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Archive for the ‘Hormone Physician’ Category

Adrenal gland – Wikipedia

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.[1][2] They are found above the kidneys. Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex itself is divided into three zones: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis.[3]

The adrenal cortex produces three main types of steroid hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. Mineralocorticoids (such as aldosterone) produced in the zona glomerulosa help in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. The glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone are synthesized in the zona fasciculata; their functions include the regulation of metabolism and immune system suppression. The innermost layer of the cortex, the zona reticularis, produces androgens that are converted to fully functional sex hormones in the gonads and other target organs.[4] The production of steroid hormones is called steroidogenesis, and involves a number of reactions and processes that take place in cortical cells.[5] The medulla produces the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.[4]

A number of endocrine diseases involve dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. Overproduction of cortisol leads to Cushing’s syndrome, whereas insufficient production is associated with Addison’s disease. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disease produced by dysregulation of endocrine control mechanisms.[4][6] A variety of tumors can arise from adrenal tissue and are commonly found in medical imaging when searching for other diseases.[7]

The adrenal glands are located on both sides of the body in the retroperitoneum, above and slightly medial to the kidneys. In humans, the right adrenal gland is pyramidal in shape, whereas the left is semilunar or crescent shaped and somewhat larger.[8] The adrenal glands measure approximately 3cm in width, 5.0cm in length, and up to 1.0cm in thickness.[9] Their combined weight in an adult human ranges from 7 to 10grams.[10] The glands are yellowish in colour.[8]

The adrenal glands are surrounded by a fatty capsule and lie within the renal fascia, which also surrounds the kidneys. A weak septum (wall) of connective tissue separates the glands from the kidneys.[11] The adrenal glands are directly below the diaphragm, and are attached to the crura of the diaphragm by the renal fascia.[11]

Each adrenal gland has two distinct parts, each with a unique function, the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medulla, both of which produce hormones.[12]

The adrenal cortex is the outermost layer of the adrenal gland. Within the cortex are three layers, called “zones”. When viewed under a microscope each layer has a distinct appearance, and each has a different function.[13] The adrenal cortex is devoted to production of hormones, namely aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens.[14]

The outermost zone of the adrenal cortex is the zona glomerulosa. It lies immediately under the fibrous capsule of the gland. Cells in this layer form oval groups, separated by thin strands of connective tissue from the fibrous capsule of the gland and carry wide capillaries.[15]

This layer is the main site for production of aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid, by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase.[16][17] Aldosterone plays an important role in the long-term regulation of blood pressure.[18]

The zona fasciculata is situated between the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis. Cells in this layer are responsible for producing glucocorticoids such as cortisol.[19] It is the largest of the three layers, accounting for nearly 80% of the volume of the cortex.[3] In the zona fasciculata, cells are arranged in columns radially oriented towards the medulla. Cells contain numerous lipid droplets, abundant mitochondria and a complex smooth endoplasmic reticulum.[15]

The innermost cortical layer, the zona reticularis, lies directly adjacent to the medulla. It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to testosterone) in humans.[19] Its small cells form irregular cords and clusters, separated by capillaries and connective tissue. The cells contain relatively small quantities of cytoplasm and lipid droplets, and sometimes display brown lipofuscin pigment.[15]

The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body’s main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by the medulla. Approximately 20% noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and 80% adrenaline (epinephrine) are secreted here.[19]

The adrenal medulla is driven by the sympathetic nervous system via preganglionic fibers originating in the thoracic spinal cord, from vertebrae T5T11.[20] Because it is innervated by preganglionic nerve fibers, the adrenal medulla can be considered as a specialized sympathetic ganglion.[20] Unlike other sympathetic ganglia, however, the adrenal medulla lacks distinct synapses and releases its secretions directly into the blood.

The adrenal glands have one of the greatest blood supply rates per gram of tissue of any organ: up to 60 small arteries may enter each gland.[21] Three arteries usually supply each adrenal gland:[8]

These blood vessels supply a network of small arteries within the capsule of the adrenal glands. Thin strands of the capsule enter the glands, carrying blood to them.[8]

Venous blood is drained from the glands by the suprarenal veins, usually one for each gland:[8]

The central adrenomedullary vein, in the adrenal medulla, is an unusual type of blood vessel. Its structure is different from the other veins in that the smooth muscle in its tunica media (the middle layer of the vessel) is arranged in conspicuous, longitudinally oriented bundles.[3]

The adrenal glands may not develop at all, or may be fused in the midline behind the aorta.[12] These are associated with other congenital abnormalities, such as failure of the kidneys to develop, or fused kidneys.[12] The gland may develop with a partial or complete absence of the cortex, or may develop in an unusual location.[12]

The adrenal gland secretes a number of different hormones which are metabolised by enzymes either within the gland or in other parts of the body. These hormones are involved in a number of essential biological functions.[23]

Corticosteroids are a group of steroid hormones produced from the cortex of the adrenal gland, from which they are named.[24] Corticosteroids are named according to their actions:

The adrenal gland produces aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid, which is important in the regulation of salt (“mineral”) balance and blood volume. In the kidneys, aldosterone acts on the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts by increasing the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of both potassium and hydrogen ions.[18] Aldosterone is responsible for the reabsorption of about 2% of filtered glomerular filtration rates.[27] Sodium retention is also a response of the distal colon and sweat glands to aldosterone receptor stimulation. Angiotensin II and extracellular potassium are the two main regulators of aldosterone production.[19] The amount of sodium present in the body affects the extracellular volume, which in turn influences blood pressure. Therefore, the effects of aldosterone in sodium retention are important for the regulation of blood pressure.[28]

Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in humans. In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by corticosterone instead. Glucocorticoids have many effects on metabolism. As their name suggests, they increase the circulating level of glucose. This is the result of an increase in the mobilization of amino acids from protein and the stimulation of synthesis of glucose from these amino acids in the liver. In addition, they increase the levels of free fatty acids, which cells can use as an alternative to glucose to obtain energy. Glucocorticoids also have effects unrelated to the regulation of blood sugar levels, including the suppression of the immune system and a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Cortisol reduces the capacity of osteoblasts to produce new bone tissue and decreases the absorption of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract.[28]

The adrenal gland secretes a basal level of cortisol but can also produce bursts of the hormone in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. Cortisol is not evenly released during the day its concentrations in the blood are highest in the early morning and lowest in the evening as a result of the circadian rhythm of ACTH secretion.[28] Cortisone is an inactive product of the action of the enzyme 11-HSD on cortisol. The reaction catalyzed by 11-HSD is reversible, which means that it can turn administered cortisone into cortisol, the biologically active hormone.[28]

All corticosteroid hormones share cholesterol as a common precursor. Therefore, the first step in steroidogenesis is cholesterol uptake or synthesis. Cells that produce steroid hormones can acquire cholesterol through two paths. The main source is through dietary cholesterol transported via the blood as cholesterol esters within low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL enters the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The other source of cholesterol is synthesis in the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum. Synthesis can compensate when LDL levels are abnormally low.[4] In the lysosome, cholesterol esters are converted to free cholesterol, which is then used for steroidogenesis or stored in the cell.[29]

The initial part of conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones involves a number of enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family that are located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner membrane is facilitated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and is the rate-limiting step of steroid synthesis.[29]

The layers of the adrenal gland differ by function, with each layer having distinct enzymes that produce different hormones from a common precursor.[4] The first enzymatic step in the production of all steroid hormones is cleavage of the cholesterol side chain, a reaction that forms pregnenolone as a product and is catalyzed by the enzyme P450scc, also known as cholesterol desmolase. After the production of pregnenolone, specific enzymes of each cortical layer further modify it. Enzymes involved in this process include both mitochondrial and microsomal P450s and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Usually a number of intermediate steps in which pregnenolone is modified several times are required to form the functional hormones.[5] Enzymes that catalyze reactions in these metabolic pathways are involved in a number of endocrine diseases. For example, the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia develops as a result of deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in an intermediate step of cortisol production.[30]

Glucocorticoids are under the regulatory influence of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid synthesis is stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a hormone released into the bloodstream by the anterior pituitary. In turn, production of ACTH is stimulated by the presence of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is released by neurons of the hypothalamus. ACTH acts on the adrenal cells first by increasing the levels of StAR within the cells, and then of all steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The HPA axis is an example of a negative feedback system, in which cortisol itself acts as a direct inhibitor of both CRH and ACTH synthesis. The HPA axis also interacts with the immune system through increased secretion of ACTH at the presence of certain molecules of the inflammatory response.[4]

Mineralocorticoid secretion is regulated mainly by the reninangiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS), the concentration of potassium, and to a lesser extent the concentration of ACTH.[4] Sensors of blood pressure in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys release the enzyme renin into the blood, which starts a cascade of reactions that lead to formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin receptors in cells of the zona glomerulosa recognize the substance, and upon binding they stimulate the release of aldosterone.[31]

Primarily referred to in the United States as epinephrine and norepinephrine, adrenaline and noradrenaline are catecholamines, water-soluble compounds that have a structure made of a catechol group and an amine group. The adrenal glands are responsible for most of the adrenaline that circulates in the body, but only for a small amount of circulating noradrenaline.[23] These hormones are released by the adrenal medulla, which contains a dense network of blood vessels. Adrenaline and noradrenaline act at adrenoreceptors throughout the body, with effects that include an increase in blood pressure and heart rate.[23] actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline are responsible for the fight or flight response, characterised by a quickening of breathing and heart rate, an increase in blood pressure, and constriction of blood vessels in many parts of the body.[32]

Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid derived from food or produced from phenylalanine in the liver. The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine to L-DOPA in the first step of catecholamine synthesis. L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine before it can be turned into noradrenaline. In the cytosol, noradrenaline is converted to epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and stored in granules. Glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex stimulate the synthesis of catecholamines by increasing the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and PNMT.[4][13]

Catecholamine release is stimulated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic nervous system innervate the medulla of the adrenal gland. When activated, it evokes the release of catecholamines from the storage granules by stimulating the opening of calcium channels in the cell membrane.[33]

Cells in zona reticularis of the adrenal glands produce male sex hormones, or androgens, the most important of which is DHEA. In general, these hormones do not have an overall effect in the male body, and are converted to more potent androgens such as testosterone and DHT or to estrogens (female sex hormones) in the gonads, acting in this way as a metabolic intermediate.[34]

Thehuman genomeincludes approximately 20,000 protein coding genes and 70% of thesegenes are expressedin the normal, adult adrenal glands.[35][36]Only some 250 genes are more specifically expressed in the adrenal glands compared to other organs and tissues.The adrenal gland specific genes with highest level of expression include members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. Corresponding proteins are expressed in the different compartments of the adrenal gland, such as CYP11A1, HSD3B2 and FDX1 involved in steroid hormone synthesis and expressed in cortical cell layers, and PNMT and DBH involved in noradrenalin and adrenalin synthesis and expressed in the medulla.[37]

The adrenal glands are composed of two heterogenous types of tissue. In the center is the adrenal medulla, which produces adrenaline and noradrenaline and releases them into the bloodstream, as part of the sympathetic nervous system. Surrounding the medulla is the cortex, which produces a variety of steroid hormones. These tissues come from different embryological precursors and have distinct prenatal development paths. The cortex of the adrenal gland is derived from mesoderm, whereas the medulla is derived from the neural crest, which is of ectodermal origin.[12]

The adrenal glands in a newborn baby are much larger as a proportion of the body size than in an adult.[38] For example, at age three months the glands are four times the size of the kidneys. The size of the glands decreases relatively after birth, mainly because of shrinkage of the cortex. The cortex, which almost completely disappears by age 1, develops again from age 45. The glands weigh about 1 g at birth[12] and develop to an adult weight of about 4 grams each.[28] In a fetus the glands are first detectable after the sixth week of development.[12]

