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Global Allogenic Stem Cell Therapy Market Opportunities, Ongoing Trends And Key Players 2027||Thermo Fisher Scientific., Cellular Engineering…

A consistent statistical surveying report like this Allogenic Stem Cell Therapy report stretches out your reach to the achievement in your business. All the information and measurement remembered for the report is supported up by notable investigation devices which incorporate SWOT examination and Porters Five Forces investigation. Statistical surveying contemplates did in this report are chivalrous which help organizations to take better choices and create predominant methodologies about creation, advertising, deals and advancement. Market definition, market division, key improvements in the market, serious investigation and examination approach are the significant section of this Allogenic Stem Cell Therapy market report which are again explained accurately and explicitly.

Allogenic stem cell therapy marketis expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2027. Data Bridge Market Research analyses the market to account to grow at a CAGR of 10.10% in the above-mentioned forecast period. The rapid development in infrastructure for stem cell banking has been directly impacting the growth of allogenic stem cell therapy market.

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The major players covered in the allogenic stem cell therapy market report areSTEMCELL Technologies Inc., Astellas Pharma Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific., Cellular Engineering Technologies, Lineage Cell Therapeutics,Inc., Lonza, Takara Bio Inc., CBR Systems, Inc., Vericel Corporation., Escape Therapeutics, Inc., Caladrius, Athersys Inc., Cytori Therapeutics, Inc., Fate Therapeutics, Geron, Cryo-Save AG, ViaCyte, Inc, ViaCord, Mesoblast Ltd., Roslin Cell Therapies Limited, Regeneus Ltd, ReNeuron Group plc and International Stem Cell Corporation, among other domestic and global players.

Allogenic Stem Cell TherapyMarket Scope and Market Size

Allogenic stem cell therapy market is segmented on the basis of product type, cell source, application and end users. The growth amongst these segments will help you analyze meager growth segments in the industries, and provide the users with valuable market overview and market insights to help them in making strategic decisions for identification of core market applications.

Based on product type, the allogenic stem cell therapy market is segmented into adult stem cells, human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

On the basis of cell source, the allogenic stem cell therapy market is segmented into adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, cord blood/embryonic stem cells and others.

Allogenic stem cell therapy market has also been segmented based on the application into musculoskeletal disorders, wounds and injuries,cardiovascular diseases, surgeries, gastrointestinal diseases and other.

Based on end users, the allogenic stem cell therapy market is segmented into therapeutic companies, cell and tissues banks,tools and reagent companiesand service companies.

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Drivers:Allogenic Stem Cell TherapyMarket

The rapid development in infrastructure for stem cell banking has been directly impacting the growth of allogenic stem cell therapy market.

The high growth of advanced genome-based cell analysis techniques has been driving the market and is acting as a potential driver for the allogenic stem cell therapy market over the forecast period of 2020 to 2027.

The rising awareness correlated to the therapeutic potency of stem cells in effective disease management is also contributing towards the growth of the target market.

The growing public-private investments for the expansion of stem cell therapies, growth in infrastructure related to stem cell banking and processing along with increase in prevalence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases andcanceras well as increase in funding for stem cell research are also increasing the allogenic stem cell therapy market size.

Moreover, the rising awareness totherapeutic potencyof stem cells in disease organization is actively driving the growth of the target market.

In addition, the appearance of IPSCS as an efficient substitute to ESCS and supportive regulations across emerging countrieswill flourish various growth opportunities for the allogenic stem cell therapy market in the above mentioned forecast period.

Table of Contents:

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Opportunities in the market

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Global Allogenic Stem Cell Therapy Market Opportunities, Ongoing Trends And Key Players 2027||Thermo Fisher Scientific., Cellular Engineering...

Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market Projected to Witness a Double-Digit CAGR During 2018 to 2026 | Coherent Market Insights – The Courier

Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market 2020 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2026

Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are stem cells derived from adipocytes, and can differentiate into variety of cell types. ADSCs have multipotency similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thus ADSCs substitute for bone marrow as a source of stem cells. Numerous manual and automatic stem cell separation procedures are adopted in order to separate adipose stem cells (ASCs) from adipose tissue. Flow cytometry can also be used to isolate ADSCs from other stem cells within a cell solution.

This report is an essential reference for those who look for detailed information on the Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market. The report covers data on global markets including historical and future trends for supply, market size, prices, trading, competition and value chain as well as Global major vendor information. In addition to the data part, the report also provides an overview of Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market, including classification, application, manufacturing technology, industry chain analysis and the latest market dynamics.

Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market Research Reports provides information regarding market trends, competitive landscape, market analysis, cost structure, capacity, revenue, gross profit, business distribution and forecast 2024.

Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market was valued at xx million US$ in 2020 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2020-2025.

The Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market is highly competitive and consists of a number of major manufacturers like BioRestorative Therapies, Inc., Celltex Therapeutics Corporation, Antria, Inc., Cytori Therapeutics Inc., Intrexon Corporation, Mesoblast Ltd., iXCells Biotechnologies, Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Tissue Genesis, Inc., Cyagen US Inc., Celprogen, Inc., and Lonza Group, among others.

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Scope of the Report:

The segmentation has been done on the basis of types, applications, technology, and users. Each segment has been further explained with the help of Table of Content, Tables and Figures. This breakdown of the market gives the readers an objective view of the global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market, which is essential to make sound investments. Both these assess the path the market is likely to take by factoring in strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

This report also includes the overall and comprehensive study of the Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market with all its aspects influencing the growth of the market. This report is an exhaustive quantitative analysis of the Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy industry and provides data for making strategies to increase the market growth and effectiveness.

The Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market 2019 research provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

In addition to this, regional analysis is conducted to identify the leading region and calculate its share in the global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market. Various factors positively impacting the growth of the Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market in the leading region are also discussed in the report. The global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market is also segmented on the basis of types, end users, geography and other segments.

On the basis of geography, the market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

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The major factors defined in this report are:

The study objectives of this report are:

To study and analyze the global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy consumption (value & volume) by key regions/countries, product type and application, history data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2024.

To understand the structure of Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy market by identifying its various subsegments.

Focuses on the key global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the sales volume, value, market share, market competition landscape, SWOT analysis and development plans in next few years.

To analyze the Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy with respect to individual growth trends, future prospects, and their contribution to the total market.

To share detailed information about the key factors influencing the growth of the market (growth potential, opportunities, drivers, industry-specific challenges and risks).

To project the consumption of Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy submarkets, with respect to key regions (along with their respective key countries).

To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

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Table of Content:

Chapter One: Industry Overview of Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy

Chapter Two: Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis

Chapter Three: Development and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy

Chapter Four: Key Figures of Major Manufacturers

Chapter Five: Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Regional Market Analysis

Chapter Six: Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Segment Market Analysis (by Type)

Chapter Seven: Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Segment Market Analysis (by Application)

Chapter Eight: Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Major Manufacturers Analysis

Chapter Nine: Development Trend of Analysis of Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market

Chapter Ten: Marketing Channel

Chapter Eleven: Conclusion

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Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market Projected to Witness a Double-Digit CAGR During 2018 to 2026 | Coherent Market Insights - The Courier

Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Growth Opportunities, Trends, Key Players and Forecast to 2027 – The Courier

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New Jersey, United States,- Stem Cell Therapy Market Report gives a detailed analysis of the market. After a detailed examination of the current trends, the report shares the details around the factors fueling the markets momentum.

Forgiving an in-depth review of the market, the report showcases the factors that are affecting the markets overall growth. From network partners, production methods to revenue generating techniques, every detail is added in the report. In addition, the Stem Cell Therapy report has enclosed the data about the established players of the market.

Stem Cell Therapy report has a dedicated section that highlights the actions that can be appointed for global level expansion. The report is designed to guide through every step from planning till implementation.

The major players covered in the Stem Cell Therapy market are

Osiris Therapeutics Medipost Co. Ltd. Anterogen Co. Ltd. Pharmicell Co. Ltd. HolostemTerapieAvanzateSrl JCR Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd. Nuvasive RTI Surgical Allosource

It is worth noting that the Stem Cell Therapy market report also gives a complete overview in terms of volume, market value, demand and supply. All these factors add up to become the market dynamics of the Stem Cell Therapy market. For leaping ahead of the competition and to make the most out of the emerging opportunities, it is essential to understand the market dynamics.

As per the Verified Market Reports experts, the Stem Cell Therapy market is going to balloon in terms of revenue and customer base. This conclusion was drawn out from the market indicators that are considered in the Stem Cell Therapy market report to form curated data. The crucial pieces of data are included in the form of tables, charts and graphs to give a visual representation of the complex and huge database.

What key insights does the Stem Cell Therapy market research provide?

Past and current revenue statistics of the Stem Cell Therapy market players analyzed at the regional level. Individual profiling of major stakeholders. Analysis of the Stem Cell Therapy market size on the basis of product type and end-use type. Accurate Stem Cell Therapy market forecast of volume in numbers and percentages. Demand prospect of individual segments covered in the Stem Cell Therapy report.

Segmentation of Stem Cell Therapy Market:

1.Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Cell Source:

Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cord Blood/Embryonic Stem Cells Other Cell Sources

2.Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Therapeutic Application:

Musculoskeletal Disorders Wounds and Injuries Cardiovascular Diseases Surgeries Gastrointestinal Diseases Other Applications

3.Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Type:

Allogeneic Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Application Musculoskeletal Disorders Wounds and Injuries Surgeries Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (AGVHD) Other Applications Autologous Stem Cell Therapy Market, By Application Cardiovascular Diseases Wounds and Injuries Gastrointestinal Diseases Other Applications

Stem Cell Therapy Market Report Scope

What queries are resolved by the Stem Cell Therapy market research?

1. What are the restraints slowing down the progress of Stem Cell Therapy market?2. Why are the end consumers getting more inclined towards alternative Stem Cell Therapy market products?3. How the Stem Cell Therapy market expected to shape in the next septennial?4. What strategies are being appointed by the major players of the Stem Cell Therapy market to stay ahead of the competition?5. What innovative technologies are being used by the established players of the Stem Cell Therapy market to stay ahead of the competition?

Why choose Verified Market Reports?

Smart dashboard to provide details about updated industry trends. Data collection from different network partners such as suppliers, vendors, service providers, for giving out a clear perspective of the Stem Cell Therapy market. Strict quality checking standards Data collection, triangulation, and validation. 24/7 at your service.

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Stem Cell Therapy Market Size, Growth Opportunities, Trends, Key Players and Forecast to 2027 - The Courier

Global Cell Isolation Market SWOT Analysis, Key Indicators, Forecast 2027 : Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific KSU | The…

The market research report titled Cell Isolation Market by Product (Instruments and Consumables), by Cell Type (Animal and Human), by Cell Source (Adipose Tissue, Embryonic/Cord Blood Stem Cells, and Bone Marrow), by Technique (Surface Marker-Based Cell Isolation, Centrifugation-Based Cell Isolation, and Filtration-Based Cell Isolation), by Application (Cancer Research, Biomolecule Isolation, Tissue Regeneration & Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Research, In Vitro Diagnostics, and Others), and By End-User (Hospitals & Diagnostic Laboratories, Research Laboratories & Institutes, Biotechnology & Biopharmaceutical Companies, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 20182025 published by Zion Market Research provides an insightful comprehension about the growth aspects, dynamics, and working of the globalCell IsolationMarket. The report entails details about the market with data collected over the years with its wide-ranging analysis. It also comprises the competitive landscape within the market together with a detailed evaluation of the leading players within the global Cell Isolation Market. In addition, it sheds light on the profiles of the key vendors/manufacturers comprising thorough assessment of the market share, production technology, market entry strategies, revenue forecasts, and so on. Further, the report will encompass the fundamental strategic activities such as product developments, mergers & acquisitions, launches, events, partnerships, collaborations, and so on. Apart from this, it will also present the new entrants contributing their part in the market growth.

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Global Cell Isolation Market: Competitive Players

Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Merck KGaA, Beckman Coulter Inc., Terumo BCT, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.

The Cell Isolation Market report also entails exhaustive examination of the key factors likely to propel or restrict the expansion of the global Cell Isolation Market during the forecast period in addition to the most recent and promising future trends in the market. Moreover, the report uses SWOT analysis and other methodologies to analyze the numerous segments [Product, Applications, End-Users, and Major Regions] of the global Cell Isolation Market. Furthermore, it comprises valuable understanding about the segments like their growth potential, market share, and developments. It also evaluates the market on the basis of its major geographical regions [Latin America, North America, Asia Pacific, Middle & East Africa, and Europe]. It entails quantitative and qualitative facets of the market in association to each country and region enlisted in the report.

Promising Regions & Countries Mentioned In The Cell Isolation Market Report:

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The Cell Isolation Market report also stipulates the computed expected CAGR of the market estimated on the basis of the existing and previous records concerning the global Cell Isolation Market. The report analyzes the market with the aim of being capable to get a clear picture of prevailing and anticipated growth patterns of the market. Furthermore, it entails the impact of numerous federal policies and rules on the growth and dynamics of the market during the forecast period. The thorough assessment put forth by our analysts assist to get more profound acquaintance of global markets and related industries. In addition, the report encompasses various tactics to discover the weaknesses, opportunities, risks, and strengths having the potential to impact the global market expansion.

Impact of COVID-19 (Coronavirus):The report will also entail a dedicated section assessing the influence of COVID-19 on the expansion of the global Cell Isolation Market during the coming period.

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Global Cell Isolation Market SWOT Analysis, Key Indicators, Forecast 2027 : Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Thermo Fisher Scientific KSU | The...

‘I was excited to help somebody’: Montana Western’s Dylan Pope reflects on donating bone marrow – MontanaSports

DILLON Dylan Pope concurs that 2020 was, by and large, not a great year. But he still found a way to make the most of it.

"It was a pretty tough year but having this to look forward to and reflect on has been something pretty big for me," he said.

Pope, a Montana Western defensive back, made the decision to donate bone marrow in December.

"I was nervous, but I was excited to help somebody," Pope said.

At the encouragement of his sister, Mariah, Pope registered with a non-profit called Be The Match in March, shortly after coronavirus knocked the world off kilter.

According to the organization's website, only one out of every 430 registered members will actually go on to donate bone marrow. Pope's sister has been registered for years without a match.

So, Pope was understandably taken aback when, after a little more than three months, he received a call telling him that he had been deemed a suitable donor for an anonymous recipient to receive his blood stem cells, which are derived from bone marrow.

"At first I thought it was fake," Pope said. "I didn't think there was any way it was going to happen after just three months."

With a donation date set in December -- because of confidentiality policies, Pope can't disclose what state or hospital the procedure took place at -- the next months were what one would expect: a lot of paperwork and a lot of blood tests.

The week before the donation, he began receiving daily injections to increase his stem cell count. He then made the trip with his younger brother, Brayton.

The process took eight hours and required only local anesthesia. A needle in his right arm drew blood, ran it through a machine that extracted stem cells and then a needle in his left arm injected blood back into his body.

"It's really not nearly as scary when you get there as you think it's going to be," Pope said.

It'll be a year before Pope learns the identity of who received his bone marrow. He's certain it'll be a moving, powerful experience.

"I bet it'll be pretty emotional thing for both of us, because it was pretty cool to be able to help them," Pope said.

Ryan Nourse, Montana Western's head football coach, said he wasn't surprised by Pope's willingness to donate bone marrow and said he and the program supported him the entire way.

"I think that's a really brave thing, courageous thing for Dylan to go do," Nourse said. "I think that selflessness will shine through to the other guys knowing that maybe I could help somebody in a similar position someday."

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'I was excited to help somebody': Montana Western's Dylan Pope reflects on donating bone marrow - MontanaSports

Mesoblast Limited: Is Stemcell Therapy Ready For Prime Time? – Sick Economics

Mesoblast, MESO, is an Australian based biopharmaceutical company that has been a market favorite, even though the companys ups and downs have confused many investors.

The MESO share price has been inconsistent lately. This has prompted many investors to ask why. Analyzed carefully, MESO has done better than many stem cell businesses. Most stem cell businesses fail to ever make a profit and fail to even get a product to market. This can cause long-term problems with the stock price of any company.

ByMichael A. Mannen, MS

Mesoblast as a company is committed to offering groundbreaking cellular therapies for the treatment of many severe diseases using Mesenchymal Stem Cells. They are dedicated to cellular medicines and leveraging their stem cell technology. There are not many successful companies in this niche.

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and rebuild the damaged tissue. Mesenchymal Stem Cells are a type of adult stem cells generated from some of the adult tissues present in the body.

Stem cells have been found by scientists to have two properties: self-renewal and the potential to divide into specialized cell types. Multi-potent, mesenchymal stem cells are found to be present in many adult tissues. The bone marrow is considered by many scientists to be the most usable reservoir of adult human stem cells.

For several disorders, such as heart failure, the capacity to rebuild tissue may be groundbreaking for treatment. And this has been the inspiration for many companies exploring stem cell therapies.

However, what differentiates Mesoblast from other stem cell companies is its approach to treating inflammatory diseases. Their products have the potential to make breakthroughs a reality for many diseases.

The company has developed and manufactured its own patented mesenchymal lineage cells to be used for a range of ailments. These have a potential for the regeneration of tissues. These cells, however, secrete a number of biomolecules which can help the body heal more than just tissue damage. They may be important to supporting immune responses needed for recovery in many diseases.

Possible rejection of the patients immune system is the biggest problem with the use of stem cell therapies in heart diseases and other diseases. This can worsen many illnesses.

MESO does appear committed to the quality of its product. For MESO it is a question of the effectiveness and safety of their products. Its a long and winding road to provide adequate scientific proof when presenting breakthrough treatments to regulators. Many less reputable organizations have touted stem cells without doing the necessary scientific investigation or seeking the necessary regulatory approval. Mesoblast is trying to do things the right way. Committing to doing science the right way leads to a lot of inevitable ups and downs. This raises financial speculation and can lead to wild fluctuations in the stock price of any company.

A further significant advantage of some of Mesoblasts products is that they apparently can be administered to patients without needing donor matching. This increases their viability. Moreover, it allows for a wide spectrum of patients to be treated from their products. This gives them an advantage in comparison with other firms and should potentially allow them to increasingly gain a larger market share.

Of great interest to investors include the many clinical trial phase 3 products that Mesoblast has in its pipeline. These include MPC-06-ID, Remestemcel-L, and REVASCOR.

Remestemcel-L is a Mesoblast therapy that may theoretically have properties to help with the treatment of ventilator-dependent patients with COVID-19 patients. However, a clinical trial reported some concerns with the therapy meeting its primary endpoint. And it sent the stock down in December 2020. Obviously, there is a large demand for the treatment of complications linked to Covid-19, so this bad news disappointed investors.

However, another therapy has shown promise in the DREAM-HF Phase 3 for patients with chronic heart failure. Although the Revasacor did not stop heart failure, it did seem to deliver dramatic reductions in heart attacks and other negative cardiovascular events that plague heart failure patients.

Heart failure is a pathology that involves ones heart having trouble pumping. The condition impacts millions of people worldwide. In order to feed and maintain it working, the heart muscle depends on a continuous supply of oxygen rich blood. Having stem cell therapies is highly desirable to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hopefully, many Cardiovascular disorders can be treated with stem cell therapies in the future.

Other conditions such as hypertension and Coronary artery disease can help lead to heart failure. According to the Mayo Clinic, heart failure can cause significant health complications and lead to Liver and Kidney damage in patients.

Some scientists believe that Mesenchymal Stem Cells when used to treat cardiovascular diseases can preserve the myocardium by reducing the intensity of inflammation and supporting angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a mechanism used by the body to create new blood vessels. Their low immunogenicity once more makes them a perfect treatment. This helps ensure that the immune system of the patient does not produce a negative response to the therapy. This theoretically can give stem cell therapies an advantage over some protein-based treatments that are easily recognized by the patients immune system.

This product could be a major development for Mesoblast moving forward, although further analysis and testing is still needed.

Stem cell therapies are not without experimental and medical challenges. For example, there are concerns with the ability of stem cell migration to tissues that require regeneration. There may also be cases whereby stem cells are divided into unintended cells. There may also be difficulties with the manufacturing and culturing of stem cells. Identification of Mesenchymal stem cells in cell populations can be problematic. From a scientific point of view, bone marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to be the best source for obtaining these cells in the human body.

Mesoblast has a wide range of advanced research programs related to different stem cell therapies. MPC-06-ID could potentially be a viable therapy for treating chronic low back pain attributable to degenerative disc disease.

These are products that consumers should be thrilled about.

The company has solid financials for a stem cell company and has a lot of cash on hand. The stock had a market cap of over 2 billion on 9/30/2020 and a 52-week high of 21.28. Lately the news surrounding the companys clinical trials has been a potpourri of both good and bad, so the share price has settled at around $9. It has a float of 93.7 million shares.

Mesoblast is a really exciting healthcare business. The business has made a commitment for the future. And it should be a stock that investors continue to follow.

