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Archive for the ‘IPS Cell Therapy’ Category

Novel Cell Sorting and Separation Markets, 2030 – P&T Community

DUBLIN, Oct. 7, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Novel Cell Sorting and Separation Market: Focus on Acoustophoresis, Buoyancy, Dielectrophoresis, Magnetophoretics, Microfluidics, Optoelectronics, Traceless Affinity and Other Technologies, 2019-2030" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The Novel Cell Sorting and Separation Market: Focus on Acoustophoresis, Buoyancy, Dielectrophoresis, Magnetophoretics, Microfluidics, Optoelectronics, Traceless Affinity, and Other Technologies, 2019-2030' report features an extensive study of the current landscape and future outlook of the growing market for novel cell sorting and separation technologies (beyond conventional methods). The study presents detailed analyses of cell sorters, cell isolation kits, and affiliated consumables and reagents, that are based on the aforementioned technologies.

Advances in the fields of cell biology and regenerative medicine have led to the development of various cell-based therapies, which, developers claim, possess the potential to treat a variety of clinical conditions. In 2018, it was reported that there were more than 1,000 clinical trials of such therapies, being conducted across the globe by over 900 industry players.

Moreover, the total investment in the aforementioned clinical research efforts was estimated to be around USD 13 billion. Given the recent breakthroughs in clinical testing and the discovery of a variety of diagnostic biomarkers, the isolation of one or multiple cell types from a heterogenous population has not only become simpler but also an integral part of modern clinical R&D. The applications of cell separation technologies are vast, starting from basic research to biological therapy development and manufacturing.

However, conventional cell sorting techniques, including adherence-based sorting, membrane filtration-based sorting, and fluorescence- and magnetic-based sorting, are limited by exorbitant operational costs, time-consuming procedures, and the need for complex biochemical labels. As a result, the use of such techniques has, so far, been restricted in the more niche and emerging application areas.

Amongst other elements, the report features:

Companies Mentioned

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Novel Cell Sorting and Separation Markets, 2030 - P&T Community

Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2025 – NewsVarsity

Stem cell-derived cells are ready-made human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) and iPS-derived cell lines that are extracted ethically and have been characterized as per highest industry standards. Stem cell-derived cells iPS cells are derived from the skin fibroblasts from variety of healthy human donors of varying age and gender. These stem cell-derived cells are then commercialized for use with the consent obtained from cell donors. These stem cell-derived cells are then developed using a complete culture system that is an easy-to-use system used for defined iPS-derived cell expansion. Majority of the key players in stem cell-derived cells market are focused on generating high-end quality cardiomyocytes as well as hepatocytes that enables end use facilities to easily obtain ready-made iPSC-derived cells. As the stem cell-derived cells market registers a robust growth due to rapid adoption in stem cellderived cells therapy products, there is a relative need for regulatory guidelines that need to be maintained to assist designing of scientifically comprehensive preclinical studies. The stem cell-derived cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are initially dissociated into a single-cell suspension and later frozen in vials. The commercially available stem cell-derived cell kits contain a vial of stem cell-derived cells, a bottle of thawing base and culture base.

The increasing approval for new stem cell-derived cells by the FDA across the globe is projected to propel stem cell-derived cells market revenue growth over the forecast years. With low entry barriers, a rise in number of companies has been registered that specializes in offering high end quality human tissue for research purpose to obtain human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) derived cells. The increase in product commercialization activities for stem cell-derived cells by leading manufacturers such as Takara Bio Inc. With the increasing rise in development of stem cell based therapies, the number of stem cell-derived cells under development or due for FDA approval is anticipated to increase, thereby estimating to be the most prominent factor driving the growth of stem cell-derived cells market. However, high costs associated with the development of stem cell-derived cells using complete culture systems is restraining the revenue growth in stem cell-derived cells market.

Browse Full Report at https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/stem-cell-derived-cells-market

The global Stem cell-derived cells market is segmented on basis of product type, material type, application type, end user and geographic region:

Segmentation by Product Type Stem Cell-Derived Cell Kits Stem Cell-Derived Definitive Endoderm Cell Kits Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cell Kits Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Kits Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Kits Accessories

Segmentation by End User Hospitals Research and Academic Institutions Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Companies Contract Research Organizations/ Contract Manufacturing Organizations

Get Sample Copy of this report at https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/28780?source=atm

The stem cell-derived cells market is categorized based on product type and end user. Based on product type, the stem cell-derived cells are classified into two major types stem cell-derived cell kits and accessories. Among these stem cell-derived cell kits, stem cell-derived hepatocytes kits are the most preferred stem cell-derived cells product type. On the basis of product type, stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes kits segment is projected to expand its growth at a significant CAGR over the forecast years on the account of more demand from the end use segments. However, the stem cell-derived definitive endoderm cell kits segment is projected to remain the second most lucrative revenue share segment in stem cell-derived cells market. Biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies followed by research and academic institutions is expected to register substantial revenue growth rate during the forecast period.

North America and Europe cumulatively are projected to remain most lucrative regions and register significant market revenue share in global stem cell-derived cells market due to the increased patient pool in the regions with increasing adoption for stem cell based therapies. The launch of new stem cell-derived cells kits and accessories on FDA approval for the U.S. market allows North America to capture significant revenue share in stem cell-derived cells market. Asian countries due to strong funding in research and development are entirely focused on production of stem cell-derived cells thereby aiding South Asian and East Asian countries to grow at a robust CAGR over the forecast period.

Some of the major key manufacturers involved in global stem cell-derived cells market are Takara Bio Inc., Viacyte, Inc. and others.

The report covers exhaustive analysis on: Stem cell-derived cells Market Segments Stem cell-derived cells Market Dynamics Historical Actual Market Size, 2014 2018 Stem cell-derived cells Market Size & Forecast 2019 to 2029 Stem cell-derived cells Market Current Trends/Issues/Challenges Competition & Companies involved Stem cell-derived cells Market Drivers and Restraints

Regional analysis includes North America Latin America Europe East Asia South Asia Oceania The Middle East & Africa

Report Highlights: Shifting Industry dynamics In-depth market segmentation Historical, current and projected industry size Recent industry trends Key Competition landscape Strategies of key players and product offerings Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth A neutral perspective towards market performance

Get Full Report Access of this report at https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/checkout/28780?source=atm

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Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2025 - NewsVarsity

Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2025 – Commerce Gazette

Stem cell-derived cells are ready-made human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) and iPS-derived cell lines that are extracted ethically and have been characterized as per highest industry standards. Stem cell-derived cells iPS cells are derived from the skin fibroblasts from variety of healthy human donors of varying age and gender. These stem cell-derived cells are then commercialized for use with the consent obtained from cell donors. These stem cell-derived cells are then developed using a complete culture system that is an easy-to-use system used for defined iPS-derived cell expansion. Majority of the key players in stem cell-derived cells market are focused on generating high-end quality cardiomyocytes as well as hepatocytes that enables end use facilities to easily obtain ready-made iPSC-derived cells. As the stem cell-derived cells market registers a robust growth due to rapid adoption in stem cellderived cells therapy products, there is a relative need for regulatory guidelines that need to be maintained to assist designing of scientifically comprehensive preclinical studies. The stem cell-derived cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are initially dissociated into a single-cell suspension and later frozen in vials. The commercially available stem cell-derived cell kits contain a vial of stem cell-derived cells, a bottle of thawing base and culture base.

The increasing approval for new stem cell-derived cells by the FDA across the globe is projected to propel stem cell-derived cells market revenue growth over the forecast years. With low entry barriers, a rise in number of companies has been registered that specializes in offering high end quality human tissue for research purpose to obtain human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) derived cells. The increase in product commercialization activities for stem cell-derived cells by leading manufacturers such as Takara Bio Inc. With the increasing rise in development of stem cell based therapies, the number of stem cell-derived cells under development or due for FDA approval is anticipated to increase, thereby estimating to be the most prominent factor driving the growth of stem cell-derived cells market. However, high costs associated with the development of stem cell-derived cells using complete culture systems is restraining the revenue growth in stem cell-derived cells market.

Get Sample Copy of this report at https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/28780?source=atm

The global Stem cell-derived cells market is segmented on basis of product type, material type, application type, end user and geographic region:

Segmentation by Product Type Stem Cell-Derived Cell Kits Stem Cell-Derived Definitive Endoderm Cell Kits Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cell Kits Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Kits Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Kits Accessories

Segmentation by End User Hospitals Research and Academic Institutions Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Companies Contract Research Organizations/ Contract Manufacturing Organizations

Request to View TOC at https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/28780?source=atm

The stem cell-derived cells market is categorized based on product type and end user. Based on product type, the stem cell-derived cells are classified into two major types stem cell-derived cell kits and accessories. Among these stem cell-derived cell kits, stem cell-derived hepatocytes kits are the most preferred stem cell-derived cells product type. On the basis of product type, stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes kits segment is projected to expand its growth at a significant CAGR over the forecast years on the account of more demand from the end use segments. However, the stem cell-derived definitive endoderm cell kits segment is projected to remain the second most lucrative revenue share segment in stem cell-derived cells market. Biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies followed by research and academic institutions is expected to register substantial revenue growth rate during the forecast period.

North America and Europe cumulatively are projected to remain most lucrative regions and register significant market revenue share in global stem cell-derived cells market due to the increased patient pool in the regions with increasing adoption for stem cell based therapies. The launch of new stem cell-derived cells kits and accessories on FDA approval for the U.S. market allows North America to capture significant revenue share in stem cell-derived cells market. Asian countries due to strong funding in research and development are entirely focused on production of stem cell-derived cells thereby aiding South Asian and East Asian countries to grow at a robust CAGR over the forecast period.

Some of the major key manufacturers involved in global stem cell-derived cells market are Takara Bio Inc., Viacyte, Inc. and others.

The report covers exhaustive analysis on: Stem cell-derived cells Market Segments Stem cell-derived cells Market Dynamics Historical Actual Market Size, 2014 2018 Stem cell-derived cells Market Size & Forecast 2019 to 2029 Stem cell-derived cells Market Current Trends/Issues/Challenges Competition & Companies involved Stem cell-derived cells Market Drivers and Restraints

Regional analysis includes North America Latin America Europe East Asia South Asia Oceania The Middle East & Africa

Report Highlights: Shifting Industry dynamics In-depth market segmentation Historical, current and projected industry size Recent industry trends Key Competition landscape Strategies of key players and product offerings Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth A neutral perspective towards market performance

Purchase this report at https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/checkout/28780?source=atm

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Stem Cell-Derived Cells Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2025 - Commerce Gazette

Interview: BIOLIFE4D is The First US Company to Bioprint a Mini-Heart (for Cardiotoxicity Testing) – 3DPrint.com

After quite a few teaser pictures on their social media platforms since August, BIOLIFE4D finally announced one of the biggest milestones for the company: they successfully 3D printed a tiny heart. But how small is the mini heart?Actually, it is about one quarter the size of a human heart.

The ability to 3D bioprint a mini-heart now gives the biotech firm a roadmap to achieve their ultimate goal: bioprinting a full-scale human heart viable for transplant. It is now a matter of optimizing processes and scaling up the technology for the pioneering company headquartered in Illinois.

Ravi Birla

With the structure of a full-sized heart and four internal chambers, the mini heart is replicating partial functional metrics compared to a full-sized heart as close as anyone has gotten to producing a fully functional heart through 3D bioprinting.The scientific milestone was accomplished at the companysresearch facility at JLABS in Houston, led by Ravi Birla, Chief Science Officer of BIOLIFE4D

3DPrint.com asked Birla about their achievement to understand how functional it is and how this project could lead to a fully beating organ in the future.

The functional performance of our mini-heart is not the same as a normal mammalian heart, though this is a future objective of the research, explained Birla. Our mini-heart is intended for use in drug cardiotoxicity screening, which means that the bar that it must achieve is less than the bar required for a viable transplanted organ. This is why the performance requirements for our mini-heart do not need to mimic a fully-functional animal heart at this point.

Bioprinting at BIOLIFE4D

As we move forward we will be optimizing our bioink as well as the bioprinting parameters which are needed for optimal functional performance, suggeted the expert, who alsopreviously served as the Associate Director of the Department of Stem Cell Engineering at the Texas Heart Institute in Houston.

So how did they do it? First on their list was developing a proprietary bioink using a very specific composition of different extracellular matrix compounds that closely replicate the properties of the mammalian heart. There is still no formal name to the bioinkas it was developed in-house and for now, it is currently intended for BIOLIFE4D use only.

Then, they got around creating a novel and unique bioprinting algorithm, consisting of printing parameters optimized for the whole heart. Coupling its proprietary bioink with patient-derived cardiomyocytes and its enabling bioprinting technology, BIOLIFE4D was able to bioprint a heart. Birla suggested that because of the strategic partnerships that they have developed, they have access to and utilize most of the commercially available printers which are on the market, but the mini-heart was essentially biofabricated in their labs using a CELLINK INKREDIBLE+.

We currently used a commercial source of human cells, through the expected use of the technology in using patient derived autologous cells, claimed Birla. Utilizing patient specific cells is really a cornerstone to our technology.

Currently those lucky enough to receive a donor heart transplant are really only trading one disease for another. The donor heart will save their life, but to prevent rejection the patient needs to take a large regiment of immunosuppressant therapy which causes many significant challenges for the patient. By bioengineering the heart out of the patients own cells we eliminate the need for that immunosuppressant therapy which could allow for a much better quality of life for the patient, he continued.

With this platform technology in place, BIOLIFE4D is now well-positioned to build upon it and work towards the development of a full-scale human heart. This latest milestone also positions the company as one of the top contenders at the forefront of whole heart bioengineering, a field that is rapidly advancing.

However, beyond the scientific advancements the mini-heart represents, this is also an opportunity to provide the pharmacological industry and drug discovery companies a new tool for cardiotoxicity testing of new drugs and compounds. Until now the model used for predicting the cardiotoxicity effects of a new drug or compound was essentially limited to the animal model.But BIOLIFE4D intends to ultimately provide the mini-hearts as a more reliable model of predicting cardiotoxicity, claiming that there is no better predictor of how a human heart will react than a human heart. This also represents an opportunity to reduce the number of animals used for testing purposes, something which is already banned in quite a few regions,including India, the European Union, New Zealand, Israel, and Norway.

We are already working closely with companies that provide cardiotoxicity testing services to the Pharma and drug discovery industries. All drugs, new compounds and anything else that currently undergoes cardiotoxicity testing requirements prior to entering the human market could be candidates for the mini-heart. After all, what would provide a better predictive model of how a human heart will respond than a human heart (albeit a scaled-down version)? revealed Birla.

The mini-heart has many of the features of a human heart even though BIOLIFE4D has not been able to recreate the full functionality of a human heart yet.

While we have bioengineered mini-hearts, and this in itself is a major accomplishment, a significant advancement in the field of whole heart engineering and moves us closer to bioprinting human hearts for transplantation, this accomplishment does not provide us with a specific time-line or a significant guidance on when the fully funcitional heart will be available.