Adrenal cortex tissue is derived from the intermediate mesoderm. It first appears 33 days after fertilisation, shows steroid hormone production capabilities by the eighth week and undergoes rapid growth during the first trimester of pregnancy. The fetal adrenal cortex is different from its adult counterpart, as it is composed of two distinct zones: the inner “fetal” zone, which carries most of the hormone-producing activity, and the outer “definitive” zone, which is in a proliferative phase. The fetal zone produces large amounts of adrenal androgens (male sex hormones) that are used by the placenta for estrogen biosynthesis.[39] Cortical development of the adrenal gland is regulated mostly by ACTH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates cortisol synthesis.[40] During midgestation, the fetal zone occupies most of the cortical volume and produces 100200mg/day of DHEA-S, an androgen and precursor of both androgens and estrogens (female sex hormones).[41] Adrenal hormones, especially glucocorticoids such as cortisol, are essential for prenatal development of organs, particularly for the maturation of the lungs. The adrenal gland decreases in size after birth because of the rapid disappearance of the fetal zone, with a corresponding decrease in androgen secretion.[39]

During early childhood androgen synthesis and secretion remain low, but several years before puberty (from 68 years of age) changes occur in both anatomical and functional aspects of cortical androgen production that lead to increased secretion of the steroids DHEA and DHEA-S. These changes are part of a process called adrenarche, which has only been described in humans and some other primates. Adrenarche is independent of ACTH or gonadotropins and correlates with a progressive thickening of the zona reticularis layer of the cortex. Functionally, adrenarche provides a source of androgens for the development of axillary and pubic hair before the beginning of puberty.[42][43]

The adrenal medulla is derived from neural crest cells, which come from the ectoderm layer of the embryo. These cells migrate from their initial position and aggregate in the vicinity of the dorsal aorta, a primitive blood vessel, which activates the differentiation of these cells through the release of proteins known as BMPs. These cells then undergo a second migration from the dorsal aorta to form the adrenal medulla and other organs of the sympathetic nervous system.[44] Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a characteristic not present in all sympathetic organs. Glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex were once thought to be responsible for the differentiation of chromaffin cells. More recent research suggests that BMP-4 secreted in adrenal tissue is the main responsible for this, and that glucocorticoids only play a role in the subsequent development of the cells.[45]

The normal function of the adrenal gland may be impaired by conditions such as infections, tumors, genetic disorders and autoimmune diseases, or as a side effect of medical therapy. These disorders affect the gland either directly (as with infections or autoimmune diseases) or as a result of the dysregulation of hormone production (as in some types of Cushing’s syndrome) leading to an excess or insufficiency of adrenal hormones and the related symptoms.

Cushing’s syndrome is the manifestation of glucocorticoid excess. It can be the result of a prolonged treatment with glucocorticoids or be caused by an underlying disease which produces alterations in the HPA axis or the production of cortisol. Causes can be further classified into ACTH-dependent or ACTH-independent. The most common cause of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is a pituitary adenoma which causes an excessive production of ACTH. The disease produces a wide variety of signs and symptoms which include obesity, diabetes, increased blood pressure, excessive body hair (hirsutism), osteoporosis, depression, and most distinctively, stretch marks in the skin, caused by its progressive thinning.[4][6]

When the zona glomerulosa produces excess aldosterone, the result is primary aldosteronism. Causes for this condition are bilateral hyperplasia (excessive tissue growth) of the glands, or aldosterone-producing adenomas (a condition called Conn’s syndrome). Primary aldosteronism produces hypertension and electrolyte imbalance, increasing potassium depletion and sodium retention.[6]

Adrenal insufficiency (the deficiency of glucocorticoids) occurs in about 5 in 10,000 in the general population.[6] Diseases classified as primary adrenal insufficiency (including Addison’s disease and genetic causes) directly affect the adrenal cortex. If a problem that affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis arises outside the gland, it is a secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Addison’s disease refers to primary hypoadrenalism, which is a deficiency in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production by the adrenal gland. In the Western world, Addison’s disease is most commonly an autoimmune condition, in which the body produces antibodies against cells of the adrenal cortex. Worldwide, the disease is more frequently caused by infection, especially from tuberculosis. A distinctive feature of Addison’s disease is hyperpigmentation of the skin, which presents with other nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue.[4]

A complication seen in untreated Addison’s disease and other types of primary adrenal insufficiency is the adrenal crisis, a medical emergency in which low glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels result in hypovolemic shock and symptoms such as vomiting and fever. An adrenal crisis can progressively lead to stupor and coma.[4] The management of adrenal crises includes the application of hydrocortisone injections.[46]

In secondary adrenal insufficiency, a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to decreased stimulation of the adrenal cortex. Apart from suppression of the axis by glucocorticoid therapy, the most common cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency are tumors that affect the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland.[6] This type of adrenal insufficiency usually does not affect the production of mineralocorticoids, which are under regulation of the reninangiotensin system instead.[4]

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a congenital disease in which mutations of enzymes that produce steroid hormones result in a glucocorticoid deficiency and malfunction of the negative feedback loop of the HPA axis. In the HPA axis, cortisol (a glucocorticoid) inhibits the release of CRH and ACTH, hormones that in turn stimulate corticosteroid synthesis. As cortisol cannot be synthesized, these hormones are released in high quantities and stimulate production of other adrenal steroids instead. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. 21-hydroxylase is necessary for production of both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, but not androgens. Therefore, ACTH stimulation of the adrenal cortex induces the release of excessive amounts of adrenal androgens, which can lead to the development of ambiguous genitalia and secondary sex characteristics.[30]

Adrenal tumors are commonly found as incidentalomas, unexpected asymptomatic tumors found during medical imaging. They are seen in around 3.4% of CT scans,[7] and in most cases they are benign adenomas.[47] Adrenal carcinomas are very rare, with an incidence of 1 case per million per year.[4]

Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific symptoms, which include headaches, sweating, anxiety and palpitations. Common signs include hypertension and tachycardia. Surgery, especially adrenal laparoscopy, is the most common treatment for small pheochromocytomas.[48]

Bartolomeo Eustachi, an Italian anatomist, is credited with the first description of the adrenal glands in 1563-4.[49][50] However, these publications were part of the papal library and did not receive public attention, which was first received with Caspar Bartholin the Elder’s illustrations in 1611.[50]

The adrenal glands are named for their location relative to the kidneys. The term “adrenal” comes from ad- (Latin, “near”) and renes (Latin, “kidney”).[51] Similarly, “suprarenal”, as termed by Jean Riolan the Younger in 1629, is derived from the Latin supra (Latin: “above”) and renes (Latin: kidney). The suprarenal nature of the glands was not truly accepted until the 19th century, as anatomists clarified the ductless nature of the glands and their likely secretory role prior to this, there was some debate as to whether the glands were indeed suprarenal or part of the kidney.[50]

One of the most recognized works on the adrenal glands came in 1855 with the publication of On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsule, by the English physician Thomas Addison. In his monography, Addison described what the French physician George Trousseau would later name Addison’s disease, an eponym still used today for a condition of adrenal insufficiency and its related clinical manifestations.[52] In 1894, English physiologists George Oliver and Edward Schafer studied the action of adrenal extracts and observed their pressor effects. In the following decades several physicians experimented with extracts from the adrenal cortex to treat Addison’s disease.[49] Edward Calvin Kendall, Philip Hench and Tadeusz Reichstein were then awarded the 1950 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries on the structure and effects of the adrenal hormones.[53]

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Nocturia or Frequent Urination at Night – National Sleep …

A frequent need to get up and go to the bathroom to urinate at night is called nocturia. It differs from enuresis, or bedwetting, in which the person does not arouse from sleep, but the bladder empties anyway. Nocturia is a common cause of sleep loss, especially among older adults.

Most people without nocturia can sleep for 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate. Some researchers believe that one event per night is within normal limits; two or more events per night may be associated with daytime tiredness. Patients with severe nocturia may get up five or six times during the night to go to the bathroom.

Nocturia is often a symptom of other medical conditions including urological infection, a tumor of the bladder or prostate, a condition called bladder prolapse, or disorders affecting sphincter control. It is also common in people with heart failure, liver failure, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, or diabetes insipidus. Diabetes, pregnancy and diuretic medications are also associated with nocturia.

Until recently, nocturia was thought to be caused by a full bladder, but it is also a symptom of sleep apnea.

Nocturia becomes more common as we age. As we get older, our bodies produce less of an anti-diuretic hormone that enables us to retain fluid. With decreased concentrations of this hormone, we produce more urine at night. Another reason for nocturia among the elderly is that the bladder tends to lose holding capacity as we age. Finally, older people are more likely to suffer from medical problems that may have an effect on the bladder.

In fact, nearly two-thirds (65%) of those responding to NSF’s 2003 Sleep in America poll of adults between the ages of 55 and 84 reported this disturbance at least a few nights per week.

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Nocturia or Frequent Urination at Night – National Sleep …

Get Paid to be an Apartment Mystery Shopper – Ellis Partners

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BEWARE of Email Shopping ScamsEllis has been made aware of an email scam regarding shop contracts for our company. Please be advised you can verify the legitimacy of ALL Ellis shop contracts that are available by logging into your Ellis shopper account or contacting us by email or phone. Ellis does not offer apartment shop contract opportunities by mail. If you have reason to believe you have received a fraudulent email or other type of communication involving Ellis shop contract opportunities (especially for any type of assignment other than a multifamily housing mystery shop), please notify us immediately so we can take proper action.

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Physician Assistant Studies (masters degree) | University …

What is a Physician Assistant?Physician assistants (PA) are health professionals who practice medicine as members of a team with their supervising physicians. PAs deliver a broad range of medical and surgical services to diverse populations in rural and urban settings. As part of their comprehensive responsibilities, PAs conduct physical exams, diagnose and treat illnesses, order and interpret tests, counsel on preventive health care, assist in surgery, and prescribe medications. PAs promote quality, cost effective medical care to all members of society. Physician assistants are certified by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA) and state-licensed.

How do PA graduates become eligible to practice?Physician Assistant Studiesgraduates are eligible to take the Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination. After successful completion of the examination, they are eligible for state certification and licensure to practice as certified physician assistants.

Program LocationsThe University of Kentucky PAS Program has two campuses: the Lexington campus is located in the Charles T. Wethington Building at the University of Kentucky and the Morehead Campus, which is housed in the Center for Health Education and Research (CHER Building) at Morehead State University.

AccreditationAt its 2017 March meeting, the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant (ARC-PA) placed the University of Kentucky Physician Assistant program sponsored by University of Kentucky on Accreditation-Probation status until its next review in 2019 March.Probation is a temporary status of accreditation conferred when a program does not meet the Standards and when the capability of the program to provide an acceptable educational experience for its students is threatened.Once placed on probation, programs that still fail to comply with accreditation requirements in a timely manner, as specified by the ARC-PA, may be scheduled for a focused site visit and/or risk having their accreditation withdrawn.Specific questions regarding the Program and its plans should be directed to the Program Director and/or the appropriate institutional official(s).

Program Director’s Response to Accreditation Status

UKPAS Program PANCE PerformanceUKPA Program PANCE Pass Rates please click here for the full report: UKPA PANCE Results

This document is subject to change due to changing tuition costs each academic year. You may check the University of Kentucky Registrar’swebsitefor the current tuition fees of the academic year. TheUKPAprogram will update the tuition and fee document for each new incoming cohort before matriculation in January.

Contact UsPhysician Assistant ProgramCollege of Health Sciences900 S. LimestoneLexington, KY 40536-0200

General InquiriesLexington 859- 218-0567Morehead 606-783-2051

Admissions AdvisementLexington 859-257-5001Morehead 606-783-2558

Transfer Credit859-218-0473

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Program Information Sheet(pdf)

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Hormone Questions? Ask Your Doctor These 6 Things | Sara …

If you read my blog or follow my work, you know that my mission is to help women weed through the myths and mysteries to uncover the truth: how to eat, how to move and how to live so you thrive in that powerful place of physical, mental and emotional well-being.