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Mesoblast Limited: Is Stemcell Therapy Ready For Prime Time? - Sick Economics

[Full text] Identification and Targeting of ThomsenFriedenreich and IL1RAP | OTT – Dove Medical Press

Introduction

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematological malignancy that develops when the 9;22 translocation in a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) results in the expression of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase fusion protein. If left untreated, CML progresses over approximately 5 years, from relatively benign chronic phase to accelerated phase, and then to fatal blast crisis. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specifically targeting the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein was a breakthrough in the management of CML, leading to a significant reduction in mortality and improved 5-year survival rates. However, despite the high annual acquisition costs of all the TKIs; first-, second-, and-third line TKIs1 induce only transient responses in the 10% to 15% of CML patients diagnosed in advanced phase, suboptimal responses in approximately 30% of CML patients during chronic phase (CP) cases that experience disease progression each year during, and only 1020% chance of successful treatment discontinuation due to disease persistence.2 Among the causes of disease persistence, studies have shown that CML leukemia stem cells (LSC) play a major role in inducing therapeutic resistance and disease progression because they are able to self-renew.3,4 These LSC a rare subset of immature cells residing in the bone marrow niche are protected from the action of TKI5 because these cells are normally quiescent and the TKIs are designed to target malignant blast cells that proliferate. That is why current strategies are not able to effectively eliminate the LSC or the disease.3 In CML, LSC are primitive cells expressing CD34+ CD38- with the 9;22 translocations, or the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph).6 However, these markers cannot distinguish the cancer hematopoietic cells from normal ones. Additionally, the BCR-ABL fusion gene encodes for an intracellular tyrosine kinase protein rather than a surface protein, calling for the need to identify unique surface biomarkers for efficient targeting of this cell population with subsequent eradication of the root of the disease.

In 2010, a single biomarker, Interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), was found to be up-regulated on the cell surface of BCR-ABL+ LSC. They were able to distinguish Ph+ from Ph- LSCs using IL1RAP.7 A polyclonal anti-human IL1RAP was generated that not only targeted the LSC population but also killed normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating that this marker was not specific to the LSC.7 Another characteristic cell surface marker has been investigated; ThomsenFriedenreich antigen (TF, or CD176) a tumor-associated carbohydrate epitope. The CD176 antigen was found to be expressed on the surface of various cancer-initiating cells, such as breast carcinomas,8 colorectal carcinomas,9 several leukemias,10 and other types of cancer, but was absent from almost all normal adult cell types.11 CD176 was also found to be expressed on the surface of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells of the K562 erythroblastic leukemia cell line; a cell line derived from a CML patient. Being strongly expressed on the surface of cancer cells and virtually absent from normal tissues, CD176 was evaluated as a suitable target for cancer biotherapy8 with the development of an anti-CD176 antibody that induced apoptosis of leukemic cells.12

Using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as a tool for cancer therapy still has its limitations. Patients who receive mAb therapy may develop drug resistance or fail to respond to treatment owing to the multiple signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases.13 Targeting more than one molecule has proven to circumvent the regulation of parallel pathways and avoid resistance to the treatment.14 Bi-specific antibodies (Bis-Ab) are antibodies that can recognize two different epitopes. They can redirect specific immune cells to the tumor cells to enhance tumor eradication, enable the simultaneous blocking of two different targets that have common signaling pathways, or interact with two different cell-surface antigens instead of one with subsequent boosting of the binding specificity.13 Thus, the identification of two surface markers specific to the cancer stem cells would be useful in characterizing and targeting CML stem cells, without affecting other blood cells.

In this study, we evaluated co-expression of IL1RAP, linked to BCR-ABL+ expression, and the CD176 antigen, carried on the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 molecule, in CML patients. We identified PBMCs co-expressing CD34, IL1RAP, and CD176 antigens using flow cytometry, a finding that allowed for subsequent separation and targeting of such cells from normal HSCs. A bi-specific antibody (TF/RAP), was generated in order to target the IL1RAP+ and CD176+ cell population among PBMCs in patients with CML. We used a flow-cytometry assay as a cell-based assay to measure the antibody binding capability of the TF/RAP Bis-Ab to the cell surface antigens. Our TF/RAP Bis-Ab, increased targeting of the IL1RAP+ and CD176+ cell population among CML PBMCs but not corresponding normal cells, using complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay (CDC). This novel TF/RAP Bis-Ab may provide a novel strategy for the eradication of CML stem cells.

Deidentified samples of peripheral blood from healthy volunteers were obtained from Gulf Coast Regional Blood Bank (Houston, TX, USA) after signing informed consent and used as reference samples. Deidentified samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from consented patients with CML were obtained from Oncology Research Gundersen BioBank (https://www.gundersenhealth.org/research/biobank/, La Crosse, WI, USA). While the samples were de-identified, necessary CML patient characteristics were collected (Table 1). The collection and dissemination protocols for the samples are approved by The Gundersen Human Subjects Committee/Institutional Review Board (IRB) and are in full compliance with National Cancer Institute Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources. Because the de-identified samples were received through Biobanks and not through direct intervention/interaction with a research subject, the Tulane University Human Research Protection Office was notified and this study was classified by the IRB as exempt as the study did not meet the definition of human subjects research according to US Federal policy (HHS regulations, 45 CFR part 46, subpart A, also known as the Common Rule). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Table 1 CML Patients Characteristics

HEK 293FT cell line (Invitrogen # R70007) was cultured in DMEM (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 g/mL streptomycin sulfate, and 4.0 mM L-glutamine (Gibco BRL products, Gaithersburg, MD), at 37C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. The KG1 cell line (ATCC #CCL-246) and transduced derivative cells were cultured in Iscoves Modified Dulbeccos Medium (Life technologies) supplemented with 20% FBS at 37C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. K562 cell line (ATCC# CCL-243) was maintained in RPMI-1640 (Life technologies) supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 g/mL streptomycin sulfate at 37C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator.

The IL1RAP cDNA was PCR amplified from an expression plasmid containing Human IL-1RAcP/IL-1R3 Gene ORF cDNA (Sino biological Inc., HG10121-CM) using Clone Amp HiFi PCR Premix (Takara Bio USA, Inc.), and primers that included either a BamHI or an XhoI site (F-IL1RAP: acgggatccccaccaagcttggtaccatgac; R-IL1RAP: acgctcgagttatacatttttcaaagatg). The PCR fragment was gel extracted as above, sub-cloned into BamHI and XhoI sites in the pHRST-MPSV vector according to standard protocols and confirmed by restriction mapping and sequencing.

Transient production of lentiviral particles in adherent HEK293T was modified from previously described.15 Briefly, HEK293T cells were seeded in a T-75 flask, where we used 4.0 g of envelope plasmid pMPSV-VSV-G, 10.0 g packaging plasmid psPAX2, and 26 g transfer plasmid that has the gene of interest. In our case, the transfer plasmid is either the antibody plasmid or the control. The plasmids were mixed into 500 L 0.25 M CaCl2 (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and incubated at room temperature for 5 minutes, and then mixed with 500 L 2xHBS and briefly vortexed. The mixed transfection cocktail was then incubated for 3 minutes at room temperature, and added into the medium of the cells, and mixed gently to make an even distribution. After 16 hours of incubation, the medium was replaced with fresh medium and collected every 24 hours for 3 days. The conditioned medium that contained the vector virus was then pelleted for 10 minutes at 1500 g and passed through a 0.45-m filter to remove the cell debris, and then frozen at 80C for long-term storage, or used for the transduction of target cells.

Lentiviral transduction was done as previously described.1618 In brief, lentiviral supernatant was added to KG1 cells cultured in complete IMEM. After overnight incubation, the lentiviral vector was removed, and fresh media was added. After 48 hours, IL1RAP expression was demonstrated by flow cytometry using anti-Human IL-1 RAcP/IL-1 R3 PE-conjugated antibody (#FAB676P, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN).

The CH and CL constant domains in the pLM219 plasmids were amplified with 0.5 nM overlapping mutant primers (Table S1), Deep Vent Polymerase (New England Biolabs), and reaction buffer for forty cycles at 94C for 10 seconds, 60C for 45 seconds, and 72C for 2 minutes. Initial fragments were purified, combined, and used to amplify the entire heavy or light domains (Table S2). The mutated fragments were then gel purified and sub-cloned into their corresponding vectors using restriction enzymes according to standard protocols (Table S2). Sequences were then verified by restriction digestion and sequencing.

For antibody sequences towards CD176 (TF) and IL1RAP, the VH and VL domains from two clones with the most conserved amino acid sequences (TF Clone 1 and Clone 2 called TF1 and TF2 for CD176; Clone 4B6 and Clone 4G9 called RAPa and RAPb for IL1RAP, respectively) were chosen from published sequences.20,21 IL1RAP antibody was designed to target the extracellular membrane anchor-proximal region that comprises an amino acid primary sequence VPAPRYTVELAC within 10 to 15 amino acids of amino acid 361 of human ILR1AP (Gene bank accession Q9NPH3) while the TF antibody was designed to target the same Gal(13)GalNAc disaccharide epitope20 as the Bis-Ab. Variable domains (VD) were codon-optimized and synthesized (Gene Art, Invitrogen) to be compatible with 15 base pairs of homologous sequences on both the 3 and 5 ends of pLM2 recipient plasmid flanking the EcoRI restriction enzyme site.

The pLM2 expression vector was digested with EcoRI to generate a double-stranded break. An In-Fusion HD cloning kit (Clontech, Inc) was used to clone the VD regions of the antibodies between the leader and constant regions of the pLM2 vectors. The correct clones were identified by PCR and restriction mapping and then verified by sequencing.

Adherent HEK cells were transfected as above. A total of 14 g high-quality plasmid-DNA, 10% GFP plasmid for assessment of transfection efficiency, while the rest was heavy and light chain plasmid DNA combined at a ratio of 1:1. Six to 8 hours later, cells were gently washed once with PBS and fresh growth medium added. Sixteen hours post-transfection, the medium was replaced with DMEM supplemented with 5% FCS and incubated at 5% CO2 for 24 hours prior to the initial collection of antibody supernatant. A second collection was made after a further 24 hours.

Flow antibodies used were as follows: anti-TF/CD176 mAb mouse IgM (Glycotope, Berlin, Germany) targeting Gal1-3GalNAc epitope; FITC-conjugated anti-mouse IgM secondary antibody (-chain specific, #F9259; Sigma); PE-conjugated mouse anti-human IL-1 RAcP/IL-1 R3 monoclonal IgG1 antibody, epitope Ser21-Glu359 (#FAB676P, R&D Systems); APC-conjugated mouse anti-human CD34 monoclonal IgG1 antibody (#QBEnd10, FAB7227A-025, R&D Systems); APC-conjugated mouse antihuman IgG monoclonal antibody (Clone G18-145, mouse IgG1 , #550,931, BD Pharmingen).

LIVE/DEAD Fixable Aqua Dead Cell Stain Kit (#L34957, Invitrogen); Vibrio Cholera Neuraminidase (VCN; Sigma Aldrich Inc), an enzyme used to expose the CD176 on the surface of expressing cells. Flow cytometric analyses were performed in a BD LSR Fortessa (BD Biosciences, USA) and flow cytometric cell sorting was done in a FACSAriaII (P0010) cell sorter (BD Biosciences, USA). The amount of bi-specific antibody bound to the receptors was calculated from the frequency of total IgG bound receptors.

Sorted cells were received in RPMI media and then fixed using the standard 3:1 methanol: acetic acid fixative. Standard procedures were used for FISH hybridization and washing.22 The BCR/ABL1 Plus translocation, dual fusion probe set (Cytocell Inc., Tarrytown, NY) was used. Slides were analyzed using Leica Biosystems Cyto Vision. FISH nomenclature was described according to the ISCN 2016.23

CD34+CD176+IL1RAP+ and CD34+CD176+IL1RAP- cells were sorted from PBMC samples derived from patients with CML. Cells (1 x 103) were plated in Metho Cult Express (#04437, Stem Cell Technologies, Vancouver, Canada) semi-solid media containing recombinant human IL-3, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, SCF, TPO and cultured for 2 weeks in a humidified atmosphere at 37C with 5% CO2. Fourteen days after plating, the number of colonies was counted by microscopy.24,25

The capacity to induce CDC was assessed essentially as has been described.2628 Briefly, target cells (1105 cells) were pre-incubated at 37C for 60 min with diluted antibodies. Human serum from human male AB (Sigma Aldrich) (20% v/v) was added to the cells as a source of complement and incubated at 37C for an additional 45 min. Cells were then put on ice and viability was determined by staining with LIVE/DEAD staining and detected using a FORTESSA flow cytometer (BD Biosciences). CDC activity was expressed as a percentage of lyses as determined from the increase in the percentage of cells stained positive with the LIVE/DEAD marker compared to the control samples. Cycloviolacin O2 (CyO2, 0.05nM), a pore-forming peptide, was used as a positive control because it kills cells with the similar mechanisms as CDC by causing pores in the cell membrane.

The capacity to induce CDC was assessed essentially as has been described.2628 Briefly, target cells (1105 cells) were pre-incubated at 37C for 60 min with diluted antibodies. Human serum from human male AB (Sigma Aldrich) (20% (v/v)) was added to the cells as a source of complement and incubated at 37C for an additional 45 min. Cells were then put on ice and viability was determined by staining with LIVE/DEAD staining and detected using a FORTESSA flow cytometer (BD Biosciences). CDC activity was expressed as a percentage of lyses as determined from the increase in the percentage of cells stained positive with the LIVE/DEAD marker compared to the control samples. Cycloviolacin O2 (CyO2, 0.05nM), a pore-forming peptide, was used as a positive control because it kills cells with the similar mechanisms as CDC by causing pores in the cell membrane.

We measured the production of the Bis-Ab by ELISA. Plates were initially coated with goat anti-Human IgG heavy chain antibody (Axell) and blocked with PBS containing 0.5% Tween 20 (Fisher), 10% FBS (FetalPlex Animal Serum Complex, GeminiBio, Cat#100-602), 4% whey protein (BiPRO, AGROPUR). Undiluted or diluted supernatant was added, including the standard curve samples (human IgG MAb 1.7B, kindly provided by Dr. James Robinson), and negative blocking buffer. After incubating at 37C for 60 min, the plates were washed. Then, goat anti-Human lambda antibody conjugated to HRP (Southern Biotech, Cat# 207005) was added at 1:300 in blocking buffer for 60 min and washed five times. A mixture of 0.1M Na Acetate (pH 6), peroxide, and TMB substrate were added. The reaction was terminated by adding 1M phosphoric acid, and the absorbance of each well was measured at 450 nm using a Synergy H1 microplate reader (BioTek).

For each experiment, more than three independent replicates were conducted, and the results were expressed as average standard deviation. Comparison of multiple groups was conducted using ANOVA-based Test and p< 0.05 (*) represented significances with statistical meaning. Calculation of the Kd was done using the equation % RO = [Ab]/([Ab]+Kd) 100%, where RO is the receptor occupancy, Ab is the concentration of antibody and Kd is the equilibrium dissociation constant.

In order to analyze the co-expression of CD176 and IL1RAP antigens on CD34+ cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a normal volunteer (NPBMCs), patients with CML, and K562 cells were isolated and stained with anti-CD34, anti-CD176, and anti-IL1RAP monoclonal antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry (Figure 1A). It has been previously established that these markers were not expressed on normal PBMCs nor on stem cells7,10 CD34+ cell expression ranged from an average 938% in CML samples versus 83.7% in K562 cells (Figure 1A, upper panel). Within the CD34+ cell population, CD176 and IL1RAP antigens were variably expressed in CML samples, ranging from 1.35% in CML-4 to over 50% in CML-1 (Figure 1A, lower panel), while CD176+ IL1RAP+ was detected in 78% of CD34 cells in K562 cells. Surprisingly, surface co-expression of CD176 and IL1RAP was not only detectable on CD34+ cells in patients with BCR-ABL positive CML but was also demonstrable in cells from a treated patient who was BCR-ABL negative (CML-2) (Figure 1B). In Figure 1C, CD34+ cells revealed higher frequency of CD176+ IL1RAP+ in CML group compared to control sample (17.5% versus 3.4%, p<0.001).

Figure 1 CD176 and IL1RAP antigens are co-expressed on CD34+ Leukemia stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with CML and healthy volunteers were isolated and stained for flow-cytometry analysis. (A) FACS Dot Blot showing expression of CD34 (top row) and co-expression of CD176 and IL1RAP antigens on the CD34+ cells (bottom row) in PBMCs from patients with CML compared to NPBMCs. (B) Bar graphs showing the BCR-ABL status relative to the percentage of IL1RAP and CD176 co-expression in the CD34+ subsets from patients with CML as compared to the normal control and the positive control (K562 cells). The BCR-ABL status is indicated below the sample. The error bars represent the variation in two independent experiments. (C) Average percentage of CD34+ and CD34+ CD176+ IL1RAP+ subsets in normal versus CML patients respectively. (D) Bar graphs showing the average count of colony-forming units (CFU) per 1000 CD34+CD176+IL1RAP- cells (open bar) or CD34+CD176+IL1RAP+ cells (solid bar) obtained from CML-2 and CML-4 samples. **p< 0.01, n.s represents that there is no significant difference between groups.

In order to analyze the progenitor activity of the various subpopulations, CML-2 and CML-4 were flow-sorted for CD34+CD176+IL1RAP+ and CD34+CD176+IL1RAP- then plated in media t support hematopoietic colony formation. The number of colonies, or colony-forming units (CFU), in CD34+CD176+IL1RAP+ pool represented 6% of the sorted cells with a significant difference between both populations, p<0.01 (Figure 1D and Figure S1).

To facilitate correct interaction of the VH and VL domains, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate knob-in-hole mutations in the heavy and light chains of the constant domains (Figure 2A) via polymerase chain reaction overlap extension (Figures S2 and 3). Two PCR reactions were performed to generate two amplicons with the specific mutations included in the overlapping primers. The two fragments were then combined in a subsequent fusion reaction, in which the overlapping ends anneal, allowing the 3 overlap of each strand to serve as a primer for the 3 extension of the complementary strand. The resulting fusion product served as a template for amplification of the entire constant domain. In order to circumvent the light chain mismatching, an Orthogonal Fab interface was generated. In one Fab, complementary mutation was introduced and verified at the heavy chain constant domain (CH1_H172A_ F174G) and at the light chain constant domain (CL_L135Y_S176W), respectively (Figures S46). For the heavy chain heterodimerization, we used the Knob-in-Hole strategy, where we inserted the CH3 mutations (S354C and T366W) into different heavy chains (Figures S7 and 8). The VH and VL sequences were synthesized and cloned into the new pLM2-CH and -CL plasmids (Figure 2A) where CD176 was represented by TF1 (VH1 and VL1) and TF2 (VH2 and VL2) while IL1RAP was represented by Clone 4B6 (VHa and VLa) and Clone 4G9 (VHb and VLb). Then, we generated the four different bi-specific antibody mixtures (TF1RAPa, TF1RAPb, TF2RAPa, and TF2RAPb) to evaluate the most effective Bis-Ab (Figure 2B). The bispecific antibody was quantified by ELISA at 283 ng/mL. Since ELISA used the human IgG heavy chain antibody as the primary antibody and a goat anti-human lambda antibody conjugated to HRP as the secondary antibody, these data also confirm the correct association of the heavy and light chains and ensure that monomers are excluded.

Figure 2 The bi-specific antibody arms. (A) Schematic diagram of the bi-specific antibody showing the mutant arms and the antigen-binding domains. Thomsen-Freidenrich or CD176 domains (TF); IL1RAP domains (RAP); variable domain-heavy chain (VH); variable domain-light chain (VL); L135Y and S176W mutations (Y-W) in constant domain-light chain; H172A and F174G mutations in CH1 domain (A-G); S354C (C) or T366W (W) mutations in CH3. (B) Antibody mixtures generated by transient transfection of HEK 293T cells. TF1 and TF2 was paired with RAPa and RAPb to generate four Bis-Ab mixtures. The bispecific antibody concentration was 283 ng/mL as measured with ELISA. The correct association of the human IgG heavy chain and the lambda light chain was confirm and monomers were excluded by using anti-IgG primary antibodies and anti-light chain secondary antibodies.

KG1 cell line is an acute myeloid leukemia cell line that is known to be a positive control for CD176. For optimizing the staining protocol of CD176, KG1 cells were pre-treated with VCN to expose CD176 antigens for better staining (Figure S9). In order to test the binding capability and functional potential of our bi-specific antibody, we generated a dual-positive cell line for expressing both IL1RAP and CD176 through lentiviral transduction (Figure S10A and B). IL1RAP expression was increased by 1.5 folds in KG1/RAP cells as verified by flow cytometry (Figure S10C and D).

CD176 antigen is a glycosylated antigen; a protein antigen bound to GAL-NAC moiety which makes the antigen displayed on the cell surface yet not easy to isolate.21 For this reason, a flow-cytometry assay was used to evaluate both the binding capability and toxicity of our Bis-Ab using the gating strategy in Figure S11. KG1 and KG1/RAP cell lines were treated with the various Bis-Ab mixtures. Binding percentage was calculated from the percentage of IgG positive cells, where the secondary IgG antibody is bound to the primary Bis-Ab. The TF1RAPa Bis-Ab showed the highest binding in KG1/RAP cells (Figure 3A) as compared to other mixtures (p<0.001). In contrast, the TF1RAPb antibody revealed slightly reduced binding in KG1/RAP cells. On treating KG1/RAP cells with increasing amounts of TF1RAPa, more binding to the dual-positive KG1/RAP cells was observed (Figure 3B). To demonstrate the specificity of the Bis-Ab, we measured the competition with the CD176 and the IL1RAP monoclonal antibodies. Increasing concentrations of the Bis-Ab specifically inhibited the binding of both the IL1RAP and CD176 mAbs (Figure S12). Then, our KG1/RAP cells were treated with the Bis-Ab TF1RAPa and complement prior to staining with the LIVE/DEAD Fixable Aqua Dead Cell Stain Kit, in order to evaluate whether CDC could be achieved using IL1RAP and CD176 as targets. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant increase in dead cells in the Bis-Ab treated CD176/IL1RAP dual-positive KG1/RAP population as antibody binding also increased (Figure 3C), p<0.001.