According to Birla, the most difficult part to 3D print a human heart at this point is the valves, due to the complex tri-leaflet geometry. But as they begin to scale up, they can anticipate that the complex vasculature that is needed to keep an organ viable could prove to be a big challenge.

Birla is convinced that the algorithm used as a fundamental part of the mini-heart could change the way labs will bioprint organs in the future.Weused very specific and highly customized printing parameters to bioprint the mini-heart which we have customized for our use in our lab and for our specific purposes. Some of the process ultimately could be leveraged for the bioengineering of other organs, but our overall process to bioengineer a human heart is unique to a heart.

One of the huge advantages BIOLIFE4D enjoys is that they have been able to form strategic partnerships with various major research institutions and hospitals to provide them access to some of the most state-of-the-art facilities and equipment. Nevertheless, because of the highly confidential nature of their work, most of it is done in-house at the labs and by their own researchers.

The successful demonstration of a mini heart is the latest in a string of scientific milestones from BIOLIFE4D as it seeks to produce the worlds first 3D bioprinted human heart viable for transplant. Earlier in 2019, they successfully 3D bioprinted various individual heart components, including valves, ventricles, blood vessels, and in June of 2018 they 3D bioprintedhuman cardiac tissue(a cardiac patch).

The company states that their innovative 3D bioprinting process provides the ability to reprogram a patients own white blood cells to iPS cells, and then to differentiate those iPS cells into different types of cardiac cells needed to 3D bioprint individual cardia components and ultimately, a human heart viable for transplant.

This is crucial for a company that seeks to disrupt how heart disease and other cardiac impairments are treated, particularly by improving the transplant process so that in the future they can eliminate the need for donor organs. Heart disease is the number one cause of death of men and women in the United States each year. Heart diseases even claim more lives each year than all forms of cancer combined, yet countless individuals who need transplants are left waiting as there are not enough donors to meet demand and every 30 seconds, someone dies in the US of a heart disease-related event.

While we have come a long way, and we are moving forward at a fast pace, we just dont know how long it will take to achieve a full-scale heart. We have to keep in mind that mother nature had millions of years to perfect this process inside our bodies, while we just arent sure exactly how long it is going to take us to perfect the process outside of the body, concluded Birla.

At BIOLIFE4D, they know there are still challenges on the way to the full-size human heart viable for transplantation, however, this achievement signals that they are on the right path. They highlighted that their success, as well as the significant advancements they have been able to achieve already,are a result of an incredible team effort,a multi-disciplinary group of researchers working on the project, from bioengineers to life scientists.Their team consists of people with specific skill sets and areas of expertise, all working hard to bring this incredible life-saving technology to the market in the shortest time possible.

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Interview: BIOLIFE4D is The First US Company to Bioprint a Mini-Heart (for Cardiotoxicity Testing) - 3DPrint.com

Genetic Tests Offered (all nonprofit) | The John and …

ABCA4 Retinal Degeneration Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal DominantPlease submit parental samples (no charge) in addition to the patient's sample; requisition needed for each. 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Genetic Tests Offered (all nonprofit) | The John and ...

The addition of human iPS cell-derived neural progenitors …

JavaScript is disabled on your browser. Please enable JavaScript to use all the features on this page.Highlights

Human iPS cell-derived neural progenitors influence the contractile property of cardiac spheroid.

The contractile function of spheroids depends on the ratio of neural progenitors to cardiac cells.

Neural factors may influence the contractile function of the spheroids.

We havebeen attempting to use cardiac spheroids to construct three-dimensional contractilestructures for failed hearts. Recent studies have reported that neuralprogenitors (NPs) play significant roles in heart regeneration. However, theeffect of NPs on the cardiac spheroid has not yet been elucidated.

This studyaims to demonstrate the influence of NPs on the function of cardiac spheroids.

Thespheroids were constructed on a low-attachment-well plate by mixing humaninduced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hiPScell-derived NPs (hiPS-NPs). The ratio of hiPS-NPs was set at 0%, 10%, 20%,30%, and 40% of the total cell number of spheroids, which was 2500. The motionwas recorded, and the fractional shortening and the contraction velocity weremeasured.

Spheroidswere formed within 48 h after mixing the cells, except for the spheroidscontaining 0% hiPS-NPs. Observation at day 7 revealed significant differencesin the fractional shortening (analysis of variance; p=0.01). The bestfractional shortening was observed with the spheroids containing 30% hiPS-NPs.Neuronal cells were detected morphologically within the spheroids under aconfocal microscope.

Theaddition of hiPS-NPs influenced the contractile function of the cardiacspheroids. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

Human iPS cell

Cardiomyocyte

Neural progenitor

Spheroid

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iPS Cells for Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery

Cambridge Healthtech Institutes 4th AnnualJune 19-20, 2019

With advances in reprogramming and differentiation technologies, as well as with the recent availability of gene editing approaches, we are finally able to create more complex and phenotypically accurate cellular models based on pluripotent cell technology. This opens new and exciting opportunities for pluripotent stem cell utilization in early discovery, preclinical and translational research. CNS diseases and disorders are currently the main therapeutic area of application with some impressive success stories resulted in clinical trials. Cambridge Healthtech Institutes 4th Annual iPS Cells for Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery conference is designed to bring together experts and bench scientists working with pluripotent cells and end users of their services, researchers working on finding cures for specific diseases and disorders.

Day 1 | Day 2 | Download Brochure | Speaker Biographies

Wednesday, June 19

12:00 pm Registration Open

12:00 Bridging Luncheon Presentation:Structural Maturation in the Development of hiPSC-Cardiomyocyte Models for Pre-clinical Safety, Efficacy, and Discovery

Nicholas Geissse, PhD, CSO, NanoSurface Biomedical

Alec S.T. Smith, PhD, Acting Instructor, Bioengineering, University of Washington

hiPSC-CM maturation is sensitive to structural cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Failure to reproduce these signals in vitro can hamper experimental reproducibility and fidelity. Engineering approaches that address this gap typically trade off complexity with throughput, making them difficult to deploy in the modern drug development paradigm. The NanoSurface Car(ina) platform leverages ECM engineering approaches that are fully compatible with industry-standard instrumentation including HCI- and MEA-based assays, thereby improving their predictive power.

12:30 Transition to Plenary

12:50 PLENARY KEYNOTE SESSION

2:20Booth Crawl and Dessert Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

2:25 Meet the Plenary Keynotes

3:05 Chairpersons Remarks

Gabriele Proetzel, PhD, Director, Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

3:10 KEYNOTE PRESENTATION: iPSC-Based Drug Discovery Platform for Targeting Innate Immune Cell Responses

Christoph Patsch, PhD, Team Lead Stem Cell Assays, Disease Relevant Cell Models and Assays, Chemical Biology, Therapeutic Modalities, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development

The role of innate immune cells in health and disease, respectively their function in maintaining immune homeostasis and triggering inflammation makes them a prime target for therapeutic approaches. In order to explore novel therapeutic strategies to enhance immunoregulatory functions, we developed an iPSC-based cellular drug discovery platform. Here we will highlight the unique opportunities provided by an iPSC-based drug discovery platform for targeting innate immune cells.

3:40 Phenotypic Screening of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes for Drug Discovery and Toxicity Screening

Arne Bruyneel, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Mark Mercola Lab, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine

Cardiac arrhythmia and myopathy is a major problem with cancer therapeutics, including newer small molecule kinase inhibitors, and frequently causes heart failure, morbidity and death. However, currentin vitromodels are unable to predict cardiotoxicity, or are not scalable to aid drug development. However, with recent progress in human stem cell biology, cardiac differentiation protocols, and high throughput screening, new tools are available to overcome this barrier to progress.

4:10 Disease Modeling Using Human iPSC-Derived Telencephalic Inhibitory Interneurons - A Couple of Case Studies

Yishan Sun, PhD, Investigator, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBR)

Human iPSC-derived neurons provide the foundation for phenotypic assays assessing genetic or pharmacological effects in a human neurobiological context. The onus is on assay developers to generate application-relevant neuronal cell types from iPSCs, which is not always straightforward, given the diversity of neuronal classes in the human brain and their developmental trajectories. Here we present two case studies to illustrate the use of iPSC-derived telencephalic GABAergic interneurons in neuropsychiatric research.

4:40 Rethinking the Translational The Use of Highly Predictive hiPSC-Derived Models in Pre-Clinical Drug Development

Stefan Braam, CEO, Ncardia

Current drug development strategies are failing to increase the number of drugs reaching the market. One reason for low success rates is the lack of predictive models. Join our talk to learn how to implement a predictive and translational in vitro disease model, and assays for efficacy screening at any throughput.

5:10 4th of July Celebration in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

5:30 - 5:45 Speed Networking: Oncology

6:05 Close of Day

5:45 Dinner Short Course Registration

6:15 Dinner Short Course*

*Separate registration required.

Day 1 | Day 2 | Download Brochure | Speaker Biographies

Thursday, June 20

7:15 am Registration

7:15 Breakout Discussion Groups with Continental Breakfast

8:10 Chairpersons Remarks

Jeff Willy, PhD, Research Fellow, Discovery and Investigative Toxicology, Vertex

8:15 Levering iPSC to Understand Mechanism of Toxicity

Jeff Willy, PhD, Research Fellow, Discovery and Investigative Toxicology, Vertex

The discovery of mammalian cardiac progenitor cells suggests that the heart consists of not only terminally differentiated beating cardiomyocytes, but also a population of self-renewing stem cells. We recently showed that iPSC cardiomyocytes can be utilized not only to de-risk compounds with potential for adverse cardiac events, but also to understand underlying mechanisms of cell-specific toxicities following xenobiotic stress, thus preventing differentiation and self-renewal of damaged cells.

8:45Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac and Vascular Progenitor Cells for Tissue Regeneration

Nutan Prasain, PhD, Associate Director, Cardiovascular Programs, Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine (AIRM)

This presentation will provide the review on recent discoveries in the derivation and characterization of cardiac and vascular progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells, and discuss the therapeutic potential of these cells in cardiac and vascular tissue repair and regeneration.

9:15 Use of iPSCDerived Hepatocytes to Identify Treatments for Liver Disease

Stephen A. Duncan, PhD, Smartstate Chair in Regenerative Medicine, Professor and Chairman, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina

MTDPS3 is a rare disease caused by mutations in the DGUOK gene, which is needed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and repair. Patients commonly die as children from liver failure primarily caused by unmet energy requirements. We modeled the disease using DGOUK deficient iPSC derived hepatocytes and performed a screen to identify drugs that can restore mitochondrial ATP production.

9:45Industrial-Scale Generation of Human iPSC-Derived Hepatocytes for Liver-Disease and Drug Development Studies

Liz Quinn, PhD, Associate Director, Stem Cell Marketing, Marketing, Takara Bio USA

Our optimized hepatocyte differentiation protocol and standardized workflow mimics embryonic development and allows for highly efficient differentiation of hPSCs through definitive endoderm into hepatocytes. We will describe the creation of large panels of industrial-scale hPSC-derived hepatocytes with specific genotypes and phenotypes and their utility for drug metabolism and disease modeling.

10:00 Sponsored Presentation (Opportunity Available)

10:15 Coffee Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

10:45 Poster Winner Announced

11:00 KEYNOTE PRESENTATION: Modeling Human Disease Using Pluripotent Stem Cells

Lorenz Studer, MD, Director, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

One of the most intriguing applications of human pluripotent stem cells is the possibility of recreating a disease in a dish and to use such cell-based models for drug discovery. Our lab uses human iPS and ES cells for modeling both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. I will present new data on our efforts of modeling complex genetic disease using pluripotent stem cells and the development of multiplex culture systems.

11:30 Preclinical Challenges for Gene Therapy Approaches in Neuroscience

Gabriele Proetzel, PhD, Director, Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Gene therapy has delivered encouraging results in the clinic, and with the first FDA approval for an AAV product is now becoming a reality. This presentation will provide an overview of the most recent advances of gene therapy for the treatment of neurological diseases. The discussion will focus on preclinical considerations for gene therapy including delivery, efficacy, biodistribution, animal models and safety.

12:00 pm Open Science Meets Stem Cells: A New Drug Discovery Approach for Neurodegenerative Disorders

Thomas Durcan, PhD, Assistant Professor, Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University

Advances in stem cell technology have provided researchers with tools to generate human neurons and develop first-of-their-kind disease-relevant assays. However, it is imperative that we accelerate discoveries from the bench to the clinic and the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) and its partners are piloting an Open Science model. By removing the obstacles in distributing patient samples and assay results, our goal is to accelerate translational medical research.

12:30 Elevating Drug Discovery with Advanced Physiologically Relevant Human iPSC-Based Screening Platforms

Fabian Zanella, PhD, Director, Research and Development, StemoniX

Structurally engineered human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based platforms enable greater physiological relevance, elevating performance in toxicity and discovery studies. StemoniXs hiPSC-derived platforms comprise neural (microBrain) or cardiac (microHeart) cells constructed with appropriate inter- and intracellular organization promoting robust activity and expected responses to known cellular modulators.

1:00Overcoming Challenges in CNS Drug Discovery through Developing Translatable iPSC-derived Cell-Based Assays

Jonathan Davila, PhD, CEO, Co-Founder, NeuCyte Inc.

Using direct reprogramming of iPSCs to generate defined human neural tissue, NeuCyte developed cell-based assays with complex neuronal structure and function readouts for versatile pre-clinical applications. Focusing on electrophysiological measurements, we demonstrate the capability of this approach to identify adverse neuroactive effects, evaluate compound efficacy, and serve phenotypic drug discovery.

1:15Enjoy Lunch on Your Own

1:35 Dessert and Coffee Break in the Exhibit Hall with Poster Viewing

1:45 - 2:00 Speed Networking: Last Chance to Meet with Potential Partners and Collaborators!

2:20 Chairpersons Remarks

Gary Gintant, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, AbbVie

2:25 The Evolving Roles of Evolving Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Preparations in Cardiac Safety Evaluations

Gary Gintant, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, AbbVie

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) hold great promise for preclinical cardiac safety testing. Recent applications focus on drug effects on cardiac electrophysiology, contractility, and structural toxicities, with further complexity provided by the growing number of hiPSC-CM preparations being developed that may also promote myocyte maturity. The evolving roles (both non-regulatory and regulatory) of these preparations will be reviewed, along with general considerations for their use in cardiac safety evaluations.

2:55 Pharmacogenomic Prediction of Drug-Induced Cardiotoxicity Using hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

Paul W. Burridge, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Pharmacogenomics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

We have demonstrated that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes successfully recapitulate a patients predisposition to chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity, confirming that there is a genomic basis for this phenomenon. Here we will discuss our recent work deciphering the pharmacogenomics behind this relationship, allowing the genomic prediction of which patients are likely to experience this side effect. Our efforts to discover new drugs to prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity will also be reviewed.