But at the end of the day, many of you still have health issues you have to address with conventional medicine. If youre lucky, you have a caring and committed physician who is willing to guide you in the process. If youre not so lucky? You can end up feeling frustrated and alone when your doctor doesnt listen to your concerns or when youre thrown yet another prescription for something that may or may not help you get better.

If you suspect you have a hormonal imbalance but youre concerned about how to approach your doctor, youre not alone. While I specialize in these types of issues, many general physicians may not investigate this area as a first plan of attack to treat health problems.

So what do you do when youre ready to broach the subject? How can you get the right answers, take the right tests and know that your doctor is on your side?

If youre willing to be candid, a little preparation can help you open the lines of communication and hopefully lead you to better health outcomes.

Doctors are no different from other working professionals who see clients or patients. Their time is usually limited, so its important to make the most of your appointment. A good step for initial preparation is to take my hormone quiz (you can access it online or in my book, The Hormone Cure). The results of this assessment should give both you and your doctor a general idea of what hormonal imbalances might be at play. With a few follow-up questions, your physician should be able to determine what tests might be needed to investigate the problem further.

It never hurts to present a physician with your own research on the topic that concerns you. If youve done your homework, feel free to bring along books, studies or other materials on the subject. This can help start the conversation, letting your doctor know that youre informed and serious about getting answers. Another research step you can take is to complete a comprehensive hormonal profile test at home (which can be purchased through the Canary Club) and take the results to your appointment.

If youve taken preliminary tests, done your research or have some other reason to suspect a problem (maybe you have a family history of low thyroid or an autoimmune condition, for example), dont be afraid to ask for specific tests. If, on the other hand, youre going into the conversation with little information, bring along a list of specific questions. You can then compare your doctors answers to your own research or you can get a second opinion.

If youre not confident in your physicians ability to help you address your concerns, its always OK to ask for a referral to an endocrinologist or someone who has more experience treating hormonal imbalance. You may also need to simply shop around for a doctor with whom you feel comfortable and supported.

While some physicians are great at blending traditional medicine with more holistic approaches, you might need to turn elsewhere for support in areas like nutrition, herbal medicine or natural hormone balance. It may be possible to work with your doctor but also to get support from a health coach, a nutritionist or some other type of practitioner who has the necessary qualifications. This might require a more proactive stance on your end youll need to make sure youre communicating important information with both the doctor and the practitioner (like your health history, supplements or herbs youre taking, etc.) But this type of combined approach can work if youre doing it safely and consulting both parties about the treatment youre receiving.

Finding a good doctor is like finding a good therapist, a good friend or a good job it can take some time and effort. Do your research, read patient reviews and study a physicians background, qualifications and approach before you even have a consultation. Like any other relationship, when its right, youll know.

Lastly, remember that the biggest advocate for your own treatment and care should be you. Ask the tough questions, be assertive and follow up your health may depend on it.

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Oxandrolone – Wikipedia

OxandroloneClinical dataTrade namesOxandrin, Anavar, othersSynonymsVar; CB-8075; NSC-67068; SC-11585; Protivar; 17-Methyl-2-oxa-4,5-dihydrotestosterone; 17-Methyl-2-oxa-DHT; 17-Methyl-2-oxa-5-androstan-17-ol-3-oneAHFS/Drugs.comMonographMedlinePlusa604024PregnancycategoryRoutes ofadministrationBy mouthDrug classAndrogen; Anabolic steroidATC codeLegal statusLegal statusPharmacokinetic dataBioavailability97%[2]Protein binding9497%[2]MetabolismKidneys (primarily), liver[1][2]Elimination half-lifeAdults: 9.410.4 hours[2][3]Elderly: 13.3 hours[3]ExcretionUrine: 28% (unchanged)[3]Feces: 3%[3]Identifiers

O=C3OC[C@@]2([C@H]1CC[C@@]4(C)[C@H]([C@@H]1CC[C@H]2C3)CC[C@@]4(O)C)C

Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.[4][5][6] It is taken by mouth.[4]

Side effects of oxandrolone include symptoms of masculinization like acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire.[4] Uniquely among most AAS that are active by mouth, it seems to have little risk of liver damage.[4][7] The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).[4][8] It has strong anabolic effects and weak androgenic effects, which give it a mild side effect profile and make it especially suitable for use in women.[4]

Oxandrolone was first described in 1962 and was introduced for medical use in 1964.[4] It is used mostly in the United States.[4][9] In addition to its medical use, oxandrolone is used to improve physique and performance.[4][10] The drug is a controlled substance in many countries and so non-medical use is generally illicit.[4][11][12][13]

Oxandrolone has been researched and prescribed as a treatment for a wide variety of conditions. It is FDA-approved for treating bone pain associated with osteoporosis, aiding weight gain following surgery or physical trauma, during chronic infection, or in the context of unexplained weight loss, and counteracting the catabolic effect of long-term corticosteroid therapy.[14][15] As of 2016[update], it is often prescribed off-label to quicken recovery from severe burns, aid the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and counteract HIV/AIDS-induced wasting. Oxandrolone improves both short-term and long-term outcomes in people recovering from severe burns and is well-established as a safe treatment for this indication.[5][6] It is also used in the treatment of idiopathic short stature, anemia, hereditary angioedema, alcoholic hepatitis, and hypogonadism.[16][17]

Medical research has established the effectiveness of oxandrolone in aiding the development of girls with Turner syndrome. Although oxandrolone has long been used to accelerate growth in children with idiopathic short stature, it is unlikely to increase adult height, and in some cases may even decrease it. Oxandrolone has, therefore, largely been replaced by growth hormone for this use.[18] Children with idiopathic short stature or Turner syndrome are given doses of oxandrolone far smaller than those given to people with burns in order to minimize the likelihood of virilization and premature maturation.[18][19]

Many bodybuilders and athletes use oxandrolone for its muscle-building effects.[4] It is much more anabolic than androgenic, so women and those seeking less intense steroid regimens use it particularly often.[4] Many also value oxandrolone’s low hepatotoxicity relative to most other orally active AAS.[4]

Like other AAS, oxandrolone may worsen hypercalcemia by increasing osteolytic bone resorption.[14] When taken by pregnant women, oxandrolone may have unintended effects such as masculinization on the fetus.[14]

Women who are administered oxandrolone may experience virilization, irreversible development of masculine features such as voice deepening, hirsutism, menstruation abnormalities, male-pattern hair loss, and clitoral enlargement.[18][14][19] Oxandrolone may disrupt growth in children, reducing their adult height.[20][bettersourceneeded] Because of these side effects, doses given to women and children are minimized and people are usually monitored for virilization and growth abnormalities.[18][19] Like other androgens, oxandrolone can cause or worsen acne and priapism (unwanted or prolonged erections).[14][20] Oxandrolone can also reduce males’ fertility, another side effect common among androgens.[20] In an attempt to compensate for the exogenous increase in androgens, the body may reduce testosterone production via testicular atrophy and inhibition of gonadotropic activity.[14]

Unlike some AAS, oxandrolone does not generally cause gynecomastia because it is not aromatized into estrogenic metabolites.[21] However, although no reports of gynecomastia were made in spite of widespread use, oxandrolone was reported in a publication in 1991 to have been associated with 33cases of gynecomastia in adolescent boys treated with it for short stature.[22][23] The gynecomastia developed during oxandrolone therapy in 19 of the boys and after the therapy was completed in 14 of the boys, and 10 of the boys had transient gynecomastia, while 23 had persistent gynecomastia that necessitated mastectomy.[22][23] Though transient gynecomastia is a natural and common occurrence in pubertal boys, the gynecomastia associated with oxandrolone was of a late/delayed onset and was persistent in a high percentage of the cases.[22][23] As such, the researchers stated, “although oxandrolone cannot be implicated as stimulatory [in] gynecomastia”, a possible relationship should be considered in clinicians using oxandrolone in adolescents for growth stimulation.[22][23]

Uniquely among 17-alkylated AAS, oxandrolone shows little to no hepatotoxicity, even at high doses.[7][unreliable medical source?][24] No cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been singularly attributed to oxandrolone.[24] However, elevated liver enzymes have been observed in some people, particularly with high doses and/or prolonged treatment, although they return to normal ranges following discontinuation.[24] In any case, oxandrolone may be among the safest 17-alkylated AAS in terms of hepatotoxicity.[7][unreliable medical source?]

Oxandrolone greatly increases warfarin’s blood-thinning effect, sometimes dangerously so.[25] In April 2004, Savient Pharmaceuticals published a safety alert through the FDA warning healthcare professionals of this.[26] Oxandrolone can also inhibit the metabolism of oral hypoglycemic agents.[14] It may worsen edema when taken alongside corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone.[14]

Like other AAS, oxandrolone is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), similarly to androgens like testosterone and DHT.[4] This increases protein synthesis, which increases muscle growth, lean body mass, and bone mineral density.[6]

Compared to testosterone and many other AAS, oxandrolone is less androgenic relative to its strength as an anabolic.[4][27] Oxandrolone has about 322 to 633% of the anabolic potency and 24% of the androgenic potency of methyltestosterone.[4] Similarly, oxandrolone has as much as 6times the anabolic potency of testosterone and has significantly reduced androgenic potency in comparison.[4] The reduced ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity of oxandrolone often motivates its medical use in children and women because less androgenic effect implies less risk of virilization.[4] The bodybuilding community also considers this fact when choosing between AAS.[4]

As oxandrolone is already 5-reduced, it is not a substrate for 5-reductase and hence is not potentiated in androgenic tissues such as the skin, hair follicles, and prostate gland.[4] This is involved in its reduced ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity.[4] Due to the substitution of one of the carbon atoms with an oxygen atom at the C2 position in the A ring, oxandrolone is resistant to inactivation by 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle.[4] This is in contrast to DHT and is thought to underlie the preserved anabolic potency with oxandrolone.[4] Because it is 5-reduced, oxandrolone is not a substrate for aromatase and hence cannot be aromatized into metabolites with estrogenic activity.[4] Oxandrolone similarly possesses no progestogenic activity.[4]

Oxandrolone is, uniquely, far less hepatotoxic than other 17-alkylated AAS, which may be due to differences in metabolism.[24][4][1][3]

The oral bioavailability of oxandrolone is 97%.[2] Its plasma protein binding is 94 to 97%.[2] The drug is metabolized primarily by the kidneys and to a lesser extent by the liver.[1][2] Oxandrolone is the only AAS that is not primarily or extensively metabolized by the liver, and this is thought to be related to its diminished hepatotoxicity relative to other AAS.[1][3] Its elimination half-life is reported as 9.4 to 10.4hours but is extended to 13.3hours in the elderly.[2][3] Approximately 28% of an oral dose of oxandrolone is eliminated unchanged in the urine and 3% is excreted in the feces.[3]

Oxandrolone is a synthetic androstane steroid and a 17-alkylated derivative of DHT.[28][29][4] It is also known as 2-oxa-17-methyl-5-dihydrotestosterone (2-oxa-17-methyl-DHT) or as 2-oxa-17-methyl-5-androstan-17-ol-3-one, and is DHT with a methyl group at the C17 position and the C2 carbon replaced with an oxygen atom.[28][29][4] Closely related AAS include the marketed AAS mestanolone (17-methyl-DHT), oxymetholone (2-hydroxymethylene-17-methyl-DHT), and stanozolol (a 2,3-pyrazole A ring-fused derivative of 17-methyl-DHT) and the never-marketed/designer AAS desoxymethyltestosterone (3-deketo-17-methyl-2-DHT), methasterone (2,17-dimethyl-DHT), methyl-1-testosterone (17-methyl-1-DHT), and methylstenbolone (2,17-dimethyl-1-DHT).[28][29][4]