Figure 3 Validation of TF-RAP Bi-specific antibody in KG1 cell line and CML samples. (A) MFI for binding of different Bis-Ab mixtures in KG1/RAP (p <0.001). (B) Binding (%) of the Bis-Ab in KG1/RAP cell lines. (C) Shows live/dead (LD) staining (%) in KG1/RAP cell lines after treatment with the Bis-Ab and complement. (D) MFI for binding of different Bis-Ab mixtures p <0.001 in CML cells. (E) Binding of the Bis-Ab (%) in PBMCs from patients with CML. The binding affinity (Kd) of our bispecific antibody was 21ng/mL, calculated using the % RO = [Ab]/([Ab]+Kd) 100%, where RO is the receptor occupancy, Ab is the concentration of antibody, and Kd is the equilibrium dissociation constant. This Bis-Ab platform used in this study had the correct molecular weight (95 KDa) and assembled properly (93%) as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis.38 (F) Live/dead (L/D) staining (%) from patients with CML after treatment with the Bis-Ab and complement. The red square were L/D positive cells treated with CyO2; the percent of L/D staining in normal PBMCs is shown in blue. Each point represents the mean increase in L/D staining SEM with three to four replicates. Data from normal samples were low for all doses (data not shown).

Binding of TF1RAPa, TF2RAPa, and TF2RAPb was also tested in PBMCs from patients with CML. Again, TF1RAPa showed the highest binding relative to other mixtures (p<0.001) (Figure 3D) and with increasing doses (Figure 3E). Based on the CML binding curve, the binding affinity (Kd) of our bispecific antibody was 21 ng/mL. Other therapeutic antibodies, such as ofatumumab directed against CD20, have shown significant CDC against peripheral blood cells obtained from CML patients in chronic phases26 and B cells in CLL,29 respectively. Thus, the TF1RAPa cocktail was used to generate the doseresponse curve and to evaluate whether CDC could be achieved using both IL1RAP and CD176 as targets. The ability of the TF1RAPa cocktail was compared to human anti-IL1RAP and anti-CD176 monoclonal antibodies to induce cell death in PBMCs from patients with CML. PBMCs from CML1-4 were tested in CDC assays in parallel to cells from healthy control samples. In CML cells, the binding of TF1RAPa mediated CDC at higher levels than in normal peripheral blood mononuclear control cells, correlating with the expression level of IL1RAP and CD176, particularly at lower antibody concentrations (Figure 3F). More strikingly, among peripheral blood cells, TF1RAPa did not induce CDC of normal cells, whereas a clear dose-dependent CDC effect was observed in CML cells (Figure S13A and B). To address the selectivity of IL1RAP/CD176-targeting antibodies, we also validated the bispecific antibody cytotoxicity on the various subpopulations in peripheral blood. The dual-positive CD176+IL1RAP+ cell populations showed the highest CDC activity as compared to CD176+IL1RAP-, CD176-IL1RAP+, and CD176-IL1RAP- populations (Figure 4 and S13CF, S14).

Figure 4 Dose-response curve of TF1RAPa Bis-Ab on CDC in CML samples. A dose-response curve showing the selective killing potential of CD176+IL1RAP+ subpopulation by the TF1RAPa Bis-Ab as compared to other subpopulations in PBMCs from patients with CML. Each point represents the mean SEM of the four samples.

Targeting molecules involved in multiple pathways is proving to be one of the most reliable strategies for eradicating cancer stem cells. In this report, we present a novel bi-specific antibody, TF/RAP, capable of targeting ThomsenFriedenreich (TF, CD176) and IL1RAP antigens on CD34+ HSCs in CML and on cell lines. TF is a glycoprotein that has many domains and motifs (eg, LGALS3, Gal(1,3)GalNAc, LGalS3BP), many related to signaling pathways. It is a known marker for ongoing tumorigenesis and metastasis, as it is expressed on various cancer-initiating cells.8 Interestingly, CD34 and LGALS3 were found to be co-expressed in myeloid cells.30,31 LGALS3 and ABL1 are involved in regulating RUNX1 and the transcription of genes involved in differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells,32 especially myeloid cells33 (Figure S15) IL1RAP, on the other hand, is a member of the Toll-like receptor superfamily and is a well-known co-receptor of IL1R1.34 IL1RAP plays a role in mediating the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 and is also involved in activating T cells and mast cells after mediating the signal of IL-1 cytokine.35 It has previously been characterized as a tightly related marker for BCR-ABL positive cells.7 Together, both TF and IL1RAP were related to apoptotic pathways; IL1RAP up-regulation was associated with decreased apoptosis in AML,36 and anti-CD176 antibody induced apoptosis of CD176-positive leukemic cells through multiple pathways.12 Although we did not find a direct link between IL1RAP, CD176 and leukemogenesis, previous studies have shown that each of them is separately expressed on CD34+ cells in leukemia cell lines8,10,12 and patients with CML7

Therefore, we conducted this pilot study, in order to assess the co-expression of IL1RAP and ThomsenFriedenreich (CD176) antigens on CD34+ HSCs in peripheral blood of patients with CML, using FACS gene expression analyses. Flow-drop FISH and CFU assays were used for the separation of CD34+CD176 BCR-ABL+ and BCR-ABL CML stem cells, based on IL1RAP expression.7 CFU numbers were significantly lower in CD34+CD176+IL1RAP- cells than in CD34+CD176+IL1RAP+ cells, obtained from CML-2 and CML-4 samples (Figure 1D), particularly CML-2 sample which was obtained from a patient in remission (BCR-ABL-). We found that the frequency of clonogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells was increased in the CD34+ CD176+IL1RAP+ cells in these samples. Testing the stem-cell characteristics of these two cell populations in immune-deficient mice would have been advantageous. Yet, the low numbers of sorted CML cells acquired from the CD34+CD176+ IL1RAP and IL1RAP+ cell subpopulations, alongwith the general low engrafting efficiency of chronic phase CML cells in these mice7 prevented us from successfully performing such experiments. Importantly, as IL1RAP expression was correlated with changes from chronic phase (CP) into accelerated phase (AP) and blast phase (BP)37, we also found that the level of IL1RAP/CD176 co-expressionwas increased, in our patient samples, as the disease progressed, independent of the treatment status(Table S3).

To target both TF and IL1RAP simultaneously, we developed a Bis-Ab specific for both antigens. Because antibodies are normally heterodimers of two heavy and two light chains, we modified the constant domains in the Bis-Ab to maximize the correct interactions of the four immunoglobulin chains within single cells. Here, we used the orthogonal Fab design; CH1_H172A_F174G and CL_L135Y_S176W38 to facilitate selective assembly of the Fab arms for correct dimerization of the antigen-binding domains.39 Therefore, we mutated CH1 and CL binding sites to restrict the assembly of the Fab with the correct VD pairs. The RAP VDs were cloned with the wild type Fab; and the TF VD was linked to the mutant orthogonal Fab design. Published data have shown that the component proteins of this Bis-Ab platform proper assembly were detected at 93% and the complex had a molecular weight of 95 KDa, as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis.38 Additionally, the CH3 for each Fab was mutated with previously described knob-into-hole mutations40,41 to facilitate hetero-dimerization between the TF and the RAP heavy chains. In our study, we used ELISA to demonstrate that both the VD and Fc were properly paired. Here, because the primary antibody was anti-human VL and the secondary antibody was anti-human IgG, quantifying the Bis-Ab also demonstrated the VD-Fc interactions.

To efficiently validate the specific binding of our Bis-Ab, we generated a dual-positive cell line; KG1/RAP. KG1 cell line expresses CD176+, but IL1RAP is low or absent. Therefore, we induced IL1RAP expression in KG1 cells by lentiviral mediated-gene transfer, as previously usedin both immune42 and leukemic cells.43 In the competitive binding assay, increasing concentrations of the Bis-Ab blocked the binding of CD176 and IL1-RAP monoclonal antibodies to the KG1/RAP and KG1 parental cells, demonstrating the specific binding of the Bis-Ab. The level of CD176 expression in KG1 cell line was detected before and after VCN treatment. Increased staining of the KG1/RAP cells compared to the parental KG1 cells indicated that expression of the IL1RAP facilitates the interaction of the Bis-Ab with the target cell. This increased binding of the Bis-Ab to the KG1/RAP cells also increased their susceptibility to complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). We also observed increased binding and increased CDC in the CD176+ IL1RAP+ population of the peripheralblood from patients with CML. As a pilot study and given that on average, 50% of the cells within the CD34+ subpopulation in the patients tested were dual positive for CD176 and IL1RAP antigens, in addition to the almost undetectable CDC in CD34+ cells in normal controls, our data strongly support the idea that the bi-specific antibody (TF/RAP) indeed induces CDC preferentially in CD176+ IL1RAP+ CML CD34+ cells. In generating a bi-specific antibody that targets CD176 and IL1RAP, we are unique in providing proof of concept that CML CD34+CD176+ IL1RAP+ cells can be targeted while preserving corresponding normal cells. The potential to target multiple antigens is supported by studies that demonstrated increased or synergistic CDC activity by non-cross blocking CD20 antibody combinations.44

Therapeutic antibodies are commonly administered intravenously, yet selectivity and specificity are a major concern for reduced toxicity. CD176/IL1RAP co-expression was not present in monocytes unlike the reported weak but present IL1RAP expression in monocytes.7 Both antigens were low or absent in most types of normal bone-marrow progenitor and mature cell types, suggesting that CD176/IL1RAP dual targeting antibodies are expected to show low toxicity on normal hematopoietic cells. Being strongly expressed on the surface of cancer cells and virtually absent from normal tissues, CD176 was evaluated as a potential target for cancer biotherapy with the development of anti-CD176 antibody that induced apoptosis of leukemic cells.8 Added to this, antibodies against IL1RAP were found to be capable of blocking IL-1 signaling as well as inhibiting tumor cells' growth in AML,34 CML,7 breast cancer,45 prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanomas, bladder cancer, brain/CNS cancer, cervical cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, head/neck cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, and sarcomas46 especially in cancer stem cells, or (CSCs) and progenitor cells, which are responsible, directly or indirectly, for the development of a solid tumor.47 Thus, it may be thatour Bis-Ab will not only eradicate the CD176+IL1RAP+ drug-resistantCML stem cells but also may have universal therapeutic potential for preventing relapses in both solid and hematological cancers.Given that the mode of action in CDC is having the antibody direct the complement pathway to target cell killing, we suggest that this therapeutic strategy would be independent of known mechanisms of TKI resistance in CML. Thus, the concept of complement-mediated killing of IL1RAP/CD176 expressing cells may also have the potential to eradicate such cells in patients, either alone or in combination with current regimens, in order to increase their therapeutic effectiveness. And finally, expanded studies need to be performed in order to confirm the co-expression of both markers, especially in resistant and relapsed cancer patients as well as in patient-derived xenografts (PDX).

The experimental research was mostly supported by a fellowship to REE from the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education, Cultural, and Missions Section (JS 3577). The lentiviral vectorHRST-cmvGFPand the packaging plasmids were akind gift from Richard C.Mulligan in the Harvard Gene Therapy Institute. The human IgG heavy and light chain constant genes were provided by JE Robinson (Tulane University). C Wu and SEB were supported by AI110158 and/or OD01104-51; EUA and SEB were supported by the Applied Stem Cell Laboratory.

All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All authors have given approval of the final version of the article; and have agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

The abstract of this paper was presented at the AACR annual Meeting 2019; March 29 April3, 2019; Atlanta, GA, as a poster presentation with interim findings. The posters abstract was published in Poster Abstracts in the AACR meeting proceedings and as a supplement in the AACR Cancer Research Journal [https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/79/13_Supplement/1222A].

Raghda Eldesouki reports grants from Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education. Stephen EBraun reports grants from Egyptian Ministry of Education, Alliance for Cardiovascular Research, NIAID OD01104, and Braun/McGroarty Charitable Fund, during the conduct of the study. In addition, Dr Raghda Eldesouki, Dr Stephen Braun, Dr Fouad Badr and Dr Eman Abdel-Moemen Mohammedhave apatent, PCT/EG2019/000014, pending. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.

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[Full text] Identification and Targeting of ThomsenFriedenreich and IL1RAP | OTT - Dove Medical Press

BrainStorm Announces the Publication of Preclinical Data Highlighting the Potential of a NurOwn Derived Exosome-Based Treatment for COVID-19 ARDS -…

NEW YORK, Jan. 20, 2021 /PRNewswire/ --BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ: BCLI), a leading developer of adult stem cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, announced today the peer-reviewed publication of a preclinical study in the journal Stem Cell and Research Therapy. The study, entitled "MSC-NTF (NurOwn) exosomes: a novel therapeutic modality in the mouse LPS-induced ARDS model," evaluated the use of NurOwn (MSC-NTF cell) derived exosomes in a mouse model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

ARDS is a type of respiratory failure that is frequently associated with COVID-19 and mediated by dysregulated cytokine production. While there are currently no effective therapies to prevent or reverse ARDS, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been suggested as a potential novel treatment option due to their ability to penetrate deep into tissues and efficiently deliver immunomodulatory molecules.

Results from the recently published study showed that intratracheal administration of NurOwn derived exosomes led to a statistically significant reduction in lung disease severity score (p < 0.05; based on criteria set forth by the American Thoracic Society Documents: Matute-Bello et al., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 44;725-738, 2011) and improvements in several additional clinically relevant lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS markers such as lung function, fibrin presence, neutrophil accumulation, cytokine expression, and blood oxygenation levels. Notably, these improvements were significantly superior to those observed following administration of nave MSC-derived exosomes.

"These exciting preclinical data suggest that NurOwn derived exosomes have the potential to treat COVID-19-induced ARDS or other severe respiratory complications, and that they are more effective than exosomes isolated from nave MSCs at combatting the various symptoms of the syndrome," said Dr. Revital Aricha, Vice President of Research & Development at BrainStorm. "This publication in a highly regarded journal provides important validation for the scientific advances and significance of BrainStorm's preclinical research programs, including on our exosome-based technology platform."

Chaim Lebovits, Brainstorm's Chief Executive Officer added, "While our primary focus is on advancing NurOwn towards regulatory approval in ALS, we continue to evaluate the potential of our exosome-based platform to address unmet medical needs. The publication of these proof-of-concept data highlights this potential, and we are now actively assessing next steps to determine how to best generate value. We are also actively discussing with possible partners several development opportunities for the exosome technology."

About NurOwn

The NurOwn technology platform (autologous MSC-NTF cells) represents a promising investigational therapeutic approach to targeting disease pathways important in neurodegenerative disorders. MSC-NTF cells are produced from autologous, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have been expanded and differentiated ex vivo. MSCs are converted into MSC-NTF cells by growing them under patented conditions that induce the cells to secrete high levels of neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Autologous MSC-NTF cells can effectively deliver multiple NTFs and immunomodulatory cytokines directly to the site of damage to elicit a desired biological effect and ultimately slow or stabilize disease progression.

About BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc.

BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc. is a leading developer of innovative autologous adult stem cell therapeutics for debilitating neurodegenerative diseases. The Company holds the rights to clinical development and commercialization of the NurOwn technology platform used to produce autologous MSC-NTF cells through an exclusive, worldwide licensing agreement. Autologous MSC-NTF cells have received Orphan Drug status designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). BrainStorm has completed a phase 3 pivotal trial in ALS (NCT03280056); this trial investigated the safety and efficacy of repeat-administration of autologous MSC-NTF cells and was supported by a grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM CLIN2-0989). BrainStorm is in active discussions with the FDA to identify regulatory pathways that may support NurOwn's approval in ALS. BrainStorm is also conducting an FDA-approved phase 2 open-label multicenter trial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The phase 2 study of autologous MSC-NTF cells in patients with progressive MS (NCT03799718) completed dosing inDecember 2020, and topline results are expected by the end of the first quarter 2021.

For more information, visit the company's website atwww.brainstorm-cell.com.

Safe-Harbor Statement

Statements in this announcement other than historical data and information, including statements regarding future clinical trial enrollment and data, constitute "forward-looking statements" and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc.'s actual results to differ materially from those stated or implied by such forward-looking statements. Terms and phrases such as "may," "should," "would," "could," "will," "expect,""likely," "believe," "plan," "estimate," "predict," "potential," and similar terms and phrases are intended to identify these forward-looking statements. The potential risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, BrainStorm's need to raise additional capital, BrainStorm's ability to continue as a going concern, regulatory approval of BrainStorm's NurOwn treatment candidate, the success of BrainStorm's product development programs and research, regulatory and personnel issues, development of a global market for our services, the ability to secure and maintain research institutions to conduct our clinical trials, the ability to generate significant revenue, the ability of BrainStorm's NurOwn treatment candidate to achieve broad acceptance as a treatment option for ALS or other neurodegenerative diseases, BrainStorm's ability to manufacture and commercialize the NurOwn treatment candidate, obtaining patents that provide meaningful protection, competition and market developments, BrainStorm's ability to protect our intellectual property from infringement by third parties, heath reform legislation, demand for our services, currency exchange rates and product liability claims and litigation; and other factors detailed in BrainStorm's annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q available athttp://www.sec.gov. These factors should be considered carefully, and readers should not place undue reliance on BrainStorm's forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release are based on the beliefs, expectations and opinions of management as of the date of this press release. We do not assume any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect actual results or assumptions if circumstances or management's beliefs, expectations or opinions should change, unless otherwise required by law. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements.

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[Full text] Effects of Caffeic Acid and Its Derivatives on Bone: A Systematic Revi | DDDT – Dove Medical Press

Introduction

Bone remodelling is a tightly coupled lifelong process, whereby old bone is removed by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and new bone is formed by osteoblasts (bone formation).1,2 Osteocytes, which act as mechanosensors/endocrine cells, and bone lining cells3 are also involved in bone remodelling.4 Myriad pathophysiological factors affecting bone remodelling have been observed in skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis and periodontal disease.5 Oxidative stress is one of the pathophysiological factors affecting bone remodelling. Oxidative stress stimulates osteoclast differentiation, thereby enhancing bone resorption.6,7 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate the apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes, thus affecting bone formation. ROS also activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, and enhance osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.811 These phenomena skew the bone remodelling process in favour of bone loss.

Antioxidants are compounds which reduce free radicals and oxidative stress.12 Antioxidants have been reported to promote differentiation of osteoblasts, bone formation and survival of osteocytes, as well as suppressing osteoclast differentiation and activity.8,1315 Some studies associate the age-related reduction in circulating antioxidants to osteoporosis in rats and women.1618 A decline in antioxidant levels has been reported to promote bone loss by triggering the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-dependent signalling pathway,6 while administration of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, E, N-acetylcysteine and lipoic acid, have been reported to exert favourable effects in animal models of osteoporosis1921 and individuals with osteoporosis.2225

Caffeic acid (CA) is a metabolite of hydroxycinnamate and phenylpropanoid commonly synthesized by all plant species. It is a polyphenol present in many food sources like coffee, tea, wine, blueberries, apples, cider, honey and propolis.26 CA and its major derivatives including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester (CADPE) are reported to possess potential antibacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and cardioprotective activities (reviewed in2729). As a potent antioxidant, CA has been demonstrated to decrease lipoperoxyl radicals (ROO) by donating a hydrogen atom to its corresponding hydroperoxide, which terminates the lipid peroxidation chain reaction. It also inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by cupric ions.30 Furthermore, it interacts with other compounds, such as -tocopherol, chlorogenic and caftaric acids, to exert more potent antioxidant activity in a variety of different systems.3133 Therefore, the antioxidant activities of CA might protect against the negative effects of oxidative stress on bone cells and the skeletal system. This systematic review aims to summarise the effects of CA and its derivatives on bone cells and bone in literature.

A systematic literature search was conducted from July until November 2020 using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases to identify studies on the effects of caffeic acid on bone and bone cells including osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. The search string used was (1) caffeic acid AND (2) (bone OR osteoporosis OR osteoblasts OR osteoclasts OR osteocytes).

Studies with the following characteristics were included: (1) original research article with the primary objective of determining the effects of caffeic acid on bone and bone cells; (2) studies using cellular or animal models, or humans; (3) studies administering caffeic acid as a single compound but not in a mixture or food. Articles were excluded if they (1) do not contain original data; (2) use food rich in caffeic acid or mixtures containing caffeic acid. The bibliography of relevant review articles was traced for potential articles missed during database search. The search results were organised using EndNoteTM software (Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia, USA). Duplicates were identified using EndNoteTM and confirmed by manual checking.

Two authors (S.O.E. and K.L.P.) searched the same databases using the search string mentioned and screened the search results. All the articles that did not match the selection criteria were excluded. Next, the articles which used caffeic acid in treating models other than bone-related diseases were removed. Finally, articles which used caffeic acid in combination with other compounds were also excluded. Any disagreement on the inclusion or exclusion of articles was resolved through discussion among the two authors. The corresponding author (K.Y.C.) had the final decision on articles included if a consensus could not be reached between authors responsible for screening. This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist.34 Steps in the selection process, from identification, screening, eligibility to the inclusion of articles, are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Flowchart of the article selection process.