3:25 Exploring the Utility of iPSC-Derived 3D Cortical Spheroids in the Detection of CNS Toxicity

Qin Wang, PhD, Scientist, Drug Safety Research and Evaluation, Takeda

Drug-induced Central Nervous System (CNS) toxicity is a common safety attrition for project failure during discovery and development phases due low concordance rates between animal models and human, absence of clear biomarkers, and a lack of predictive assays. To address the challenge, we validated a high throughput human iPSC-derived 3D microBrain model with a diverse set of pharmaceuticals. We measured drug-induced changes in neuronal viability and Ca channel function. MicroBrain exposure and analyses were rooted in therapeutic exposure to predict clinical drug-induced seizures and/or neurodegeneration. We found that this high throughput model has very low false positive rate in the prediction of drug-induced neurotoxicity.

3:55 Linking Liver-on-a-Chip and Blood-Brain-Barrier-on-a-Chip for Toxicity Assessment

Sophie Lelievre, DVM, PhD, LLM, Professor, Cancer Pharmacology, Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine

One of the challenges to reproduce the function of tissues in vitro is the maintenance of differentiation. Essential aspects necessary for such endeavor involve good mechanical and chemical mimicry of the microenvironment. I will present examples of the management of the cellular microenvironment for liver and blood-brain-barrier tissue chips and discuss how on-a-chip devices may be linked for the integrated study of the toxicity of drugs and other molecules.

4:25 Close of Conference

Day 1 | Day 2 | Download Brochure | Speaker Biographies

Arrive early to attend Tuesday, June 18 - Wednesday, June 19

Chemical Biology and Target Validation

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iPS Cells for Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery

CloneR hPSC Cloning Supplement – Stemcell Technologies

'); jQuery('.cart-remove-box a').on('click', function(){ link = jQuery(this).attr('href'); jQuery.ajax({ url: link, cache: false }); jQuery('.cart-remove-box').remove(); setTimeout(function(){window.location.reload();}, 800); }); }); //jQuery('#ajax_loader').hide(); // clear being added addToCartButton.text(defaultText).removeAttr('disabled').removeClass('disabled'); addToCartButton.parent().find('.disabled-blocker').remove(); loadingDots.remove(); clearInterval(loadingDotId); jQuery('body').append(""); setTimeout(function () {jQuery('.add-to-cart-success').slideUp(500)}, 5000); }); } try { jQuery.ajax( { url : url, dataType : 'json', type : 'post', data : data, complete: function(){ if(jQuery('body').hasClass('product-edit') || jQuery('body').hasClass('wishlist-index-configure')){ jQuery.ajax({ url: "https://www.stemcell.com/meigeeactions/updatecart/", cache: false }).done(function(html){ jQuery('header#header .top-cart').replaceWith(html); }); jQuery('#ajax_loader').hide(); jQuery('body').append(""); setTimeout(function () {jQuery('.add-to-cart-success').slideUp(500)}, 5000); } }, success : function(data) { if(data.status == 'ERROR'){ jQuery('body').append(''); }else{ ajaxComplete(); } } }); } catch (e) { } // End of our new ajax code this.form.action = oldUrl; if (e) { throw e; } } }.bind(productAddToCartForm); productAddToCartForm.submitLight = function(button, url){ if(this.validator) { var nv = Validation.methods; delete Validation.methods['required-entry']; delete Validation.methods['validate-one-required']; delete Validation.methods['validate-one-required-by-name']; if (this.validator.validate()) { if (url) { this.form.action = url; } this.form.submit(); } Object.extend(Validation.methods, nv); } }.bind(productAddToCartForm); function setAjaxData(data,iframe,name,image){ if(data.status == 'ERROR'){ jQuery('body').append(''); }else{ if(data.sidebar && !iframe){ if(jQuery('.top-cart').length){ jQuery('.top-cart').replaceWith(data.sidebar); } if(jQuery('.sidebar .block.block-cart').length){ if(jQuery('#cart-sidebar').length){ jQuery('#cart-sidebar').html(jQuery(data.sidebar).find('#mini-cart')); jQuery('.sidebar .block.block-cart .subtotal').html(jQuery(data.sidebar).find('.subtotal')); }else{ jQuery('.sidebar .block.block-cart p.empty').remove(); content = jQuery('.sidebar .block.block-cart .block-content'); jQuery('').appendTo(content); jQuery('').appendTo(content); content.find('#cart-sidebar').html(jQuery(data.sidebar).find('#mini-cart').html()); content.find('.actions').append(jQuery(data.sidebar).find('.subtotal')); content.find('.actions').append(jQuery(data.sidebar).find('.actions button.button')); } cartProductRemove('#cart-sidebar li.item a.btn-remove', { confirm: 'Are you sure you would like to remove this item from the shopping cart?', submit: 'Ok', calcel: 'Cancel' }); } jQuery.fancybox.close(); jQuery('body').append(''); }else{ jQuery.ajax({ url: "https://www.stemcell.com/meigeeactions/updatecart/", cache: false }).done(function(html){ jQuery('header#header .top-cart').replaceWith(html); jQuery('.top-cart #mini-cart li.item a.btn-remove').on('click', function(event){ event.preventDefault(); jQuery('body').append('Are you sure you would like to remove this item from the shopping cart?OkCancel'); jQuery('.cart-remove-box a').on('click', function(){ link = jQuery(this).attr('href'); jQuery.ajax({ url: link, cache: false }); jQuery('.cart-remove-box').remove(); setTimeout(function(){window.location.reload();}, 800); }); }); jQuery.fancybox.close(); jQuery('body').append(''); }); } } setTimeout(function () {jQuery('.add-to-cart-success').slideUp(500)}, 5000); } //]]> CloneR is a defined, serum-free supplement designed to increase the cloning efficiency and single-cell survival of human embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). CloneR enables the robust generation of clonal cell lines without single-cell adaptation, thus minimizing the risk of acquiring genetic abnormalities.

CloneR is compatible with the TeSR family of media for human ES and iPS cell maintenance as well as your choice of cell culture matrix.

Advantages:

Greatly facilitates the process of genome editing of human ES and iPS cells Compatible with any TeSR maintenance medium and your choice of cell culture matrix Does not require adaptation to single-cell passaging Increases single-cell survival at clonal density across multiple human ES and iPS cell lines

Cell Type:

Pluripotent Stem Cells

Application:

Cell Culture

Area of Interest:

Cell Line Development; Stem Cell Biology; Disease Modeling

Formulation:

Defined; Serum-Free

Document Type

Product Name

Catalog #

Lot #

Language

This product is designed for use in the following research area(s) as part of the highlighted workflow stage(s). Explore these workflows to learn more about the other products we offer to support each research area.

Research Area Workflow Stages for

Workflow Stages

Figure 1. hPSC Single-Cell Cloning Workflow with CloneR

On day 0, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are seeded as single cells at clonal density (e.g. 25 cells/cm2) or sorted at 1 cell per well in 96-well plates in TeSR (mTeSR1 or TeSR-E8) medium supplemented with CloneR. On day 2, the cells are fed with TeSR medium containing CloneR supplement. From day 4, cells are maintained in TeSR medium without CloneR. Colonies are ready to be picked between days 10 - 14. Clonal cell lines can be maintained long-term in TeSR medium.

Figure 2. CloneR Increases the Cloning Efficiency of hPSCs and is Compatible with Multiple hPSC Lines and Seeding Protocols

TeSR medium supplemented with CloneR increases hPSC cloning efficiency compared with cells plated in TeSR containing ROCK inhibitor. Cells were seeded (A) at clonal density (25 cells/cm2) in mTeSR1 and TeSR-E8 and (B) by single-cell deposition using FACS (seeded at 1 cell/well) in mTeSR1.

Figure 3. CloneR Increases the Cloning Efficiency of hPSCs at Low Seeding Densities

hPSCs plated in mTeSR1 supplemented with CloneR demonstrated significantly increased cloning efficiencies compared to cells plated in mTeSR1 containing ROCK inhibitor (10M Y-27632). Shown are representative images of alkaline phosphatase-stained colonies at day 7 in individual wells of a 12-well plate. H1 human embryonic stem (hES) cells were seeded at clonal density (100 cells/well, 25 cells/cm2) in mTeSR1 supplemented with (A) ROCK inhibitor or (B) CloneR on Vitronectin XF cell culture matrix.

Figure 4. CloneR Yields Larger Single-Cell Derived Colonies

hPSCs seeded in mTeSR1 supplemented with CloneR result in larger colonies than cells seeded in mTeSR1 containing ROCK inhibitor (10M Y-27632). Shown are representative images of hPSC clones established after 7 days of culture in mTeSR1 supplemented with (A) ROCK inhibitor or (B) CloneR.

Figure 5. Clonal Cell Lines Established Using CloneR Display Characteristic hPSC Morphology

Clonal cell lines established using mTeSR1 or TeSR-E8 medium supplemented with CloneR retain the prominent nucleoli and high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio characteristic of hPSCs. Representative images at passage 7 after cloning are shown for clones derived from the parental (A) H1 hES cell and (B) WLS-1C human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines.

Figure 6. Clonal Cell Lines Established with CloneR Express High Levels of Undifferentiated Cell Markers

hPSC clonal cell lines established using mTeSR1 supplemented with CloneR express comparable levels of undifferentiated cell markers, OCT4 (Catalog #60093) and TRA-1-60 (Catalog #60064), as the parental cell lines. (A) Clonal cell lines established from parental H1 hES cell line. (B) Clonal cell lines established from parental WLS-1C hiPS cell line. Data is presented between passages 5 - 7 after cloning and is shown as mean SEM; n = 2.

Figure 7. Clonal Cell Lines Established Using CloneR Display a Normal Karyotype

Representative karyograms of clones derived from parental (A) H1 hES cell and (B) WLS-1C hiPS cell lines demonstrate that the clonal lines established with CloneR have a normal karyotype. Cells were karyotyped 5 passages after cloning, with an overall passage number of 45 and 39, respectively.

Figure 8. Clonal Cell Lines Established Using CloneR Display Normal Growth Rates

Fold expansion of clonal cell lines display similar growth rates to parental cell lines. Shown are clones (red) and parental cell lines (gray) for (A) H1 hES cell and (B) WLS-1C hiPS cell lines.

STEMCELL TECHNOLOGIES INC.S QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS CERTIFIED TO ISO 13485. PRODUCTS ARE FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND NOT INTENDED FOR HUMAN OR ANIMAL DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

Internal Search Keywords: genome editing | cloning | CRISPR | clone | gene editing | 05888 | 5888 | single cell | accutase

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CloneR hPSC Cloning Supplement - Stemcell Technologies

What Are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? – Stem Cell: The …

Today, induced pluripotent stem cells are mostly used to understand how certain diseases occur and how they work. By using IPS cells, one can actually study the cells and tissues affected by the disease without causing unnecessary harm to the patient.For example, its extremely difficult to obtain actual brain cells from a living patient with Parkinsons Disease. This process is even more complicated if you want to study the disease in its early stages before symptoms begin presenting themselves.

Fortunately, with genetic reprogramming, researchers can now achieve this. Scientists can do a skin biopsy of a patient with Parkinsons disease and create IPS cells. These IPS cells can then be converted into neurons, which will have the same genetic make-up as the patients own cells.

Because of IPS cells, researchers can now study conditions like Parkinsons disease to determine what went wrong and why. They can also test out new treatment methods in hopes of protecting the patient against the disease or curing it after diagnosis.

In addition, IPS cells have also been looked to as a way to replace cells that are often destroyed by certain diseases. However, there is still research to be done here.

Read more:
What Are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? - Stem Cell: The ...

Stem Cell Key Terms | California’s Stem Cell Agency

En Espaol

The term stem cell by itself can be misleading. In fact, there are many different types of stem cells, each with very different potential to treat disease.

Stem CellPluripotentEmbryonic Stem CellAdult Stem CelliPS CellCancer Stem Cell

By definition, all stem cells:

Pluripotent means many "potentials". In other words, these cells have the potential of taking on many fates in the body, including all of the more than 200 different cell types. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, as are induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that are reprogrammed from adult tissues. When scientists talk about pluripotent stem cells, they mostly mean either embryonic or iPS cells.

Embryonic stem cells come from pluripotent cells, which exist only at the earliest stages of embryonic development. In humans, these cells no longer exist after about five days of development.

When isolated from the embryo and grown in a lab dish, pluripotent cells can continue dividing indefinitely. These cells are known as embryonic stem cells.

James Thomson, a professor in the Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology at the University of Wisconsin, derived the first human embryonic stem cell lines in 1998. He now shares a joint appointment at the University of California, Santa Barbara, a CIRM-funded institution.

Adult stem cells are found in the various tissues and organs of the human body. They are thought to exist in most tissues and organs where they are the source of new cells throughout the life of the organism, replacing cells lost to natural turnover or to damage or disease.

Adult stem cells are committed to becoming a cell from their tissue of origin, and cant form other cell types. They are therefore also called tissue-specific stem cells. They have the broad ability to become many of the cell types present in the organ they reside in. For example:

Unlike embryonic stem cells, researchers have not been able to grow adult stem cells indefinitely in the lab, but this is an area of active research.

Scientists have also found stem cells in the placenta and in the umbilical cord of newborn infants, and they can isolate stem cells from different fetal tissues. Although these cells come from an umbilical cord or a fetus, they more closely resemble adult stem cells than embryonic stem cells because they are tissue-specific. The cord blood cells that some people bank after the birth of a child are a form of adult blood-forming stem cells.

CIRM-grantee IrvWeissman of the Stanford University School of Medicine isolated the first blood-forming adult stem cell from bone marrow in 1988 in mice and later in humans.

Irv Weissman explains the difference between an adult stem cell and an embryonic stem cell (video)

An induced pluripotent stem cell, or iPS cell, is a cell taken from any tissue (usually skin or blood) from a child or adult and is genetically modified to behave like an embryonic stem cell. As the name implies, these cells are pluripotent, which means that they have the ability to form all adult cell types.

Shinya Yamanaka, an investigator with joint appointments at Kyoto University in Japan and the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, created the first iPS cells from mouse skin cells in 2006. In 2007, several groups of researchers including Yamanaka and James Thomson from the University of Wisconsin and University of California, Santa Barbara generated iPS cells from human skin cells.

Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cancer cells that, like stem cells, can self-renew. However, these cellsrather than growing into tissues and organspropagate the cancer, maturing into the many types of cells that are found in a tumor.

Cancer stem cells are a relatively new concept, but they have generated a lot of interest among cancer researchers because they could lead to more effective cancer therapies that can treat tumors resistant to common cancer treatments.

However, there is still debate on which types of cancer are propelled by cancer stem cells. For those that do, cancer stem cells are thought to be the source of all cells that make up the cancer.

Conventional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, may only destroy cells that form the bulk of the tumor, leaving the cancer stem cells intact. Once treatment is complete, cancer stem cells that still reside within the patient can give rise to a recurring tumor. Based on this hypothesis, researchers are trying to find therapies that destroy the cancer stem cells in the hopes that it truly eradicates a patients cancer.

John Dick from the University of Toronto first identified cancer stem cells in 1997. Michael Clarke, then at the University of Michigan, later found the first cancer stem cell in a solid tumor, in this case, breast cancer. Now at Stanford University School of Medicine, Clarke and his group have found cancer stem cells in colon cancer and head and neck cancers.