Oxandrolone was first made by Raphael Pappo and Christopher J. Jung while at Searle Laboratories (now part of Pfizer). The researchers first described the drug in 1962.[4][30][31] They were immediately interested in oxandrolone’s very weak androgenic effects relative to its anabolic effects.[30][4] It was introduced as a pharmaceutical drug in the United States in 1964.[4]

The drug was prescribed to promote muscle regrowth in disorders which cause involuntary weight loss, and is used as part of treatment for HIV/AIDS.[4] It had also been shown to be partially successful in treating cases of osteoporosis.[4] However, in part due to bad publicity from its illicit use by bodybuilders, production of Anavar was discontinued by Searle Laboratories in 1989.[4] It was picked up by Bio-Technology General Corporation, which changed its name to Savient Pharmaceuticals, which following successful clinical trials in 1995, released it under the brand name Oxandrin.[4] BTG subsequently won approvals for orphan drug status by the Food and Drug Administration for treating alcoholic hepatitis, Turner syndrome, and HIV-induced weight loss.[4] It is also indicated as an offset to protein catabolism caused by long-term administration of corticosteroids.[4]

Oxandrolone is the generic name of the drug and its INN, USAN, USP, BAN, DCF, DCIT, and JAN, while ossandrolone is or was formerly the DCIT.[28][29][32][9][33]

The original brand name of oxandrolone was Anavar, which was marketed in the United States and the Netherlands.[4][34] This product was eventually discontinued and replaced in the United States with a new product named Oxandrin, which is the sole remaining brand name for oxandrolone in the United States.[4][35] Oxandrolone has also been sold under the brand names Antitriol (Spain), Anatrophill (France), Lipidex (Brazil), Lonavar (Argentina, Australia, Italy), Protivar, and Vasorome (Japan) among others.[4][29][34][36] Additional brand names exist for products that are manufactured for the steroid black market.[4]

Among those using oxandrolone for non-medical purposes, it is often referred to colloquially as “Var”, a shortened form of the brand name Anavar.[37][38][39][self-published source]

Oxandrolone is one of the few AAS that remains available for medical use in the United States.[35] The others (as of November 2017) are testosterone, testosterone cypionate, testosterone enanthate, testosterone undecanoate, methyltestosterone, fluoxymesterone, nandrolone decanoate, and oxymetholone.[35]

Outside of the United States, the availability of oxandrolone is quite limited.[4][9] With the exception of Moldova, it is no longer available in Europe.[4] Oxandrolone is available in some less regulated markets in Asia such as Malaysia.[4] It is also available in Mexico.[4] Historically, oxandrolone has been marketed in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, France, Italy, Japan, and Spain, but it appears to no longer be available in these countries.[4][29][34][9]

In the United States, oxandrolone is categorized as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act along with many other AAS.[11] It is a Schedule IV controlled substance in Canada,[12] and a Schedule 4 Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.[13]

Oxandrolone is sometimes used as a doping agent in sports. There are known cases of doping in sports with oxandrolone by professional athletes.

Read more:
Oxandrolone – Wikipedia

Hormone Health Course – 6 Month Program

Convenient, Flexible Online Learning Platform

24-7 access to course materials, so you can study when its convenient for you and learn from anywhere with a Wi-Fi connection.

These online trainings start with the fundamentals and go beyond the basics of hormonal health to give you a comprehensive education on the entire endocrine system, specific health issues associated with hormone imbalances, and strategies to address hormonal issues from a bio-individual perspective.

Ask our moderators all your questions and connect with other students in the course through this exclusive Facebook group. Youll receive ongoing support and motivation as you complete the program so you never feel stuck or alone.

Easily guide clients through plans designed to support the health and balance of the thyroid, adrenals, liver, and gut, so you can help them achieve the good health they desire.

Supplemental materials in every module including handouts, skill building activities, and reference materials help you refer back to important concepts, apply what you learn to real life experiences, test your knowledge, and get the most out of this essential course.

Easily guide clients through plans designed to support the health and balance of the thyroid, adrenals, liver, and gut, so you can help them achieve the good health they desire.

Supplemental materials in every module including handouts, skill building activities, and reference materials help you refer back to important concepts, apply what you learn to real life experiences, test your knowledge, and get the most out of this essential course.

Go here to see the original:
Hormone Health Course – 6 Month Program

BioTE Medical – Official Site

A simpler question is how do you know if your hormones aren’t balanced? You will likely feel unwell and not be able to figure out why. The practitioners certified by BioTE Medical have seen the life-changing results time and time again; balanced hormones can change your life.

Learn More

Studies have shown that balanced hormones are necessary for good health and disease prevention for women and men throughout the entire life cycle. However, balanced hormones become even more critical for health as we grow older and more susceptible to disease.

Learn More

BioTE Medical optimizes hormone levels with bio-identical hormone pellets. Hormone optimization is a process by which levels of hormones throughout the body are equalized through continual absorption of BHRT pellets, leading to peak levels of health and wellbeing.

Learn More

Hormone pellets release bio-identical hormones into the bloodstream continuously. These are tiny pellets just under the skin, typically placed in the upper hip. BHRT pellets are smaller than a grain of rice and are consistently effective for between 3 and 6 months.

Learn More

See the rest here:
BioTE Medical – Official Site

The Hormone Center – Alternative Medicine | Holistic …

A Doctor’s Journey

I started to realize something was wrong when I saw a patient who was on 10 medications. The first five dealt with ailments while the second five were for the side effects of the first five. Despite the medications, the patient didn’t feel any better. This was the beginning of my inquiry into another way to practice medicine.

Sometimes our practice gets lumped into the alternative medicine category. And while we are open to additional ways to treat illness, our protocols are based on science and deduction.

The Hormone Center is much more than a hormone treatment center or just a hormone physician. We practice integrativemedicine, which is sometimes confused with functionalmedicine.

We believe that medications are not always the answer and can often mask the true underlying conditions and imbalances. Even my kids chuckle when they see drug commercials that spend 15 seconds on the benefits and 45 seconds on the side effects.

And unfortunately ‘healthcare in the U.S. is mistitled. It should be called sick-care because most people only engage the medical system when theyre sick, not when theyre healthy.

Our “hormone specialists” believe the following:

We believe that most people dont want to be on medications or live a sub-standard life but they often don’t know what else to do.

At our core, we believe that from an evolutionary standpoint, the body is built to heal itself. Our job is to clear the obstacles and support the body, before resorting to more invasive measures. If this belief makes us alternative medicine doctors, then so be it.

We look forward to meeting you!

– Lauren D. Loya, M.D.

Founder and Medical Director of The Hormone Center

At The Hormone Center, we put an underlying focus on the cause, not the symptom. We are an integrative medicine practice and put our clients first. Some of our most sought-after services include:

See the rest here:
The Hormone Center – Alternative Medicine | Holistic …

Good Hormone Health | Become a Healthier You

Does this sound like you? Too tired to function during the day, but cant sleep at night. Keep gaining weight in spite of eating clean and working out with a personal trainer. Becoming depressed, moody and irritable. Achy. Sweating. Bloated. Ever thought you had a hormonal disorder or wanted to have your thyroid thoroughly checked. You may want to look over the information on the Goodhormonehealth.com website and see if making an appointment with Dr. Friedman is appropriate.

The key to getting your life back starts with getting the right information from an expert Endocrinologist who is dedicated to educating and treating patients with all types of hormonal disorders. Goodhormonehealth is dedicated to providing just that. Check out our collection of articles backed by research, provided by Theodore C. Friedman, MD, PhD on the detection and treatment of hormone imbalances, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal disorders, low testosterone, menopause and Cushings disease/syndrome. You can then decide if you want to make an appointment with Dr. Friedman.

So many of us believe that fatigue, weight gain, loss of libido and other problems are just symptoms we must learn to live with. What if these symptoms are not the result of stress, diet, or aging, but are actually caused by a hormonal disorder? Symptoms of hormone deficiency or excess may be subtle and difficult to diagnose. Many hormonal problems are misdiagnosed as depression, especially in women.You know your own body better than anyone else, and you know when something is wrong. Dr. Friedman is a compassionate, caring physician who will listen carefully to your concerns and work with you to establish a diagnosis and treatment plan. As an experienced, board-certified endocrinologist and researcher, he has the capabilities to diagnose and treat even the most difficult hormonal problems. Dr. Friedman has found that many of his patients suffer from undiagnosed pituitary, thyroid or adrenal problems or are improperly treated for these conditions. These include many people with Cushings disease, which can present with a baffling array of symptoms and is frequently misdiagnosed. Other patients may have pituitary, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency, each of which have numerous symptoms and are equally hard to diagnose. Menopause is a challenging time and Dr. Friedman specializing in treating women with menopause. Dr. Friedman is a world-renown expert in these difficult-to-diagnose diseases and is happy to see patients from around the country (and around the world) who need a straight answer to their hormone problems. Dr. Friedman is a take action doctor who wont delay treatment and just tell you to come back in 3 months. He thinks out of the box (yet is well-grounded in conventional Endocrinology) and often diagnoses hormonal problems where other doctors have failed. Dr. Friedman is not an anti-aging doctor and works to return low hormones levels to normal unlike anti-aging doctors who give high doses of hormones often to those with normal levels. Dr. Friedman listens to symptoms and uses reliable laboratories for testing.

Dr. Friedman appeared as an expert Endocrinologist (along with his patient Kate) in a program called Science of Obesity, which was produced for and aired on the National Geographic Channel.

Find out more on pertinent endocrine issues. Dr. Friedman give tips to readers about how they can improve or augment actions in their life to have ahealthylifestyle.

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Good Hormone Health | Become a Healthier You

Hypothyroidism – Symptoms, Treatment, and More

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid glanda small, butterfly-shaped gland in your neckdoes not produce enough thyroid hormone. It is sometimes referred to as an “underactive” thyroid. Hypothyroidism slows down a person’s metabolism, leading to symptoms like weight gain, sluggishness, feeling cold, and more. A simple blood test called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) can diagnose hypothyroidism, and thyroid hormone replacement medication can treat it.

By gaining knowledge about hypothyroidism, including what it feels like to have this thyroid problem, and how it’s diagnosed and managed, you will be more prepared and self-assured as you embark on your thyroid journey.

A look at the anatomy of the thyroid, located above the collarbone.

Your thyroid gland uses dietary iodine to make thyroid hormone. When there is a deficiency in thyroid hormone, your body has trouble using energy and staying warm.

Your muscles, brain, and other organs may also have trouble functioning.

The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism are variable and can be subtle, even mistaken for stress or another medical problem.

Here is a closer look at some of the symptoms a person with an underactive thyroid may experience:

There are a number of health issues and conditions that cause hypothyroidism.

The autoimmune disease Hashimotos thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. In this disease, antibodies attack the thyroid gland, making it incapable of functioning properly.

Post-surgical hypothyroidism refers to insufficient thyroid hormone due to surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. Surgery on the thyroid is known as a thyroidectomy.

Radiation-induced hypothyroidism may occur from radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, which is used to treat hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Exposure to radiation treatments to the head and neck, or radioactive fallout from nuclear accidents like Chernobyl or Fukushima, may also cause hypothyroidism.

With congenital hypothyroidism, newborns come into the world without a thyroid gland or with a partial thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism may also result from taking certain medications (called drug-induced hypothyroidism). While this is not a comprehensive list, some of the more commonly known medications include:

Hypothyroidism can occur with too little iodine consumption (called iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism) or if too much iodine is consumed (called iodine-induced hypothyroidism).

In secondary or central hypothyroidism, the pituitary gland (located in your brain) is damaged (from a tumor, radiation, or surgery) and is unable to trigger your thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone.