From the literature search, 381 articles were identified, of which 87 were obtained from PubMed, 182 were from Scopus, 3 from Cochrane Library and 109 from Web of Science. A total of 155 duplicate articles were identified and removed. Of the 226 articles screened, 202 articles were excluded based on the selection criteria, whereby 51 articles did not contain primary data (3 book chapters, 2 commentary and 46 review articles), 147 articles and 2 conference abstracts presented topics irrelevant to the current review, a conference abstract had been published as a full-length research article and another conference abstract did not contain sufficient experiment details (Supplementary Material). Finally, 24 articles fulfilling all criteria mentioned were included in the review.

The included studies were published between 2006 and 2020. Seven studies were in vitro experiments using mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), RAW264.7, RAW D and MG63 osteoblast cell lines3541 while 19 studies were in vivo studies using Sprague Dawley/Sprague Dawley albino rats, Wistar/Wistar albino rats, Balb/c mice, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-resistant C3H/HEJ mice, C57BL/6J mice and ICR mice.35,38,4258 No human studies on this topic were reported.

Six in vitro studies focused on the effects of CA on osteoclast differentiation from haematopoietic cells using macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of NF-B (RANK) ligand (RANKL) or TNF-,3539,41 while one in vitro study focused on the effect of CA on osteoblasts using MG63 osteoblast cell line.40 Four in vitro studies used CA doses between 0.15 M.35,37,38,40 Ang et al.36 used doses between 00.3 M and Sandra et al.41 and Sandra and Ketherin39 used a dose of 10 g/mL (55.5 M). The treatment period was 57 days for the differentiation of osteoclasts.

For animal studies, Duan et al.,55 Zawawi et al.,58 William et al.,51 Wu et al.,38 Zych et al.49 and Folwarczna et al.48,52 used CA or its derivatives at doses between 0.550 mg/kg via oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Ucan et al.,57 Erdem et al.,53 Cicek et al.,54 Yigit et al.,45 Yildiz et al.50 and Tolba et al.56 used doses between 1020 mol/kg/day (2.845.69 mg/kg/day) via i.p. administration. Kizilda et al.4244 and Kazanciolu et al.46,47 used the dose of 10 mmol/kg/day (2.843 g/kg/day) for an i.p. administration, Kazanciolu et al.47 employed 50100 mmol/kg/day (14.2228.43 g/kg/day) for a localised administration, while Ha et al.35 used a collagen sponge soaked with CAPE with the final dose of 250 g/mouse. For oral administration, first-pass effect might affect the enteric absorption of CA or its derivatives.59 For i.p. administration, the injection is commonly performed at the lower left or right quadrant of the abdomen. The peritoneum can absorb the compounds fast and reach systemic circulation with greater bioavailability with fewer handling errors.60

The bone-related disease models used included ovariectomy (OVX)- or glucocorticoids (dexamethasone)-induced osteoporosis, polyethylene particle-induced bone defect and osteolysis, electromagnetic force (EMF)-stimulated bone loss, osteotomy- or anti-collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and LPS-induced periodontitis. The endpoints studied included bone microstructure, histomorphometry, bone remodelling and oxidative status. The effects of CA and its derivatives on bone remodelling have been summarized in Table 1.

Melguizo-Rodrguez et al. reported that 24-hour CA (1 M) incubation increased the number of MG63 osteoblast cells compared with control.40 Gene expression studies revealed that CA increased the expression of osteoblast-related genes such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -7 (BMP-2 and BMP-7), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, 2 and 3 (TGF-R1, TGF-R2 and TGF-R3) and osteoblastogenesis genes including Runt-related transcription (RUNX-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type 1 (COL-I), osterix (OSX) and osteocalcin (OSC).40 Additionally, pretreatment of CA (10 g/mL or 55.5 M) on RAW D cells for 2 h also significantly inhibited the RANKL and TNF-induced osteoclastogenesis with the suppression of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) formation.39 Similarly, pretreatment of CA (0.1, 1 and 10 g/mL or 0.555, 5.55 and 55.5 M) on RAW D cells and BMMs for 3 days significantly inhibited the RANKL and TNF-induced osteoclastogenesis and NF-B activity in RAW-D cells and RANKL, TNF and M-CSF-induced osteoclastogenesis in BMMs.41

On the other hand, CAPE treatment (00.3 M; 57 days) suppressed the formation of TRAP-positive OCLs on RANKL-treated RAW264.7 cells and BMMs.36 Apoptosis occurred in CAPE-treated RAW264.7 cells with the disruption of the microtubule network in OCLs.36 Similarly, Kwon et al. reported that CAPE treatment (0.15 M) for 5 days suppressed OCLs formation from RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.37 Another study by Ha et al. treating M-CSF and RANKL-stimulated BMMs with CAPE (05 M for 57 days) also showed decreased OCLs formation in a concentration-dependent manner.35 The amount of TRAP-positive OCLs was decreased upon 0.1 and 0.5 M CAPE treatment by 30% and 95% respectively.35 No OCL formation was observed upon 1 M CAPE treatment.35 The anti-osteoclastogenic activities of CAPE are mainly contributed by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Mechanistically, CAPE reduces superoxide anion generation by downregulating the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression through the interruption of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling pathways.37 CAPE suppresses RANKL-mediated activation of the NF-B pathway by downregulating NF-B p65 subunit expression and its nuclear translocation,37 suppressing nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activities36 and degradation of NF-B inhibitor (IB),36,37 as well as inducing the degradation of IB kinase (IKK).37 CAPE also suppresses the expression and activation of JNK and its downstream transcription factors, such as c-Fos and c-Jun, which subsequently interrupt the protein activator-1 (AP-1) complex formation.37 Additionally, CAPE suppressed RANKL-induced activation of the Nox1 by inhibiting the Nox p47PHOX subunit translocation to the cell membrane and downregulation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) expression.37

On the other hand, Wu et al. reported that CADPE (0.15 M for 7 days) also concentration-dependently reduced OCL formation in the M-CSF and RANKL-stimulated BMMs and RAW264.7 cells.38 Mechanistic and characterisation examination revealed that CADPE suppressed RANKL-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) activation and protein kinase B (PKB or also known as Akt) and activation of major MAPKs including ERK, JNK and p38.38 Subsequently, CADPE suppressed downstream expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), nuclear translocation of c-Fos protein and expression of osteoclastic markers, such as TRAP and cathepsin K, possibly through the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src signalling.38 Interestingly, CADPE did not significantly affect the NF-kB signalling pathway and M-CSF-induced proliferation and differentiation of BMMs.

Supplementation of CA in animal models of bone loss yielded heterogeneous findings.48,49,52 This observation might be attributable to oral administration. Folwarczna et al. reported that CA (5 and 50 mg/kg, by stomach tube for 4 weeks) improved the bone mechanical properties by increasing the width of the trabecular metaphysis of the femur and decreasing the transverse growth in endosteal of the femur in OVX rats.48 Folwarczna et al. then demonstrated that CA (10 mg/kg/day; oral administration for 4 weeks) could reduce the width of tibial periosteal and endosteal osteoid compared with untreated OVX rats.52 However, CA did not promote or reduce the resorption of compact bone in the tibia of OVX-induced osteoporotic rats as evidenced by negligible changes of bone mass, bone mineral mass, bone mass/body mass ratio and bone mineral mass/body mass ratio.52 On the other hand, Zych et al. reported that CA at a similar dose (10 mg/kg/day; by stomach tube for 4 weeks) worsened the bone mechanical properties of healthy female Wistar Cmd:(WI)WU rats by decreasing the load of fracture at the femoral neck, decreasing the width of periosteal osteoid in the tibia and decreasing the width of the epiphysis and metaphysis trabecular in the femur compared with the negative control group.49

CAPE is the most extensively studied caffeic acid derivative in animal studies. The beneficial effects on new bone formation and healing upon systemic administration of CAPE had been reported.46,47,53,57 Erdem et al. reported that a low dose of CAPE (10 mol/kg; i.p. injection for 22 days) increased new bone formation and bone strength by increasing maximum torsional fracture momentum and degree of rigidity compared with negative control in rats that underwent unilateral femoral lengthening (osteotomy).53 Similarly, a 30-day i.p. injection of CAPE (10 mol/kg/day) also increased bone healing level in Sprague Dawley rats with cranial critical size bone defect.57 A higher dose of CAPE (10 mmol/kg/day, i.p. for 20 days) also further promoted the RME procedure-induced new bone formation in midpalatal suture of male Sprague Dawley rats.47 Similarly, a longer treatment period of CAPE (10 mmol/kg/day; i.p. injection for 28 days) also significantly promoted bone healing by increasing the total new bone areas in surgical-induced calvarial defects of male Wistar rats compared with the negative control.46 However, localised administration of CAPE (28 days) on surgical-induced calvarial defects by pre-mixing 50 and 100 mmol/kg CAPE solutions with gelatin sponges did not significantly improve the new bone formation.46

Localised and systemic administration of CAPE was reported to be beneficial in reducing osteolysis and bone loss.35,4245,50,5456,58 Ha et al. reported that collagen sponge implant impregnated with 250 g CAPE and RANKL could reduce osteoclastogenesis with significantly lesser TRAP-stained area in mouse calvariae compared with implants with RANKL only.35 Subcutaneous injection of CAPE (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days) reduced the polyethylene particle-induced calvarial osteolysis, surface bone resorption and TRAP-positive cells formation with an increase of bone volume (BV) on LPS-resistant C3H/HEJ female mice.58 However, no significant changes were observed in carboxy-terminal cross-linked type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and osteoclast-associated receptor levels among untreated and CAPE-treated rats with calvarial osteolysis.58

Similarly, Duan et al. reported that lower dose and frequency of CAPE injection (0.5 mg/kg twice a week; i.p. injection for 4 weeks) also increased the BV and trabecular number (Tb.N) due to the decrease of bone osteoclast formation (evidenced by decreased osteoclast number/bone perimeter) in OVX mice.55 Tolba et al. also reported that i.p. injection of CAPE (10 and 20 mol/kg) for 3 weeks increased femur weight and length in rats with dexamethasone-induced bone loss.56 The preservation of skeletal health in their study was associated with an improved antioxidant defence, such as higher levels of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation product).56 This event led to an increase of osteoblastogenesis indicated by upregulation of RUNX-2 and ALP (osteoblast marker) levels56 On the other hand, decreased RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio was observed with CAPE treatment, indicating the suppression of osteoclastogenesis, which was further confirmed by lower acid phosphatase level and TRAP activity.56 In another study by Yildiz et al., CAPE (10 mol/kg/day; i.p. injection for 22 days) also increased the spine and femur BMD in rats with EMF-induced bone loss.50 Similarly, Cicek et al. reported a longer treatment of CAPE (10 mol/kg/day; i.p. injection for 28 days) also significantly improved the mechanical strength of cortical bone by increasing the breaking force, bending strength and total fracture energy in rats with EMF-induced bone loss compared with negative control.54

Additionally, a study by Wu et al. treated mice with an OVX-induced bone loss with a moderately high dose of CADPE (10 mg/kg; i.p. injection) every 2 days for 3 months.38 Results showed that CADPE could increase the BV fraction (BV/TV) and Tb.N, as well as decreased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) compared with the negative control.38 The improvement in the bone structure was contributed by reduced osteoclast number and eroded surface on the bone.38 Assessment of bone remodelling markers also revealed that serum TRAP5b and CTX-1 levels were reduced in CADPE-treated group compared with the negative control.38

On the other hand, CAPE was effective in reducing periodontitis-related bone loss and osteolysis.4245 CAPE (10 mol/kg/day, i.p. for 14 days) significantly reduced the subgingival ligature placement-induced periodontitis-mediated articular bone loss, histopathological features and severity of periodontal inflammation with lesser polymorphonuclear cells (PMNLs) infiltration in the junctional epithelium and connective tissues among Wistar albino rats.45 CAPE also suppressed the periodontitis-upregulated interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, MDA levels and the percentage of gingival apoptosis with the parallel restoration of periodontitis-downregulated GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).45 Administration of high-dose CAPE (10 mmol/kg/day; i.p. for 15 days) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats reduced RANKL-positive osteoclast number, IL-1 levels, oxidative stress index (OSI), alveolar bone loss and histological analysis score in LPS-induced periodontitis. The treated rats also suffered lesser inflammatory reactions, ulcers and hyperemia.42 Similar changes of osteoclast number, IL-1 and OSI were observed in male Sprague Dawley rats with chronic stress and LPS-induced periodontitis treated with CAPE (10 mmol/kg/day, i.p. for 14 days).44 In addition, CAPE also increased the mesial and distal periodontal bone supports (MPBS and DPBS) in these rats.44 The effects of CAPE were sustained with a longer treatment period of CAPE (10 mmol/kg/day, i.p. for 28 days) on male Sprague Dawley rats with LPS-induced periodontitis.43

In contrast to the above findings, Williams et al. reported that subcutaneous injection of CAPE (1 mg/kg; at day 3, 7 and 10) did not reduce paw inflammation or bone loss in CAIA mice.51 Cartilage and bone degradation, as well as TRAP-positive cells on the bone surface and soft tissues, were still apparent in the supplemented CAIA group compared with the normal control.51

This systematic review found that although CA and its derivatives is a potential anti-osteoporosis agent by suppressing the formation of osteoclasts and their bone resorption activity, it worsened bone mechanical properties in some cases. The anti-osteoclastogenesis action of CA and its derivatives was mediated by the antioxidant activities, which blocked RANKL-induced TRAF6/Akt and MAPK signalling, as well as M-CSF/c-Src signalling. In animals, CA and its derivatives (mainly CAPE) prevented bone resorption in rodent calvariae when implanted in situ, facilitated the healing of bone defects, preserved bone structure and improved mechanical strength in osteoporosis models induced by OVX, dexamethasone, osteotomy, LPS-mediated periodontitis and EMF. However, CA did not alter bone resorption in OVX-induced osteoporotic rats and worsened the mechanical properties in normal rats. Additionally, CAPE did not suppress bone loss in rats with CAIA-induced bone loss.

Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and are responsible for the synthesis, secretion and mineralisation of bone matrix.61 The expression of osteoblast markers was increased following CA or CAPE supplementation, an indication that CA and CAPE stimulated osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and maturation.40,56 Osteoblasts and osteocytes regulate the formation of osteoclasts through RANKL/OPG axis. Osteoblasts and osteocytes synthesise RANKL, which binds to RANK to activate the canonical pathway for osteoclastogenesis. They also secrete OPG, which is a decoy receptor for RANKL to suppress osteoclastogenesis. The production of RANKL is stimulated under conditions such as oestrogen deficiency62 and oxidative stress.63 Osteoclastogenesis can also be stimulated via a non-canonical pathway, for instance, through the binding of TNF with TNF receptor I or II.64 Glucocorticoids are potential modulators of RANKL/OPG axis, whereby dexamethasone is shown to downregulate OPG levels in osteoblasts.65 Tolba et al. showed that the RANKL/OPG level reduced in rats induced with dexamethasone with CAPE treatment.56 Other cellular studies showed that CA and its derivatives suppressed RANKL- and TNF-induced formation of OCLs from haematopoietic cells,3539 indicating that CA and its derivatives suppressed both canonical and non-canonical osteoclastogenesis.

The complex formed by the binding of RANKL to RANK causes the recruitment of the adaptor molecules tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), including TRAF6.66 This event leads to the activation of several downstream signalling pathways, including c-Src/Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAPKs (ERK/p38/JNK). CADPE was shown to suppress RANKL-induced activation of TRAF6 activation and the subsequent signalling pathways in multiple osteoclast progenitors, such as BMMs,38 RAW264.738 and RAW D cells.39 Sandra and Ketherin suggested that the downregulation of p38 is the key step of CA-mediated osteoclastogenesis.39 Upon activation, p38 initiates osteoclastogenesis by inducing NF-B and NFATc1 expression.67,68 Inhibition of p38 MAPK reduces RANKL (canonical) and TNF-induced (non-canonical) osteoclast formation.69

The NF-B pathway is another signalling pathway downstream of TRAFs critical for osteoclast differentiation and bone reabsorption activity. Upon activation, IKK (consisting of IKK, IKK and IKK) phosphorylates and degrades IB, which enables translocation of NF-B p65/p50 heterodimers into the nucleus to allow transcription of osteoclast-related genes.70 Kwon et al. demonstrated that the anti-osteoclastogenesis effects of CAPE were mediated via the degradation of total IKK, thereby preventing the phosphorylation and degradation of IB and subsequently suppresses the nuclear translation of p65.37 On the other hand, Wu et al. reported that CADPE did not affect phosphorylation or degradation of IB, as well as nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding activity of p65.38 This observation suggests that compared with CAPE, CADPE does not influence the NF-B signalling pathway.

ROS are one of the important secondary signals in the early stages of osteoclast differentiation.71,72 These ROS are mainly produced as superoxide anions by Nox1.73 Blocking of Nox1 ameliorates ROS production and the downstream MAPKs (JNK, p38 and ERK) and NF-B activation74 and subsequently suppresses the osteoclast formation.71 The reduction of Nox 1 and Rac1 expression by CAPE is accompanied by RANKL-downstream signalling, denoting that anti-osteoclastogenesis effects of CAPE are dependent on suppression of Nox1-mediated superoxide anion production. Besides, dexamethasone has been reported to increase the expression of oxidative stress-related genes in human osteoblasts.75 Tolba et al. showed that CAPE increased GSH and SOD but reduced MDA in the bone of the rats exposed to dexamethasone, indicating an improvement of redox status in the skeletal environment.56 Additionally, CAPE also reduced the OSI and bone loss with an improvement of bone support in rats with LPS-induced periodontitis.

NFATc1 is the master regulator of osteoclast-related gene expression, and it is activated by c-Fos and NF-B.76 Ha et al. observed that CAPE inhibited the recruitment of NF-B to NFATc1 promoter, and the combined effect of NF-B inhibition on c-Fos and NFATc1 may have caused CAPE to suppress osteoclastogenesis effectively.35 Holland et al. demonstrated a new fluorinated derivative of CAPE possesses potent anti-osteoclastogenic properties on RAW 264.7 cells by downregulating NFATc1 via suppression of c-Fos and NF-B signalling pathways.77 Besides, this new fluorinated CAPE also exhibits improved stability with a 2-fold higher potency than CAPE.77 On the other hand, although CADPE did not alter NF-B signalling, it still could suppress NFATc1 and other osteoclast-related markers, indicating other mechanisms of suppression could be involved, for instance, c-Src and MAPKs signalling pathways.38

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are examples of zinc-dependent extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes, which actively participate in bone resorption.78 MMPs are expressed as inactive proenzymes or zymogens that can be activated by several mediators including AP-1, NF-B, TNF and TGF.78 Currently, there is no study conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of CA and CAPE on osteoclastic MMPs activity and its subsequent linkage in bone resorption; interestingly, CA and CAPE were reported to inhibit MMP-9 activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma HEP3B cells.79,80 This observation renders an interesting research gap in osteoclastic MMP inhibition upon CA and its derivatives treatment.

Suppression of osteoclastogenesis by CA or its derivatives have significant therapeutic potential against bone disorders induced by excessive bone resorption. Bone loss after osteotomy is a rapid process that affects both fractured and unfractured bone and may be incompletely reversible.81 CAPE was reported to improve bone formation and mechanical strength of bone in osteotomy.53 Exposure to EMF radiation caused by high-voltage transmission lines and transformers could affect bone health through decreased BMD, serum calcium and ALP level leading to the increase of bone resorption.82 CAPE increased the spine and femur BMD levels50 and increased mechanical strength of bones54 in rats exposed to EMF radiation. Total hip arthroplasty without cement often caused osteolysis induced by polyethylene particles.83 CAPE was shown by Zawawi et al. to prevent calvarial bone resorption in a murine polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis model.58 Therefore, biomaterials impregnated with CA or its derivatives could be adopted to prevent osteolysis in the arthroplasty procedure. CA has been incorporated in chitosan/(3-chloropropyl) trimethoxysilane scaffold for hard-tissue engineering applications and this adopted material exhibits antibacterial and anticancer effects.84 Ucan et al. observed that CAPE increased cranial bone healing in rats with critical size bone defect, suggesting that it could be administered systematically or locally to treat bone fracture/defect healing.57

Similarly, CAPE also effectively reduced the articular bone loss, inflammatory cytokines production and oxidative stress in rats with LPS-mediated periodontitis. Additionally, Wu et al.38 and Duan et al.55 demonstrated that CADPE prevented the ovariectomy-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity in a mouse model, while Folwarczna et al. showed increased width of trabecular metaphysis in the femur of OVX rats.48 Similarly, Tolba et al. showed improved bone formation and skeletal health in rats with dexamethasone-induced bone loss upon receiving CAPE.56 Additionally, CA and its derivatives may be involved in oestrogen production and signalling. Zych et al. reported that an oral administration of CA (10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) significantly restored the serum oestradiol levels in OVX rats.85 Interestingly, CA at 10 and 100 M did not cause any alteration in calcium content in the femoral-diaphyseal and metaphyseal ex vivo culture, suggesting its bone-protecting effect may not involve calcium metabolism and regulation.86 Additionally, CAPE was reported as a selective human oestrogen receptor agonist with the EC50 value of 3.72 M in oestrogen-responsive element transcription.87 A recent in silico study by Zhao et al. suggested potential osteoimmunological effects of CAPE, which may explain its biological activities on both immune and skeletal systems.88 However, the findings from this modelling study requires further validation through in vitro and in vivo models. As oestrogen deficiency due to menopause and glucocorticoids present the most significant cause of primary and secondary osteoporosis globally, CA and its derivatives have the potential to be used as an adjuvant therapy to existing osteoporosis management strategies. The mechanisms of action of CA and its derivatives in osteoclastogenesis have been summarized in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Mechanism of action of caffeic acid and its derivatives.