Find out More:

Catriona Jamieson talks about therapies based on cancer stem cells (4:32)

Stanford Publication: The true seeds of cancer

UCSD Publication: From Bench to Bedside in One Year: Stem Cell Research Leads to Potential New Therapy for Rare Blood Disorder

Updated 2/16

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Stem Cell Key Terms | California's Stem Cell Agency

Advance Stem Cell Therapy in India | Stem Cell Treatment …

Plan your Stem Cell Therapy in India with Tour2India4Health Consultants

Stem cell therapy in India is performed by highly skilled and qualified doctors and surgeons in India. Our hospitals have state-of-art equipment that increase success rate of stem cell treatment in India. Tour2India4Health is a medical value provider that offers access to the stem cell therapy best hospitals in India for patients from any corner of the world. We offer low cost stem cell therapy at the best hospitals in India.

Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type.

Serving as a sort of repair system, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each "daughter" cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

There are three classes of stem cells i.e totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent (also known as unipotent).

Many different terms are used to describe various types of stem cells, often based on where in the body or what stage in development they come from. You may have heard the following terms:

Adult Stem Cells or Tissue-specific Stem Cells: Adult stem cells are tissue-specific, meaning they are found in a given tissue in our bodies and generate the mature cell types within that particular tissue or organ. It is not clear whether all organs, such as the heart, contain stem cells. The term adult stem cells is often used very broadly and may include fetal and cord blood stem cells.

Fetal Stem Cells: As their name suggests, fetal stem cells are taken from the fetus. The developing baby is referred to as a fetus from approximately 10 weeks of gestation. Most tissues in a fetus contain stem cells that drive the rapid growth and development of the organs. Like adult stem cells, fetal stem cells are generally tissue-specific, and generate the mature cell types within the particular tissue or organ in which they are found.

Cord Blood Stem Cells: At birth the blood in the umbilical cord is rich in blood-forming stem cells. The applications of cord blood are similar to those of adult bone marrow and are currently used to treat diseases and conditions of the blood or to restore the blood system after treatment for specific cancers. Like the stem cells in adult bone marrow, cord blood stem cells are tissue-specific.

Embryonic Stem Cells: Embryonic stem cells are derived from very early embryos and can in theory give rise to all cell types in the body. While these cells are already helping us better understand diseases and hold enormous promise for future therapies, there are currently no treatments using embryonic stem cells accepted by the medical community.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS cells): In 2006, scientists discovered how to reprogram cells with a specialized function (for example, skin cells) in the laboratory, so that they behave like an embryonic stem cell. These cells, called induced pluripotent cells or IPS cells, are created by inducing the specialized cells to express genes that are normally made in embryonic stem cells and that control how the cell functions.

Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst: the fertilized egg, called the zygote, divides and forms two cells; each of these cells divides again, and so on. Soon there is a hollow ball of about 150 cells called the blastocyst that contains two types of cells, the trophoblast and the inner cell mass. Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass.

Stem cells can also be found in small numbers in various tissues in the fetal and adult body. For example, blood stem cells are found in the bone marrow that give rise to all specialized blood cell types. Such tissue-specific stem cells have not yet been identified in all vital organs, and in some tissues like the brain, although stem cells exist, they are not very active, and thus do not readily respond to cell injury or damage.

Stem cells can also be obtained from other sources, for example, the umbilical cord of a newborn baby is a source of blood stem cells. Recently, scientists have also discovered the existence of cells in baby teeth and in amniotic fluid that may also have the potential to form multiple cell types. Research on these cells is at a very early stage.

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat certain diseases. Stem cells are obtained from the patients own blood bone marrow, fat and umbilical cord tissue or blood. They are progenitor cells that lead to creation of new cells and are thus called as generative cells as well.

The biological task of stem cells is to repair and regenerate damaged cells. Stem cell therapy exploits this function by administering these cells systematically and in high concentrations directly into the damaged tissue, where they advance its self-healing. The process that lies behind this mechanism is largely unknown, but it is assumed that stem cells discharge certain substances which activate the diseased tissue. It is also conceivable that single damaged somatic cells, e.g. single neurocytes in the spinal cord or endothelium cells in vessels, are replaced by stem cells. Most scientists agree that stem cell research has great life-saving potential and could revolutionize the study and treatment of diseases and injuries.

Stem cell therapy is useful in certain degenerative diseases like

If stem cell therapy is an option, a detailed treatment plan is prepared depending on the type of treatment necessary. Once the patient has consented to the treatment plan, an appointment is scheduled for bone marrow extraction. Please note that this is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, so it is important that patients do not take any blood-thinning medication in the ten days prior to the appointment. It is necessary for each patient to consult their own doctor before discontinuing this type of medication.

The treatment procedure include:

Bone Marrow Extraction: Bone marrow is extracted from the hip bone by the physicians. This procedure normally takes around 30 minutes. First, local anesthetic is administered to the area of skin where the puncture will be made. Then, a thin needle is used to extract around 150-200 ml of bone marrow. The injection of local anesthetic can be slightly painful, but the patient usually does not feel the extraction of bone marrow.

Isolation, Analysis and Concentration of the Stem Cells in the Laboratory: The quality and quantity of the stem cells contained in the collected bone marrow are tested at the laboratory. First, the stem cells are isolated. Then a chromatographical procedure is used to separate them from the red and white blood corpuscles and plasma. The sample is tested under sterile conditions so that the stem cells, which will be administered to the patient, are not contaminated with viruses, bacteria or fungi. Each sample is also tested for the presence of viral markers such as HIV, hepatitis B and C and cytomegalia. The cleaned stem cells are counted and viability checks are made. If there are enough viable stem cells, i.e. more than two million CD34+ cells with over 80 percent viability, the stem cell concentrate is approved for patient administration.

Stem Cell Implantation: The method of stem cell implantation depends on the patient's condition. There are four different ways of administering stem cells:

Intravenous administration:

It is important to understand that while stem cell therapy can help alleviate symptoms in many patients and slow or even reverse degenerative processes, it does not work in all cases. Based on additional information, patient's current health situation and/or unforeseen health risks, the medical staff can always, in the interest of the individual patient, propose another kind of stem cell transplantation or in exceptional situations cancel the treatment.

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to your body after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation. It is helpful in treating patients with high risk of relapse or who didnt respond to the prior treatment. Allogeneic stem cell transplant cost in India is comparatively less when contrasted with alternate nations.

Autologous Stem Cell Transplant: Patients own blood-forming stem cells are collected and then it is treated with high doses of chemotherapy. The high-dose treatment kills the cancer cells. They are used to replace stem cells that have been damaged by high doses of chemotherapy, used to treat the patient's underlying disease.

The side effects of stem cell therapy differ from person to person. Listed below are the side effects of stem cell therapy :

According to the Indian Council of Medical Research, all is considered to be experimental, with the exception of bone marrow transplants. However, the guidelines that were put into place in 2007 are largely non-enforceable. Regardless, stem cell therapy is legalized in India. Umbilical cord and adult stem cell treatment are considered permissible. Embryonic stem cell therapy and research is restricted.

There is about a 60% to 80% overall success rate in the use of stem cell therapy in both India and around the world. However, success rates vary depending on the disease being treated, the institute conducting the procedures, and the condition of the patient. In order to receive complete information you will have to contact the medical institutes and ask specific questions concerning the patient's condition.

Mrs. Selina Naidoo with her Son from Malaysia

Tour2India4Health has proved to be a blessing in disguise for me. A medical tourism company with everything at par with our expectations has given me the most satisfactory and relieving experience of my life. I went to them for my sons surgery who was suffering from a serious illness and stem cell therapy was the only choice I had. Trust it was heart wrenching to leave my son under any hands on the operation table. Nevertheless, courageously I had to because thats what I was here for and thats what could get my son a new and healthy life. Sitting at a corner outside the operation theatre was taking my heartbeats away with every second. Finally, the surgery was over and I was there in front of the doctor with closed eyes. He declared that the surgery was successful and my son is fine but needs some extra care and some cautious post operative measures for recovery. All through our stay in the hospital, everything went on brilliantly and after my son recovered completely, I came back to my home country. Even after that for many months, I received regular calls to verify and virtually monitor the health of my child. Now, its been 5 years and when I see my child today it feels as if no surgery was ever done on him. Thanks to the doctor who treated him and to the entire team of nurses and travel professionals who displayed extra warmth and care. Thanks is just a small word to say as a mother of a child.

India is the most preferable destination for patients who are looking for low cost stem cell therapy. Indian doctors and healthcare professionals are renowned world over for their skills with many of them holding high positions in leading hospitals in US, UK and other countries around the world. There are significant numbers of highly skilled experts in India, including many who have relocated to India after having worked in the top hospitals across the world.

The Cost of stem cell treatment in India are generally about a tenth of the costs in US and are significantly cheaper compared with even other medical travel destinations like Thailand

*The price for the Stem Cell Therapy is an average collected from the 15 best corporate hospitals and 10 Top Stem Cell Experts of India.

*The final prices offered to the patients is based on their medical reports and is dependent on the current medical condition of the patient, type of room, type of therapy, hospital brand and the surgeon's expertise.

We have worked out special packages of the Stem Cell Therapy for our Indian and International patients. You can send us your medical reports to avail the benefits of these special packages.

You would be provided with 3 TOP RECOMMENDED SURGEONS / HOSPITALS FOR YOUR STEM CELL THERAPY in India.

There are many reasons for India becoming a popular medical tourism spot is the low cost stem cell treatment in the area. When in contrast to the first world countries like, US and UK, medical care in India costs as much as 60-90% lesser, that makes it a great option for the citizens of those countries to opt for stem cell treatment in India because of availability of quality healthcare in India, affordable prices strategic connectivity, food, zero language barrier and many other reasons.

The maximum number of patients for stem cell therapy comes from Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, USA, UK, Australia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh.

Cities where top and world renowned Stem Cell Therapy hospitals and clinics situated are :

We have PAN-India level tie ups with TOP Hospitals for Stem Cell Therapy across 15+ major cities in India. We can provide you with multiple top hospitals & best surgeons recommendations for Stem Cell Therapy in India.

India has now been recognized as one of the leaders in medical field of research and treatment. Tour2India4Health Group was established with an aim of providing best medical services to its patients and since then has been working hard in maintaining itself as one of the most professional healthcare tourism providers in India. With a number of world-renowned medical facilities affiliated, we have the resources to offer you the finest medical treatment in India, and help your speedy recovery. Tour2India4Health Group has always believed and practiced providing its patients best surgery and treatment procedure giving a second chance to live a more better and normal life. Our team serves the clientele most comfortable and convenient measures of healthcare services thus, making your medical tour to India very fruitful experience.

Our facilitation:

We has been operating patients from all major countries like USA, United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Canada, Spain, New Zealand, and Kuwait etc. We have network of selected medical centers, surgeons and physicians around various cities in India, who qualify our assessment criteria to ensure that our core values of Safety, Excellence and Trust are maintained in all our services.

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Best Stem Cell Therapy in India, Cost of Stem Cell Therapy in India, Stem Cell Therapy Best Hospitals in India, Success Rate of Stem Cell Treatment in India, Stem Cell Therapy Treatment Cost in India, Allogeneic Stem cell Transplant Cost in India, autologous Stem Cell Transplant Cost in India, Stem Cell Therapy in India, Low Cost Stem Cell Therapy India, Stem Cell Benefits in India, Top Stem Cell Centers in India, Best Doctors for Stem Cell Therapy in India, List of Best Stem Cell Treatment Clinics in India, Allogeneic stem cell transplantation, Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Cost in India, Autologous Stem Cell Transplant, Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Cost in India

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Cell Therapy World Asia 2019 – IMAPAC – Imagine your impact

Cell Therapy World Asia 2019

Asia-Pacifics ONLY Cell Therapy Focused Regional Event!

Tokyo, Japan

Cell Therapy World Asia 2019 is bringing together Asias best of best in cell therapy development and manufacturing. This will be the most targeted and the only regional conference that will attract cell therapy companies in South Korea, Japan, China, India, Singapore, Taiwan and the rest of Asia to discuss and debate on best practices and innovations in this space.

Event Highlights200+Key Stakeholders from TOP Cell Therapy Companies 50+ Asia-Pacificcell therapy companies to attend 30+ Key opinion leaders to share their insights 20+ Hours of Networking 15+ Technology Showcase

What is in it for you?

Sales and Marketing Opportunities @ Cell Therapy WorldAsia 2019

To ensure your target audience in Korea and Asia gets to hear your product philosophy and successful case studies at the conference, its important to discuss with us about your potential involvement early! Get involved by taking your first step, contact:

Speaking OpportunitiesAarthi AsokanConference ProducerT: (65) 3109 0159E: aarthi.asokan@imapac.com

Sponsorship OpportunitiesMatthew YongBusiness Development ManagerT: (65) 3109 0123E: matthew.yong@imapac.com

Delegate & Media RegistrationAkanksha MittalMarketing ManagerT: (65) 3109 0158E: akanksha.mittal@imapac.com

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Cell Therapy World Asia 2019 - IMAPAC - Imagine your impact

Autologous iPS cell therapy for Macular Degeneration: From bench-to-bedside

Presented At:Gibco - 24 Hours of Stem Cells Virtual Event

Presented By:Kapil Bharti - Stadtman Investigator, NIH, Unit on Ocular Stem Cell & Translational Research

Speaker Biography:Dr. Kapil Bharti holds a bachelor's degree in Biophysics from the Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, a master's degree in biotechnology from the M.S. Rao University, Baroda, India, and a diploma in molecular cell biology from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. He obtained his Ph.D. from the same institution, graduating summa cum laude. His Ph.D. work involved research in the areas of heat stress, chaperones, and epigenetics.

Webinar:Autologous iPS cell therapy for Macular Degeneration: From bench-to-bedside

Webinar Abstract:Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a promising source of personalized therapy. These cells can provide immune-compatible autologous replacement tissue for the treatment of potentially all degenerative diseases. We are preparing a phase I clinical trial using iPS cell derived ocular tissue to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading blinding diseases in the US. AMD is caused by the progressive degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer tissue that maintains vision by maintaining photoreceptor function and survival. Combining developmental biology with tissue engineering we have developed clinical-grade iPS cell derived RPE-patch on a biodegradable scaffold. This patch performs key RPE functions like phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments, ability to transport water from apical to basal side, and the ability to secrete cytokines in a polarized fashion. We confirmed the safety and efficacy of this replacement patch in animal models as part of a Phase I Investigational New Drug (IND)-application. Approval of this IND application will lead to transplantation of autologous iPS cell derived RPE-patch in patients with the advanced stage of AMD. Success of NEI autologous cell therapy project will help leverage other iPS cell-based trials making personalized cell therapy a common medical practice.

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Autologous iPS cell therapy for Macular Degeneration: From bench-to-bedside

Human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in a …

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Stem Cell Therapy for Neuropathy: What Can We Expect …

As the body ages, its only natural that some of its processes should break down. Humans become clumsier, stiffer, their reaction times slower, their senses duller. This is often due to the fact that nerves in the extremities grow less sensitive over time, transmitting messages to the brain more slowly and feeling less acutely a condition known as peripheral neuropathy or simply neuropathy.