Rarely, hypothyroidism from infiltrative diseases (for example, sarcoidosis or hemochromatosis) can deposit substances (like granulomas or iron, respectively) into the thyroid gland, reducing its ability to function.

The diagnosis of hypothyroidism requires a clinical examination and blood tests.

Clinical Examination In addition to a clinical thyroid examination, which includes a manual and visual examination of the thyroid gland, a doctor will also perform a physical examination to look for signs of hypothyroidism. Some of these signs include dry, coarse skin, a slow heart rate, slow reflexes, and swelling.

Blood Tests

The main blood test used to diagnose hypothyroidism is the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test. This test measures TSH, a pituitary hormone. TSH rises when it detects low levels of thyroid hormone, and drops when it detects excess thyroid hormone. Laboratories have established a reference range, and levels above the reference range are considered potentially indicative of hypothyroidism.

In addition, the unbound and available levels of the actual circulating thyroid hormonesfree thyroxine (free T4) and free triiodothyronine (free T3)may be measured. There are reference ranges for these two hormone tests, and levels below the reference range (showing that there is insufficient free T4 and/or free T3) are considered indicative of hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism is treated with a thyroid hormone replacement drug, which is a medication that replaces the missing thyroid hormone in the body.

LevothyroxineThe most commonly prescribed thyroid hormone replacement drug is known generically as levothyroxine, a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4).

LiothyronineThere is also a synthetic form of the T3 hormone, known as liothyronine. It is sometimes added to levothyroxine as part of a therapy known as T4/T3 combination treatment, though this practice is considered controversial by the many endocrinologists and mainstream practitioners.

Natural Desiccated ThyroidFinally, there is a hormone replacement drug called natural desiccated thyroid, sometimes abbreviated NDT or called “thyroid extract.” NDT contains natural forms of both T4 and T3. While it has been available for more than a century, and is still in use today, it is considered controversial by the mainstream medical community and is prescribed more often by integrative, functional, and holistic physicians, as compared to endocrinologists and conventional physicians.

The official guidelines of various endocrinology organizations position levothyroxine as the preferred treatment, and discourage both T4/T3 combination therapy and use of NDT.

A Word From Verywell

Whether you (or a loved one) has been recently diagnosed with hypothyroidism, or you are being currently treated for it, but still not feeling right, please know that you are not alone. Continue to seek knowledge about your thyroid disease and remain resilient as you navigate this sometimes taxing journey.

Also, remember that living well with hypothyroidism is not just about medication. It’s also important to eat well, get enough rest, make time for exercise and play, and manage your stress. And even if you feel like youre fighting an uphill battle with doctors, treatments, and debilitating symptoms, don’t give up. You will eventually find the answers that will help you live well and feel well.

Sources:

American Thyroid Association. (n.d.). Hypothyroidism (Underactive).

Braverman, L, Cooper D. Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid, 10th Edition. WLL/Wolters Kluwer; 2012.

Garber J et. al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hypothyroidism in Adults: Cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract. 2012 Nov-Dec;18(6):988-1028.

Read the original here:
Hypothyroidism – Symptoms, Treatment, and More

2018s 100% Real HCG Drops Real HCG Hormone Drops

last update January 15th 2018

List of Top HCG DropsSuppliers(with comparison chart)

The real hcg hormone drops can be purchased only from certain merchants and you should always double check whether they are authentic, original, legit and 100% pure. Everyone knows that there are loads of crappy company and sites selling fake hcg hormone drops. However, before you continue with your purchase, you might need to know the things you should look out for:

1. It should be pharmaceutical grade HCG. A pharmaceutical grade HCG is nothing but purest form of HCG. On the other hand, other types of HCG have hormones diluted with it reducing the effectiveness.

2. The HCG should be manufactured within US. Never Buy HCG supplied from Third world countries as they do not meet quality guidelines and might contain microbes.

3. Finally and most important of all, the process of manufacturing HCG must be approved by the FDA. If the merchant has this certificate then you can buy from them blindly. This will ensure that you are buying the real hcg drops and not fake ones.

Of all the real HCG suppliers HCG Complex is the best and meets all the above criteria. Moreover, they have great inventory that beats other suppliers.

Note: For a Limited Time HCG Complex is providing Buy One Get One Offer.

We have also listed a number of top HCG suppliers for your convenience. Browse each supplier and choose your product independently.

There are new and exiting offers for the year 2018. Therefore, ensure to check them out.

Obesity has become prevalent across the world. As a result, number of rapid weight loss programs and solutions have been developed. One of the effective solutions is HCG drops. They offer a painless, convenient and fast way to shed large pounds of weight in a short period. They contain HCG hormone that develops in considerable quantities during pregnancy. This hormone influences how the fats are utilized in the body. It is very effective for weight loss as it signals your hypothalamus to convert your fat deposits into energy. If you want to shed the extra pounds of weight, you should first learn how to find legit hcg drops, buy them and adhere to strict diet. This is important if you want to achieve the desired results. There are many reports published that reveal effectiveness of hcg drops for rapid weight loss.

HCG drops are simply drops you place on the tongue and it is comprised of HCG hormone. It may be found in shakes and some other products. The drops are scientifically proven to assist with weight loss. The oral administering is a good alternative to the injections. It is great, cheaper, way to losing weight on hcg diet. It attracts minimal costs and maximum dosage, no unnecessary trips to doctors and you are free to increase the dosage yourself to get desired results. The following are some of the important things you should consider on how to find legit hcg drops online:

A simple search online will yield a lot of products, companies and reviews. Any blog or review you are reading should cover quality of documentation. In addition, instructions about the product need to be included. The instructions ought to cover basics of diet; its implementation and it can be maintained throughout. It is important to note that the diet is very powerful and it will produce stunning weight loss results in short period. However, this is only possible if you adhere to diets guidelines. On the other hand, using inaccurate dieting instructions is likely to make your purchase useless. Therefore, a good review ought to list products or supporting information that comes with the purchase. All materials that are provided with your product need to describe the particular dosage instructions.

It is important to note that it is the ingredients that make hcg drops work. Therefore, they are very essential part of the information on how to find legit hcg drops. All the ingredients must be listed and their effect briefly explained. In this way you will be able to find out whether your hcg drops are going to work or not. Generally, the ingredients should follow guidelines set by FDA. Therefore, they should be manufactured in FDA approved facility. Homeopathic HCG is illegal in according to FDA. It is unfortunate that some manufacturing firms have incorporated illegal ingredients in their HCG drops products.

Simply, if all the ingredients of HCG drops are not listed, then never trust that product. In fact, failure to disclose the ingredients is a red flag and should be treated that way.

Most HCG drop reviews do not have price comparisons. You need price comparisons in order to find right products that meet your budget. Ideally, they should compare the size and price of every product. All these are important characteristics to give a consideration. This is because dosage plays an important role as it helps determine the duration your dosage will last.

You should note that not all HCG drops manufacturing companies are trustworthy and reputable. You should look for companies, which offer generous product guarantees and return policies. Some guarantees do have absurd rules in fine print, which are meant to discourage returns. A reputable company that offers legal hcg drops should offer solid guarantees and solid return policies. Such guarantees are important as they ensure that the company you are dealing with believes in its products and it is confident that you will be satisfied with them. Also, the company you are dealing with should have prominent contact customer support and phone number.

Any review you are reading about hcg drops should not promote a particular product. Ideally, it should offer honest and unbiased information about the products. This is the best way to ensure that all information you are getting is true.

You should note that hcg diet is available in different forms. However, diet drops is still the most popular form currently on the market. Therefore, before spending your hard-earned money, it makes sense to read legal hcg drops reviews. The information you get will be of help in finding best products from reputable companies.

Not all legal hcg drops are made equal. A number of homeopathic varieties have cropped up with the main intention of scamming customers. Homeopathic simply means the product contains no dosage at all or contains a small dosage. You will note that hcg diet is quite strict about need for the real dosages to make hcg effective. Generally, 500 calories and clinical dosages are needed daily to achieve the desired results.

Previously, it had become difficult for the customers to acquire real, legal, non-homeopathic hcg drops. But nowadays, it is possible to find genuine hcg drops that offer same results as injections.

One of the benefits of these drops is the instant results you get. In fact, the results are noted faster as compared to other diet products that take months. During the first days, you body begins feeling lighter. This will inspire and keep motivating you. Secondly, you will not have a constant hunger. This makes hcg drops perfect solution for people with busy lifestyles who want to lose weight. You will be able to continue working on important things without worrying about losing weight loss. This is possible as hcg hormone eliminates hunger feeling. While taking these drops, it is not a must to couple with exercises. The results are possible without exercises and there is no need to actively change your lifestyle. Lastly, it is a cost effective method of losing weight.

note: a recent research had indicates HCG diet is healthy as it is low in carbs.

HCG stands for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. It is a hormone that is produced within the body of pregnant women.

HCG is generally extracted from the urine of pregnant women. After 11 days of conception the body of pregnant women starts to produce HCG hormone. The amount of HCG within a pregnant womans body doubles every 45 hours or 90 hours. This level increases until the woman is 11 weeks pregnant. After that period the amount of HCG decreases steadily.

For Introduction to HCG diet Click Here

Any HCG hormone that is purest in its form without any other addition of hormone is known as pure HCG and in fact it is also known as pharmaceutical HCG.

It is a form of HCG that is known as homeopathic and does not contain much of HCG. And for your kind Information we would also like to state that Homeopathic HCG drops are not as effective as the real ones. Moreover, the FDA considers homeopathic HCG drops as Illegal as they shouldnt be prescribed within the US.

Dr Simeons was the first to find that HCG when consumed with low calorie diet can lead to weight loss. It was in India while studying pregnant women that he came to the conclusion. He wrote all his findings and published them as a book which today is sold worldwide called as Pounds and Inches.

The HCG works in several ways. For first it increases metabolism of the body so that it can burn more fat. Secondly, while being on HCG diet with low calorie the hormone programs the brain to stick with low fatty foods and avert themselves of high fatty substances. Therefore, even if you have stopped with your HCG diet you will still be able to lose weight.

Thirdly, It keeps the leans muscle from losing as it targets only the fat cells.

No, it is not possible to lose weight only on HCG hormone alone. You will have to accompany the meal protocol that is mentioned in the book Pounds and Inches written by Dr. Simeons. However, there are many other modern authors that have polished the works of Dr Simeons and have presented the works as theirs.

Ideally the diet will supply calorie anywhere from 500 to 800 per day.

Yes, it is completely safe as long as you eat the right mentioned foods. The meal protocol was meant to provide your body with whole nutrition keeping the calorie in check. Therefore, it is very important that you follow the meal protocol especially meant for HCG diet. Also check our HCG Mythsand a True story of weight loss on Shape.com

For the first week you might a little hard to keep on the low calorie food and you might get frequent cravings. However, from the second week you will noticed that you have adapted to the low calorie diet and you will no longer have those cravings. Moreover, the HCG hormone in itself is a hunger suppressant. Therefore, you do not have to worry about cravings as you will soon manage them within a week or two.

No, you cannot exercise while on the HCG diet. This is because while on the diet your body will burn fat at its maximum potential. Further increasing the metabolism through exercise will shoot the metabolism even higher. This can lead to imbalance within the body or will cause you to eat more. Eventually, you will end up in failing the weight loss. Hence, exercise during the HCG diet is strictly prohibited.

You will lose more weight that with any other diet. If you are following the meal protocol exactly then it is possible to lose up to 3 lbs per day. However, on average people lose at least one lbs per day.