Abbreviations: , decrease or downregulate; ?, unknown mechanism; Akt, protein kinase B; AP-1, activator protein 1; CA, caffeic acid; CADPE; caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester; CAPE, caffeic acid phenethyl ester; c-Src, cellular sarcoma tyrosine kinase; ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; Grb2, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2; IFN-, interferon-gamma; IL, interleukin; IL1R, interleukin-1 receptor; IB, NF-B inhibitor protein; IKK, IB kinase; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; M-CSF-R, M-CSF receptor; MAPKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T cells; NF-B, nuclear factor kappa B; NIK, MAPK kinase kinase 14; Nox1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1; OPG, osteoprotegerin; PI3k, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; Rac1, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1; RANK, receptor activator of NF-B; RANKL, receptor activator of NF-B ligand; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TAK, MAPK kinase kinase 7; TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4; TNF, tumour necrosis factor-alpha; TNFR1/2, TNF receptor 1/2; TRAF2, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2; TRAF6; tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6.

Regardless of the positive effects of CA on bone status, some studies have reported negative effects associated with supplementation of CA and its derivatives. CA supplementation did not affect the bone resorption52 and reduced transverse growth of endosteal in femur48 of rats with OVX-induced osteoporosis. In normal rats, CA supplementation even negatively affected their bone mechanical properties.49 Moreover, CAPE supplementation has been reported to stimulate the synthesis of PGE2,89 which mediates osteoclastogenesis through RANKL stimulation and activation of the NF-B pathway.90 This event will eventually increase TRAP-positive OCLs. Similarly, Williams et al. showed that CAPE did not suppress osteoclastogenesis in rats with CAIA.51

In term of safety, the International Agency for Cancer Research classifies CA as Class 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans),91 and it was reported to induce renal tubular cell hyperplasia, forestomach hyperplasia, renal cell adenoma and forestomach cancer in rodents.9294 CA has been reported to be non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic.91 Therefore, its carcinogenicity may involve epigenetic modification. Human toxicity and carcinogenicity of CA and its derivatives remain unknown. CA also showed anti-implantation activity in pregnant mice at a median effective dose of 4.26 mg/kg/day.95 Similarly, 5 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg of CA in mice demonstrated anti-implantation activity in early pregnancy.96 On the other hand, 0.15 mg/kg/day, 5 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day of CA for 21 days in mice showed no maternal toxicity, foetal teratogenesis or post-natal effects on pup development and mortality.96 The same experiment stated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of CA for pregnant female mice was 0.15 mg/kg/day.96 Therefore, high-dose CA should be cautioned in humans, especially pregnant women.

Several common limitations can be identified from the studies reviewed. Most studies did not adopt a positive control to compare against the anti-osteoclastogenesis or anti-osteoporosis effect of CA. Therefore, the therapeutic effects of CA and currently available anti-resorptive therapy cannot be compared. Although osteoblastogenesis and bone formation are also important in bone remodelling, evidence of CA on these processes is limited in the literature. The actions of CA in humans cannot be confirmed due to the lack of human clinical trials. These aspects can be improved in future studies.

The current review also has several limitations. We only considered articles indexed by PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science; therefore, non-indexed articles could be overlooked. We only selected articles studying CA or its derivatives as a single compound to understand its mechanism of action properly without other interference, but not a mixture of compounds or natural products rich in CA. CA are present in foods, and interaction with other compounds in the food matrix might alter its absorption, bioavailability and action on the target tissue. Moreover, the heterogeneous findings of CA in bone loss reduction upon oral administration further emphasise these possibilities.

The current preclinical evidence agrees that CA and its derivatives exert promising skeletal protective effects by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, but literature on bone formation is limited. Notwithstanding that, the skeletal effects of CA and its derivatives in models of normal bone health should be investigated because the limited studies available show undesirable effects. Human clinical trials to validate the skeletal effects of CA are lacking. Therefore, a well-planned clinical trial should be conducted to confirm the potential of CA as an antiresorptive agent. This information is critical for CA and its derivatives to be incorporated as part of the strategies to prevent bone loss.

The researchers are funded by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia through Research University Grant (GUP-2020-021). S.O.E. and K.L.P. are post-doctoral researchers funded by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia through FPR-1 and RGA-1 grants.

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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[Full text] Effects of Caffeic Acid and Its Derivatives on Bone: A Systematic Revi | DDDT - Dove Medical Press

Cancer requires more tutoring, with Meyer continuing to Teaching Cancer a lesson – News – vintontoday.com

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Click to view a previous story about Carly's battle.

October 30th brought a second challenge to Vinton-Shellsburg Kindergarten teacher, Carly Meyer. After battling her first round of leukemia, she suffered another relapse with a second diagnosis of leukemia.

"I thought I was done with these updates... but should have known 2020 wasnt done messing stuff up yet!" Carly shared. "For those of you who don't know, I was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in August 2019 and completed chemo treatments in December 2019, but unfortunately my lab results on October 30, showed some "blasts", which are the cancerous cells in my blood." She explained back in November that her lab results also showed that my WBC's the infection fighting cells, were very low.

At the beginning of November, she had another bone marrow biopsy which Wes, her husband believes is her 6th. She was then admitted to the University of Iowa Hospital for a month long stay.

Carly finished up her 5 days of chemotherapy on November 11th with only a couple of side effects (fatigue and loss of appetite) which are a couple of the more common side effects with chemotherapy treatments. Unfortunately, she suffered from dehydration as well and this caused her to pass out a couple of times, and one of the falls caused her to hit her head. This of course triggered a trip for a CT Scan just to make sure she was alright, fortunately, she didn't have any side effects from the fall.

"It is fairly common for leukemia patients to spike fevers and to get random bugs because we are neutropenic and our body cant fight off simple things they normally would," Carly explained. She did come down with an infection during this time but it was able to be pinpointed and treated right away. On Thanksgiving, she was able to return home 10 days earlier from her hospital stay than had been anticipated,

Her journey continues to beat cancer with a trip back to the hospital at the end of December, to begin preparation for her bone marrow transplant. "My hero of a brother started getting shots December 30 to prep and will be donating his Stem Cells on Monday, January 4th." Carly explained how the process works. Her brother Kyle was hooked up to a machine she said it is similar to donating blood/plasma and that the procedure lasts for about 5 hours. Fortunately, her brother Kyle was a 100% perfect match to be her donor.

The stem cells were then put into her IV Powerline over about 30 minutes while they closely monitored Carly for any side effects. "Then its just a waiting game after that," she said.

After the transplant, Carly's immune system was down to zero. Unfortunately, it is common for SCT patients to spike fevers and even get an infection after transplant.

New Year, New Me has never rang more true than this year Carly said.

She is hoping to be home at the end of the week. She said that this last stay has been "extremely exhausting mentally and physically." Developing mucositis, extreme sores and pain in her mouth, it has made it very hard to eat or drink anything. Mucositis is very common after receiving the strong chemo that she received just before her bone marrow transplant. She is slowly recovering from this.

She said that she is excited to be coming home with her husband and fur-baby Maverick if all goes well, by the end of the week.

"I am so lucky to have an amazing support system (especially my husband) to get me through this tough time," she said.

Please keep the couple in your prayers as Carly continues to heal.

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Cancer requires more tutoring, with Meyer continuing to Teaching Cancer a lesson - News - vintontoday.com

BrainStorm’s Covid-19 ARDS treatment improves lung function in study – Clinical Trials Arena

BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics has announced that its NurOwn (MSC-NTF cell) derived exosomes provided significant improvement in lung function and histology in an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mouse model, in a preclinical study.

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can penetrate deep into tissues and deliver immunomodulatory molecules effectively.

A type of respiratory failure, ARDS is linked to Covid-19 and is mediated by dysregulated cytokine production.

Intratracheal administration of NurOwn derived exosomes provided a statistically significant reduction in lung disease severity score, the study data showed.

Furthermore, improvements in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS markers like lung function, fibrin presence, neutrophil accumulation, cytokine expression and oxygenation levels in the blood, were observed.

These improvements were significantly superior to those noticed following nave MSC-derived exosome administration.

BrainStorm Research and Development vice-president Dr Revital Aricha said: These exciting preclinical data suggest that NurOwn derived exosomes have the potential to treat Covid-19-induced ARDS or other severe respiratory complications and that they are more effective than exosomes isolated from nave MSCs at combatting the various symptoms of the syndrome.

This publication in a highly regarded journal provides important validation for the scientific advances and significance of BrainStorms preclinical research programs, including on our exosome-based technology platform.

The NurOwn technology platform (autologous MSC-NTF cells) represents a promising investigational therapeutic approach to targeting disease pathways important in neurodegenerative disorders.

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MSC-NTF cells are made from autologous, bone marrow-derived MSCs expanded and separated ex vivo.

Brainstorm CEO Chaim Lebovits said: While our primary focus is on advancing NurOwn towards regulatory approval in ALS, we continue to evaluate the potential of our exosome-based platform to address unmet medical needs.

In December 2019, the company received a recommendation from the independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) to continue the Phase II clinical trial of NurOwn in progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

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BrainStorm's Covid-19 ARDS treatment improves lung function in study - Clinical Trials Arena

Comparative analysis of mouse bone marrow and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells for critical limb ischemia cell therapy – DocWire News

This article was originally published here

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Jan 13;12(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s13287-020-02110-x.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most advanced form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) characterized by ischemic rest pain and non-healing ulcers. Currently, the standard therapy for CLI is the surgical reconstruction and endovascular therapy or limb amputation for patients with no treatment options. Neovasculogenesis induced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy is a promising approach to improve CLI. Owing to their angiogenic and immunomodulatory potential, MSCs are perfect candidates for the treatment of CLI. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the in vitro and in vivo effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on CLI treatment.

METHODS: For the first step, BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were isolated and characterized for the characteristic MSC phenotypes. Then, femoral artery ligation and total excision of the femoral artery were performed on C57BL/6 mice to create a CLI model. The cells were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics for CLI cell therapy. In order to determine these characteristics, the following tests were performed: morphology, flow cytometry, differentiation to osteocyte and adipocyte, wound healing assay, and behavioral tests including Tarlov, Ischemia, Modified ischemia, Function and the grade of limb necrosis scores, donor cell survival assay, and histological analysis.

RESULTS: Our cellular and functional tests indicated that during 28 days after cell transplantation, BM-MSCs had a great effect on endothelial cell migration, muscle restructure, functional improvements, and neovascularization in ischemic tissues compared with AT-MSCs and control groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic BM-MSC transplantation resulted in a more effective recovery from critical limb ischemia compared to AT-MSCs transplantation. In fact, BM-MSC transplantation could be considered as a promising therapy for diseases with insufficient angiogenesis including hindlimb ischemia.

PMID:33436054 | DOI:10.1186/s13287-020-02110-x

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Comparative analysis of mouse bone marrow and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells for critical limb ischemia cell therapy - DocWire News

Brave Evie Hodgson from Sleights finally has bone marrow transplant after one last ‘twist in the tale’ – Yorkshire Live

Brave youngster Evie Hodgson has finally undergone a life-saving bone marrow transplant after one last "twist in the tale" saw the delivery of the stem cells delayed.

Evie, eight, from Sleights near Whitby, began preparations for the transplant earlier this year and has now finally been given the "magic stem cells".

It's not been an easy journey for Evie and her family, who were devastated in August 2020 when a potential donor pulled out at the last minute, and they faced another sudden bump in the road prior to her receiving her first round of treatment today (Friday).

The operation for the eight-year-old was scheduled for 2pm yesterday (Thursday) at The Great Northern Children's Hospital in Newcastle but the cells got stuck in London after coronavirus "caused major issues to the flight schedule".

It meant that Evie and her family had to wait another day for the operation to go ahead, but her mother Tina gave an update today to say that they were "up and running" after what had been an "emotional experience".

She said earlier today: "We have fought so hard to get to this point and Evie is so happy. It really is wonderful.

"Evie's hero donated a phenomenal amount of stem cells so she gets two sittings. The second one will be around dinner time so she gets to do it all again."

The courageous pupil at Fyling Hall School, in Robin Hood's Bay, was diagnosed with aplastic anaemia, also known as bone marrow failure, last year during the start of the covid-19 pandemic.

The youngster captured the attention of the nation when her perfect donor pulled out at the last minute and her transplant hopes were dashed.

But Evie revealed it was " the best Christmas present ever" to find another donor in December.

The family have thanked everybody who has supported them, shared Evie's story and signed up to the stem cell register following their inspirational campaign.

You can join on the DKMS register, here, or through Anthony Nolan register, here.

A dedicated Facebook page has been set up to follow Evie's journey with aplastic anaemia, which you can follow here.

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Brave Evie Hodgson from Sleights finally has bone marrow transplant after one last 'twist in the tale' - Yorkshire Live

Induction of muscle-regenerative multipotent stem cells from human adipocytes by PDGF-AB and 5-azacytidine – Science Advances

Abstract

Terminally differentiated murine osteocytes and adipocytes can be reprogrammed using platelet-derived growth factorAB and 5-azacytidine into multipotent stem cells with stromal cell characteristics. We have now optimized culture conditions to reprogram human adipocytes into induced multipotent stem (iMS) cells and characterized their molecular and functional properties. Although the basal transcriptomes of adipocyte-derived iMS cells and adipose tissuederived mesenchymal stem cells were similar, there were changes in histone modifications and CpG methylation at cis-regulatory regions consistent with an epigenetic landscape that was primed for tissue development and differentiation. In a non-specific tissue injury xenograft model, iMS cells contributed directly to muscle, bone, cartilage, and blood vessels, with no evidence of teratogenic potential. In a cardiotoxin muscle injury model, iMS cells contributed specifically to satellite cells and myofibers without ectopic tissue formation. Together, human adipocytederived iMS cells regenerate tissues in a context-dependent manner without ectopic or neoplastic growth.

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore function by reconstituting dysfunctional tissues. Most tissues have a reservoir of tissue-resident stem cells with restricted cell fates suited to the regeneration of the tissue in which they reside (14). The innate regenerative capacity of a tissue is broadly related to the basal rate of tissue turnover, the health of resident stem cells, and the hostility of the local environment. Bone marrow transplants and tissue grafts are frequently used in clinical practice but for most tissues, harvesting and expanding stem and progenitor cells are currently not a viable option (5, 6). Given these constraints, research efforts have been focused on converting terminally differentiated cells into pluripotent or lineage-restricted stem cells (7, 8). However, tissues are often a complex mix of diverse cell types that are derived from distinct stem cells. Therefore, multipotent stem cells may have advantages over tissue-specific stem cells. To be of use in regenerative medicine, these cells would need to respond appropriately to regional cues and participate in context-dependent tissue regeneration without forming ectopic tissues or teratomas. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were thought to have some of these characteristics (911), but despite numerous ongoing clinical trials, evidence for their direct contribution to new tissue formation in humans is sparse, either due to the lack of sufficient means to trace cell fate in hosts in vivo or failure of these cells to regenerate tissues (12, 13).

We previously reported a method by which primary terminally differentiated somatic cells could be converted into multipotent stem cells, which we termed as induced multipotent stem (iMS) cells (14). These cells were generated by transiently culturing primary mouse osteocytes in medium supplemented with azacitidine (AZA; 2 days) and platelet-derived growth factorAB (PDGF-AB; 8 days). Although the precise mechanisms by which these agents promoted cell conversion was unclear, the net effect was reduced DNA methylation at the OCT4 promoter and reexpression of pluripotency factors (OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, c-MYC, SSEA-1, and NANOG) in 2 to 4% of treated osteocytes. iMS cells resembled MSCs with comparable morphology, cell surface phenotype, colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F), long-term growth, clonogenicity, and multilineage in vitro differentiation potential. iMS cells also contributed directly to in vivo tissue regeneration and did so in a context-dependent manner without forming teratomas. In proof-of-principle experiments, we also showed that primary mouse and human adipocytes could be converted into long-term repopulating CFU-Fs by this method using a suitably modified protocol (14).

AZA, one of the agents used in this protocol, is a cytidine nucleoside analog and a DNA hypomethylating agent that is routinely used in clinical practice for patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are intolerant to intensive chemotherapy (15, 16). AZA is incorporated primarily into RNA, disrupting transcription and protein synthesis. However, 10 to 35% of drug is incorporated into DNA resulting in the entrapment and depletion of DNA methyltransferases and suppression of DNA methylation (17). Although the relationship between DNA hypomethylation and therapeutic efficacy in MDS/AML is unclear, AZA is known to induce an interferon response and apoptosis in proliferating cells (1820). PDGF-AB, the other critical reprogramming agent, is one of five PDGF isoforms (PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC, and PDGF-DD), which bind to one of two PDGF receptors (PDGFR and PDGFR) (21). PDGF isoforms are potent mitogens for mesenchymal cells, and recombinant human (rh)PDGF-BB is used as an osteoinductive agent in the clinic (22). PDGF-AB binds preferentially to PDGFR and induces PDGFR- homodimers or PDGFR- heterodimers. These are activated by autophosphorylation to create docking sites for a variety of downstream signaling molecules (23). Although we have previously demonstrated induction of CFU-Fs from human adipocytes using PDGF-AB/AZA (14), the molecular changes, which underlie conversion, and the multilineage differentiation potential and in vivo regenerative capacity of the converted cells have not been determined.

Here, we report an optimized PDGF-AB/AZA treatment protocol that was used to convert primary human adipocytes, a tissue source that is easily accessible and requires minimal manipulation, from adult donors aged 27 to 66 years into iMS cells with long-term repopulating capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. We also report the molecular landscape of these human iMS cells along with that of MSCs derived from matched adipose tissues and the comparative in vivo regenerative and teratogenic potential of these cells in mouse xenograft models.

Primary mature human adipocytes were harvested from subcutaneous fat (Fig. 1A and table S1) and their purity confirmed by flow cytometry with specific attention to the absence of contaminating adipose-derived MSCs (AdMSCs) (fig. S1, A and B). As previously described (14), plastic adherent adipocytes were cultured in Alpha Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) containing rhPDGF-AB (200 ng/ml) and 20% autologous serum (AS) with and without 10 M AZA for 2 and 23 days, respectively (Fig. 1A). During daily observations, unilocular lipid globules were observed to fragment within adipocytes ~day 10 with progressive extrusion of fat into culture medium, coincident with changes in cell morphology (movie S1). Consistent with these observations, when fixed and stained with Oil Red O, adipocytes that were globular in shape at the start of culture resembled lipid laden stromal cells at day 12 and lipid-free stromal cells at day 25 (Fig. 1B).

(A) Generation and reprogramming of adipocytes. (B) Oil Red Ostained adipocytes (days 0, 12, and 25) during treatment with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factorAB (rhPDGF-AB) and AZA. (C) Flow cytometry plots of LipidTOX and PDGFR in adipocytes cultured as in (A). (D) CFU-F counts from treated and untreated adipocytes during conversion. (E) CFU-F counts from adipocytes treated (Rx) with indicated combinations of rhPDGF-AB, AZA, fetal calf serum (FCS), autologous serum (AS), or serum-free media (SFM). (F) CFU-F counts from adipocytes reprogrammed in the presence of 0, 1, or 10 M PDGFR/ inhibitor AG1296. (G) CFU-F counts per 400 reprogrammed adipocytes from three donor age groups (n = 3 for each) generated using indicated combinations of rhPDGF-AB and AZA. (H) Long-term growth of reprogrammed adipocytes from three donor age groups (n = 3 for each) generated using indicated combinations of rhPDGF-AB and AZA. (I) Long-term growth of iMS cells cultured in SFM or media supplemented with FCS, autologous, or allogeneic serum. Error bars indicate SD, n = 3; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.0001 calculated using either a Students t test (E and F) or a linear mixed model (H). Photo credit: Avani Yeola, UNSW Sydney.

To evaluate these changes in individual cells, we performed flow cytometry at multiple time points during treatment and probed for adipocyte (LipidTOX) (24) and stromal cell characteristics [PDGFR expression (25); Fig. 1C]. A subpopulation of adipocytes, when cultured in media supplemented with PDGF-AB/AZA and AS (Fig. 1C, top; treated), showed reduced LipidTOX staining intensity at day 10, with progressive reduction and complete absence in all cells by day 19. Adipocytes cultured in the absence of PDGF-AB/AZA retained LipidTOX staining, albeit with reduced intensity (Fig. 1C, bottom; untreated). Adipocytes expressed PDGFR [fig. S1C, (i) and (ii)] but not PDGFR (Fig. 1C) at day 0 but both the frequency and intensity of PDGFR staining increased from day 21. To record these changes in real time, we also continuously live-imaged treated adipocytes from days 15 to 25 and recorded the extrusion of fat globules, change in cell morphology from globular to stromal, and acquisition of cell motility and cell mitosis (movie S1 and fig. S1D). Intracellular fragmentation of fat globules was observed over time in untreated adipocytes (fig. S1E), consistent with variable LipidTOX staining intensity. CFU-F capacity was absent at day 10, present in day 15 cultures, and tripled by day 19 with no substantial increase at days 21, 23, and 25 (Fig. 1D). It is noteworthy that CFU-F potential was acquired before PDGFRA surface expression when adipocytes had started to display stromal cell morphology and had diminished fat content. There was also no CFU-F capacity in adipocytes cultured in MEM with fetal calf serum (FCS) or AS, unless supplemented with both PDGF-AB and AZA. CFU-F capacity was significantly higher with AS than with FCS and absent in serum-free media (SFM) (Fig. 1E and fig. S1F). As previously shown with reprogramming of murine osteocytes, there was dose-dependent inhibition of CFU-F capacity when AG1296, a potent nonselective PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (26), was added to the reprogramming media (Fig. 1F).