While some of that is normal, especially in the golden years, neuropathy often manifests in people much too young in their 30s, 40s, or 50s as a result of a disease such as diabetes or autoimmune issues. Unfortunately, the condition can significantly hamper a persons quality of life, making mobility difficult and limiting everyday activities.

The good news? Neuropathy may have a cure, or at least a solid treatment, on the horizon. Stem cells show great promise for a wide variety of conditions, and nerve damage is the latest of these. To see how it can help, its important to understand what stem cell treatment is, what neuropathy is and what causes it, and how the former can address the latter.

In this article:

The body is made of trillions of tissue-specific cells, making up organs, skin, muscle, bone, nerves, and all other tissue. Some of these can renew indefinitely, such as blood cells. Others, however, cannot replace themselves: Once they have divided a certain number of times or become damaged, theyre dead for good. That goes for nerves and brain tissue, for example.

There is, however, an answer. The developing embryo uses stem cells, or master cells capable of differentiating into any kind of tissue in the human body, to transform one fertilized egg into a fully functional baby human. While adult humans lack these pluripotent stem cells that can transform into anything, they do have multipotent stem cells, which are tissue-specific master cells (such as blood cells).

By harvesting these multipotent stem cells from blood or fat tissue, scientists can induce the cells to become pluripotent, meaning theyre now capable of becomingany tissue in the human body. Essentially, researchers have figured out how to reverse-engineer adult stem cells to become all-powerful embryonic cells. This meansstem cells have a huge range of possible uses.

In other cases, multipotent stem cells alone are enough to heal some parts of the human bodysuch as nerves.

Peripheral neuropathymanifests in a number of ways. It causes pain, weakness, and tingling in affected areas, making it hard to lift objects, grasp items, walk competently, and more. Typically it affects the hands and feet most strongly, though it can also cause symptoms in the arms, legs, and face. Not only does it affect motor coordination,but it also makes it hard for the body to sense the environment, including temperature, pain, vibration, and touch.

A more serious manifestation of the disease is autonomic neuropathy, which influences more than the periphery of the body. It also messes with blood pressure, bladder and bowel function, digestion, sweating, and heart rate. Polyneuropathy is when the condition starts at the periphery of the body but gradually spreads inward.

Diabetic neuropathy is the most well-known incarnation of this disease. It is a result of high glucose and fat levels in the blood, which can damage nerves.Other causes include:

If the bad news is there are so many potential causes of neuropathy, the good news is stem cell treatments have the potential to address all of them.

In the case of neuropathy, stem cell treatment is simpler than in other conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (certain types of multipotent stem cells) releaseneuroprotective and neuroregenerative factors, so when they are injected into the bloodstream they can begin to rebuild nerves and undo the damage caused by the disease. Also, because these stem cells replicate indefinitely, they will offer these benefits for the rest of the patients life.

The basic process is that scientists harvest these cells from the patient (autologous transplant) or from a donor (allogeneic transplant), then cultivate them until they reach certain levels before reinjecting them back into the patient. The stem cells, with the help of hormones and growth factors, seek out and repair the damage done by neuropathy.

The main risks to stem cell treatment include reaction to the injection. In an autologous transplant, the patient may react to the preservatives and other chemicals used by way of necessity. In an allogeneic transplant, the patient may exhibit an immune response to donor cells, or vice versa with the donor cells seeing the patients body as an invader and attacking it. All of the above reactions can prove minor or, on the other end of the spectrum, fatal.

The severity of the problem will, therefore, dictate whether or not it is worth moving forward. Note that those whodochoose to pursue the treatment often have extremely good results.

Unlike some other stem cell treatments, which remain in preliminary stages, stem cell therapy for neuropathy has thus far received serious attention. However, thesmall sample size and difficult conditions of clinical trialsmake it hard to say yet whether this treatment will become widespread or receive FDA approval.Other studies have demonstrated more significant resultsin the treatment of facial pain and may pave the way for future neuropathy treatments using stem cells.

For now, those suffering from neuropathy should seek the advice of a physician. If there are clinical trials available nearby, thats the place to start. Its possible to seek stem cell therapy through a clinic as well as through a clinical study or research institution, but make sure to research the provider thoroughly. With stem cells becoming such a relevantapproach to medical conditions of all kinds, its not safe to conclude that all providers are equally experienced or effective.

If you found this blog valuable, subscribe to BioInformants stem cell industry updates.

As the first and only market research firm to specialize in the stem cell industry, BioInformant research is cited by The Wall Street Journal, Xconomy, AABB, and Vogue Magazine. Bringing you breaking news on an ongoing basis, we encourage you to join more than half a million loyal readers, including physicians, scientists, executives, and investors.

Did this article address your concerns about neuropathy? Let us know in the comments section below.

Up Next:Stem Cell Injections for Plantar Fasciitis Treatment

Stem Cell Therapy for Neuropathy: What Can We Expect

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Stem Cell Therapy for Neuropathy: What Can We Expect ...

If you’ve had a stem cell treatment, how was your …

Have you had astem cell treatment and if so, what was your experience like? (Update, please also take our poll on stem cell therapy cost).

I really value the diversity of readers on this blog from all over the world. I know we have a lot of readerswho are patients and have had stem cell treatments. Every week I get emails from people asking about stem cell treatments and clinics.

I encourage you to weigh in here in the comments if you or a loved have had a stem cell treatment. What was itlike? If it was positive, why did you feel that way? Same if it was negative.

How much did you have to pay and did you think it was reasonable?

What condition were you hoping to improve?

How did you find out about the clinic and would you refer someone else to them?

Anything else youd like to share?Feel free to remain anonymous if you prefer.

Related

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What is CAR-T Cell Therapy | CAR-T Definition | Bioinformant

Crude versus defined CAR T-cell therapy product

In the race for the most potent CAR T-cell therapy, there is a big interest to the issue of purity and composition of the final cell product. In this post, Ill try to summarize the current knowledge about defined CAR T-cell products, based on two clinical studies, published this week.

What is defined product and why it is important?We can roughly divide CAR T-cell products on bulk T-cell or crude and defined composition. Crude CART products are not purified and contain: different ratios of CD4/CD8 T-cells and their subsets, other than T- contaminating cells and non-CAR cells. Defined composition products could be the following:

There are few good reasons for development of defined CART products:

The later is single most important reason, which begs the question Will defined CAR T-cell products deliver superior therapeutic benefit? As of today, vast majority of CART developers manufacture crude cell products. Manufacturing process usually does not include sorting of T-cells on day 0 or purification of T-cells/ CAR+ cells in-process or on a harvest day. Most of developers release final CAR T-cell product with CD3+ cells >80-90%, highly variable CD4/CD8 ratio and % of CAR+ cells.

Preclinical dataAt least one group of researchers have done a lot of experimental and clinical work on defined composition of CAR T-cell products. Defined product/ process development has been done by Michael Jensen lab, initially at City of Hope and then further adapted and modified at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center and Seattle Childrens Hospital. Stanly Riddells lab from Hutch did a lot of experimental work to demonstrate potential value of defined CAR T-cell product. All together they have tried all versions of defined composition CAR T-cell products, mentioned above. One of recent and the most comprehensive studies by Riddells lab, showed that (1) combination of both CD4 and CD8 T-cells has superior therapeutic potency and (2) naive CD4 cells and central memory (T-CM) CD8 T-cell subsets were the most potent in vivo. Long-term persistence of human memory T-cells was demonstrated by Riddell and Jensen earlier in mouse and primate models. Importance of CD4+CD8 combo rather than use of potent cytotoxic CD8+ cells alone was also demonstrated in numerous studies (check here, here and here). Therefore, experimental studies created a strong rational for favoring T-CM, naive T-cells (T-N) and CD4+CD8 combo in adoptive cell therapy trials.

Feasibility of manufacturing defined T-CM CAR T-cell productBefore I get to the first clinical results, Id like to look at manufacturing process of defined CAR T-cell product. Jensen started with purified CD8 T-CM or CD4 + CD8 T-CM manufacturing process, which described in details here. It includes sequential 2-step CliniMACS procedure for negative selection of CD14/CD45RA/CD4 or CD14/CD45RA-negative cells, positive selection for CD62L (marker of T-CM) and culture with IL2/IL15 for up to 30 days in bags. After two CliniMACS procedures, cell recovery was as low as 0.4% (in contrast to expected 1.4%). If input cell number was usually 5 billions PBMCs, average output cell number before starting a culture was ~19 millions. T-CM recovery efficiency was 26%. Even though, they typically started culture from 7-15 millions of CD8 T-CM cells, generation of ~3 billions of cells in 3-6 weeks was feasible. This manufacturing process was used in 2 clinical trials: NHL1 and NHL2.

In the modified manufacturing process, designed for NCT01865617 trial, included CliniMACS selection of CD4+ bulk population and 2-step CD8 T-CM (see above) or CD8 bulk selection with 2 parallel 15-20 days cultures and mixing CD4:CD8 as 1:1 before infusion. Importantly, CAR+ cells were selected before infusion by a marker (EGFRt). Interestingly, either CD8 T-CM purified on day 0 or CD8 bulk cells yielded only ~40-50% of CD8+/CAR+ cells with T-CM phenotype (CD45RA-CD62L+).Now, feasibility of manufacturing in NCT01865617. 16/30 (53%) patients have passed threshold of 20 T-CM cells/ ul in screening assay for feasibility of manufacturing. From selected products, T-CM were successfully manufactured in all, but 1 cases. 3 out of 30 infused products were not formulated as 1:1 (10%), due to lack of expansion.Id summarize some of my thoughts of defined CAR T-cell product manufacturing feasibility as the following:

Clinical outcomes of using defined CAR T-cell productsResults of 3 clinical trials (NCT01318317, NCT01815749, NCT01318317), using defined CAR T-cell products have been published so far (here and here). However, the therapeutic benefit of using defined versus crude CAR T-cell product remains unclear. Ideally, defined CAR T-cells should be compared with crude product within one trial settings, because even for the same conditions, clinical protocols are very very different between sites. Also, ideally, CD8 bulk vs. CD T-CM or CD8 alone vs. CD8+CD4 combo should be compared within one trial in exactly the same settings. Unfortunately, none of these ideal comparison conditions were met in 3 published trials, mentioned above.

Even though, it seem like CD4 + CD8 T-CM combo performed better in NHL2 trial (75% progression-free survival at 1-year) than CD8 T-CM alone in NHL1 (50% progression-free survival at 1-year), the difference is not significant, due to low number of patients (n=8 in each trial). On top of it, different CAR vectors were used between these trials, culture duration was shorter and CD25+ T-regs were depleted in NHL2 trial manufacturing protocol. So, data cannot be compared. If we look at results of other CAR T-cell lymphoma trials (narrowing to DLBCL), City of Hope results are not much better than reported from other centers (for example, from Penn). CD8 T-CM persistence was not beneficial, compare to data from other centers. Two excerpts from the study, which demonstrate that assessment of defined CAR T-cell product benefit is impossible:

CD19-CAR T cell activity is difficult to assess by disease response, since 9/16 patients were in CR at start of study, and HSCT can also produce CRs.Thus, a T cell product derived from central-memory enrichment as described in these studies, does not persist longer than what is observed in trials with conventional bulk T cells transduced with CARs bearing CD28 co-stimulatory domains.

Now, moving to B-ALL study, published this week in JCI. First of all, B-ALL is not the best condition to assess a difference by clinical outcome between crude and defined CAR T-cell products, because response rate is too high (close to 90%) across the centers no matter what. The authors about outcome:

The 93% remission rate by flow cytometry and 86% MRD-negative CR rate in our study compares very favorably to that reported by others in which CART cells of undefined composition were manufactured using CD19 CARs that incorporate either a 4-1BB costimulatory domain (children and young adults, 79%) or a CD28 costimulatory domain (adults, 75%; children and young adults, 60%) (1-4)

What about persistence? Theoretically, based on experimental work, CD8 T-CM should have superior long-term persistence. But it was not the case. The study showed persistence only at 1 month time point. What about relapses? Maybe application of T-CM will reduce the rate of relapses? No, 9/30 patients in the study relapsed, half of them (5/9) received CD8 T-CM product. Clinical outcome was significantly improved in the study after implementation of different conditioning regiment (with fludarabine). This change significantly complicates and even make impossible data comparison between CD8 bulk and CD8 T-CM groups:

The high overall rate of BM remission of 93% by flow cytometry in this study and differences in lymphodepletion regimens and infused cell doses do not allow comparison of the efficacy of CART cell products manufactured from CD8+ TCM cells or from bulk CD8+ T cells. Analysis of differences in long-term persistence of cell products that were selected for CD8+ TCM or bulk CD8+ T cells in our study was further complicated by our findings that immune-mediated rejection of CART cells occurs in some patients, which may provide an explanation for the loss of CART cells observed in a subset of patients in other studies

To conclude: Despite the strong experimental evidence and very attractive idea behind of defined CAR T-cell products, it is too early to conclude about their therapeutic benefit and superior potency. With greater number of patients and technical improvements in manufacturing (more efficient clinical cell sorting, IL7+IL15 in culture and other), potential benefit of defined CAR T-cell product may become more obvious. Such benefits as dropping a therapeutic dose, better correlation between dose and in vivo expansion dynamics, decreasing donor variability in manufacturing, we can see today already.

Tagged as:CART, cell product, manufacturing

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Crude versus defined CAR T-cell therapy product

Japan Approves iPS Cell Therapy Trial for Spinal Cord …

The Japanese governments health ministry has given the go-ahead for a trial of human induced pluripotent stem cells to treat spinal cord injury, Reutersreports today (February 18).Researchers at Keio University plan to recruit four adults who have sustained recent nerve damage in sports or traffic accidents.

Its been 20 years since I started researching cell treatment. Finally we can start a clinical trial, Hideyuki Okano of Keio University School of Medicine told a press conference earlier today, The Japan Timesreports. We want to do our best to establish safety and provide the treatment to patients.

The teams intervention involves removing differentiated cells from patients and reprogramming them via human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neural cells. Clinicians will then inject about 2 million of these cells into each patients site of injury. The approach has been successfully tested in a monkey, which recovered the ability to walk after paralysis, according to the Times.

Its not the first time Japan has approved the use of iPSCs in clinical trials. Last year, researchers at Kyoto University launched a trial using the cells to treat Parkinsons disease. And in 2014, a team at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology led the first transplant of retina cells grown from iPSCs to treat a patients eye disease.

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Japan Approves iPS Cell Therapy Trial for Spinal Cord ...

Stem Cell Therapy For Knees | What You Need To Know …

The main conditions treated by stem cell injections include knee osteoarthritis, cartilage degeneration, and various acute conditions, such as a torn ACL, MCL, or meniscus. Stem cell therapy may speed healing times in the latter, while it can actually rebuild tissue in degenerative conditions such as the former.

Thats a major breakthrough. Since cartilage does not regenerate, humans only have as much as they are born with. Once years of physical activity have worn it away from joints, there is no replacing it. Or at least, there wasnt before stem cell therapy.