It depends on you as only you know how much weight you wish to lose. A single bottle of HCG drops (1 oz) helps in losing around 7 to 12 lbs. The time it takes is a month on average. Therefore, if you wish to lose 50 lbs then we strongly recommend following the diet for at least 4 months in a row. Yes, you need to follow in a row as only then you will be able to lose weight. Skipping the HCG diet every month will throw your system to into chaos as it will forced to choose between fatty food consumption and low calorie consumption. Therefore, before starting your HCG diet plan it accordingly and decide for how long you wish to be on the diet and how much weight is needed to be lost.

After Dr. Simeons published his findings in a book the whole weight loss industry was thrown over as his diet became the most popular diet to lose weight instantly. However, FDA has yet to find any claims as to whether the HCG really helps in losing weight. Therefore, The FDA hasnt given its approval for HCG as a weight loss supplement. click here to see what FDA thinks about HCG diet.

FDA certified manufacturing process and FDA approved are two different things. The first says the manufacturing of the product is approved by the FDA (only the process not product). The second says that the product is approved and the HCG has no approval from FDA as a weight loss product.

Yes, as long as you buy from a legit seller. Before purchasing from any seller ensure that they are selling real hcg drops and not homeopathic. Secondly, do not buy from any other country except US as HCG imported to US from other countries is considered illegal and might carry infection.

Well, we have some great recommendation on our blog over here. However, if you ask which is the best of best then you must have noticed our recommendation at the top for HCG triumph which is a great brand as all their HCG drops are pharmaceutical grades. Moreover, they even have various types of HCG bottles for people for different tastes like homeopathics and HCG without Hormone.

Yes, actually there are many. We ask you to take a look at our top HCG brands and start out from there. It contains some awesome sites and they are great for casual purchase like a single bottle or for bundle packages. We update the page regularly and if you think we have missed any brand that is worth mentioning over there then kindly let us know through the contact page or comments.

If you are buying from a local store then yes you will need a prescription. However, if you are purchasing from online store then you wont probably need a prescription.

Most online sellers do not test you or ask for any work. However, we strongly advice that you get checked up by your personal physician and get to know if you are fit for the HCG diet. Some people are not meant to be on the low calorie diet and hence we suggest that you do not jump on HCG diet. Rather treat with it cautiously. It has known to cause arrhythmia in some cases.

The side effects of HCG drops are abdomen pain, nausea and loose stools. Other side effects might be possible. Check with your doctor.

This is a most common question and however, depends on the manufacturer and the case in which it is bottled. If you have purchased from a retailer who has manufactured in a lab approved by FDA and the glass bottle is colored to filter out sunlight then it is possible that the hormone would stay good for at least a year.

Note: HCG has also received some negative reviews like this one and yet people still trust it because it really does help in weight loss.

Disclaimer: All the above mentioned information should not be considered as an alternative to medial advise. Readers are advised to make their independent decision before purchasing HCG Diet or Drops.

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2018s 100% Real HCG Drops Real HCG Hormone Drops

Finest Bioidentical Hormone Doctors | Hormone Specialist

Dr. Edmund Chein, M.D., author of Age Reversal, Bio-Identical Hormones and Telomerase, and Living to 120 and Beyond, has appeared on various radio and television shows such as:

Dr. Chein is a practicing physician in Palm Springs, California who is regarded by many as one of the founding fathers of longevity and anti-aging medicine.Today, he is known as one of the best bioidentical hormone doctors in the world.

His method of life extension was recently validated by achieving a biological age of 34 as measured by telomere length in the DNA at the calendar age of 61. His patients, who had followed him since 1994, achieved similar results.

He is offering a cash reward of $25,000 to the public for anyone who can show a difference of greater than 27 years between the persons biological age and calendar age.

Dr. Chein was trained at the University of Southern California Medical Center in Rehabilitation Medicine a specialty focused on restoring function to disabled patients. Now, Dr. Chein has narrowed his specialty to rehabilitating those suffering from the disease of aging. He considers aging to be a disease because aging, like any other disease, ultimately leads to death.

Dr. Chein learned the importance of hormone balancing during the years he replaced hormones in patients with damaged glands. In the early 1990s, he researched and discovered the miraculous benefits of the total hormone balancing treatment. His study with Dr. Cass Terry of the Medical College of Wisconsin showed that by replacing and balancing all the hormones in ones body, a person can improve and normalize the bodys systems and functions that deteriorate with age. This results in REVERSING ones biological age and eliminating age-related diseases such as elevated cholesterol, increased body fat, decreased energy and stamina, decreased immunity, decreased sexual functions, and wrinkling of skin. Together, they completed the largest study to date (of 1,000 human subjects) on supplementing growth hormone and other hormones to achieve reversal of biological age.

Dr. Chein was the first hormone doctor in the United States to discover and patent total hormone balancing therapy. He was also the first physician to supplement and optimize human growth hormone in adults in a private practice. In addition, Dr. Chein was the first physician to advocate supplementing thymus hormone and pregnenolone hormone.

Hormone specialist, Dr. Cheins work has been discussed in Newsweek, Health and Medicine for Physicians, Ability, Cosmopolitan, and Life Extension Magazine, to name a few.

In 1994, Dr. Chein founded the Palm Springs Life Extension Institute. The Institute is visited by hundreds of new patients from all over the world, and has the largest clinical client base in hormone replacement therapy. In 1996, he founded the American Academy of Longevity Medicine for bioidentical hormone physicians and scientists to pursue and exchange ideas regarding this new specialty.

In 2010, Dr. Chein founded the Autologous Stem Cell Therapy Institute. Autologous Stem Cell Therapy uses peripheral-blood-derived and adipose-tissue-derived autologous stem cells to regenerate damaged joints (such as torn meniscuses) and damaged organs such as the lungs (emphysema) and the brain (stroke).

He has been granted three patents by the United States Patent and Trademark Office for his discoveries in Total Hormone Replacement Therapy, Method of Hormone Treatment for Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, and Reversal of Coronary Blockages.

His publications include Clinical Experience Using a Low-Dose, High-Frequency Human Growth Hormone Treatment Regimen, Journal of Advancement in Medicine, December 1999, and Retrospective Analysis of the Effects of Low-Dose, High-Frequency Human Growth Hormone Treatment on Serum Lipids and Prostate-Specific Antigen, American Journal of Aging, May 2001.

In addition to his medical degree, Dr. Chein has a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from the University of Southern California and a Juris Doctor degree from Southwestern University School of Law.

Dr. Chein, a renowned name among bioidentical hormone doctors, has written three books:Age Reversal (1997)Bio-Identical Hormones and Telomerase (2011)Living to 120 and Beyond (2013)

Dr. Chein is often asked to speak publicly. Recent Activity

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Finest Bioidentical Hormone Doctors | Hormone Specialist

Slideshow: Hormone Imbalance: Symptoms and Treatment

IMAGES PROVIDED BY:

1) Getty Images

2) Amie Brink/WebMD

3) Thinkstock Photos

4) Thinkstock Photos

5) Getty Images

6) Thinkstock Photos

7) Thinkstock Photos

8) Getty Images

9) Getty Images

10) Getty Images

11) Thinkstock Photos

12) Thinkstock Photos

13) Photolibrary.com

SOURCES:

David Adamson, M.D., clinical professor, Stanford University School of Medicine, CEO of ARC Fertility, Saratoga, California.

Alyssa Dweck, M.D., assistant clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City.

Jenna LoGiudice, PhD, CNM, RN, assistant professor, Fairfield Universitys School of Nursing, Fairfield, CT.

American Academy of Dermatology: Hormonal Factors Key to Understanding Acne in Women

Cleveland Clinic: Menstrual Cycle

Gao, Q., Endocrinology and Metabolism, May 2008

Gov.UK: Hormone Headaches

Harvard Medical School: Testosterone Therapy: Is It For Women? Perimenopause: Rocky road to menopause, Dealing With Menopause Symptoms

Johns Hopkins Medicine: Hormone Imbalance May Be Causing Your Acne

Lopez, M., Trends in Molecular Medicine, July 2013

National Cancer Institute: Understanding Breast Changes

National Sleep Foundation: Menopause and Sleep

Soares, C. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, July 2008

The University of Connecticut Health Center: Benign Diseases of the Breast

The University of North Carolina School of Medicine: Hormones and IBS

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Slideshow: Hormone Imbalance: Symptoms and Treatment

Naturopathy NJ – Dr. Jen Phillips

Merchantville Office41 West Chestnut Ave.Merchantville, NJ 08109Call (856) 488-7067 for appointments

Moorestown OfficeMoorestown Office Center110 Marter AvenueSuite 408Moorestown, NJ 08057

Sewell Office – New LocationAgeless Skin and Laser Center660 Woodbury-Glassboro RdSewell, NJ 08080-2664Timberline Shopping CenterOffice is located behind Dunkin Donuts

Jennifer Phillips, ND

Dr. Jennifer Phillips is a board certified and licensed Naturopathic Physician.

She holds a BS in Biology and earned her Doctorate in Naturopathic Medicine from Bastyr University and Completed a residency specializing in adjuvant cancer therapy under the guidance of John Catanzaro, ND, author of Cancer, An Integrative Approach.

In her practice the emotional aspects of health and disease are explored in conjunction with lifestyle and nutritional management.

The Moorestown office is now located on Marter avenue across from the TD Bank. It is very close to the Big Acme in Moorestown that closed, and also near Wegmans.

I now offer a Wellness Package, and my rates for additional appointments have been updated.

Read about my rate increase in the Frequently Asked Questions section of Naturopathy NJ.

Read testimonials of those who have experienced better health through Natural Medicine.

Attention Women: Are you interested in an alternative to Mammography for Breast Cancer Detection?

Education Not Medication – click here for the truth about breast cancer

Jennifer Phillips, ND Merchantville Office (856) 488-7067 Merchantville Office 41 W Chestnut Ave, Merchantville, NJ 08109 US Moorestown Office 110 Marter Avenue Suite 408, Moorestown, NJ 08057 US Sewell Office (Ageless Skin and Laser Center) 660 Woodbury-Glassboro Rd, Sewell, NJ 08080-2664 US DrJen@naturopathynj.com

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Naturopathy NJ – Dr. Jen Phillips

The Hormone Reset Diet – Order the book

Get your free bonus gifts

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HOW TO RESET YOUR METABOLIC HORMONES TO LOSE WEIGHT AND FEEL GREAT IN JUST 21 DAYS!

Based on leading scientific research, The Hormone Reset Diet is Dr. Gottfrieds proven step-by-step plan designed to help women of all shapes and sizes, ages, and ethnicities lose weight and feel lighter and more energetic.

Check out these bonuses you will receivewhen you preorder The Hormone Reset Diet

Video: Dr. Saras Top 10 Hormone Tests

Dr. Saras Top 10 Ways to Get Lean in 2015

Video: Hormone Reset Meal:Quinoa and Maca BreadedChicken and Sauted Vegetables

Dr. Saras 3 Proven Supplements for Energy

Video: Dr. Saras Stunningly SimpleMeditation Technique

Dr. SarasShake Guide

10% coupon for exclusiveDr. Sara Products

Weight loss isnt about restricting caloriesand willpower. Its about hormones: thechemical molecules that govern nearlyall aspects of your body fat

When your metabolism is broken, you get fatter no matter what you doespecially after age forty. The Hormone Reset Diet will show you, in seven three-day bursts, how to make specific dietary changes, eliminate metabolism-wrecking foods (meat and alcohol, sugar, fruit, caffeine, grain, dairy, and toxins), repair your body and reset your hormones.

About the Author

SARA GOTTFRIED, M.D. is the New York Times bestselling author of The Hormone Cure. After graduating from the physician-scientist training program at Harvard Medical School and MIT, Dr. Gottfried completed her residency at the University of California at San Francisco. She is a board-certified gynecologist who teaches natural hormone balancing in her novel online programs so women can lose weight, detoxify, and feel great. Dr. Gottfried lives in Berkeley, CA with her husband and two daughters. Visit her online at http://www.SaraGottfriedMD.com.