To evaluate the impact of patient age and concentrations of PDGF-AB and AZA on the efficiency of human adipocyte conversion, we harvested subcutaneous fat from donors aged 40 (n = 3), 41 to 60 (n = 3), and 61 (n = 3) years and subjected each to three different concentrations of PDGF-AB (100, 200, and 400 ng/ml) and three different concentrations of AZA (5, 10, and 20 M) (Fig. 1G). Although all combinations supported cell conversion in all donors across the three age groups, rhPDGF-AB (400 ng/ml) and 5 M AZA yielded the highest number of CFU-Fs (Fig. 1G). When these cultures were serially passaged in SFM (with no PDGF-AB/AZA supplementation, which was used for cell conversion only), adipocytes converted with reprogramming media containing rhPDGF-AB (400 ng/ml) and 5 M AZA were sustained the longest (Fig. 1H, fig. S2A, and table S2). The growth plateau that was observed even with these cultures [i.e., adipocytes converted with rhPDGF-AB (400 ng/ml) and 5 M AZA when expanded in SFM or FCS] was overcome when cells were expanded in either autologous or allogeneic human serum (Fig. 1I). The genetic stability of human iMS cells (RM0072 and RM0073) was also assessed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and shown to have a normal copy number profile at a resolution of 250 kb (fig. S2B). Together, these data identify an optimized protocol for converting human primary adipocytes from donors across different age groups and show that these can be maintained long term in culture.

Given the stromal characteristics observed in human adipocytes treated with PDGF-AB/AZA (Fig. 1), we performed flow cytometry to evaluate their expression of MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105, and STRO1 (13) and noted expression levels comparable to AdMSCs extracted from the same subcutaneous fat harvest (Fig. 2A). Primary untreated adipocytes (day 25 in culture) did not express any of these MSC markers (fig. S3A). The global transcriptomes of iMS cells and matched AdMSCs were distinct from untreated control adipocytes but were broadly related to each other [Fig. 2B, (i) and (ii)]. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) using genes that were differentially expressed between AdMSCs versus adipocytes [3307 UP/4351 DOWN in AdMSCs versus adipocytes; false discovery rate (FDR) 0.05] and iMS versus adipocytes (3311 UP/4400 DOWN in iMS versus adipocytes; FDR 0.05) showed changes associated with gene expression, posttranslational modification, and cell survival pathways and organismal survival and systems development [Fig. 2B(iii)]. The number of differentially expressed genes between iMS cells and AdMSCs was limited (2 UP/26 DOWN in iMS versus AdMSCs; FDR 0.05) and too few for confident IPA annotation. All differentially expressed genes and IPA annotations are shown in table S3 (A to E, respectively).

(A) Flow cytometry for stromal markers on AdMSCs (green) and iMS cells (purple) from matched donors. Gray, unstained controls. (B) (i) Principal components analysis (PCA) plot of adipocyte, AdMSC, and iMS transcriptomes. (ii) Hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, FDR 0.05). (iii) Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) of DEG between AdMSCs/adipocytes (top) or iMS cells/adipocytes (bottom). The most enriched annotated biological functions are shown. (C) (i) Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) profiles in AdMSCs and iMS cells from matched donors at a representative locus. Gray bar indicates differential enrichment. (ii) Volcano plots of H3K4me3, H3K27Ac, and H3K27me3 enrichment peaks significantly UP (red) or DOWN (blue) in iMS cells versus AdMSCs. (iii) IPA of corresponding genes. log2FC, log2 fold change. (D) (i) DNA methylation at a representative locus in AdMSCs and iMS cells from matched donors. (ii) Volcano plot of regions with significantly higher (red) or lower (blue) DNA methylation in iMS cells versus AdMSCs. (iii) IPA using genes corresponding to differentially methylated regions (DMRs). (E) OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 expression in iPS, AdMSCs, and iMS cells. Percentage of cells expressing each protein is indicated. DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. (F) AdMSCs and iMS cells differentiated in vitro. Bar graphs quantify staining frequencies, error bars show SD, n = 3. ***P < 0.001 (Students t test). Photo credit: Avani Yeola, UNSW Sydney.

In the absence of significant basal differences in the transcriptomes of AdMSCs and iMS cells, and the use of a hypomethylating agent to induce adipocyte conversion into iMS cells, we examined global enrichment profiles of histone marks associated with transcriptionally active (H3K4me3 and H3K27Ac) and inactive (H3K27me3) chromatin. There were differences in enrichment of specific histone marks in matched AdMSCs versus iMS cells at gene promoters and distal regulatory regions [Fig. 2C(i) and fig. S3, B to D]. H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 enrichments were significantly higher at 255, 107, and 549 regions and significantly lower at 222, 78, and 98 regions in iMS cells versus AdMSCs [Fig. 2C(ii) and table S4, A to C] and were assigned to 237, 84, and 350 and 191, 58, and 67 genes, respectively. IPA was performed using these gene lists to identify biological functions that may be primed in iMS cells relative to AdMSCs [Fig. 2C(iii) and table S4, D to F]. Among these biological functions, annotations for molecular and cellular function (cellular movement, development, growth, and proliferation) and systems development (general; embryonic and tissue development and specific; cardiovascular, skeletal and muscular, and hematological) featured strongly and overlapped across the different epigenetic marks.

We extended these analyses to also assess global CpG methylation in matched AdMSCs and iMS cells using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing [RRBS; (27)]. Again, there were loci with differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in iMS cells versus AdMSCs [Fig. 2D(i)] with increased methylation at 158 and reduced methylation at 397 regions among all regions assessed [Fig. 2D(ii) and table S4G]. IPA of genes associated with these DMRs showed a notable overlap in annotated biological functions [Fig. 2D(iii) and table S4H] with those associated with differential H3K4me3, H3K27Ac, and H3K27me3 enrichment [Fig. 2C(iii) and table S4, E to G]. Together, these data imply that although basal transcriptomic differences between iMS cells and AdMSCs were limited, there were notable differences in epigenetic profiles at cis-regulatory regions of genes that were associated with cellular growth and systems development.

We next compared iMS cells to adipocytes from which they were derived. Expression of genes associated with adipogenesis was depleted in iMS cells (fig. S4A and table S4I). The promoter regions of these genes in iMS cells had broadly retained an active histone mark (H3K4me3), but, in contrast with adipocytes, many had acquired an inactive mark (H3K27me3) (fig. S4B and table S4J). However, there were examples where iMS cells had lost active histone marks (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) at gene promoters and potential regulatory regions and gained repressive H3K27me3 [e.g., ADIPOQ; fig. S4C(i)]. In contrast, stromal genes had acquired active histone marks and lost repressive H3K27me3 [e.g. EPH2A; fig. S4C(ii)]. It is noteworthy that promoter regions of genes associated with muscle and pericytes (table S4K) were enriched for active histone marks in iMS cells compared with adipocytes [fig. S4D, (i) and (ii)]. We also compared demethylated CpGs in iMS cells and adipocytes (fig. S4E). There were 7366 sites in 2971 genes that were hypomethylated in iMS cells, of which 236 showed increased expression and were enriched for genes associated with tissue development and cellular growth and proliferation (fig. S4E).

PDGF-AB/AZAtreated murine osteocytes (murine iMS cells), but not bone-derived MSCs, expressed pluripotency associated genes, which were detectable by immunohistochemistry in 1 to 4% of cells (14). To evaluate expression in reprogrammed human cells, PDGF-AB/AZAtreated human adipocytes and matched AdMSCs were stained for OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 with expression noted in 2, 0.5, and 3.5% of iMS cells respectively, but no expression was detected in AdMSCs (Fig. 2E). In addition to these transcription factors, we also evaluated surface expression of TRA-1-60 and SSEA4. Both proteins were uniformly expressed on iPSCs and absent in AdMSCs [fig. S4F(i)] and adipocytes [fig. S4F(ii)]. Although TRA-1-60 was absent in iMS cells, most (78%) expressed SSEA4 but rarely (<1%) coexpressed OCT4 and NANOG [fig. S4F(i)].

MSCs can be induced to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages in response to specific cytokines and culture conditions. To evaluate the in vitro plasticity of human iMS cells, we induced their differentiation along with matched AdMSCs and primary adipocytes, into bone, fat, and cartilage, as well as into other mesodermal Matrigel tube-forming assays for endothelial cells (CD31) and pericytes (PDGFR) and muscle (MYH, myosin heavy chain; SMA, smooth muscle actin), endodermal (hepatocyte; HNF4, hepatocyte nuclear factor ), and neuroectodermal (TUJ1; neuron specific class III beta tubulin) lineages (Fig. 2F and fig. S4G). Whereas primary adipocytes remained as such and were resistant to transdifferentiation, iMS cells and AdMSCs showed comparable differentiation potential with the notable exception that only iMS cells generated pericyte-lined endothelial tubes in Matrigel. In keeping with these findings, relative to AdMSCs, iMS cells showed permissive epigenetic marks at pericyte genes [increased H3K4me3 and H3K27Ac; EPHA2 and MCAM; fig. S4H(i); and reduced CpG methylation; NOTCH1, SMAD7, TIMP2, AKT1, and VWF; fig. S4H(ii)]. Together with the notable differences in epigenetic profiles, these functional differences and low-level expression of pluripotency genes in iMS cell subsets suggested that these cells could be more amenable than matched AdMSCs to respond to developmental cues in vivo.

To evaluate spontaneous teratoma formation and in vivo plasticity of iMS cells, we tagged these cells and their matched AdMSCs with a dual lentiviral reporter, LeGO-iG2-Luc2 (28), that expresses both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter (Fig. 3A). To test teratoma-initiating capacity, we implanted tagged cells under the right kidney capsules of NOD Scid Gamma (NSG) mice (n = 3 per treatment group) after confirming luciferase/GFP expression in cells in culture (fig. S5, A and B). Weekly bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed retention of cells in situ [Fig. 3B(i)] with progressive reduction in signal over time [Fig. 3B(ii)] and the absence of teratomas in kidneys injected with either AdMSCs or iMS cells [Fig. 3B(iii)]. Injection of equivalent numbers of iPS cells and iPS + iMS cell mixtures (1:49) to approximate iMS fraction expressing pluripotency markers led to spontaneous tumor formation in the same timeframe [Fig. 3B(iii)].

(A) Generation of luciferase/GFP-reporter AdMSCs and iMS cells, and assessment of their in vivo function. (B) Assessment of teratoma initiating capacity; (i) bioluminescence images at 0, 2, 6, and 8 weeks after implantation of 1 106 matched AdMSCs and iMS cells (P2; RM0057; n = 2 per group) under the right kidney capsules. (ii) Quantification of bioluminescence. (iii) Gross kidney morphology 8 weeks following subcapsular implantation of cells (R) or vehicle control (L). (C) Assessment of in vivo plasticity in a posterior-lateral intertransverse lumbar fusion model; (i) bioluminescence images following lumbar implantation of 1 106 matched AdMSCs or iMS cells (P2; RM0038; n = 3 per group) at 1 and 365 days after transplant. (ii) Quantification of bioluminescence. (iii) Tissues (bone, cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels) harvested at 6 months after implantation stained with (left) hematoxylin and eosin or (right) lineage-specific anti-human antibodies circles/arrows indicate regions covering GFP and lineage markerpositive cells. Corresponding graphs show donor cell (GFP+) contributions to bone, cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels as a fraction of total (DAPI+) cells in four to five serial tissue sections. Bars indicate confidence interval, n = 3. Photo Credit: Avani Yeola, UNSW Sydney.

To evaluate whether iMS cells survived and integrated with damaged tissues in vivo, we implanted transduced human iMS cells and matched AdMSCs controls into a posterior-lateral intertransverse lumbar fusion mouse model (Fig. 3A) (29). Cells were loaded into Helistat collagen sponges 24 hours before implantation into the posterior-lateral gutters adjacent to decorticated lumbar vertebrae of NSG mice (n = 9 iMS and n = 9 AdMSC). Cell retention in situ was confirmed by intraperitoneal injection of d-luciferin (150 mg/ml) followed by BLI 24 hours after cell implantation, then weekly for the first 6 weeks and monthly up to 12 months from implantation [Fig. 3C(i)]. The BLI signal gradually decreased with time but persisted at the site of implantation at 12 months, the final assessment time point [Fig. 3C(ii)]. Groups of mice (n = 3 iMS and n = 3 AdMSC) were euthanized at 3, 6, and 12 months and tissues harvested from sites of cell implantation for histology and immunohistochemistry [Fig. 3C(iii)]. Although implanted iMS cells and AdMSCs were present and viable at sites of implantation at 3 months, there was no evidence of lineage-specific gene expression in donor human cells (fig. S5C). By contrast, at 6 months after implantation, GFP+ donor iMS cells and AdMSCs were shown to contribute to new bone (BMP2), cartilage (SOX9), muscle (MYH), and endothelium (CD31) at these sites of tissue injury [Fig. 3C(iii)]. The proportion of donor cells expressing lineage-specific markers in a corresponding tissue section was significantly higher in iMS cells compared with matched AdMSCs at 6 months [Fig. 3C(iii) and table S2] as well as 12 months (fig. S5, E and D, and table S2). There was no evidence of malignant growth in any of the tissue sections or evidence of circulating implanted GFP+ iMS cells or AdMSCs (fig. S5E). Together, these data show that implanted iMS cells were not teratogenic, were retained long term at sites of implantation, and contributed to regenerating tissues in a context-dependent manner with greater efficiency than matched AdMSCs.

Although appropriate to assess in vivo plasticity and teratogenicity of implanted cells, the posterior-lateral intertransverse lumber fusion mouse model is not suited to address the question of tissue-specific differentiation and repair in vivo. To this end, we used a muscle injury model (30) where necrosis was induced by injecting 10 M cardiotoxin (CTX) into the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of 3-month-old female severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/Beige mice. CTX is a myonecrotic agent that spares muscle satellite cells and is amenable to the study of skeletal muscle regeneration. At 24 hours after injury, Matrigel mixed with either 1 106 iMS cells or matched AdMSCs (or no cells as a control) was injected into the damaged TA muscle. The left (injured) and right (uninjured control) TA muscles were harvested at 1, 2, or 4 weeks after injury to assess the ability of donor cells to survive and contribute to muscle regeneration without ectopic tissue formation (Fig. 4A; cohort A). Donor human iMS cells or AdMSCs compete with resident murine muscle satellite cells to regenerate muscle, and their regenerative capacity is expected to be handicapped not only by the species barrier but also by having to undergo muscle satellite cell commitment before productive myogenesis. Recognizing this, a cohort of mice was subject to a second CTX injection, 4 weeks from the first injury/cell implantation followed by TA muscle harvest 4 weeks later (Fig. 4A; cohort B).

(A) Generation of iMS and AdMSCs and their assessment in TA muscle injury model. (B) (i) Confocal images of TA muscle stained for human CD56+ satellite cells (red) and laminin basement membrane protein (green; mouse/human). Graph shows donor hCD56+ satellite cell fraction for each treatment group. (ii) Confocal images of TA muscle harvested at 4 weeks and stained for human spectrin (red) and laminin (green; mouse/human). For each treatment, the left panel shows a tile scan of the TA muscle and the right panel a high magnification confocal image. Graph shows contribution of mouse (M), human (H), or chimeric (C) myofibers in three to five serial TA muscle sections per mouse (n = 3 mice per treatment group). (C) Confocal images of TA muscle 4 weeks following re-injury with CTX, stained for human spectrin (red) and laminin (green; mouse/human). For each treatment, left panel shows a tile scan of the TA muscle, upper right panel a low-magnification image, and lower right panel a high magnification image of the area boxed above. Graph shows contribution of mouse (M), human (H), or chimeric (C) myofibers in three to five serial TA muscle sections per mouse (n = 3 mice per treatment group). Graph bars indicate confidence interval. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 (linear mixed model). Photo credit: Avani Yeola, UNSW Sydney.

In tissue sections harvested from cohort A, donor-derived muscle satellite cells (31) [hCD56 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA5-11563)+; red] were evident in muscles implanted with both iMS cells and AdMSCs at each time point but were most numerous at 2 weeks after implantation [Fig. 4B(i) and fig. S6A]. The frequency of hCD56+ cells relative to total satellite cells [sublaminar 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindolepositive (DAPI+) cells] was quantified in three to five serial sections of TA muscles per mouse in each of three mice per treatment group and was noted to be higher following the implantation of iMS cells compared with AdMSCs at all time points [week 1, 5.6% versus 2.4%; week 2, 43.3% versus 18.2%; and week 4, 30.7% versus 14.6%; Fig. 4B(i), table S2, and fig. S6A]. Donor cell contribution to regenerating muscle fibers was also assessed by measuring human spectrin (32) costaining with mouse/human laminin [(33) at 4 weeks (Fig. 4B(ii)]. At least 1000 myofibers from three to five serial sections of TA muscles for each of three mice in each treatment group were scored for human [H; hSpectrin+ (full circumference); laminin+], murine (M; mouse; hSpectrin; laminin+), or mouse/human chimeric [C; hSpectrin+ (partial circumference); laminin+] myofibers. Although none of the myofibers seen in cross section appeared to be completely human (i.e., donor-derived), both iMS cells and AdMSCs contributed to chimeric myofibers [Fig. 4B(ii)]. iMS cell implants contributed to a substantially higher proportion of chimeric fibers than AdMSC implants (57.7% versus 30.7%; table S2). In cohort B, TA muscles were allowed to regenerate following the initial CTX injection/cell implantation, and re-injured 4 weeks later with a repeat CTX injection. In these mice, although total donor cell contributions to myofibers in TA muscles harvested 4 weeks after re-injury were comparable to that observed in cohort A, there were no myofibers that appeared to be completely human (Fig. 4C). There were substantially more human myofibers following iMS cell implants than with AdMSCs (9.7% versus 5.4%; table S2). There was no evidence of ectopic tissue formation in TA muscles following implantation of either iMS cells or AdMSCs in either cohort.

To assess the physiological properties of muscles regenerated with human myofibers, we performed tetanic force contractions in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles following the schema shown in Fig. 4A. Tetanic forces evoked by electrical pulses of various stimulus frequencies were not significantly different between the experimental cohorts or between the experimental cohorts and control animals [fig. S6B, (i) to (iii)]. However, when challenged with a sustained train of electrical pulses [fig. S6C(i)], the iMS group demonstrated significantly greater absolute [fig. S6C(ii)] and specific [fig. S6C(iii)] forces over a 3- to 6-s period. Together, these data showed that iMS cells had the capacity to respond appropriately to the injured environment and contribute to tissue-specific regeneration without impeding function.

We have optimized a protocol, originally designed for mouse osteocytes, to convert human primary adipocytes into iMS cells. We show that these long-term repopulating cells regenerate tissues in vivo in a context-dependent manner without generating ectopic tissues or teratomas.

PDGF-AB, AZA, and serum are indispensable ingredients in reprograming media, but the underlying reasons for their cooperativity and the observed dose-response variability between patients are not known. PDGF-AB is reported to bind and signal via PDGFR- and PDGFR- but not PDGFR- subunits (21). Mouse osteocytes and human adipocytes lack PDGFR, although surface expression was detectable as cells transition during reprogramming [mouse; day 2 of 8 (14) and human day 21 of 25]. However, these cells express PDGFR (14). Given that PDGFR inhibition attenuates iMS cell production in both mice (14) and humans, a degree of facilitated binding of PDGF-AB to PDGF- subunits or signaling through a noncanonical receptor is likely to occur, at least at the start of reprogramming. PDGF-Bcontaining homo- and heterodimers are potent mitogens that increase the pool of undifferentiated fibroblasts and preosteoblasts with rhPDGF-BB used in the clinic to promote healing of chronic ulcers and bone regeneration (34). However, the unique characteristics of PDGF-AB but not PDGF-BB or PDGF-AA that facilitate reversal and plasticity of cell identity in combination with AZA and serum (14) remain unknown.

PDGF-AB was replenished in culture throughout the reprogramming period, but AZA treatment was limited to the first 2 days for both mouse osteocyte and human adipocyte cultures. DNA replication is required for incorporation of AZA into DNA (35) and hence DNA demethylation is unlikely to be an initiating event in the conversion of terminally differentiated nonproliferating cells such as osteocytes and mature adipocytes. However, the majority of intracellular AZA is incorporated into RNA, which could directly affect the cellular transcriptome and proteome as an early event (36, 37). It is feasible that subsequent redistribution of AZA from RNA to DNA occurs when cells replicate resulting in DNA hypomethylation as a later event (38).

