacement therapy, we need to proceed carefully. The field has potential for setbacks from some of the less rigorous trials being conducted in places like Australia and China where regulatory standards are more lax. Researchers in these areas are already going ahead with trials that do not meet the standards set by the GForce-PD. These have the potential to put a black-eye on all cell replacement therapies.

Also, producing pure batches of dopamine neurons is still a highly technical process that only a few labs in the world are capable of doing safely and effectively. Thankfully a few other labs around the world are joining the efforts of the GForce-PD, such as Dr. Tilo Kunaths lab in Edinburgh, which is working on techniques to better differentiate and characterize the cell lines used for transplantation.

(The pictures above show human embryonic stem cells being differentiated into dopamine cells at days 2, 4 and 7. Courtesy of Dr. Tilo Kunaths lab at the University of Edinburgh)

The Future of Cell Replacement Therapy

These therapies being developed for Parkinsons disease will, in essence, be version 1.0 of CRT. Clinical trials are set to begin next year and the therapy is expected to be widely available to people diagnosed with Parkinsons disease within the next 5-10 years.

Version 2.0 will be CRISPR-modified, disease resistant grafts, with genetic switches to modulate dopamine production and graft size.

Version 3.0 will make use of an emerging field called in vivo direct programming where viruses are inserted into the brain and transform other existing cells into dopamine producing cells.

(Edit: Credit to Dr. Tilo Kunath for correcting versions 2.0 and 3.0)

Dopamine neurons grown from iPS cells at 40 times magnification, from the Gladstone Institute

CRT for PD is one of the most exciting areas of research on the planet. It is a powerful demonstration of the progress we as a species have made in our attempt to gain mastery over the forces of biology.It has the potential to improve the lives of the millions living with PD, and the millions yet to be diagnosed. Once the transplanted cells have connected with their surroundings and start delivering dopamine to the right places, it should allow patients to gradually reduce their medication. Being able to move normally and not deal with the side effects of all the drugs and other therapies is what PD patients around the world are dreaming of.

Click here for more information on the future of cell replacement therapy for Parkinsons disease and the work of the GForce-PD.

And if you want to be part of bringing CRT to the clinic you can do so by supporting organizations like Summit For Stem Cells.

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The Promise of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs …

Charles A. Goldthwaite, Jr., Ph.D.

In 2006, researchers at Kyoto University in Japan identified conditions that would allow specialized adult cells to be genetically “reprogrammed” to assume a stem cell-like state. These adult cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), were reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state by introducing genes important for maintaining the essential properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Since this initial discovery, researchers have rapidly improved the techniques to generate iPSCs, creating a powerful new way to “de-differentiate” cells whose developmental fates had been previously assumed to be determined.

Although much additional research is needed, investigators are beginning to focus on the potential utility of iPSCs as a tool for drug development, modeling of disease, and transplantation medicine. The idea that a patient’s tissues could provide him/ her a copious, immune-matched supply of pluripotent cells has captured the imagination of researchers and clinicians worldwide. Furthermore, ethical issues associated with the production of ESCs do not apply to iPSCs, which offer a non-controversial strategy to generate patient-specific stem cell lines. As an introduction to this exciting new field of stem cell research, this chapter will review the characteristics of iPSCs, the technical challenges that must be overcome before this strategy can be deployed, and the cells’ potential applications to regenerative medicine.

As noted in other chapters, stem cells represent a precious commodity. Although present in embryonic and adult tissues, practical considerations such as obtaining embryonic tissues and isolating relatively rare cell types have limited the large-scale production of populations of pure stem cells (see the Chapter, “Alternate Methods for Preparing Pluripotent Stem Cells” for details). As such, the logistical challenges of isolating, culturing, purifying, and differentiating stem cell lines that are extracted from tissues have led researchers to explore options for “creating” pluripotent cells using existing non-pluripotent cells. Coaxing abundant, readily available differentiated cells to pluripotency would in principle eliminate the search for rare cells while providing the opportunity to culture clinically useful quantities of stem-like cells.