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The Hormone Reset Diet – Order the book

Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of …

1. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al.; Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(3):321333….

2. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al.; Women’s Health Initiative Steering Committee. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in post-menopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(14):17011712.

3. Manson JE, Chlebowski RT, Stefanick ML, et al. Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trials. JAMA. 2013;310(13):13531368.

4. Mikkola TS, Clarkson TB. Estrogen replacement therapy, atherosclerosis, and vascular function. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;53(3):605619.

5. ACOG committee opinion no. 565. Hormone therapy and heart disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(6):14071410.

6. The American Academy of Family Physicians. Hormone replacement therapy. https://www.aafp.org/patient-care/clinical-recommendations/all/hrt.html. Accessed December 1, 2016.

7. Gold EB, Colvin A, Avis N, et al. Longitudinal analysis of the association between vasomotor symptoms and race/ethnicity across the menopausal transition. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(7):12261235.

8. The 2012 hormone therapy position statement of: The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2012;19(3):257271.

9. Maclennan AH, Broadbent JL, Lester S, Moore V. Oral oestrogen and combined oestrogen/progestogen therapy versus placebo for hot flushes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(4):CD002978.

10. Nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: 2015 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2015;22(11):11551172.

11. Mohammed K, Abu Dabrh AM, Benkhadra K, et al. Oral vs transdermal estrogen therapy and vascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(11):40124020.

12. ACOG practice bulletin no. 141. Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(1):202216.

13. Jaakkola S, Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O. Endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women using estradiol-progestin therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(6):11971204.

14. Goletiani NV, Keith DR, Gorsky SJ. Progesterone: review of safety for clinical studies. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;15(5):427444.

15. Pickar JH, Yeh IT, Bachmann G, Speroff L. Endometrial effects of a tissue selective estrogen complex containing bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens as a menopausal therapy. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(3):10181024.

16. Johnson K, Hauck F. Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene (Duavee) for menopausal symptoms. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93(4):307314.

17. Depypere H, Inki P. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for endometrial protection during estrogen replacement therapy: a clinical review. Climacteric. 2015;18(4):470482.

18. Sideras K, Loprinzi CL. Nonhormonal management of hot flashes for women on risk reduction therapy. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2010;8(10):11711179.

19. Newton KM, et al. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(12):869879.

20. Lethaby A, et al. Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD001395.

21. Cohen LS, Joffe H, Guthrie KA, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 for vasomotor symptoms treatment. Menopause. 2014;21(4):347354.

22. Franco OH, Chowdhury R, Troup J, et al. Use of plant-based therapies and menopausal symptoms. JAMA. 2016;315(23):25542563.

23. Kaunitz AM, Manson JE. Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(4):859876.

24. Elkins GR, Fisher WI, Johnson AK, et al. Clinical hypnosis in the treatment of postmenopausal hot flashes. Menopause. 2013;20(3):291298.

25. Ockene JK, Barad DH, Cochrane BB, et al. Symptom experience after discontinuing use of estrogen plus progestin. JAMA. 2005;294(2):183193.

26. Castracane VD, et al. When is it safe to switch from oral contraceptives to hormonal replacement therapy? Contraception. 1995;52(6):371376.

27. Allen RH, Cwiak CA, Kaunitz AM. Contraception in women over 40 years of age. CMAJ. 2013;185(7):565573.

28. Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2013;20(9):888902.

29. Portman DJ, Gass ML. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2014;21(10):10631068.

30. Oge T, Hassa H, Aydin Y, Yalcin OT, Colak E. The relationship between urogenital symptoms and climacteric complaints. Climacteric. 2013;16(6):646652.

31. Bygdeman M, Swahn ML. Replens versus dienoestrol cream in the symptomatic treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 1996;23(3):259263.

32. Bachmann GA, Komi JO. Ospemifene effectively treats vulvovaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2010;17(3):480486.

33. Rahn DD, et al. Vaginal estrogen for genitourinary syndrome of menopause: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124(6):11471156.

34. Farrell R; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Gynecologic Practice. ACOG committee opinion no. 659. The use of vaginal estrogen in women with a history of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;127(3):e93e96.

35. Hill DA, Hill SR. Counseling patients about hormone therapy and alternatives for menopausal symptoms. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(7):801807.

36. Carroll DG. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(3):457464.

37. Morelli V, Naquin C. Alternative therapies for traditional disease states: menopause. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66(1):129134.

38. Cutson TM, Meuleman E. Managing menopause. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(5):13911400.

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Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of …

You and Your Endocrinologist | Hormone Health Network

Endocrinology is the study of medicine that relates to the endocrine system, which is the system that controls hormones.Endocrinologists are specially trained physicians who diagnose diseases related to the glands. Because these doctors specialize in these conditions, which can be complex and have hard-to-spot symptoms, an endocrinologist is your best advocate when dealing with hormonal issues.

Most patients begin their journey to the endocrinologist with a trip to their primary care provider or family doctor. This doctor will run a series of tests to see what could be the potential problem the patient is facing. If a problem with the hormones is suspected, the primary care doctor will provide a referral. The endocrinologist’s goal is to restore hormonal balance in the body.

The glands in a person’s body release hormones. Endocrinologists treat people who suffer from hormonal imbalances, typically from glands in the endocrine system or certain types of cancers. The overall goal of treatment is to restore the normal balance of hormones found in a patient’s body. Some of the more common conditions treated by endocrinologists include:

Most of the work performed by an endocrinologist serves as the basis for ongoing research. Some endocrinologists work solely as research physicians. The goal of the research is to come up with new ways to better treat hormonal imbalances, including the development of new drugs.

The first step to become an endocrinologist is earning a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university. Toward the end of the bachelor’s program, a student will then have to apply for and be accepted to medical school. Once accepted, four more years of schooling will have to be completed. Most endocrinologists will complete a residency that lasts anywhere from three to four years. After schooling has been completed, it is then mandated that a state licensure be obtained.

Common courses that will have to be completed to become an endocrinologist include:

It usually takes at least 10 years for a person to complete all of the necessary coursework, schooling and training to become an endocrinologist. From the year 2010 through 2020, there is an expected growth rate of 24 percent for this position. Before a person starts the educational path to becoming this type of physician, it is highly recommended that he or she carefully consider whether or not it is the right path.

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You and Your Endocrinologist | Hormone Health Network

Sara Gottfried MD | At Home in Your Body, At Last

By Sara Gottfried MD

Jill, a patient of mine, felt a true physiological need for caffeine, similar to how a diabetic needs insulin. She couldnt imagine life without coffee. The thought of removing it from her daily routine almost caused her to miss out on one of the most important decisions of her life, which was doing The Hormone Reset Diet. In retrospect, she was glad that she didnt [Read More…]

By Sara Gottfried MD

Lets start with an insulin reset! Remember, the seventy- two- hour reset is a simple way to take care of the chronic symptoms that plague you, especially fat gain. Each cycle takes a mere three days to reverse and reset your bodys hormone receptors. Of course, the Hormone Reset is a twenty-one-day program, so as you focus on each reset and tune into the changes that [Read More…]

By Sara Gottfried MD

The patient I am going to describe is unique in her own issues, but her frustration with conventional medicine could be duplicated in my practice many times over.Louisa is a forty-five-year-old teacher and mother of two. After the birth of her children, she was unable to lose the twenty-five pounds she gained and she was experiencing profound fatigue. After [Read More…]

By Sara Gottfried MD

With the release of my newest book Younger, Ive spent a lot of time recently thinking about aging. As a doctor, I not only look at the physiological external effects of aging, such as the wrinkles, hair loss, and weight changes, but also the internal changes: thinning bones, failing memory, rising inflammation, and declining mood. These are very real challenges that [Read More…]

By Sara Gottfried MD

As a woman, youre on ahormonal roller coaster ridemost of your life. My books The Hormone Cure, The Hormone Reset Diet, and Younger were born of my passion to help women,one hormone at a time. I want to help you do that so you can stay looking and feeling great at every age.Hormones are chemical messages, like text messages sent from an endocrine gland [Read More…]

By Sara Gottfried MD

Many women hesitate to bring up the topic of constipation with their doctor. While its common, few women want to talk about it. But constipation is not an issue you want to keep under wraps. When your bowel movements are regular, chances are that your hormonescortisol, estrogen, and thyroidare working at their best.[1] Below are my natural remedies for [Read More…]

By Sara Gottfried MD

I woke up from anesthesia about two months ago, euphoric from the certainty that I made the right choice to undergo a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy for a faulty breast cancer gene called CHEK2. I snapped a quick selfie, unadorned and very raw, in my hospital bed and wanted to share it with you (see photo).Breasts are an important symbol of so many things: [Read More…]

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Sara Gottfried MD | At Home in Your Body, At Last

Menopausal Hormone Therapy Not Associated with Mortality …

By Amy Orciari Herman

Edited by David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH, and Lorenzo Di Francesco, MD, FACP, FHM

Menopausal hormone therapy does not put women at increased risk for death, according to long-term follow-up from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trials published in JAMA.

In the WHI, nearly 17,000 postmenopausal women with a uterus were randomized to receive either daily conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, or placebo. An additional 11,000 women who’d had a hysterectomy were randomized to CEE alone or placebo.

During 18 years’ follow-up which included roughly 57 years of treatment and 1112 years of post-intervention follow-up 27% of the women died. Neither combination hormone therapy nor CEE alone was associated with all-cause mortality during the intervention or post-intervention phase. Findings were similar for cardiovascular and cancer mortality.

An editorialist calls the findings “compelling and reassuring.” She concludes: “For women with troubling vasomotor symptoms, premature menopause, or early-onset osteoporosis, hormone therapy appears to be both safe and efficacious.”

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Menopausal Hormone Therapy Not Associated with Mortality …

ASH Physician-Scientist Career Development Award

The application cycle is now open.

The Physician-Scientist Career Development Award provides an opportunity for first-, second-, and third-year medical students to gain experience in hematology research under the mentorship of an ASH member and to learn more about the specialty. Awardees must agree to spend more than 80 percent of their time, during the immersive, year-long project, conducting laboratory, translational, or clinical hematology research.

The award provides recipients with $42,000 of funding for a one-year period. This includes $32,000 to support the trainee, $4,000 for research supplies, $4,000 for insurance and educational expenses (including one course), and $2,000 for meeting attendance (including the ASH annual meeting).

Award recipients attend the ASH annual meeting in December following their research experience. During an orientation breakfast, members of the ASH Committee on Training and Trainee Council are available to discuss specific areas of research and to provide recommendations on annual meeting sessions, events, abstracts, and/or posters related to the awardees areas of interest. Awardees are also invited to attend the Career Development Reception on Monday evening.

Jump To:

SelectTimelineEligibility RequirementsApplication ProcessEvaluation, Selection, and NotificationTerms and Conditions Questions

At the time of application, the applicant must:

The following individuals are not eligible to apply:

Physician-Scientist Career Development Award mentors must be ASH members who will assume the responsibilities of overseeing the award recipients work and progress. Mentors assist in completing the program application, aid the recipient in his/her research, and ensure that the recipient meets all deadlines, including those for award reports.

ASH believes that a multiple mentorship model is important for researchers regardless of their career stage. Therefore, the applicant may include a second mentor in his/her application to provide advice and career development support as well as additional guidance on research questions. If the study section believes additional mentorship may be beneficial to the applicant, members of the study section will be responsible for identifying an appropriate mentor and facilitating contact. The additional mentor will coordinate with the research mentor to the extent that is feasible and desirable.

The Physician-Scientist Career Development Award application, as well as all supporting documents outlined below, must be submitted through the ASH online awards system.

Required Documents

For more information about the required materials, please see the Required Documents PDF.