In the absence of serum, we could neither convert primary human adipocytes into iMS cells nor perpetuate these cells long term in culture. The efficiency of conversion and expansion was significantly higher with human versus FCS and highest with AS. The precise serum factor(s) that are required for cell conversion in conjunction with PDGF-AB and AZA are not known. The volumes of blood (~50 ml 2) and subcutaneous fat (5 g) that we harvested from donors were not limiting to generate sufficient numbers of P2 iMS cells (~10 106) for in vivo implantation and are in the range of cell numbers used in prospective clinical trials using mesenchymal precursor cells for chronic discogenic lumbar back pain (NCT02412735; 6 106) and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (NCT03079401; 20 106).

Our motivation was to optimize a protocol that could be applied to primary uncultured and easily accessible cells for downstream therapeutic applications, and adipose tissue satisfied these criteria. We have not surveyed other human cell types for their suitability for cell conversion using this protocol. It would be particularly interesting to establish whether tissue-regenerative properties of allogeneic mesenchymal precursor populations that are currently in clinical trials could be boosted by exposure to PDGF-AB/AZA. However, given that iMS cells and MSCs share stromal cell characteristics, identifying a unique set of cell surface markers that can distinguish the former is a priority that would assist in future protocol development and functional assessment of iMS cells.

Producing clinical-grade autologous cells for cell therapy is expensive and challenging requiring suitable quality control measures and certification. However, the advent of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy into clinical practice (39) has shown that production of a commercially viable, engineered autologous cellular product is feasible where a need exists. Although there were no apparent genotoxic events in iMS cells at P2, ex vivo expansion of cells could risk accumulation of such events and long-term follow-up of ongoing and recently concluded clinical trials using allogeneic expanded mesenchymal progenitor cells will be instructive with regard to their teratogenic potential. The biological significance of the observed expression of pluripotency-associated transcription factors in 2 to 3% of murine and human iMS cells is unknown and requires further investigation. However, their presence did not confer teratogenic potential in teratoma assays or at 12-month follow-up despite persistence of cells at the site of implantation. However, this risk cannot be completely discounted, and the clinical indications for iMS or any cell therapy require careful evaluation of need.

In regenerating muscle fibers, it was noteworthy that iMS cells appeared to follow canonical developmental pathways in generating muscle satellite cells that were retained and primed to regenerate muscle following a second muscle-specific injury. Although iMS cells were generated from adipocytes, there was no evidence of any adipose tissue generation. This supports the notion that these cells have lost their native differentiation trajectory and adopted an epigenetic state that favored response to local differentiation cues. The superior in vivo differentiation potential of iMS cells vis--vis matched AdMSCs was consistent with our data showing that despite the relatively minor transcriptomic differences between these cell types, the epigenetic state of iMS cells was better primed for systems development. Another clear distinction between iMS cells and AdMSCs was the ability of the former to produce CD31+ endothelial tube-like structures that were enveloped by PDGFR+ pericytes. An obvious therapeutic application for iMS cells in this context is vascular regeneration in the setting of critical limb ischemia to restore tissue perfusion, an area of clear unmet need (40).

An alternative to ex vivo iMS cell production and expansion is the prospect of in situ reprogramming by local subcutaneous administration of the relevant factors to directly convert subcutaneous adipocytes into iMS cells, thereby eliminating the need for ex vivo cell production. AZA is used in clinical practice and administered as a daily subcutaneous injection for up to 7 days in a 28-day cycle, with responders occasionally remaining on treatment for decades (41). Having determined the optimal dose of AZA required to convert human adipocytes into iMS cells in vitro (2 days, 5 M), the bridge to ascertaining the comparable in vivo dose would be to first measure levels of AZA incorporation in RNA/DNA following in vitro administration and match the dose of AZA to achieve comparable tissue levels in vivo. A mass spectrometrybased assay was developed to measure in vivo incorporation of AZA metabolites (AZA-MS) in RNA/DNA and is ideally suited to this application (38). The duration of AZA administration for adipocyte conversion was relatively short (i.e., 2 days), but PDGF-AB levels were maintained for 25 days. One mechanism of potentially maintaining local tissue concentrations would be to engineer growth factors to bind extra cellular matrices and be retained at the site of injection. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and PDGF-BB have recently been engineered with enhanced syndecan binding and shown to promote tissue healing (42). A comparable approach could help retain PDGF-AB at the site of injection and maintain local concentrations at the required dose. While our current data show that human adipocytederived iMS cells regenerate tissues in a context-dependent manner without ectopic or neoplastic growth, these approaches are worth considering as an alternative to an ex vivo expanded cell source in the future.

Extended methods for cell growth and differentiation assays and animal models are available in the Supplementary Materials, and antibodies used are detailed in the relevant sections.

The primary objective of this study was to optimize conditions that were free of animal products for the generation of human iMS cells from primary adipocytes and to characterize their molecular landscape and function. To this end, we harvested subcutaneous fat from donors across a broad age spectrum and used multiple dose combinations of a recombinant human growth factors and a hypomethylating agent used in the clinic and various serum types. We were particularly keen to demonstrate cell conversion and did so by live imaging and periodic flow cytometry for single-cell quantification of lipid loss and gain of stromal markers. Using our previous report generating mouse iMS cells from osteocytes and adipocytes as a reference, we first characterized the in vitro properties of human iMS cells including (i) long-term growth, (ii) colony-forming potential, (iii) in vitro differentiation, and (iv) molecular landscape. Consistent with their comparative morphology, cell surface markers, and behavioral properties, the transcriptomes (RNA sequencing) were broadly comparable between iMS cells and matched AdMSCs, leading to investigation of epigenetic differences [Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) histone chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), and RRBS for DNA methylation differences] that might explain properties that were unique to iMS cells (expression of pluripotency factors, generation of endothelial tubes in vitro with pericyte envelopes, and in vivo regenerative potential). Context-dependent in vivo plasticity was assessed using a tissue injury model that was designed to promote bone/cartilage/muscle/blood vessel contributions from donor cells and simultaneously assess the absence of ectopic/malignant tissue formation by these cells (labeled and tracked in vivo using a bioluminescence/fluorescence marker). Tissue-specific regeneration and the deployment of canonical developmental pathways were assessed using a specific muscle injury model, and donor cell contributions in all injury models were performed on multiple serial tissue sections in multiple mice with robust statistical analyses (see below). Power calculations were not used, samples were not excluded, and investigators were not blinded. Experiments were repeated multiple times or assessments were performed at multiple time points. Cytogenetic and Copy Number Variation (CNV) analyses were performed on iMS and AdMSCs pretransplant, and their teratogenic potential was assessed both by specific teratoma assays and long-term implantation studies.

Subcutaneous fat and blood were harvested from patients undergoing surgery at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney. Patient tissue was collected in accordance with National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007) and with approval from the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC 14/119). Adipocytes were harvested as described (43). Briefly, adipose tissue was minced and digested with 0.2% collagenase type 1 (Sigma-Aldrich) at 37C for 40 min and the homogenized suspension passed through a 70-m filter, inactivated with AS, and centrifuged. Primary adipocytes from the uppermost fatty layer were cultured using the ceiling culture method (44) for 8 to 10 days. AdMSCs from the stromal vascular pellet were cultured in MEM + 20% AS + penicillin (100 g/ml) and streptomycin (250 ng/ml), and 200 mM l-glutamine (complete medium).

Adherent mature adipocytes were cultured in complete medium supplemented with AZA (R&D systems; 5, 10, and 20 M; 2 days) and rhPDGF-AB (Miltenyi Biotec; 100, 200, and 400 ng/ml; 25 days) with medium changes every 3 to 4 days. For inhibitor experiments, AG1296 was added for the duration of the culture. Live imaging was performed using an IncuCyte S3 [10 0.25numerical aperture (NA) objective] or a Nikon Eclipse Ti-E (20 0.45-NA objective). Images were captured every 30min for a period of 8 days starting from day 15. Twelve-bit images were acquired with a 1280 1024 pixel array and analyzed using ImageJ software. In vitro plasticity was determined by inducing the cells to undergo differentiation into various cell types using differentiation protocols adapted from a previous report (45).

Animals were housed and bred with approval from the Animal Care and Ethics Committee, University of New South Wales (UNSW; 17/30B, 18/122B, and 18/134B). NSG (NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) and SCID/Beige (C.B-Igh-1b/GbmsTac-Prkdcscid-Lystbg N, sourced from Charles River) strains were used as indicated. The IVIS Spectrum CT (Perkin Elmer) was used to capture bioluminescence. Briefly, 15 min after intraperitoneal injection of d-luciferin (150 mg/kg), images were acquired for 5 min and radiance (photon s1 cm2 sr1) was used for subsequent data analysis. The scanned images were analyzed using the Living Image 5.0 software (Perkin Elmer).

Teratoma assays (46) were performed on 3- to 4-month-old female NSG mice. Lentiviral-tagged cells (5 105) in 20 l of phosphate-buffered saline containing 80% Matrigel were injected under the right kidney capsule using a fine needle (26 gauges) and followed weekly by BLI until sacrifice at week 8. Both kidneys were collected, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 48 hours, embedded in optimal cutting temperature compound (OCT), cryosectioned, and imaged for GFP.

Posterior-lateral intervertebral disc injury model (29). Lentiviral-tagged (28) AdMSCs (1 106) or iMS cells were loaded onto Helistat collagen sponges and implanted into the postero-lateral gutters in the L4/5 lumbar spine region of anesthetized NSG mice following decortication of the transverse processes. Animals were imaged periodically for bioluminescence to track the presence of transplanted cells. At 3, 6, or 12 months, mice were euthanized, and spines from the thoracic to caudal vertebral region, including the pelvis, were removed whole. The specimens were fixed in 4% PFA for 48 hours, decalcified in 14% (w/v) EDTA, and embedded in OCT.

Muscle injury model (47). The left TA and EDL muscles of 3- to 4-month-old female SCID/Beige mice were injured by injection with 15 l of 10 M CTX (Latoxan). Confocal images of three to four serial sections (TA) per mouse were captured by Zen core/AxioVision (Carl Zeiss) and visualized by ImageJ with the colocalization and cell counter plugins [National Institutes of Health; (48)]. Tetanic force contractions were performed on EDL muscles (49).

Total RNA was extracted using the miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturers instructions, and 200 ng of total RNA was used for Illumina TruSeq library construction. Library construction and sequencing was performed by Novogene (HK) Co. Ltd. Raw paired-end reads were aligned to the reference genome (hg19) using STAR (https://github.com/alexdobin/STAR), and HTSeq (50) was used to quantify the transcriptomes using the reference refFlat database from the UCSC Table Browser (51). The resulting gene expression matrix was normalized and subjected to differential gene expression using DeSeq2 (52). Normalized gene expression was used to compute and plot two-dimensional principal components analysis, using the Python modules sklearn (v0.19.1; https://scikit-learn.org/stable/) and Matplotlib (v2.2.2; https://matplotlib.org/), respectively. Differentially expressed genes (log2 fold change |1|, adjusted P < 0.05) were the input to produce an unsupervised hierarchical clustering heat map in Partek Genomics Suite software (version 7.0) (Partek Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA). Raw data are available using accession GSE150720.

ChIP was performed as previously described (53) using antibodies against H3K27Ac (5 g per IP; Abcam, ab4729), H3K4Me3 (5 g per IP; Abcam ab8580), and H3K27Me3 (5 g per IP; Diagenode, C15410195). Library construction and sequencing were performed by Novogene (HK) Co. Ltd. Paired-end reads were aligned to the hg38 genome build using Burrows Wheeler Aligner (BWA) (54) duplicate reads removed using Picard (http://broadinstitute.github.io/picard/), and tracks were generated using DeepTools bamCoverage (https://deeptools.readthedocs.io/en/develop/). Peaks were called using MACS2 (55) with the parameter (P = 1 109). Differentially bound regions between the AdMSC and iMS were calculated using DiffBind (http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/vignettes/DiffBind/inst/doc/DiffBind.pdf) and regions annotated using ChIPseeker (56). Raw data are available using accession GSE151527. Adipocyte ChIP data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO); accession numbers are as follows for the three histone marks: GSM916066, GSM670041, and GSM772771.

Total genomic DNA was extracted using the DNA MiniPrep Kit (Qiagen), and RRBS library construction and sequencing were performed by Novogene (HK) Co. Ltd. Raw RRBS data in fastq format were quality and adapter trimmed using trim_galore (0.6.4) with rrbs parameter (www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/projects/trim_galore). The trimmed fastq files were then aligned to a bisulfite-converted genome (Ensembl GRCh38) using Bismark (2.3.5), and methylation status at each CpG loci was extracted (57). The cytosine coverage files were converted to BigWig format for visualization. Differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) and DMRs were identified using methylKit (1.10) and edmr (0.6.4.1) packages in R (3.6.1) (58, 59). DMCs and DMRs were annotated using ChIPseeker (56), and pathway enrichment was performed as detailed below. Raw data are available using accession number GSE151527. Adipocyte RRBS data were downloaded from GEO: GSM2342293 and GSM2342392.

IPA (Qiagen) was used to investigate enrichment in molecular and cellular functions, systems development and function, and canonical pathways.

Statistical analysis was performed in SAS. For the dose-optimization experiments (Fig. 1), a linear mixed model with participant-level random effects was used to estimate maximum time by dose level and age group. A linear mixed model with participant-level random effects was used to analyze statistical differences in lineage contribution outcomes between treatment groups (Fig. 3) and at different time points posttransplant, to estimate the percentage of cells by treatment and lineage. For the in vivo regeneration experiment (Fig. 4), a linear model was used to model the percent of cells over time for each group. Quadratic time terms were added to account for the observed increase from 1 to 2 weeks and decrease from 2 to 4 weeks. In the muscle regeneration experiment, a linear model was applied to cohort A and cohort B, to estimate and compare percent cells by treatment and source. Statistical modeling data are included in table S2.

Acknowledgments: We are indebted to the patients who donated tissue to this project. We thank E. Cook (Prince of Wales Private Hospital), B. Lee (Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, UNSW Sydney), and technicians at the UNSW BRC Facility for assistance with sample and data collection and animal care; Y. Huang for technical assistance; and A. Unnikrishnan and C. Jolly for helpful discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. We acknowledge the facilities and scientific and technical assistance of the National Imaging Facility, a National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) capability, at the BRIL (UNSW). The STRO-1 antibody was a gift from S. Gronthos, University of Adelaide, Australia. Funding: We acknowledge the following funding support: A.Y. was supported by an Endeavour International Postgraduate Research scholarship from the Australian Government. S.S. is supported by an International Postgraduate Student scholarship from UNSW and the Prince of Wales Clinical School. P.S. is supported by an International Postgraduate Student scholarship from UNSW. M.L.T. and D.D.M. acknowledge funding from St. Vincents Clinic Foundation and Arrow BMT Foundation. K.A.K. acknowledges funding from Australian Research Council (FT180100417). J.M. is supported, in part, by the Olivia Lambert Foundation. M.K. is supported by a NHMRC Program Grant (APP1091261) and NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship (APP1119152). L.B.H. acknowledges funding from MTPConnect MedTech and Pharma Growth Centre (PRJ2017-55 and BMTH06) as part of the Australian Governmentfunded Industry Growth Centres Initiative Programme and The Kinghorn Foundation. D.B. is supported by a Peter Doherty Fellowship from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, a Cancer Institute NSW Early Career Fellowship, the Anthony Rothe Memorial Trust, and Gilead Sciences. R.M. acknowledges funding from Jasper Medical Innovations (Sydney, Australia). J.E.P., V.C., and E.C.H. acknowledge funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (APP1139811). Author contributions: The project was conceived by V.C. and J.E.P., and the study design and experiments were planned by A.Y., V.C., and J.E.P. Most of the experiments and data analyses were performed by A.Y., guided and supervised by V.C. and J.E.P. S.S., R.A.O., C.A.L., D.C., F.Y., M.L.T., P.S., T.H., J.R.P., P.H., W.R.W., and V.C. performed additional experiments and data analyses, with further supervision from R.M., C.P., J.A.I.T., D.C., J.W.H.W., L.B.H., D.B., and E.C.H. Statistical analyses were performed by J.O. R.M., D.D.M., J.M., K.A.K., and M.K. provided critical reagents. The manuscript was written by A.Y., J.A.I.T., V.C., and J.E.P., and reviewed and agreed to by all coauthors. Competing interests: V.C. and J.E.P. are named inventors on a patent A method of generating cells with multi-lineage potential (US 9982232, AUS 2013362880). All other authors declare that they have no competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors.

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[Full text] Clinical Analysis of Bloodstream Infections During Agranulocytosis Aft | IDR – Dove Medical Press

Introduction

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a treatment process for restoring normal hematopoietic and immune functions. In this method, patients undergo high-dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and immunosuppressive pre-treatment is done to eliminate abnormal hematopoietic and immune systems. The patient is then transfused with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells. This strategy is an effective cure for blood diseases, bone marrow failure syndrome, and immune deficiency.1,2 However, neutrophil deficiency, impaired mucosal barrier, and weakened immune function typically occur after transplantation, which increases the risk of infection after HSCT.3

Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a severe type of systemic infectious disease caused by the invasion of the circulatory system by pathogenic microorganisms. Notably, BSI is a common complication in the early stages of allo-HSCT and has an incidence rate of 13.6%38.9%.47 According to literature, the occurrence of bloodstream infections is a huge risk factor to early deaths after HSCT.810 The occurrence of BSI after HSCT is exacerbated by the widespread use of antibiotics and the resultant antibacterial resistance, especially multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDR) that seriously affects the survival of transplant patients.1113 Thus, evaluation of the distribution and prevalence of drug-resistant pathogens of the bloodstream in allo-HSCT patients and the study of the BSI risk factors could guide the course of clinical treatment for BSI prevention and control. This study retrospectively analyzed the BSI risk factors in patients with allo-HSCT in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2013 to 2017. The detection rate, distribution, and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria after allo-HSCT was also evaluated.

From January 2013 to December 2017, 397 patients who received allogeneic HSCT for the treatment of hematological diseases in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were selected. The patients included 242 males and 155 females, with a median age of 21 (162) years. Of these, 115 cases had acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 110 with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), 102 with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and 70 patients with other conditions.

According to the difference in the histocompatible typing and relationship, allo-HSCT is divided into matched sibling transplantation, partially matched related transplantation and matched unrelated transplantation. Among the 397 cases of allo-HSCT, 177 were matched sibling transplantation, 165 were partially matched related transplantation, and 55 were matched unrelated transplantation. According to the stem cell source, there were 333 cases of peripheral hematopoietic origin, 55 from peripheral blood combined with bone marrow transplantation, and nine involved cord blood transplantation.

Central vein catheterization was performed for all patients before transplantation conditioning. Modified busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy) and total body irradiation/cyclophosphamide (TBI/Cy) conditioning regimens were used for patients with acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and lymphoma. Meanwhile, cyclophosphamide + anti-thymocyte globulin (Cy-ATG) and FluCy-ATG pre-treatment regimens were used for severe aplastic anemia. The GVHD prevention program used cyclosporine combined with mycophenolate mofetil and methotrexate, of which 272 cases were also treated with ATG to prevent GVHD.

All HSCT patients were admitted to the laminar flow purification ward after a medicated bath, and were given a sterile diet, and received oral, eye, nose, and perianal care. Take a 1:2000 chlorhexidine liquid medicinal bath for 20 minutes; routinely gargle with saline and cermetium chloride before and after three meals a day, add metronidazole solution if necessary; use 1% chloramphenicol, 0.5% Rifampicin eye drops alternate eye drops, 4 times/d; alternate nose drops with houttuynia cordata and streptomycin nasal drops, 4 times/d; rinse the perineum with warm water after each bowel movement, 3% boric acid solution for a bath for 20 Minutes, mupirocin is applied to the perianal area. Itraconazole, berberine, and compound sulfamethoxazole were administered orally for intestinal disinfection two weeks before transplantation. If the body temperature of patients got to 38.00C during transplantation or shivering occurred, 10 mL of blood from the peripheral vein was collected using standard. The blood was drawn twice in a row for separate cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. For positive cases, broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered intravenously, and the treatment efficacy was evaluated 48 hours after the initial treatment. Treatment efficacy was empirically assessed based on blood culture results, WBC, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels, after which ineffective treatment strategies were adjusted.

Agranulocytosis refers to the absolute value of neutrophils <0.5 109/L,14 while granulocyte reconstitution refers to neutrophils 0.5 109/L for three consecutive days after transplantation.

Fever is a single measurement of oral temperature 38.3C (axillary temperature 38.0C) or 38.0C (axillary temperature 37.7C) for more than 1 hour.

The pathogenic diagnosis of BSI was made after the isolation of pathogenic microorganisms from blood culture. If the same patient isolates the same bacteria, if the drug sensitivity is the same, it is 1 BSI. BSI-related mortality was defined as death occurring within 30 days after the diagnosis of BSI. Pre-engraftment BSI is defined as the infection that arises from the onset of the pre-treatment regimen to the time before granulocyte implantation.

VersaTREK automatic blood culture instrument (Thermo Fisher, USA), VITEK MS IVD 3.0 mass spectrometer identification instrument and VITEK2 Compact automatic microbial identification, and drug sensitivity analysis system for bacterial culture, identification, and drug sensitivity detection, spread through paper (K-B) method and E-Test were used in in vitro susceptibility tests and review of abnormal susceptibility results. The results were interpreted according to the standards issued by the United States Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standardization (CLSI).15

The SPSS21.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and descriptive statistics were used to summarize clinical features. The univariate analysis used a chi-square test, while logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis. A P-value of 0.05 was used as the level of significance; thus, P<0.05 indicated statistically significant differences.