One strategy to accomplish this goal is nuclear reprogramming, a technique that involves experimentally inducing a stable change in the nucleus of a mature cell that can then be maintained and replicated as the cell divides through mitosis. These changes are most frequently associated with the reacquisition of a pluripotent state, thereby endowing the cell with developmental potential. The strategy has historically been carried out using techniques such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT),1,2 altered nuclear transfer (ANT),3,4 and methods to fuse somatic cells with ESCs5,6 (see “Alternate Methods for Preparing Pluripotent Stem Cells” for details of these approaches). From a clinical perspective, these methods feature several drawbacks, such as the creation of an embryo or the development of hybrid cells that are not viable to treat disease. However, in 2006, these efforts informed the development of nuclear reprogramming in vitro, the breakthrough method that creates iPSCs.

This approach involves taking mature “somatic” cells from an adult and introducing the genes that encode critical transcription factor proteins, which themselves regulate the function of other genes important for early steps in embryonic development (See Fig. 10.1). In the initial 2006 study, it was reported that only four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) were required to reprogram mouse fibroblasts (cells found in the skin and other connective tissue) to an embryonic stem celllike state by forcing them to express genes important for maintaining the defining properties of ESCs.7 These factors were chosen because they were known to be involved in the maintenance of pluripotency, which is the capability to generate all other cell types of the body. The newly-created iPSCs were found to be highly similar to ESCs and could be established after several weeks in culture.7,8 In 2007, two different research groups reached a new milestone by deriving iPSCs from human cells, using either the original four genes9 or a different combination containing Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28.10 Since then, researchers have reported generating iPSCs from somatic tissues of the monkey11 and rat.12,13

However, these original methods of reprogramming are inefficient, yielding iPSCs in less than 1% of the starting adult cells.14,15 The type of adult cell used also affects efficiency; fibroblasts require more time for factor expression and have lower efficiency of reprogramming than do human keratinocytes, mouse liver and stomach cells, or mouse neural stem cells.1419

Several approaches have been investigated to improve reprogramming efficiency and decrease potentially detrimental side effects of the reprogramming process. Since the retroviruses used to deliver the four transcription factors in the earliest studies can potentially cause mutagenesis (see below), researchers have investigated whether all four factors are absolutely necessary. In particular, the gene c-Myc is known to promote tumor growth in some cases, which would negatively affect iPSC usefulness in transplantation therapies. To this end, researchers tested a three-factor approach that uses the orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb with Oct4 and Sox2, and were able to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts to iPSCs.20 This achievement corroborates other reports that c-Myc is dispensable for direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts.21 Subsequent studies have further reduced the number of genes required for reprogramming,2226 and researchers continue to identify chemicals that can either substitute for or enhance the efficiency of transcription factors in this process.27 These breakthroughs continue to inform and to simplify the reprogramming process, thereby advancing the field toward the generation of patient-specific stem cells for clinical application. However, as the next section will discuss, the method by which transcription factors are delivered to the somatic cells is critical to their potential use in the clinic.

Figure 10.1. Generating Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs).

2008 Terese Winslow

Reprogramming poses several challenges for researchers who hope to apply it to regenerative medicine. To deliver the desired transcription factors, the DNA that encodes their production must be introduced and integrated into the genome of the somatic cells. Early efforts to generate iPSCs accomplished this goal using retroviral vectors. A retrovirus is an RNA virus that uses an enzyme, reverse transcriptase, to replicate in a host cell and subsequently produce DNA from its RNA genome. This DNA incorporates into the host’s genome, allowing the virus to replicate as part of the host cell’s DNA. However, the forced expression of these genes cannot be controlled fully, leading to unpredictable effects.28 While other types of integrating viruses, such as lentiviruses, can increase the efficiency of reprogramming,16 the expression of viral transgenes remains a critical clinical issue. Given the dual needs of reducing the drawbacks of viral integration and maximizing reprogramming efficiency, researchers are exploring a number of strategies to reprogram cells in the absence of integrating viral vectors2730 or to use potentially more efficient integrative approaches.31,32

Before reprogramming can be considered for use as a clinical tool, the efficiency of the process must improve substantially. Although researchers have begun to identify the myriad molecular pathways that are implicated in reprogramming somatic cells,15 much more basic research will be required to identify the full spectrum of events that enable this process. Simply adding transcription factors to a population of differentiated cells does not guarantee reprogrammingthe low efficiency of reprogramming in vitro suggests that additional rare events are necessary to generate iPSCs, and the efficiency of reprogramming decreases even further with fibroblasts that have been cultured for long time periods.33 Furthermore, the differentiation stage of the starting cell appears to impact directly the reprogramming efficiency; mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells give rise to iPSCs up to 300 times more efficiently than do their terminally-differentiated B- and T-cell counterparts.34 As this field continues to develop, researchers are exploring the reprogramming of stem or adult progenitor cells from mice24,25,34,35 and humans23,26 as one strategy to increase efficiency compared to that observed with mature cells.