Now, this cutting-edge technology enables physicians to introduce stem cells to the body. Thesemaster cells are capable of turning into formerly finite cell types to help the body rebuild and restore itself.

Although it may sound like an intensive procedure, stem cell therapy is relatively straightforward and usually minimally invasive. These days, physicians have many rich sources of adult stem cells, which they can harvest right from the patients own body. This obviates the need for embryonic stem cells, and thereby the need for moral arguments of yore.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the main types used by physicians in treating knee joint problems. These cells live in bone marrow, butincreasing evidence shows they also exist in a range of other types of tissue.This means they can be found in places like fat and muscle. With a local anesthetic to control discomfort, doctors can draw a sample of tissue from the chosen site of the body. The patient usually doesnt feel pain even after the procedure. In some cases, the physician may choose to put the patient under mild anesthesia.

They then isolate the mesenchymal stem cells. Once they have great enough numbers, physicians use them to prepare stem cell injections. They insert a needle into the tissue of the knee and deliver the stem cells back into the area. This is where they will get to work rebuilding the damaged tissue. Although the mechanisms arent entirely clear, once inserted into a particular environment, mesenchymal stem cells exert positive therapeutics effectsinto the local tissue environment.

Mechanisms of action of mesenchymal stem cells appear to include reducing inflammation, reducing scarring (fibrosis), and positively impacting immune system function.

Thats not quite enough to ensure a successful procedure, however. Thats why stem cell clinics may also introduce growth factors to the area. These are hormones that tell the body to deliver blood, oxygen,and nutrients to the area, helping the stem cells thrive and the body repair itself.

Physicians extract these growth factors from blood in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). They take a blood sample, put it in a centrifuge and isolate the plasma, a clear liquid free of red blood cells, but rich in hormones needed for tissue repair.

So, what can a patient reasonably expect when it comes to stem cell therapy, in terms of time and cost outlay?

The answers to both of these questions differ depending on the clinic doing the procedure and the patients level of knee degradation. Some clinics recommend a course of injections over time. Meanwhile, others prepare the injection and deliver it back to the patient in only a matter of hours. Either way, the treatment is minimally invasive, with fast healing times and a speedy return to normal (and even high-intensity) activity.

Some quotes for stem cell knee treatment are as low as $5,000. Others cost up to $20,000 or more. Again, this depends on how many treatments a patient needs, as well as how many joints theyre treating at the same time. Because its easier to batch prepare stem cells, a patient treating more than one knee (or another joint) can address multiple sites for far less. The procedure would only cost an addition of about $2,000 or so per joint.

No treatment proves effective every time. However, insofar as patients reporting good results for stem cell injections, the overall evidence does lean in a beneficial direction.Studies at the Mayo Clinic, for instance, indicate that while further research is needed, it is a good option for arthritis in the knee. Anecdotal reports are positive as well. Patients report it as an effective alternative to much more invasive solutions, such as arthroscopic or knee replacement surgery.

Other studies point to the need for caution. Stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine, in general, are only now exiting their infancies. There arent enough high-quality sources from which to draw at this point, so hard and fast conclusions remain elusive. Of the studies that do exist, some contain unacceptably high levels of bias.

Of course, any new treatment will face these kinds of challenges in the beginning. For those who need an answer to knee pain, and havent yet found one that works, its likely worth the risk that it wont prove as effective as they hoped. But what about other risks?

The good news about this form of stem cell therapy is that the patient uses their own cells. That means they completely skip over the dangers that accompany donor cells. The main one of which is graft-versus-host disease (in which the donor cells initiate an immune response against the patients body). Because the cells have all the same antibodies, neither the body nor the reintroduced cells will reject one another.

Also, the relatively low-stakes outpatient nature of the procedure (versus, say, a bone marrow transplant) means that the chances of something going wrong are much reduced.

However, there do exist some risks wherever needles come into play. It is possible to get an infection at the site of the blood draw as well as at the injection site, but these risks are quite low. Other risks include discoloration at theinjection site or soreness. While some people fear the possible growth of stem cells at the site of injection into a tumor, it is unlikely for this to happen, because physicians utilize adult stem cells for these procedures that have a low proliferative capacity.

These adult stem cells tend to be much safe than pluripotent stem cell types. Examples of pluripotent stem cells are embryonic stem cells (derived from embryos) and a type of lab-made stem cell known as induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell).

For those who think stem cell therapy could prove beneficial, its time to set up a consultation with your doctor. Multiple factors will influence whether or not its a good idea. These include age, health, andseverity of the condition and other available treatments. However, overall, this form of regenerative medicine is reasonably affordable, very low-risk, and typically effective.

Are you seeking a stem cell treatment for your knees or other joints?To support you,we have partnered withOkyanosa state-of-the-art facility providing patients with advanced stem cell treatments.

The group offers treatments for arange of chronic conditions, includingosteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease, which are leading causes of knee pain.

If you are seeking a stem cell treatment for knee pain or other chronic condition,contact Okyanos for a Free Medical Consultation.

What questions do you still have about stem cell therapy for knees? Ask them below and we will get you answers.

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The Cost Of Stem Cell Therapy And Why It’s So Expensive …

How much is stem cell therapy? As stated by CBC Canada,the cost of stem cell therapy is $5,000 to $8,000per stem cell treatment for patients. According to a Twitter poll by BioInformant, the cost can be even higher. Our May 2018 poll found that stem cell treatments can cost as much as $25,000 or more. This article explores the key factors that impact the cost of stem cell therapy, including the type of stem cells used within the protocol, the number of treatments required, and the site of theclinic. It also provides pricing quotes from stem cell clinics within the U.S. and worldwide.

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Stem cell therapy is the use of living cells as therapeutics to treat disease or injury. Read on to learn about the cost requirements of these procedures.

CBC Canadas pricing involves Cell Surgical Network (CSN) following its protocol to remove fat tissue and process it before re-injecting [adipose-derived stem cells] either directly or intravenously into the same patient. Unfortunately, the U.S. FDA and Department of Justice (DOJ) sent this network of stem cell treatment providers a permanent injunction notice in May 2018. Therefore, patients should not seek treatments from the group at this time.Although Cell Surgical Network (CSN) is based in California, it has a network of approximately 100 U.S. treatment centers. They also have three Canadian clinics located in Vancouver, Sudbury,andKamloops.

The controversy such as the one above stirs up questions about the safety of stem cell procedures. Anyone considering stem cell therapy from any tissue or source will benefit from understanding the possible consequences of stem cell therapy and the factors driving costs.

For the patient, a stem cell transplant involves multiple steps, including:

There are also real costs for the doctors who provide stem cell treatments. They have overhead costs, including:

There is also time and expertise required toperform the procedure and offer post-operative care. In some cases, the physician must pay licensing fees to access stem cell sourcing, processing, or delivery technologies.

Stem cell treatment has gained more and more traction over the last decade. It has been helped along by considerable advances in research. In 2017, the number of scientific publications about stem cells surpassed 300,000. The number of stem cell clinical trials has also surpassed4,600 worldwide.

However, stem cell therapy is still expensive. Among the cheapest and easiest options is to harvest adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) those that exist in adult fat layers and re-deliver them to the patient. Unlike harvesting from bone marrow or teeth, providers can feasibly remove fat, separate stem cells, then re-inject them into a patient the same day. This approach is typically less expensive than those that require more invasive procedures for harvesting. Because of its practicality in terms of cost, it has become a common approach to stem cell treatment.

Relatively easy harvesting stilldoesnt translate to inexpensive cost, although some are certainly more affordable than others. For orthopedic conditions, the costof stem cell therapy is typically lower, averaging between $5,000 and $8,000. Examples of these types of medical conditions include:

Note that these prices are typically out-of-pocket costs paid by the patientbecause most insurance companies will not cover them. They are considered experimental and unapproved by the FDA. This means patients needing stem cell treatment will need to use their own savings.

Although fat is a frequently utilized source for stem cells, it is also possible for physicians to utilize stem cells from bone marrow. Regenexx provides this service in the U.S. and Cayman Islands. With theRegenexxstem cell injection procedure, a small bone marrow sample is extracted through a needle, and blood is drawn from a vein in the arm. These samples are processed in a laboratory, and the cells it contains are injected into an area of the body that needs repair. On June 19, 2018, ACAP Health, a leading provider in innovative, clinical-based solutions partnered with Regenexx to reduce high-cost musculoskeletal surgeries.ACAP Health is a national leader in employer healthcare expense reduction. It is one of the first healthcare groups to partner with a stem cell treatment group to support insurance coverage to patients.

A recent Twitter poll conducted by BioInformant reported that, on average, patients can expect to spend $25,000 or more on stem cell therapies. According to the poll,

Most likely, those paying lower stem cell treatment costs under $5,000 were pursuing treatment for orthopedic or musculoskeletal conditions. In contrast, those paying higher treatment costs were likely getting treated for systemic or more complex conditions, such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis (MS), neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimers disease or dementia), psoriatic arthritis, as well as the treatment for autism.

In the U.S., treatment protocols vary depending on the clinic and the treating physician. A one-time treatment that utilizes blood drawn from a patient can cost as little as $1,500. However, protocols that utilize a bone marrow or adipose (fat) tissue extraction can run as much as $15,000 $30,000. This is because bone marrow extraction is an invasive procedure that requires a penetrating bone and adipose tissue extraction requires a medical professional trained in liposuction.

For treatments that require a systemic or whole-body approach, the cost tends to be in the higher range, often averaging from $20,000 to $30,000. Examples of the diseases or conditions requiring this type of stem cell treatment include:

These higher costs reflect the complexity of treating these patients and the fact that multiple treatments are often required.

Founded by Dr. Neil Riordan, a globally recognized stem cell expert, theStem Cell Institutein Panama is one of the worlds most trusted adult stem cell therapy centers. Over the past 12 years, the center has performed more than10,000 procedures, making it a widely recognized destination for stem cell treatments.

Working in collaboration with universities and physicians worldwide, its stem cell treatment protocols utilize combinations of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood stem cells and autologous bone marrow stem cells to treat a wide variety of conditions.

A reader of BioInformant was recently treated for psoriatic arthritis at the Stem Cell Institute in Panama in early 2018. The price of his stem cell treatment was $22,000. With travel and lodging included, the total expenses were approximately $30,000.

Because of its proximity to the U.S., Mexico is increasingly becoming a destination for medical tourism.Before choosing a stem cell treatment provider in Mexico, ensure the clinic is fully authorized by COFEPRIS, the Mexican equivalent to the FDA.

One patient who recently shared stem cell treatment quotes with BioInformant found that the treatment for glycogen storage disease, a metabolic disorder that often onsets in infancy and continues into adulthood, would cost $23,900 throughGIOSTAR Mexico.

In contrast, the patient was quoted$33,000 throughCelltex, a U.S.-based company that treats patients in Cancun, Mexico.Celltex follows FDA regulations concerning the export of cells to Mexico and is compliant with the standards and procedures of COFEPRIS. Celltex also has an alliance with a certified hospital in Mexico, which is approved to receive cells and administer them to patients by a licensed physician.

In contrast, the patient was quoted $10,000 from Stem Cell Therapy of Las Vegas and Med Spa, an American clinic. This price difference may reflect regulatory restrictions that prevent U.S. providers from expanding cells. It may also reflect the therapeutic approach used by the clinic, as well as the quality of their expertise.

In Mexico, where certain types of stem cell expansion are allowed that are restricted within the U.S., treatment protocols vary depending on the clinic and the treating physician. A one-time treatment that utilizes peripheral blood from a patient can cost as little as $1,000. In contrast, protocols that utilize more invasive sources of stem cells can run as much as $15,000 $35,000. Examples of invasive procedures includebone marrow and adipose tissue extraction. In some cases, hospitalization may be required, which raises costs. The location of a stem cell facility can factor heavily into thecost of the procedure.

Not every cost associated with treatment gets billed to the patient at the time of the procedure. Hidden costs such as reactions to the treatment, graft-versus-host disease, or disability derived from the treatment can all result in more money to the patient, to insurance, or to the government.

For example, in the case of someone with cancer, it frequently isnt viable to harvest the patients own stem cells because they may contain cancerous cells that can reintroduce tumors to the body. Instead, the patient would receive stem cells by transplant. Treatments that involve cells from another person are called allogeneic treatments. The danger here is that the body may see those cells as invaders and attack them via the immune system, a condition known as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The body (host) and the introduced stem cells (graft) then battle rather than coexist.

Transplanted cells often face the risk of being rejected by their host; this article discusses the effect of plasma exchange on acute graft vs. host diseasehttps://t.co/cA3nzFntew

Katie Bunde (@kbuns76) May 29, 2018

In addition to making the stem cell treatments less effective or ineffective, GvHD can be deadly. Roughly30 to 60 percent ofhematopoieticstem cell and bone marrow transplantationpatients sufferfrom it, and of those, 50 percent eventually die. The hospital costs associated with it are substantial.

Another hidden cost is the potential to disrupt a system that formerly functioned adequately. The best current example of this isthe case of Doris Tyler, who received bilateral stem cell injections in her eyes from Drs.RobertHalpernand JamieWalraven of Stem Cell Center of Georgia. According to her, while her vision was failing, it was still good enough to perform various tasks, and now it is not. That means the cost increases for her, as well as potential insurance or disability claims (though again, insurance is unlikely to cover the specific consequences of this action).

Because of tight regulations surrounding stem cell procedures performed in the United States, many stem cell treatment providers provide both on-shore (U.S.-based) and offshore (international) treatment options.Depending on where a treatment is received, patients may have to pay travel, lodging,and miscellaneous expenditures.

For example, Regenexx offers treatments at a wide range of U.S. facilities using non-expanded stem cells. However, it also offers a laboratory-expanded treatment option at a site in the Cayman Islands, which can administer higher cell doses to patients by expanding the cells in culture within a laboratory.

Similarly, Okyanos (pronounced Oh key AH nos) offers treatments to patients at its Florida location and provides more involved stem cell procedures at its offshore site inGrand Bahama. It was founded in 2011 and is a stem cell therapy provider specializing in treatments for congestive heart failure (CHF) and other chronic conditions. It is fully licensed under the Bahamas Stem Cell Therapy and Research Act and adheres to U.S. surgical center standards.

Similarly, Celltex is headquartered in Houston, Texas, but offers stem cell treatments in Cancun, Mexico. Celltex specializes in storing a patients mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for therapeutic use.

While no hard evidence yet points to stem cell clinics raising their rates as a result of lawsuits, that is a typical response in industries whose products or services the public perceives as a high risk.

An additional danger to stem cell treatment providers,points out Nature, is the reduction of bottom-line profits through former patients winning suits. If clinics have to pay out the money they earned and then some to individuals suing for damages, they may soon become faced with an unviable business model. That is a definite concern for those hoping to leverage these treatments now and in the future.

As with any other area of medicine, patient evaluations of stem cell providers and treatments run the gamut from extremely satisfied to desolately unhappy. Those like Doris Tyler who have lost their eyesight exist at the negative end of the spectrum. However, many others praise stem cell treatments for their power to heal diseases, boost immunity, fight cancer, and more.