Applications submitted by the deadline will be reviewed by the Physician-Scientist Career Development Award study section. Applicants will be evaluated on the following criteria:

There is no limit to the number of applications that an institution and its affiliates can submit. However, no more than one award will be granted for any given institution. For this purpose, ASHs definition of medical school encompasses all affiliate institutions (e.g., University of Washington would include the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle Children’s Hospital, etc.).

All awards will be activated on July 1 of the award year and will conclude on June 30 of the following year (off-cycle exceptions may be allowed with explanation). Payment will be made in two equal installments (on July 1 and on January 1) to the institution at which the recipient will conduct his/her research. Research award funds are non-transferable.

As a condition of acceptance of the Physician-Scientist Career Development Award, it is required that:

After the award period, recipients are required to submit a final written report (not to exceed four pages). The report will include a summary of research, manuscript submissions during the award period related to the funded research, presentations (locally and nationally) of the funded research during the award period, educational goals met, and a summary of the usage of funds. This report must be emailed to awards@hematology.org. Members of the Oversight Committee will evaluate final reports.

Please note: Failure to submit the final report or an interim progress report will render the applicant ineligible for future ASH funding.

Students making significant progress may submit a written request to reapply for one additional year of funding. Award renewal requests should be submitted by the award deadline. As part of the request, a joint letter must be submitted by the awardee and his/her mentor addressing the following:

No-cost extensions may be requested if needed. To request an extension, the awardees mentor should submit a letter to ASH by emailing the Awards Department at awards@hematology.org.

Any funding not spent by the end of the award term must be returned to the Society when submitting the final report. A check made out to American Society of Hematology must be sent to the address listed below:

Allie SamisAwards Programs SpecialistAmerican Society Hematology2021 L Street NW, Suite 900Washington, DC 20036

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ASH Physician-Scientist Career Development Award

DMG Health – About Us

Martin Nwosu MD is the founder and medical director of Doctors Medical Group (DMG) Health and wellness center. Founded in 2010, DMG is the leading Anti-Aging and Functional Medicine specialty practices in Middle Tennessee and surrounding states. The practice reflects his passion to bring an integrative approach to patient care that combines the latest in scientifically validated treatment protocols with the best of conventional medical therapies.

Dr. Nwosu specializes in treating men and women with bio-identical hormone replacement, weight management, a functional approach to treating and preventing chronic disease, and therapies to reverse the symptoms of aging and enhance overall wellness and longevity. Dr. Nwosu is a diplomat in Geriatric medicine, a board-certified internal medicine, a member of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine and a member of the American Association of Pain Management. His practice emphasizes a thorough competency in the areas of nutrition, fitness, stress reduction, bio-identical hormone replacement and spirituality as a necessary basis for optimal health

By utilizing bio-identical hormone products that restore hormones to optimal levels, strengthen the immune system, and increase energy levels, we are able to help you regain and prolong your quality of life. Our Center has many years of experience in treating hypothyroidism, adrenal fatigue and hormone imbalances using bioidentical hormones, desiccated thyroid supplementation and Dr. Nwosus 8-Point Treatment Regimen. Given our years of experience, level of expertise, and renowned treatment using bio-identical hormones, the DMG Health & Wellness Center is considered the Hormone center of choice.

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DMG Health – About Us

What Is a Hormone Doctor? | Career Trend

A hormone doctor, or an endocrinologist, is a physician who treats diseases related to the endocrine system. While primary care physicians (family practitioners and internal medicine physicians) can treat many hormonal disorders without a need for specialized training, a physician may also receive advanced training and specialize in endocrinology. A primary care physician can determine whether he or she can treat a patient or whether the patient should be referred to a specialist treating only disorders of the endocrine system.

The endocrine system is composed of many glands, including the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, hypothalamus, pineal body, ovaries and testicles. The islet cells of the pancreas are also part of the endocrine system. These glands secrete hormones (chemical messengers) that regulate the bodys metabolism, growth, sexual development and sexual function, by complex feedback systems comparable to a thermostat regulating room temperature.

A hormone doctor can specialize in diseases of one or two glands or treat patients in all areas of endocrinology. A large part of a typical practice could involve treating diabetes and related complications. The physician may also treat thyroid disorders, inborn metabolic disorders, over- and underproduction of hormones, osteoporosis, menopause, cholesterol disorders, hypertension, and short or tall stature. Patients with endocrine cancer are usually referred to an oncologist.

To treat non-reproductive hormonal disorders, a physician generally completes four years of medical or osteopath school and a three-year residency in either family medicine or internal medicine. He or she must pass a board examination to become board certified in family or internal medicine. To become board certified as an endocrine specialist, the physician completes a three-year endocrinology fellowship program and passes a board certification examination.

Reproductive endocrinologists complete four years of residency training in obstetrics and gynecology, rather than training in family medicine or internal medicine. They must complete two or three years of fellowship training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility and pass the board certification examination. These specialists treat infertility by using in vitro fertilization, embryo and sperm freezing, assisted embryo hatching, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and other emerging technologies. Reproductive endocrinologists also treat a wide range of reproductive disorders, including endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis, galactorrhea, repeat pregnancy loss, ectopic pregnancy and excess hair in women, to name just a few.

A hormone doctor may work in academic medical centers, community hospitals, private group practices or private solo practices. Each situation can involve different work hours, a different patient base, and different lifestyles. Unlike surgical specialties, hormone doctors generally do not take call hours, but they may be called on an emergency basis to see a patient in a hospital when the physician on staff cannot appropriately treat the patient.

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What Is a Hormone Doctor? | Career Trend

Beware of Social Media Celebrity Doctors – Scientific American (blog)

The celebrity doctor phenomenon is not new to Americans. With the release of his first baby-care book in the 1940s, Benjamin Spock became a household name by helping mothers across America feel more confident in their child-rearing skills, long before the age of social media and daytime television. Now, decades later, some of the most prominent players in the game of celebrity doctoring are integrative medicine expert Andrew Weil, cardiothoracic surgeon turned daytime television health guru Mehmet Oz, and televisions go-to-psychologist, Phil McGraw.

All of these men have come under fire in the past, usually due to questions regarding the medical safety and efficacy of their recommendations. But the controversies surrounding them have hardly made a dent in the profitability of their longstanding empires or in the dedication of their fans. Doctors and researchers have been so riled up by the lack of medical evidence for the recommendations handed down by medical television shows that a 2014 study looked specifically at this issue. Not too surprisingly, only 54 percent of the recommendations studied had even one piece of medical evidence to back them up. And less than 1 percent were accompanied by disclosures of potential conflicts of interest.

But now, in the era of social media influencers, celebrity doctoring is no longer exclusively available through the handful of physicians writing books or starring in television shows; it can be found across just about every social media platform. Medical bloggers, doctor instagrammers, and physician twitterati are all reaching out to the American public, and this is a slippery slope to disaster.

What started as a way to improve professional development for physicians and help disseminate credible information for patients has slowly started to devolve into a world of glamour shots, with physicians often exaggerating their credentials at the expense of a gullible social media audience. As a result, social media has created microcosms of celebrity doctoring that have started to expand unchecked and unfettered, usually at the expense of their target audience.

Todays self-promoting physicians have strayed far from the no advertising rule in the original American Medical Association (AMA) Code of Ethics that was in place from 1847 to 1975mainly to prevent the practice of medicine from turning into a practice of solicitation. And while the rule ended to allow hospitals and medical practices to work on public relations efforts for the betterment of healthcare, we have to wonder about the significant potential for harm that stems from often misleading and misrepresentative healthcare information coming from these physician social media accounts.

With 2.5 million Instagram followers, Dr. Mike Varshavski is one of the most popular young physicians on the social media playing field. His account can often be entertaining, albeit misleading: many of his followers likely do not realize that Dr. Mikes experience is very different from the experiences of the average American physician-in-training, based on previous studies looking at resident quality of life. This is fairly harmless, but he also ventures into some dangerous territory, where the line between physician and social media maven begins to blur. Recently, Dr. Mikes Instagram account has been a collection of promotional photo shoots for companies ranging from Charmin to Kenneth Cole to Braun, raising the question of how appropriate is it for a physician to be profiting from Instagram views of posts on the same platform that provides medical commentary? Unfortunately, my requests for comments from Varshavski went unanswered.

Pop-star status for physicians has the potential for harm, simply because of the power wielded by physicians who have such wide access to the American public. Thankfully, in many instances, the Food and Drug Administration has cracked down on misinformation and false claims from such celebrity physicians as Oz and Weil. Ozs claims regarding potentially unsafe arsenic levels in apple juice caused unnecessary hysteria, while Weils claims for his immune boosting supplements came with zero evidence that they could in fact ward off swine flu.

When the practice of clinical medicine begins to be trumped by individual physician brand-building, patient safety and well being can become endangered. And while many of the mega-media physicians often do face scrutiny for their practices, physicians who are merely social media celebrities attract less, even though they might have just as large an audience.

I am not advocating for a witch hunt, but physicians should be held to high clinical standards across every platform in which they practicefrom their clinics to their Instagrams. Unfortunately, clinical standards seem to disappear in the realm of social media, where private practice physicians tout affiliations with academic institutions that they truly have no day-to-day dealings with; pediatric physicians branding themselves as integrative medicine experts for adults; internal medicine physicians branding themselves as skincare experts; and even non-endocrinologists branding themselves as thyroid and adrenal gland experts and pioneering hormone revolutions. The list goes on ad nauseam. Maybe we should have kept some form of the AMAs original no advertising rule around.

Ultimately, there is an almost complete lack of evidence about the long-term effects of social media on the practice of medicine, and right now, there are several accounts that could potentially be deceiving their followers. So what can be done in the meantime? Take everything you see, read, and hear from social media physicians with a grain of salt. Google their credentialsbecause for nearly all physicians with legitimate training, this information is readily available online. Lastly, take some time to scrutinize those credentials to understand if their current area of medical practice is consistent with their training.

It’s wise to remember thatnot everything natural is safe, and not all expert advice is sound.

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Beware of Social Media Celebrity Doctors – Scientific American (blog)

Depression: The Taboo Topic in Church – Beliefnet

Awhile back, I posted on my Facebook page a question, Is it easy to talk about depression in the church? The overwhelming response to the question was, No. In fact, the church was the last place most people felt they could discuss the subject that affects 1 out of 10 people in our country. We need to do better. We need to understand what depression is all about.

Most people are unaware of the many causes of depression. It is a complicated disorder that requires on-going attention and treatment.

Depression can be a result of medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushings, heart disease, sleep apnea, strokes, Parkinsons, Alzheimers, hormonal imbalances, HIV and AIDS, cancer, autoimmune disorders, seizure disorders and chronic pain.

Depression is also associated with substance abuse and withdrawal from long-term use of many drugs such as cocaine, sedatives, narcotics and steroids.

It is more common in people with a family history of mental illness, suggesting genetic involvement and heritable traits. And people with depression experience biological changes in their brains. Brain chemicals go out of balance and hormone changes can create depressive symptoms.

Traumatic life events such as childhood trauma, death, loss, financial pressures and stress that strains a persons ability to cope all play a role as well.

Certain personality traits make a person more susceptible to depression. Medication side-effects can cause depression. For example, a common medication such as Accutane, used to treat acne, has a side effect of depression in some people.

While the causes of depression are complicated, treatment is available and effective. We know the signs: difficulty concentrating, fatigue, feelings of hopelessness, guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, insomnia or excessive sleeping, loss of pleasure, overeating or appetite changes, sad, anxious or empty feelings, and thoughts of suicide.

If you struggle, dont do so in silence. Tell your physician or a mental health professional and get the help you need. Lets all be a part of making the church aware that people in our congregations struggle in this area and need to discuss depression without the stigma attached or some accusation of having little faith. Based on all the possible ways people can experience depression, dont judge, rather love and encourage people to get help.

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Depression: The Taboo Topic in Church – Beliefnet

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