As these discussions suggest, clinical application of iPSCs will require safe and highly efficient generation of stem cells. As scientists increase their understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie reprogramming, they will be able to identify the cell types and conditions that most effectively enable the process and use this information to design tools for widespread use. Clinical application of these cells will require methods to reprogram cells while minimizing DNA alterations. To this end, researchers have found ways to introduce combinations of factors in a single viral “cassette” into a known genetic location.36 Evolving tools such as these will enable researchers to induce programming more safely, thereby informing basic iPSC research and moving this technology closer to clinical application.

ESCs and iPSCs are created using different strategies and conditions, leading researchers to ask whether the cell types are truly equivalent. To assess this issue, investigators have begun extensive comparisons to determine pluripotency, gene expression, and function of differentiated cell derivatives. Ultimately, the two cell types exhibit some differences, yet they are remarkably similar in many key aspects that could impact their application to regenerative medicine. Future experiments will determine the clinical significance (if any) of the observed differences between the cell types.

Other than their derivation from adult tissues, iPSCs meet the defining criteria for ESCs. Mouse and human iPSCs demonstrate important characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including expressing stem cell markers, forming tumors containing cell types from all three primitive embryonic layers, and displaying the capacity to contribute to many different tissues when injected into mouse embryos at a very early stage of development. Initially, it was unclear that iPSCs were truly pluripotent, as early iPSC lines contributed to mouse embryonic development but failed to produce live-born progeny as do ESCs. In late 2009, however, several research groups reported mouse iPSC lines that are capable of producing live births,37,38 noting that the cells maintain a pluripotent potential that is “very close to” that of ESCs.38 Therefore, iPSCs appear to be truly pluripotent, although they are less efficient than ESCs with respect to differentiating into all cell types.38 In addition, the two cell types appear to have similar defense mechanisms to thwart the production of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species, thereby conferring the cells with comparable capabilities to maintain genomic integrity.39

Undifferentiated iPSCs appear molecularly indistinguishable from ESCs. However, comparative genomic analyses reveal differences between the two cell types. For example, hundreds of genes are differentially expressed in ESCs and iPSCs,40 and there appear to be subtle but detectable differences in epigenetic methylation between the two cell types.41,42 Genomic differences are to be expected; it has been reported that gene-expression profiles of iPSCs and ESCs from the same species differ no more than observed variability among individual ESC lines.43 It should be noted that the functional implications of these findings are presently unknown, and observed differences may ultimately prove functionally inconsequential.44

Recently, some of the researchers who first generated human iPSCs compared the ability of iPSCs and human ESCs to differentiate into neural cells (e.g., neurons and glia).45 Their results demonstrated that both cell types follow the same steps and time course during differentiation. However, although human ESCs differentiate into neural cells with a similar efficiency regardless of the cell line used, iPSC-derived neural cells demonstrate lower efficiency and greater variability when differentiating into neural cells. These observations occurred regardless of which of several iPSC-generation protocols were used to reprogram the original cell to the pluripotent state. Experimental evidence suggests that individual iPSC lines may be “epigenetically unique” and predisposed to generate cells of a particular lineage. However, the authors believe that improvements to the culturing techniques may be able to overcome the variability and inefficiency described in this report.