For example, BioInformants Founder and President, Cade Hildreth, had a favorable experience with stem cell therapy. Cade had bone marrow-derived stem cells collected and then had them re-injected into the knee to treat a devastating orthopedic injury. Cade was able to reverse pain, swelling, and scarring to reclaim an elite athletic ability.

As of now, this much is clear. There exists enough interest in America and across the world that stem cell providers are continuing to offer a wide range of treatments. Stem cell treatments also offer the potential to reverse diseases that traditionally had to be chronically managed by drugs. Like most medical practices, stem cell treatments will require further testing to reveal merits and faults. Until then, the public will likely continue to pursue services when medical needs arise.

Although the cost of stem cell therapy is pricey, some patients choose to undergo the treatment because it is more economical than enduring the costs associated with chronic diseases.

Although most stem cell therapy providers do not provide FDA-approved procedures, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continues to encouragepatients to pursue approved therapies, even if there is a higher associated treatment cost.

Providers rarely post their prices for stem cell treatments in print or digital media because they want patients to understand the benefits of therapy before making a price decision. Additionally, the price of stem cell treatments varies by condition, the number of treatments required, and the complexity of the procedure, factors that can make it difficult for medical providers to provide cost estimates without a diagnostic visit for the patient. However, in many cases, it is not in the patients best interest to make treatment decisions based on the cost of stem cell therapy. The best way to know whether to pursue stem cell therapy is to explore patient outcomes by condition and compare the healing process to other surgical and non-surgical treatment options.

The cost of stem cell therapy is indeed expensive, especially because the procedures are rarely covered by health insurance. However, with the right knowledge and a clear understanding of the treatment process, the risk of undergoing stem cell therapy can be worth it, especially if it removes the requirement for a lifetime of prescription medication. Although stem cell therapy has associated risks, it has improved thousands of lives and will continue to play in a key role in the future of modern medicine.

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Are you seeking a stem cell treatment? If so, we have partnered with GIOSTAR to help you acccess medical guidance and advice.

In alignment with what we believe at BioInformant, GIOSTARs goal is to offer cutting-edge, extensively researched stem cell therapy options designed to rejuvenate and improve a patients quality of life.

Click here to Schedule a Consultation or ask GIOSTAR a question.

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Up Next: Japan to Supply Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) for Clinical Research

Cost Of Stem Cell Therapy And Why Its So Expensive

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The Cost Of Stem Cell Therapy And Why It's So Expensive ...

Somatic cell nuclear transfer – Wikipedia

In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. It is used in both therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Dolly the Sheep became famous for being the first successful case of the reproductive cloning of a mammal.[1] In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei.[2] "Therapeutic cloning" refers to the potential use of SCNT in regenerative medicine; this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. When this is done, the cytoplasmic factors affect the nucleus to become a zygote. The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst.[3] The first animal that was developed by this technique was Dolly, the sheep, in 1996.[4]

The process of somatic cell nuclear transplant involves two different cells. The first being a female gamete, known as the ovum (egg/oocyte). In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. Skin cells, fat cells, and liver cells are only a few examples. The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed.' What is left is a somatic cell and an denucleated egg cell. These are then fused by inserting the somatic cell into the 'empty' ovum.[5] After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by its host egg cell. The ovum, now containing the somatic cell's nucleus, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. The egg is now viable and capable of producing an adult organism containing all the necessary genetic information from just one parent. Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone).[6] Stem cells can then be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term.

Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came. This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research.[7]

Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. This ability allows stem cells to create any cell type, which could then be transplanted to replace damaged or destroyed cells. Controversy surrounds human ESC work due to the destruction of viable human embryos. Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method.

A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. By doing so, an in vitro model could be created, would be useful for studying that particular disease, potentially discovering its pathophysiology, and discovering therapies.[8] For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition.[9]

Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient.[10] The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection.[9][11]

Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University,[12] Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells.[13] In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted permission to research groups at the Roslin Institute and the Newcastle Centre for Life.[14] SCNT may also be occurring in China.[15]

In 2005, a South Korean research team led by Professor Hwang Woo-suk, published claims to have derived stem cell lines via SCNT,[16] but supported those claims with fabricated data.[17] Recent evidence has proved that he in fact created a stem cell line from a parthenote.[18][19]

Though there has been numerous successes with cloning animals, questions remain concerning the mechanisms of reprogramming in the ovum. Despite many attempts, success in creating human nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells has been limited. There lies a problem in the human cell's ability to form a blastocyst; the cells fail to progress past the eight cell stage of development. This is thought to be a result from the somatic cell nucleus being unable to turn on embryonic genes crucial for proper development. These earlier experiments used procedures developed in non-primate animals with little success.

A research group from the Oregon Health & Science University demonstrated SCNT procedures developed for primates successfully using skin cells. The key to their success was utilizing oocytes in metaphase II (MII) of the cell cycle. Egg cells in MII contain special factors in the cytoplasm that have a special ability in reprogramming implanted somatic cell nuclei into cells with pluripotent states. When the ovum's nucleus is removed, the cell loses its genetic information. This has been blamed for why enucleated eggs are hampered in their reprogramming ability. It is theorized the critical embryonic genes are physically linked to oocyte chromosomes, enucleation negatively affects these factors. Another possibility is removing the egg nucleus or inserting the somatic nucleus causes damage to the cytoplast, affecting reprogramming ability.

Taking this into account the research group applied their new technique in an attempt to produce human SCNT stem cells. In May 2013, the Oregon group reported the successful derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines derived through SCNT, using fetal and infant donor cells. Using MII oocytes from volunteers and their improved SCNT procedure, human clone embryos were successfully produced. These embryos were of poor quality, lacking a substantial inner cell mass and poorly constructed trophectoderm. The imperfect embryos prevented the acquisition of human ESC. The addition of caffeine during the removal of the ovum's nucleus and injection of the somatic nucleus improved blastocyst formation and ESC isolation. The ESC obtain were found to be capable of producing teratomas, expressed pluripotent transcription factors, and expressed a normal 46XX karyotype, indicating these SCNT were in fact ESC-like.[12] This was the first instance of successfully using SCNT to reprogram human somatic cells. This study used fetal and infantile somatic cells to produce their ESC.

In April 2014, an international research team expanded on this break through. There remained the question of whether the same success could be accomplished using adult somatic cells. Epigenetic and age related changes were thought to possibly hinder an adult somatic cells ability to be reprogrammed. Implementing the procedure pioneered by the Oregon research group they indeed were able to grow stem cells generated by SCNT using adult cells from two donors aged 35 and 75, indicating that age does not impede a cell's ability to be reprogrammed.[20][21]

Late April 2014, the New York Stem Cell Foundation was successful in creating SCNT stem cells derived from adult somatic cells. One of these lines of stem cells was derived from the donor cells of a type 1 diabetic. The group was then able to successfully culture these stem cells and induce differentiation. When injected into mice, cells of all three of the germ layers successfully formed. The most significant of these cells, were those who expressed insulin and were capable of secreting the hormone.[22] These insulin producing cells could be used for replacement therapy in diabetics, demonstrating real SCNT stem cell therapeutic potential.

The impetus for SCNT-based stem cell research has been decreased by the development and improvement of alternative methods of generating stem cells. Methods to reprogram normal body cells into pluripotent stem cells were developed in humans in 2007. The following year, this method achieved a key goal of SCNT-based stem cell research: the derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines that have all genes linked to various diseases.[23] Some scientists working on SCNT-based stem cell research have recently moved to the new methods of induced pluripotent stem cells. Though recent studies have put in question how similar iPS cells are to embryonic stem cells. Epigenetic memory in iPS affects the cell lineage it can differentiate into. For instance, an iPS cell derived from a blood cell will be more efficient at differentiating into blood cells, while it will be less efficient at creating a neuron.[24] This raises the question of how well iPS cells can mimic the gold standard ESC in experiments, as stem cells are defined as having the ability to differentiate into any cell type. SCNT stem cells do not pose such a problem and continue to remain relevant in stem cell studies.

This technique is currently the basis for cloning animals (such as the famous Dolly the sheep),[25] and has been theoretically proposed as a possible way to clone humans. Using SCNT in reproductive cloning has proven difficult with limited success. High fetal and neonatal death make the process very inefficient. Resulting cloned offspring are also plagued with development and imprinting disorders in non-human species. For these reasons, along with moral and ethical objections, reproductive cloning in humans is proscribed in more than 30 countries.[26] Most researchers believe that in the foreseeable future it will not be possible to use the current cloning technique to produce a human clone that will develop to term. It remains a possibility, though critical adjustments will be required to overcome current limitations during early embryonic development in human SCNT.[27][28]

There is also the potential for treating diseases associated with mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Recent studies show SCNT of the nucleus of a body cell afflicted with one of these diseases into a healthy oocyte prevents the inheritance of the mitochondrial disease. This treatment does not involve cloning but would produce a child with three genetic parents. A father providing a sperm cell, one mother providing the egg nucleus, and another mother providing the enucleated egg cell.[10]

In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates using somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same method as Dolly the sheep, with the birth of two live female clones (crab-eating macaques named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) was reported.[2][29][30][31][32]

Interspecies nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a means of somatic cell nuclear transfer used to facilitate the rescue of endangered species, or even to restore species after their extinction. The technique is similar to SCNT cloning which typically is between domestic animals and rodents, or where there is a ready supply of oocytes and surrogate animals. However, the cloning of highly endangered or extinct species requires the use of an alternative method of cloning. Interspecies nuclear transfer utilizes a host and a donor of two different organisms that are closely related species and within the same genus. In 2000, Robert Lanza was able to produce a cloned fetus of a gaur, Bos gaurus, combining it successfully with a domestic cow, Bos taurus.[33]

Interspecies nuclear transfer provides evidence of the universality of the triggering mechanism of the cell nucleus reprogramming. For example, Gupta et al.,[34] explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, ovine oocyte cytoplast may be used for remodeling and reprogramming of human somatic cells back to the embryonic stage.[35]

SCNT can be inefficient. Stresses placed on both the egg cell and the introduced nucleus in early research were enormous, resulting in a low percentage of successfully reprogrammed cells. For example, in 1996 Dolly the sheep was born after 277 eggs were used for SCNT, which created 29 viable embryos. Only three of these embryos survived until birth, and only one survived to adulthood.[25] As the procedure was not automated, but had to be performed manually under a microscope, SCNT was very resource intensive. The biochemistry involved in reprogramming the differentiated somatic cell nucleus and activating the recipient egg was also far from understood. However, by 2014, researchers were reporting success rates of 70-80% with cloning pigs[36] and in 2016 a Korean company, Sooam Biotech, was reported to be producing 500 cloned embryos a day.[37]

In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's mitochondria that contain their own mitochondrial DNA are left behind. The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus. This fact may also hamper the potential benefits of SCNT-derived tissues and organs for therapy, as there may be an immunoresponse to the non-self mtDNA after transplant.

Proposals to use nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. These have led to some individuals and organizations who are not opposed to human embryonic stem cell research to be concerned about, or opposed to, SCNT research.[38][39][40]

One concern is that blastula creation in SCNT-based human stem cell research will lead to the reproductive cloning of humans. Both processes use the same first step: the creation of a nuclear transferred embryo, most likely via SCNT. Those who hold this concern often advocate for strong regulation of SCNT to preclude implantation of any derived products for the intention of human reproduction,[41] or its prohibition.[38]

A second important concern is the appropriate source of the eggs that are needed. SCNT requires human egg cells, which can only be obtained from women. The most common source of these eggs today are eggs that are produced and in excess of the clinical need during IVF treatment. This is a minimally invasive procedure, but it does carry some health risks, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

One vision for successful stem cell therapies is to create custom stem cell lines for patients. Each custom stem cell line would consist of a collection of identical stem cells each carrying the patient's own DNA, thus reducing or eliminating any problems with rejection when the stem cells were transplanted for treatment. For example, to treat a man with Parkinson's disease, a cell nucleus from one of his cells would be transplanted by SCNT into an egg cell from an egg donor, creating a unique lineage of stem cells almost identical to the patient's own cells. (There would be differences. For example, the mitochondrial DNA would be the same as that of the egg donor. In comparison, his own cells would carry the mitochondrial DNA of his mother.)

Potentially millions of patients could benefit from stem cell therapy, and each patient would require a large number of donated eggs in order to successfully create a single custom therapeutic stem cell line. Such large numbers of donated eggs would exceed the number of eggs currently left over and available from couples trying to have children through assisted reproductive technology. Therefore, healthy young women would need to be induced to sell eggs to be used in the creation of custom stem cell lines that could then be purchased by the medical industry and sold to patients. It is so far unclear where all these eggs would come from.

Stem cell experts consider it unlikely that such large numbers of human egg donations would occur in a developed country because of the unknown long-term public health effects of treating large numbers of healthy young women with heavy doses of hormones in order to induce hyperovulation (ovulating several eggs at once). Although such treatments have been performed for several decades now, the long-term effects have not been studied or declared safe to use on a large scale on otherwise healthy women. Longer-term treatments with much lower doses of hormones are known to increase the rate of cancer decades later. Whether hormone treatments to induce hyperovulation could have similar effects is unknown. There are also ethical questions surrounding paying for eggs. In general, marketing body parts is considered unethical and is banned in most countries. Human eggs have been a notable exception to this rule for some time.

To address the problem of creating a human egg market, some stem cell researchers are investigating the possibility of creating artificial eggs. If successful, human egg donations would not be needed to create custom stem cell lines. However, this technology may be a long way off.

SCNT involving human cells is currently legal for research purposes in the United Kingdom, having been incorporated into the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990.[42][5] Permission must be obtained from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority in order to perform or attempt SCNT.

In the United States, the practice remains legal, as it has not been addressed by federal law.[43] However, in 2002, a moratorium on United States federal funding for SCNT prohibits funding the practice for the purposes of research. Thus, though legal, SCNT cannot be federally funded.[44] American scholars have recently argued that because the product of SCNT is a clone embryo, rather than a human embryo, these policies are morally wrong and should be revised.[45]

In 2003, the United Nations adopted a proposal submitted by Costa Rica, calling on member states to "prohibit all forms of human cloning in as much as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life."[46] This phrase may include SCNT, depending on interpretation.

The Council of Europe's Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine and its Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Being appear to ban SCNT of human beings. Of the Council's 45 member states, the Convention has been signed by 31 and ratified by 18. The Additional Protocol has been signed by 29 member nations and ratified by 14.[47]

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Somatic cell nuclear transfer - Wikipedia

Parkinson’s Glossary: The Michael J. Fox Foundation …

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

A class of drugs used to treat mild to moderate dementia in Parkinson's disease. These drugs increase brain levels of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which helps neurons communicate with each other and is involved in memory, learning and thinking.

See also: dementia

Adult stem cells

Aggregate

A clumping of proteins inside cell bodies in the brain, which may be toxic. Aggregation of the protein alpha-synuclein is found in Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease.

See also: alpha-synuclein, Lewy bodies

Agonist

A chemical that binds to a receptor on a cell and triggers a response by that cell.