These findings underpin the importance of understanding the inherent variability among discrete cell populations, whether they are iPSCs or ESCs. Characterizing the variability among iPSC lines will be crucial to apply the cells clinically. Indeed, the factors that make each iPSC line unique may also delay the cells’ widespread use, as differences among the cell lines will affect comparisons and potentially influence their clinical behavior. For example, successfully modeling disease requires being able to identify the cellular differences between patients and controls that lead to dysfunction. These differences must be framed in the context of the biologic variability inherent in a given patient population. If iPSC lines are to be used to model disease or screen candidate drugs, then variability among lines must be minimized and characterized fully so that researchers can understand how their observed results match to the biology of the disease being studied. As such, standardized assays and methods will become increasingly important for the clinical application of iPSCs, and controls must be developed that account for variability among the iPSCs and their derivatives.

Additionally, researchers must understand the factors that initiate reprogramming towards pluripotency in different cell types. A recent report has identified one factor that initiates reprogramming in human fibroblasts,46 setting the groundwork for developing predictive models to identify those cells that will become iPSCs. An iPSC may carry a genetic “memory” of the cell type that it once was, and this “memory” will likely influence its ability to be reprogrammed. Understanding how this memory varies among different cell types and tissues will be necessary to reprogram successfully.

iPSCs have the potential to become multipurpose research and clinical tools to understand and model diseases, develop and screen candidate drugs, and deliver cell-replacement therapy to support regenerative medicine. This section will explore the possibilities and the challenges that accompany these medical applications, with the caveat that some uses are more immediate than others. For example, researchers currently use stem cells to test/screen drugs or as study material to identify molecules or genes implicated in regeneration. Conducting experiments or testing candidate drugs on human cells grown in culture enables researchers to understand fundamental principles and relationships that will ultimately inform the use of stem cells as a source of tissue for transplantation. Therefore, using iPSCs in cell-replacement therapies is a future application of these cells, albeit one that has tremendous clinical potential. The following discussion will highlight recent efforts toward this goal while recognizing the challenges that must be overcome for these cells to reach the clinic.

Reprogramming technology offers the potential to treat many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease). In theory, easily-accessible cell types (such as skin fibroblasts) could be biopsied from a patient and reprogrammed, effectively recapitulating the patient’s disease in a culture dish. Such cells could then serve as the basis for autologous cell replacement therapy. Because the source cells originate within the patient, immune rejection of the differentiated derivatives would be minimized. As a result, the need for immunosuppressive drugs to accompany the cell transplant would be lessened and perhaps eliminated altogether. In addition, the reprogrammed cells could be directed to produce the cell types that are compromised or destroyed by the disease in question. A recent experiment has demonstrated the proof of principle in this regard,47 as iPSCs derived from a patient with ALS were directed to differentiate into motor neurons, which are the cells that are destroyed in the disease.

Although much additional basic research will be required before iPSCs can be applied in the clinic, these cells represent multi-purpose tools for medical research. Using the techniques described in this article, researchers are now generating myriad disease-specific iPSCs. For example, dermal fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived mesencyhmal cells have been used to establish iPSCs from patients with a variety of diseases, including ALS, adenosine deaminase deficiency-related severe combined immunodeficiency, Shwachman- Bodian-Diamond syndrome, Gaucher disease type III, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome/trisomy 21, and spinal muscular atrophy.4749 iPSCs created from patients diagnosed with a specific genetically-inherited disease can then be used to model disease pathology. For example, iPSCs created from skin fibroblasts taken from a child with spinal muscular atrophy were used to generate motor neurons that showed selective deficits compared to those derived from the child’s unaffected mother.48 As iPSCs illuminate the development of normal and disease-specific pathologic tissues, it is expected that discoveries made using these cells will inform future drug development or other therapeutic interventions.

One particularly appealing aspect of iPSCs is that, in theory, they can be directed to differentiate into a specified lineage that will support treatment or tissue regeneration. Thus, somatic cells from a patient with cardiovascular disease could be used to generate iPSCs that could then be directed to give rise to functional adult cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) that replace diseased heart tissue, and so forth. Yet while iPSCs have great potential as sources of adult mature cells, much remains to be learned about the processes by which these cells differentiate. For example, iPSCs created from human50 and murine fibroblasts5153 can give rise to functional cardiomyocytes that display hallmark cardiac action potentials. However, the maturation process into cardiomyocytes is impaired when iPSCs are usedcardiac development of iPSCs is delayed compared to that seen with cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs or fetal tissue. Furthermore, variation exists in the expression of genetic markers in the iPSC-derived cardiac cells as compared to that seen in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Therefore, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrate normal commitment but impaired maturation, and it is unclear whether observed defects are due to technical (e.g., incomplete reprogramming of iPSCs) or biological barriers (e.g., functional impairment due to genetic factors). Thus, before these cells can be used for therapy, it will be critical to distinguish between iPSC-specific and disease-specific phenotypes.

However, it must be noted that this emerging field is continually evolving; additional basic iPSC research will be required in parallel with the development of disease models. Although the reprogramming technology that creates iPSCs is currently imperfect, these cells will likely impact future therapy, and “imperfect” cells can illuminate many areas related to regenerative medicine. However, iPSC-derived cells that will be used for therapy will require extensive characterization relative to what is sufficient to support disease modeling studies. To this end, researchers have begun to use imaging techniques to observe cells that are undergoing reprogramming to distinguish true iPSCs from partially-reprogrammed cells.54 The potential for tumor formation must also be addressed fully before any iPSC derivatives can be considered for applied cell therapy. Furthermore, in proposed autologous therapy applications, somatic DNA mutations (e.g., non-inherited mutations that have accumulated during the person’s lifetime) retained in the iPSCs and their derivatives could potentially impact downstream cellular function or promote tumor formation (an issue that may possibly be circumvented by creating iPSCs from a “youthful” cell source such as umbilical cord blood).55 Whether these issues will prove consequential when weighed against the cells’ therapeutic potential remains to be determined. While the promise of iPSCs is great, the current levels of understanding of the cells’ biology, variability, and utility must also increase greatly before iPSCs become standard tools for regenerative medicine.

Since their discovery four years ago, induced pluripotent stem cells have captured the imagination of researchers and clinicians seeking to develop patient-specific therapies. Reprogramming adult tissues to embryonic-like states has countless prospective applications to regenerative medicine, drug development, and basic research on stem cells and developmental processes. To this point, a PubMed search conducted in April 2010 using the term “induced pluripotent stem cells” (which was coined in 2006) returned more than 1400 publications, indicating a highly active and rapidlydeveloping research field.

However, many technical and basic science issues remain before the promise offered by iPSC technology can be realized fully. For putative regenerative medicine applications, patient safety is the foremost consideration. Standardized methods must be developed to characterize iPSCs and their derivatives. Furthermore, reprogramming has demonstrated a proof of-principle, yet the process is currently too inefficient for routine clinical application. Thus, unraveling the molecular mechanisms that govern reprogramming is a critical first step toward standardizing protocols. A grasp on the molecular underpinnings of the process will shed light on the differences between iPSCs and ESCs (and determine whether these differences are clinically significant). Moreover, as researchers delve more deeply into this field, the effects of donor cell populations can be compared to support a given application; i.e., do muscle-derived iPSCs produce more muscle than skin-derived cells? Based on the exciting developments in this area to date, induced pluripotent stem cells will likely support future therapeutic interventions, either directly or as research tools to establish novel models for degenerative disease that will inform drug development. While much remains to be learned in the field of iPSC research, the development of reprogramming techniques represents a breakthrough that will ultimately open many new avenues of research and therapy.

Chapter 9|Table of Contents|Chapter 11

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The Promise of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs …

Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy | Center for …

Mitalipov successfully repairs genes in human embryos

A ground breaking discovery by Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Ph.D.,was reported in Nature the successful removal of a lethal geneticdefect in human embryos. The breakthrough is the initial confirmation that adangerous genetic defect can in theory be erased.

Scientific success in embryo editing re-opens reg debate. BioWorld

Study in Nature demonstrates method for repairing genes in human embryos that prevents inherited diseases. OHSU News

Gene Editing Breakthrough. Charlie Rose Show

A Promising And Still Uncertain Future For Human Gene Editing. Science Friday

In Breakthrough, Scientists Edit a Dangerous Mutation From Genes in Human Embryos. NY Times

First human embryo editing experiment in U.S.’corrects’ gene for heart condition. The Washington Post.

Scientists Precisely Edit DNA In Human Embryos To Fix A Disease Gene. NPR

Human embryos edited to stop disease. BBC

A Gene Editing Breakthrough. On Point with Tom Ashbrook.