See also: dopamine agonist

Akinesia

Inability to move ("freezing") or difficulty in initiating or maintaining a body motion. From the Greek a, without, and kinesia, movement.

See also: freezing

Alpha-synuclein

A protein normally found in neurons, and present in high concentrations in Lewy bodies. A genetic mutation in this protein is the basis for a rare inherited form of Parkinson's disease. For more information see alpha-synuclein as a priority area.

See also: aggregate

Animal models

Normal animals modified mechanically, genetically or chemically, used to demonstrate all or part of the characteristics of a disease. With models, researchers can study the mechanisms of a disease and test therapies. Also known as preclinical models.

Anticholinergic

A class of drugs often effective in reducing the tremor of Parkinson's disease. They work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain. However, because acetylcholine is involved in memory, learning and thinking, anticholinergic drugs can bring about cognitive side effects including confusion or dementia.

See also: dementia

Antioxidant

A chemical compound or substance that inhibits oxidation - damage to cells' membranes, proteins or genetic material by free radicals (the same chemical reaction that causes iron to rust). Some studies have linked oxidative damage to Parkinson's disease.

Antiparkinsonian medication

A medicine used to treat Parkinson's disease. For more information see what patients on our Patient Council have to share on the topic of medication.

Ataxia

A movement disorder marked by loss of balance and decreased muscle coordination during voluntary movements.

Athetosis

A movement disorder sometimes confused with Parkinson's disease that manifests in low, repetitive, involuntary, writhing movements of the arms, legs, hands, and neck that are often especially severe in the fingers and hands.

Autonomic dysfunction

Any problem with the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, which controls unconscious body functions that affect the bladder, bowels, sweating, sexual function and blood pressure.

Basal ganglia

A region deep within the brain consisting of large clusters of neurons responsible for voluntary movements such as walking and movement coordination. Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease are brought on by loss of or damage to dopamine neurons in this region, which encompasses the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra.

See also: dopamine, neuron, striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra

Bilateral surgery

Surgery performed on both sides of the brain.

Biomarkers

Specific, measurable physical traits used to determine or indicate the effects or progress of a disease or condition. For example, high blood pressure is a biomarker of potential cardiovascular disease. No validated biomarker of Parkinson's disease currently exists.

Blood-brain barrier

A thin layer of tightly packed cells separating the central nervous system from the body's blood stream. This layer is crucial to protecting the brain from foreign substances, but also blocks some potentially therapeutic treatments from entering the brain via orally administered drugs.

Bradykinesia

One of the cardinal clinical features of Parkinson's disease, the slowing down and loss of spontaneous and voluntary movement. From the Greek brady, slow, and kinesia, movement.

Cell replacement therapy

A strategy aiming to replace cells damaged or lost by disease or injury with healthy new cells. Cell replacement in Parkinson's aims to replace with new cells the dopamine-producing cells in the brain that are progressively lost through Parkinsons's disease. For more information see the MJFF Viewpoint on Cell Replacement Therapy for more information.

Central nervous system

Central nervous system (CNS) is a term referring to the brain and spinal cord.

See also: CNS

Chorea

A general term for movement disorders that can be confused with Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by involuntary, random, jerking movements of muscles in the body, face, or extremities.

Clinical trials

Organized medical studies that test the effectiveness of various treatments, such as drugs or surgery, in human beings.

CNS

Abbreviation for "Central Nervous System," a term referring to the brain and spinal cord.

See also: Central nervous system

Coenzyme Q10

The most common form of Coenzyme Q, a vitamin-like antioxidant. Results of the first placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of the compound, published in October 2002, suggested that it might slow disease progression in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease. The results have yet to be confirmed in a larger study.

Cognitive dysfunction

The loss of intellectual functions (such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning) of sufficient severity to interfere with daily functioning. The term cognitive dysfunction includes dementia and executive dysfunction, and may also encompass changes in personality, mood, and behavior. Cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease typically does not respond to dopamine replacement therapy and ranges from mild impairment to dementia.

See also: dementia, executive dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment

Compulsions

Irresistible impulses to act, regardless of the rationality of the motivation, or acts performed in response to such impulses. Some compulsive behaviors, such as compulsive gambling, hypersexuality, binge eating and shopping, have been associated with dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson's disease, though this association has not been conclusively established.

COMT inhibitor

A drug that blocks an enzyme (catchol-O-methyltransferase) that breaks down dopamine. COMT inhibitors include entacapone and tolcapone. Tolcapone has been known to cause serious liver problems and has been withdrawn from the Canadian and European markets.

See also: enzyme, dopamine

Creatine

A naturally occurring amino acid that helps to supply energy to muscle cells. A preliminary clinical trial in 200 Parkinson's patients, published in February 2006, suggested that creatine may slow the progression of PD and may therefore merit additional study. A much larger study is underway to further evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of creatine.

CT scan

CT (Computed Tomography) scan is a technique that uses a series of X-rays to create image "slices" of the body from different orientations to create a two-dimensional cross sectional images of the body. Sometimes called CAT scan, for Cmputed Axial Tomography.

See also: imaging

DBS

Deep brain stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure that uses a surgically implanted, battery-operated medical device called a neurostimulator - similar to a heart pacemaker and approximately the size of a stopwatch - to deliver electrical stimulation to targeted areas in the brain that control movement, blocking the abnormal nerve signals that cause tremor and PD symptoms. At present, the procedure is used primarily for patients whose symptoms cannot be satisfactorily controlled with medications. For more information see what patients on our Patient Council have to share on the topic of DBS and late stage treatments.

See also: pallidotomy, surgical therapies, thalamotomy

Dementia

A decline in memory and/or intellectual functioning severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning. Some Parkinson's patients experience dementia, generally at later stages of disease progression. This symptom does not typically respond to dopamine replacement therapy.

See also: cognitive dysfunction, executive dysfunction

Depression

A mental state, and non-dopamine-responsive symptom of Parkinson's disease, characterized by feelings of despondency and a lack of ability to initiate activity. For more information see what patients on our Patient Council have to share on the topic of emotion.

See also: cognitive dysfunction

Developmental biology

The study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. Developmental biology studies in Parkinson's disease hold potential to identify therapeutic targets and new cell replacement strategies.

Diagnosis

Identification or naming of a disease by its signs and symptoms.

Disequilibrium

DJ-1

A gene of unknown function implicated in rare inherited cases of Parkinson's disease.

Dopamine

A neurotransmitter chemical produced in the brain that helps control movement, balance, and walking. Lack of dopamine is the primary cause of Parkinson's motor symptoms.

Dopamine agonist

A class of drugs commonly prescribed in Parkinson's disease that bind to dopamine receptors and mimic dopamine's actions in the brain. Dopamine agonists stimulate dopamine receptors and produce dopamine-like effects.

Dopamine-non-responsive

Dysarthria

Dyskinesia

Involuntary, uncontrollable, and often excessive movements that are a common side effect of levodopa treatment for Parkinson's disease. These movements can be lurching, dance-like or jerky, and are distinct from the rhythmic tremor commonly associated with Parkinson's disease. For more information see what patients on our Patient Council have to share on the topic of dyskinesia and dystonia.

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing. A common problem in Parkinson's that increases the risk of inhaling food or liquids into the airways, which in its later stages can lead to a condition known as "aspiration pneumonia."

See also: dopamine-non-responsive

Dystonia

A movement disorder that may be confused with Parkinson's disease. Dystonia is characterized by abnormal and awkward posture or sustained movements of a hand, foot, or other part of the body; may be accompanied by rigidity and twisting. For more information see what patients on our Patient Council have to share on the topic of dyskinesia and dystonia.

Embryonic stem cells

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Parkinson's Glossary: The Michael J. Fox Foundation ...

Cellular Therapies Section Subsections – AABB

Groups called subsections allow members of the CT Section to focus on specific topic areas. Subsections work to identify challenges and develop materials to meet the needs of the field. Section participation is open to all AABB individual members who may enroll in any subsection(s) they choose.

CT Spanish LanguageCord BloodCT Asia Pacific GroupCT ManagementCT Product Collection and Clinical PracticesCT Product Manufacturing and TestingCT Quality OperationsCT Regulatory AffairsNovel Therapies and CT Product Development

This group is for Spanish-speaking members or those members located in Spanish-speaking regions. Members will be able to join live discussions and participate with fellow SLS members in regular subsection meetings held at 'convenient' times for the zones encompassed in the Latin America region. The SLS will address CT issues related to cord blood; donor qualification; manufacturing; storage and transport challenges; quality operations; regulatory issues; and development. The group will also address specific regional issues for developing programs. All interested individual AABB members who speak Spanish and would like to share their CT interests, insights and expertise in may join. (Meets 3rd Wednesdays at 10:00am ETmonthly)

La Subseccin en Espaol (SLS) ofrece a todos sus miembros la oportunidad de conocer e interconectarse con otros profesionales hispanohablantes. Los miembros pueden formar parte de discusiones estimulantes con otros colegas de la subseccin durante las reuniones regulares. Los convenientes horarios de estas reuniones han sido establecidos para acomodar a miembros localizados en Latinoamrica. El SLS abarcar temas de Terapia Celular (CT) relacionados con cordn umbilical; requisitos para donacin de productos celulares; retos en la manufactura, almacenamiento y transporte de productos de terapia celular; operaciones de calidad y temas especficos para el desarrollo de otros programas regionales. Todos los miembros hispanohablantes de AABB que deseen compartir sus intereses, visiones y experiencias pueden ser parte de esta subseccin. (Se rene el tercer mircoles de cada mes a las 10:00 am ET)

This group works on topics such as donor issues for public banking (recruitment, consent, screening/testing), manufacturing, storage and transport challenges, licensure, international issues, and private and family banking issues. (Meets 1st Thursdays at 1:00pm ET monthly)

For members located in the Asia-Pacific region, a designated group called the Asia Pacific Group or APG is available. Members will be able to join live discussions and directly participate with fellow APG members in regular subsection meetings held at 'convenient' times for the zones encompassed in this region. Countries in the region include Australia, China, Guam, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Qatar, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

CT issues related to cord blood, donor qualification, manufacturing, storage and transport challenges, as well as quality operations, regulatory, development and specific regional issues will be addressed. The APG meeting time is tailored to those in the Asia-Pacific; however, all interested individual AABB members who would like to share their CT interests, insights and expertise may join. (Meets 2nd Wednesdays, monthly at 0400 UTC coordinated universal time)

This group works on topics such as reimbursement issues (Centers for Medicare/Medicaid (CMS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA)), funding sources for cell therapy development and clinical trials - federal and other public sources, venture capital, charitable donations (disease advocacy groups), as well as the administrative business (e.g. budgets, human resources , workload recording, cost accounting, job descriptions, staffing models, personnel management/project management, strategic planning, Lean/process engineering tools, expense reduction initiatives and cost containment) of cell therapy production. (Meets 2nd Tuesdays at 12:00pm ET bimonthly)

This group focuses primarily on clinical topics associated with the collection, transport, utilization and outcomes of cellular therapy products obtained from peripheral blood by apheresis, bone marrow, cord blood and other sources by the use of new technologies. Clinical topics include donor and recipient screening, eligibility, mobilization and collection, informed consent, product administration and infusion-related adverse events. (Meets 2nd Mondays at 1:00pm ET monthly)

This group works on technical topics and operational aspects related to the manufacturing and testing of CT products such as cryopreservation, cell separation and selection, automation, product characterization, assay development, validation and implementation. (Meets 3rd Thursdays at 11:00am ET monthly)

This group works on topics such as Quality Program design, risk assessment and risk management, vendor and supply qualification, facility, environmental and operational controls. (Meets 3rd Thursdays at 2:00pm ET monthly)

This group works on US and international topics involving regulations, guidance and policies from a variety of sources. Examples include FDA, Health Canada, European Medicine Evaluation Agency (EMEA), Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), NIH, Regulatory Affairs Certification (RAC), and Health Resources and Services Agency (HRSA). (Meets3rd Tuesdays at 11:00am ET monthly)

This group works on topics such as 'new' research and preclinical studies, new devices for manipulating cells as well as later-stage cellular product development, validation, and technology transfer for clinical production. Examples include developments in the areas of induced pluripotent cells (iPS cells), tissue-derived cells, genetic engineering, structural materials, and biomaterials to name a few. (Meets 2nd Thursdays at 12:00pm ET monthly)

Excerpt from:
Cellular Therapies Section Subsections - AABB

Stem Cell Therapy in Thailand – Beike Biotech – Hospitals

TREATMENT:hRPE stem cells implantation (human Retinal Pigment Epithelial cells, (adult stem cells) by stereotactic brain injection + nutritious stem cell cocktail treatment (intravenous).

START OF TREATMENT:March 6, 2007.

BEFORE THE TREATMENT: Lindas main symptoms were rigidity and stiffness in the left side of her body. She had mild tremors mainly in her left hand and had difficulty grasping small objects or holding things with her fingers. She would drag her left leg while walking and while at rest the

muscles in her leg and tows would contract. During the night her muscles would contract constantly keeping her regularly from having more than few hours sleep. Her muscles were very weak and she would tire very quickly, her posture was stooped and she suffered from a general tenseness and stiffness in her face, neck and back.

Without the affect of the medications she could not turn her neck and should turn her whole body in order to look back. Every morning, before the medications started to influence, it was difficult getting dressed, getting out of bed or taking a shower.

Before the treatment Linda took her medications every 2-3 hours (Contam 250mg x 8 times a day). One hour after taking the medications Lindas symptoms were hardly noticed, but the medications influence wear out quickly and Lindas every activity was dependant on her next dose of medications.

During the last few years Lindas short term memory was affected up to a level that she quit her job in human resources. Her hand writing was affected too even after taking the medications, it was still very scratchy and hard to read.

Linda also suffered from general anxiety and depression.

AFTER THE TREATMENT:

Lindas first notable change after the surgery was a full night sleep - the first one in 5 years. Within 5 weeks after the stem cell implantation most of Lindas symptoms were gradually gone. Her fingers got their flexibility back and the tremors were gone she could now grasp things, open a door and articulate more precise movements with her fingers.

The cramps in her leg were gone and she stopped dragging her left leg.

I dont need to think anymore about every movement, as I did before she says.

Her muscle tension was significantly reduced, she felt more relaxed and stronger than before.

Her posture became more open and she could now turn her neck more easily. Before leaving the hospital Linda still had some weakness in her muscles but she felt that she is getting stronger every day.

Linda also noticed that her sense of smell and taste that were greatly weakened during the last years were coming back.

A major change in her quality of life was that now her symptoms were unnoticeable with almost half the dosage of the medications she used to take before. Linda is now taking medications 4 times a day (Sinemet 200mg X4 times a day) instead of 8 times of double dosage that she used to take before the treatment.

I was a watch keeper, I used to watch at the clock all the time, I stopped swimming riding bicycle and other activities because I never knew when the medications affect will wear out she says.

Linda hopes that her medications could be gradually reduced even more, and she will keep a close contact with her doctors in China in order to follow up with her condition.

See more here:
Stem Cell Therapy in Thailand - Beike Biotech - Hospitals

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