First U.S.-based group to edit human embryos brings practice closer to clinic. Science

In breakthrough, OHSU corrects defective gene in embryo. Oregonlive.

First Safe Repair of Gene in Human Embryos. Associated Press.

A new discovery may unlock the answer to a vexing scientificquestion: How to conduct mitochondrial replacement therapy, a new gene-therapytechnique, in such a way that safely prevents the transmission of harmful mitochondrialgene mutations from mothers to their children.

For women with mitochondrial diseases, a step closer to preventing transmission. STAT

Human embryo experiment shows progress toward ‘three-parent’ babies. The Washington Post

Families struggling with infertility or a genetic predisposition for debilitating mitochondrial diseases may someday benefit from a new breakthrough led by scientists at OHSU and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

Egg ‘nobbles’ can be used to create embryos, say scientists in fertility breakthrough

Fertility success may get boost from new research

First he pioneered a new way of making life. Now he wants to try it in people

Shoukhrat Mitalipov: The cloning chief.

Researchers announced they had derived stem cells fromcloned human embryos, a long-awaited research coup that Science’s editors choseas a runner-up for Breakthrough of the Year.Read the article on Science

#4. Finally, We’re Just Like Dolly

#5. Functioning Organs Made From Stem Cells

#2. Human embryonic stem cells cloned

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Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy | Center for …

Monkeys With Parkinson’s Disease Successfully Treated With Human Stem Cell Transplants – Technology Networks

Monkeys show reduced Parkinsonian symptoms following a donor-matched iPS cell-based therapy. Misaki Ouchida, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University

One of the last steps before treating patients with an experimental cell therapy for the brain is confirmation that the therapy works in monkeys. In its latest study, the Jun Takahashi lab shows monkeys with Parkinson’s disease symptoms show significant improvement over two years after being transplanted neurons prepared from human iPS cells. The study, which can be read in Nature, is expected to be a final step before the first iPS cell-based therapy for a neurodegenerative disease.

Parkinson’s disease degenerates a specific type of cells in the brain known as dopaminergic (DA) neurons. It has been reported that when symptoms are first detected, a patient will have already lost more than half of his or her DA neurons. Several studies have shown the transplantation of DA neurons made from fetal cells can mitigate the disease. The use of fetal tissues is controversial, however. On the other hand, iPS cells can be made from blood or skin, which is why Professor Takahashi, who is also a neurosurgeon specializing in Parkinson’s disease, plans to use DA neurons made from iPS cells to treat patients.

“Our research has shown that DA neurons made from iPS cells are just as good as DA neurons made from fetal midbrain. Because iPS cells are easy to obtain, we can standardize them to only use the best iPS cells for therapy, ” he said.

To test the safety and effectiveness of DA neurons made from human iPS cells, Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, a neurosurgeon working in the Takahashi lab, transplanted the cells into the brains of monkeys.

“We made DA neurons from different iPS cells lines. Some were made with iPS cells from healthy donors. Others were made from Parkinson’s disease patients,” said Kikuchi, who added that the differentiation method used to convert iPS cells into neurons is suitable for clinical trials.

It is generally assumed that the outcome of a cell therapy will depend on the number of transplanted cells that survived, but Kikuchi found this was not the case. More important than the number of cells was the quality of the cells.

“Each animal received cells prepared from a different iPS cell donor. We found the quality of donor cells had a large effect on the DA neuron survival,” Kikuchi said.

To understand why, he looked for genes that showed different expression levels, finding 11 genes that could mark the quality of the progenitors. One of those genes was Dlk1.

“Dlk1 is one of the predictive markers of cell quality for DA neurons made from embryonic stem cells and transplanted into rat. We found Dlk1 in DA neurons transplanted into monkey. We are investigating Dlk1 to evaluate the quality of the cells for clinical applications.”

Another feature of the study that is expected to extend to clinical study is the method used to evaluate cell survival in the host brains. The study demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and position electron tomography (PET) are options for evaluating the patient post surgery.

“MRI and PET are non-invasive imaging modalities. Following cell transplantation, we must regularly observe the patient. A non-invasive method is preferred,” said Takahashi.

The group is hopeful that it can begin recruiting patients for this iPS cell-based therapy before the end of next year. “This study is our answer to bring iPS cells to clinical settings,” said Takahashi.

This article has been republished frommaterialsprovided byCIRA, Kyoto University. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

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Monkeys With Parkinson’s Disease Successfully Treated With Human Stem Cell Transplants – Technology Networks

iPS Cell-based Neuron Therapy Benefits Monkeys With Parkinson’s – ReliaWire

Monkeys with Parkinsons disease symptoms show significant improvement over two years after being transplanted neurons prepared from human induced pluropontent stem cells, scientists at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, report. One of the last steps before treating patients with an experimental cell therapy for the brain is confirmation that the therapy works in monkeys.

Parkinsons disease degenerates a specific type of cells in the brain known as dopaminergic (DA) neurons. It has been reported that when symptoms are first detected, a patient will have already lost more than half of his or her DA neurons.

Several studies have shown the transplantation of DA neurons made from fetal cells can mitigate the disease.

The use of fetal tissues is controversial, however. On the other hand, iPS cells can be made from blood or skin.

Our research has shown that DA neurons made from iPS cells are just as good as DA neurons made from fetal midbrain. Because iPS cells are easy to obtain, we can standardize them to only use the best iPS cells for therapy,

said Professor Jun Takahashi, a neurosurgeon specializing in Parkinsons disease, who plans to use DA neurons made from iPS cells to treat patients.

To test the safety and effectiveness of DA neurons made from human iPS cells, Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, a neurosurgeon working in the Takahashi lab, transplanted the cells into the brains of monkeys.

We made DA neurons from different iPS cells lines. Some were made with iPS cells from healthy donors. Others were made from Parkinsons disease patients,

said Kikuchi, who added that the differentiation method used to convert iPS cells into neurons is suitable for clinical trials.

It is generally assumed that the outcome of a cell therapy will depend on the number of transplanted cells that survive, but Kikuchi found this was not the case. More important than the number of cells was the quality of the cells.

Each animal received cells prepared from a different iPS cell donor. We found the quality of donor cells had a large effect on the DA neuron survival, Kikuchi said.

To understand why, he looked for genes that showed different expression levels, finding 11 genes that could mark the quality of the progenitors. One of those genes was Dlk1.

Dlk1 is one of the predictive markers of cell quality for DA neurons made from embryonic stem cells and transplanted into rat. We found Dlk1 in DA neurons transplanted into monkey. We are investigating Dlk1 to evaluate the quality of the cells for clinical applications.

Another feature of the study that is expected to extend to clinical study is the method used to evaluate cell survival in the host brains. The study demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and position electron tomography (PET) are options for evaluating the patient post surgery.

MRI and PET are non-invasive imaging modalities. Following cell transplantation, we must regularly observe the patient. A non-invasive method is preferred,

said Takahashi.

The group is hopeful that it can begin recruiting patients for this iPS cell-based therapy before the end of next year. The study is the teams answer to bring iPS cells to clinical settings, said Takahashi.

Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, Asuka Morizane, Daisuke Doi, Hiroaki Magotani, Hirotaka Onoe, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Mizuma, Sayuki Takara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Haruhisa Inoue, Satoshi Morita, Michio Yamamoto, Keisuke Okita, Masato Nakagawa, Malin Parmar, Jun TakahashiHuman iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in a primate Parkinsons disease modelNature, 2017; 548 (7669): 592 DOI: 10.1038/nature23664

Image: Annie Cavanagh / Wellcome Images

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iPS Cell-based Neuron Therapy Benefits Monkeys With Parkinson’s – ReliaWire

This Week In Neuroscience News 8/31/17 – ReliaWire

This weeks roundup of recent developments in neuroscience kicks off with a study from MIT, where engineers have devised a way to automate the process of monitoring neurons in a living brain using a computer algorithm that analyzes microscope images and guides a robotic arm to the target cell. In the above image, a pipette guided by a robotic arm approaches a neuron identified with a fluorescent stain.

Neurosurgeons at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University. They report two new ways to improve outcomes of induced pluropontent stem cell-based therapies for Parkinsons disease in monkey brains. The findings are a key step for patient recruitment of the first iPS cell-based therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases, since one of the last steps before treating patients with an experimental cell therapy for the brain is confirmation that the therapy works in monkeys.

In other Parkinsons news, the FDA has denied Acorda Therapeutics New Drug Application filing for Inbrija. Inbrija is an inhaled, self-administered, form of levodopa for treating Parkinsons disease. According to the FDA, reason for the denial were the date when the manufacturing site would be ready for inspection, and a question regarding submission of the drug master production record. FDA also requested additional information at resubmission, which was not part of the basis for the refusal.

At the University of Turku, in Finland, researchers have revealed how eating stimulates the brains endogenous opioid system to signal pleasure and satiety. Interestingly, eating both bland and delicious meals triggered significant opioid release in the brain.

A young New York woman with severe headaches represented a never-before-seen case for neurosurgeons at New York Presbyterian. She was diagnosed with an unusual form of hydrocephalus/Chiari malformation, in which the skull is too small and restricted the brain. More about her in the video below:

Tinnitus, a chronic ringing or buzzing in the ears, has eluded medical treatment and scientific understanding. A new University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign study found that chronic tinnitus is associated with changes in certain networks in the brain, and furthermore, those changes cause the brain to stay more at attention and less at rest. The finding provides patients with validation of their experiences and hope for future treatment options.

In social media news, research by BuzzFeed found more than half of the most-shared scientific stories about autism published in the last five years promote unevidenced or disproven treatments, or purported causes. More disturbingly, families in the autism community are excessively targeted by purveyors of bad information, making them more vulnerable to harmful, unproven so-called treatments.

Top Image: Ho-Jun Suk

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This Week In Neuroscience News 8/31/17 – ReliaWire

Xeno-free Cell Culture Medium for Regenerative Medicine Research – Technology Networks

Stem cells and genome editing offer exciting opportunities within regenerative medicine. However, any clinical application of stem cells requires strict regulation to ensure that the cells are not exposed to animal derived products.

StemFit Basic02 is a xeno-free, defined medium for human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) culture that offers an effective solution for regenerative medicine research. This medium has been proven to effectively maintain Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) and Embryonic Stem (ES) cells under feeder-free conditions, during the reprogramming, expansion and differentiation phases of stem cell culture.

Specially formulated to enhance single cell expansion in the cloning step of stem cell genome editing, StemFit Basic02 offers superior and stable growth performance, high colony forming efficiency and robust scalable cell expansion. This ensures high karyotype stability over long periods and hence reproducible culture conditions.

StemFit cell culture media has been independently evaluated by CGT Catapult, an independent centre of excellence helping advance the UK cell and gene therapy industry. In these tests, StemFit not only delivered higher cell proliferation, but also showed characteristics such as homogeneity of gene expression compared with iPS cells cultured with 4 other media without any chromosomal abnormalities.

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Xeno-free Cell Culture Medium for Regenerative Medicine Research – Technology Networks

Xeno-free cell culture medium for regenerative medicine research – Scientist Live

Stem cells and genome editing offer exciting opportunities within regenerative medicine.

However, any clinical application of stem cells requires strict regulation to ensure that the cells are not exposed to animal derived products.

Now Amsbio announces the availability of StemFit Basic02 feeder-free stem cell culture media.

StemFit Basic02 is a xeno-free, defined medium for human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) culture that offers an effective solution for regenerative medicine research.

This medium has been proven to effectively maintain Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) and Embryonic Stem (ES) cells under feeder-free conditions, during the reprogramming, expansion and differentiation phases of stem cell culture.

Specially formulated to enhance single cell expansion in the cloning step of stem cell genome editing, StemFit Basic02 offers superior and stable growth performance, high colony forming efficiency and robust scalable cell expansion.

This ensures high karyotype stability over long periods and hence reproducible culture conditions.

StemFit cell culture media has been independently evaluated by CGT Catapult, an independent centre of excellence helping advance the UK cell and gene therapy industry.

In these tests, StemFit not only delivered higher cell proliferation, but also showed characteristics such as homogeneity of gene expression compared with iPS cells cultured with four other media without any chromosomal abnormalities.

Read more from the original source:
Xeno-free cell culture medium for regenerative medicine research – Scientist Live

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