Among the 397 HSCT patients, 294 had agranulocytosis fever, out of which 52 were microbiologically confirmed as BSIs. Therefore, the incidence of BSI was 17.7% (52/294), accounting for 13.1% (52/397) of all transplant patients. The implantation time of neutrophils is 13 days (11,15), and the time from agranulocytosis to BSI is 12 days (7,30). For 294 patients, we did 607 blood cultures, among which 60 were positive (9.9% positive blood culture rate). Out of the 294 patients, six had two or more pathogenic bacteria.

Sixty pathogens were detected in 52 patients, including 43 Gram-negative bacteria (71.67%), 10 Gram-positive bacteria (16.67%), and 7 fungi (11.67%). We found that Gram-negative bacteria accounted for most BSIs, followed by Gram-positive bacteria, and fungal infections were the least. The numbers and proportions of different strains of pathogenic bacteria are shown in Figure 1. In terms of drug resistance, the extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) detection rates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 46.7% (7/15) and 30% (3/10), respectively. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) accounted for 17.9% (5/28). The recorded patterns for Gram-negative bacteria drug susceptibility are shown in Table 1. The two staphylococci detected in Gram-positive bacteria were all methicillin-resistant, and all the three enterococci were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. The detected fungi belong to the genus Candida, and the resistance rates to itraconazole and voriconazole were 57.1% and 28.6%, respectively.

Table 1 Resistance Rate of Major Gram-Negative Bacteria to Common Antibacterial Drugs

Figure 1 Distribution of 60 isolated pathogenic bacteria pathogen.

Out of the 52 BSI patients, 33 improved after treatment, while 19 died after treatment failed (36.5%). Among the 19, 13 had Gram-negative bacteria infection, three were Candida infections, while another three were mixed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infection. Six of the seven patients who were resistant to carbapenems died.

We divided the 294 patients with agranular fever into two groups: BSI-free (242) and BSI (52). Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied for the study of BSI risk factors, including patients age, gender, disease type, stem cell source, pre-treatment application of ATG, combined diarrhea, oral ulcers, and presence of granules. Univariate analysis results demonstrated that the occurrence of BSI was correlated to the transplantation method, pre-treatment application of ATG, agranulocytosis time (21 days), and stem cell source (Table 2). Meanwhile, multivariate analysis showed that pre-treatment application of ATG, agranulocytosis time (21 days), and stem cell source were risk factors for BSI (Table 3).

Table 2 Univariate Analysis of Risk Factors for BSI

Table 3 Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for BSI

Allo-HSCT patients undergo prolonged agranulocytosis and develop an impaired mucosal barrier. Besides, the long-term use of immunosuppressive agents increases the incidence of bloodstream infections.47 In the present study, the incidence of bloodstream infections was 13.1% in all patients, and 17.7% in patients with febrile neutropenia. A previous study conducted in China reported that the incidence of bloodstream infections in patients with febrile neutropenia was 17.0%.16 Thus, our findings are consistent with earlier results of other studies. The mortality rate of allo-HSCT bloodstream infections in our center was 36.5%, which is higher than the 26.9% reported by Mikulska et al17 and the 31.1% reported by Stoma et al.18 In addition, studies by Stoma et al also found that the application of fluoroquinolones can reduce the incidence of bloodstream infections by affecting the colonization of intestinal bacteria, while insufficient empirical antibacterial treatment is associated with increased mortality.18,19 This disparity suggests that we should pay attention to the prevention and treatment of bloodstream infections in transplant patients and formulate anti-infection strategies based on the distribution of pathogens and drug resistance patterns to improve transplantation and survival rates.

This study detected 60 pathogens in BSIs, of which gram-negative bacteria (71.67%) were the main ones, followed by gram-positive bacteria (16.67%), and fungi were the least (11.67%) (Figure 1). Gram-negative bacteria were mainly of the Enterobacteriaceae family, particularly E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The non-fermenting bacteria P. aeruginosa was also detected. A 25-year study in Spain showed that BSIs after HSCT were mainly caused by gram-positive bacteria, with a downward trend in positive bacteria and an increasing trend in gram-negative bacteria.20 Blennow et al also reported similar conclusions.21 However, many transplant centers in China have reported that BSIs after HSCT are mainly caused by gram-negative bacteria, followed by gram-positive bacteria, while fungi make up the least proportion. Thus, the epidemiology of BSIs in our center conforms to the distribution pattern reported in other centers in China.22,23

In this study, the common Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) had ESBL detection rates of 46.7% and 30%, respectively, and carbapenem resistance rates of the two bacteria were 6.7% and 30%, respectively (Table 1). Thus, we found that E. coli is highly sensitive to carbapenem drugs, suggesting that these drugs can be used for empiric antibacterial treatment. The ESBL positivity rate and carbapenem resistance rate of K. pneumoniae were both 30% (Table 1), indicating that its clinical treatment can be a combination of tigecycline, polymyxin, and other drugs. Notably, research shows that combination therapy with antibacterial medications such as cyclin and polymyxin can reduce the mortality of patients.24,25 In the present study, the resistance rate of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems was 28.6%, while its resistance rate to both aminoglycosides and quinolones was 14.3% (Table 1). Thus, a combination of carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and quinolones can be used for clinical treatment. Multi-center research in China reported carbapenem resistance rates of 3.6% and 18.9% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively.26 Similarly, this study revealed high resistance of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to carbapenem. The high rate of mycene resistance could be attributed to the repeated use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in transplant patients and the continuous increase in multi-drug-resistant bacteria in recent years.27 In response to the rise in multi-drug-resistant bacteria, our center uses perianal swabs to regularly screen intestine colonizing bacteria in transplant patients. As such, pathogenic bacteria are identified early, and treatment strategies are adjusted based on drug sensitivity results. The sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria to the glycopeptides vancomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin was 100.0%, suggesting that Gram-positive bacteria BSIs can be completely treated in clinical practice. Thus, glycopeptide or azole drugs can be the first choice for the treatment of Gram-positive bacteria BSIs.

All the seven fungi in this study were Candida, and Candida tropicalis was the predominant species. The resistance rates to itraconazole and voriconazole were 57.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The mortality rate of candidiasis was high, which significantly threatened the survival of transplant patients. According to previous studies, caspofungin should form the first choice fungal treatment after allo-HSCT in clinical practice, combined with antifungal treatment if necessary.28,29

The single-factor and multi-factor analysis results showed that pre-treatment application of ATG, agranulocytosis time (21 days), and stem cell source were risk factors for BSI. The removal of T-lymphocytes from the body of ATG-pretreated patients significantly delays immune reconstitution,30 and the continued lack of granulocytes causes immunodeficiency in transplant patients, thus increasing the risk to BSIs. Peripheral blood combined with bone marrow transplantation, hematopoietic implantation is relatively fast, which may be the reason for the lower incidence of BSIs in this group of patients, relative to peripheral blood and cord blood transplantation.3133

The results of this study show that BSI is a common complication of allo-HSCT patients with agranulocytosis. Gram-negative bacteria were the most prevalent pathogen in BSIs, and drug resistance to carbapenem drugs was relatively high. The use of ATG in pre-treatment, agranulocytosis time (21 days), and stem cell source are risk factors for BSI. The high mortality rate of BSI substantially affects the prognosis of transplant patients, and attention should be paid on the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in the bloodstream of transplant patients. Besides, the treatment plan should be adjusted based on the specific bacteria and drug resistance patterns.

The patient consent was waived, since the research involves no more than minimal risk to the subjects because the review of subjects medical records is for limited information. The information is not sensitive in nature, and the data are derived from clinically indicated procedures. The precautions taken to limit the record review to specified data and the coding of the data further minimize the primary risk, which is a breach of confidentiality. This study has been approved by the ethics review committee of the research project of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, and has obtained relevant certificates.

All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. This study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki.

This project was supported by the Key Scientific Research Project Plan of Higher Education Institutions in Henan Province (18A320040).

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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21. Blennow O, Ljungman P, Sparrelid E, Mattsson J, Remberger M. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of bloodstream infections during the pre-engraftment phase in 521 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. Transpl Infect Dis. 2014;16(1):106114. doi:10.1111/tid.12175

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23. Wang L, Wang Y, Fan X, Tang W, Hu J. Prevalence of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Bloodstream Infection in Febrile Neutropenia Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study. Medicine. 2014;16(1):e1931. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001931

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25. Qureshi ZA, Paterson DL, Potoski BA, et al. Treatment outcome of bacteremia due to KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: superiority of combination antimicrobial regimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56(4):21082113.

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[Full text] Clinical Analysis of Bloodstream Infections During Agranulocytosis Aft | IDR - Dove Medical Press

[Full text] Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Beyond Bisphosphonates: Are There Any Unknown | CCIDE – Dove Medical Press

Introduction

Recent literature reviews suggest that bisphosphonates (BPs) may contribute to the growing number of cases of osteonecrosis involving the maxilla and mandible that are associated with the pathogenesis of BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ).1 In the discussion concerning BRONJ, a distinction must be made between diseases featuring reduced osseous mineral content, which may be counteracted by BPs (such as those occurring during menopause or in cases of osteoporosis), and cases that present with indications for BPs (such as tumors). BPs have been used in the treatment of multiple myeloma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and other tumors. In patients with metastatic breast cancer, the bones are affected in around two-thirds of cases. To protect patients from bone fractures and to reduce pain, patients are often prescribed BPs or a special antibody that prevents the breakdown of, and subsequently stabilizes, affected bone. BRONJ is a newly emerging problem that is recognized as a serious complication of BP therapy, primarily following intravenous (IV) administration.2

The concern is that BPs affect the natural remodeling of bone tissues and delay the breakdown of older bone structures. BPs are potent inhibitors of bone resorption and have a chronic effect over a half-life of at least 5 years, possibly exerting their effects for more than 10 years. BRONJ is a seemingly growing epidemic associated with osteonecrosis of the jawbone (ONJ).35 The long-term effects of oncological-related BP treatment on alveolar bone quality include the impact on BP-induced overexpression of alveolar bone remodeling. There are increased osteosclerotic properties in the alveolar bone that are associated with significantly greater bone volume and higher bone density.6,7 The risk of BP therapy is divided into two categories: local and systemic risk factors; thus, a distinction must be made between oral and IV administration. Local oral risk factors for BRONJ in cancer patients include dentoalveolar surgery, dental extraction, and dental implant insertion.8 Periodontal infections also significantly increase the risk of BRONJ in cancer patients.9 In addition, there is a significant correlation between the use of removable prostheses, the administration of high-dose IV BPs, and an increased risk of BRONJ.10 In patients receiving oral BP therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis, the prevalence of BRONJ only increased 0.21% from close to 0%. Systemically, however, there is a much higher risk associated with the IV injection of BPs. This is closely related to the frequent use of BPs in cancer patients who receive a significantly higher total dose over a longer duration.11 The mean and minimum time for the development of ONJ is 1.8 years and 10 months, respectively.12 The risk of BRONJ in cancer patients exposed to BP therapy is from 50100 times higher than in cancer patients treated with a placebo. The BRONJ risk for the RANKL inhibitor denosumab was between 0.7% and 1.9%.13,14 The risk of ONJ in cancer patients treated with high doses of IV BPs appears to be significantly higher: in the range of 110 per 100 patients (depending on therapy duration).15 A recent review reported a wide-ranging BRONJ incidence of 027.5% that was associated with the IV administration of BPs, with an average incidence of 7%.16 The cumulative frequency varied from 0.812.0% and was estimated to be up to 30.0% in some reports.17,18 Despite numerous publications on the subject, the overall pathogenesis of BRONJ does not yet appear to be fully understood. In particular, the reasons why only a subset of patients (<30%) receiving IV BPs develop BRONJ remain unclear. Although most patients that develop BRONJ have a history of tooth extraction or injury, these factors do not fully explain the occurrence of BRONJ.8 The development of BRONJ in edentulous areas in patients with no apparent history of injury suggests that pre-existing conditions, such as subclinical infections or potentially necrotic areas of the jawbone, may contribute to the conditions that lead to the development of BRONJ.

Why does BRONJ develop in up to 30% of individuals following IV BP therapy and not the remaining 70%? This review raises the question of whether little-known or difficult-to-identify, pre-existing, impaired bone remodeling, such as that occurring in aseptic-ischemic osteonecrosis of the jaw (AIOJ), bone marrow defects (BMD), or fatty-degenerative osteonecrosis of the jawbone (FDOJ), represents a local risk factor in the development of BRONJ.

There is still a limited scientific understanding of the relationship between ONJ and BPs.19 In order to clarify the research question and present the background and specific common characteristics of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and BRONJ, an extensive literature search was carried out in PubMed Central. In the literature, the terms aseptic-ischemic osteonecrosis of the jaw (AIOJ), bone marrow defects (BMD), and fatty-degenerative osteonecrosis of the jawbone (FDOJ) are used to describe an intramedullary phenomenon with the same pathogenesis, morphology, and pathohistology.

The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons published four staging criteria (at risk, Stage 03).20 Stage 0 is of particular interest in our research as it refers to patients with no clinical evidence of exposed bone, but presence of non-specific symptoms or clinical and/or radiographic abnormalities. The discussion concerning BRONJ is complicated by the fact that there are two clinical forms of BRONJ. The first presents as exposed bone in the maxillofacial region with clinically recognizable necrotic bone that is visibly exposed through the oral mucosa or facial skin, and present for more than 8 weeks, which is referred to as so-called exposed BRONJ.15 The second form of BRONJ is particularly interesting for our investigation; it was recently emphasized that BRONJ does not always appear with necrotic bone visible through a breech in the oral mucosa.21 This form is referred to as non-exposed BRONJ (NE-BRONJ). In the absence of exposed bone, it is characterized by clinical features associated with the jaw, such as unexplained jawbone pain, fistulas/sinus tracts, loose teeth, and swelling.22,23 Diagnosing NE-BRONJ is difficult, as other common jawbone diseases, such as odontogenic infections, may cause similar symptoms and must be excluded. The non-exposed variant may comprise up to one third of all BRONJ cases and is thus not uncommon;24 however, this previously underestimated NE-BRONJ is difficult to accurately diagnose. Recently published papers emphasize that NE-BRONJ has received little attention so far and does not fulfill the current definition of BRONJ.25 Nevertheless, NE-BRONJ belongs to the same disease as exposed BRONJ and should be identified as part of the full spectrum of BRONJ (see the section titled, Case descriptions of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, non-exposed BRONJ, and Actinomyces colonization).26

Our investigation requires the identification of the basic immune mechanisms associated with BP administration. Specifically, which mechanism is behind the anti-tumor activity of BPs in cancer patients?

Various studies postulate that BPs change the bone microenvironment around cancer cells, which may prevent cancer cell survival and disease recurrence.27 BPs may also reduce the appearance of disseminated tumor cells. The formation of metastases is complex; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are predominantly found in the bone marrow.28 MSCs may contribute to the formation of metastases through various mechanisms: (1) MSCs are recruited to develop breast tumors where they can enhance the metastatic potential of weakly tumorigenic breast cancer cells;29 (2) MSCs and other bone marrow cells may form a pre-metastatic niche within the specific tissues to which tumor cells metastasize;30 and (3) MSCs are able to maintain the growth and survival of cancer cells in the bone microenvironment where they may contribute to the formation of niches for dormant micrometastases that can later form distant metastases. BPs significantly reduce the ability of MSCs to migrate, thereby reducing the growth and survival of cancer cells.31 Thus, the effects of BPs on MSCs in the bone marrow microenvironment contribute to anti-tumor activity by affecting the ability of MSCs to migrate and develop tumors in pre-metastatic niches. BPs disrupt the interaction between MSCs and breast cancer cells within the bone microenvironment, where BPs may also directly inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

The antiangiogenic effect of BP administration in tumor patients also plays a role in therapy.32 When administered systemically, BPs effectively inhibit angiogenesis. The pronounced antiangiogenic properties of BPs enhance their effectiveness in the treatment of malignant bone diseases. In addition to suppressing RANTES/CCL5 (R/C) expression in MSCs, BP administration plays a role in the treatment of tumor patients.33 Similar to exogenous glucocorticoids and estrogen,34 BPs are ischemic and hypoxia-related stressors of bone health that alter jawbone metabolism, thus leading to osteonecrosis. While tumor-associated BP therapy is currently the heavy weight for bone health, it may accelerate existing, chronic pathophysiological events within the microcirculation of bone marrow compartments in the jaw. BRONJ development is often characterized by a slow start and usually presents with infarcts and thrombosis of small vascular sections of the supplying artery within the medullary canal; these features also correspond to AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ. Myeloid elements (including fat marrow) liquefy and cancellous trabeculae are resorbed, so that individual bone spaces merge and gradually create larger cavities.

If we compare the findings in the sections titled, Bisphosphonates and mesenchymal stem cells and Bisphosphonates and antiangiogenesis to pre-existing AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, several strikingly common characteristics shared by BRONJ and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ can be observed that help to answer our research question. In the sections following Bisphosphonates and antitumor therapy, we present the foundations for the development of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and draw similarities with the development of BRONJ.

The key function of proinflammatory chemokines R/C in the formation of breast cancer and its metastasis, as well as a possible connection with the intramedullary signaling of R/C overexpression from AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ areas, has been pointed out in previous studies.35,36 The conspicuous overexpression of R/C in little-known BMDs, as found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, has been reported.37,38 R/C overexpression is a regulator of healthy bone metabolism in bone needing repair. The starting point for a typical AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ BMDs is the expression of R/C and its chemokine receptors (CCR5) in both osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Ligands (CCL5) and receptors (CCR5) simultaneously activate autocrine and paracrine mechanisms in the bone.39 One study examined the effects of BPs on human primary OBs and was able to show that the overexpression of proinflammatory R/C from BP-treated OBs also occurs in areas affected by BRONJ.40 The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and R/C increased after 14 days of treatment with the highest dose of BPs.40 The complexity of cytokine control becomes clear at this point. In contrast to the tumor, where BPs in the MSCs reduce R/C expression to such an extent that metastasis is prevented, R/C expression is increased by BPs in OBs. If AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is already present, it may be assumed that the associated increased R/C secretion is thus further increased by BPs. Specifically, NE-BRONJ may develop as BPs increase the expression of IL-8 and R/C.41 Other researchers have confirmed increases in the secretion of proinflammatory IL-8 and R/C from BP-treated OBs.42 Combined with the lower proliferation rate of OBs and a decrease in their differentiation, higher doses or accumulations of BPs cause undesirable local changes in the bone by increasing the secretion of IL-8 and R/C from OBs. If these findings are applied to BP administration in the context of a chronic, pre-existing AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ area, then such areas may be expected to exhibit increased R/C secretion in response to BPs. This increase may result from the inhibition of OC activity, leading to the development of BRONJ. Figure 1 summarizes the effects of BP administration on the pre-existing physiological derailments associated with tumor and osteoporosis development.

Figure 1 Comparison of the effects of BP administration (+BP) in the context of a tumor (upper part of Figure 1) and pre-existing osteoporosis (lower part of Figure 1). Legend: The red arrows indicate overactivity; the green arrows show reversal following BP administration.

In the literature, the vascular composition of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is characterized by the fact that blood flow in the medullary canal is impaired by micro-infarcts, which leads to chronic marrow ischemia.43 BRONJ also shows reduced vascularization in the medullary canal.44 Several publications have shown that ischemic bone diseases such as AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and BRONJ are of multifactorial origin and emphasize the multiple stroke model as the cause of ischemic bone diseases.45,46 In the orthopedic literature, intensive research conducted on the development of ischemic bone disease in the early stages of the disease process is presented.47 Our aim here is to apply this knowledge not only to extreme forms of the disease, such as osteoradionecrosis and BRONJ, but also to chronic, subclinical, and ischemic forms such as bone marrow edema and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, which often progress asymptomatically. Many of these forms are manifestations of both local and systemic risk factors that compromise circulation in the bone marrow, and may also impact on the homeostasis of bone resorption and formation, in addition to BP therapy. The importance of this multifactorial exposure to risk factors for ischemia and the associated causal genetics that are very similar to those in cases of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is shown by observing how bone that is exposed to BPs demonstrates minimal OC activity, followed by the deposition of newly formed, thicker bone with reduced vascular supply.48 The resulting mosaic-like pattern of bone remodeling is strikingly similar to that found in Pagets disease, which tends to be associated with the development of osteomyelitis.49 Similar to AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, the remodeling induced by BPs leaves cavities, otherwise known as cavitations, which leads to both necrosis and unlike that which is found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ subsequent infection by colonizing bacteria. Many patients with AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ have inherited prothrombotic tendencies, which is comparable to what is found in patients with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (Pagets disease) and includes thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis.5052 Although a consensus has been reached that ischemic marrow edema is not part of the pathogenesis of BRONJ,53 it is regarded as a typical characteristic of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, serving as a precursor to BRONJ development. Systemic antibiotic therapy has limited access to these avascular zones and surgical debridement is usually necessary.

The initial OB situation found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is highly characteristic; under pathological conditions, OBs express R/C chemokines in a non-physiological manner.54,55 The increasing frequency of ONJ and its possible association with high cumulative doses of BPs was investigated in one study, which concluded that high doses of BPs had both OC and OB effects, and thus bone remodeling was inhibited in vivo.56 Other researchers have examined the proliferation, viability, expression, and secretion of bone markers and cytokines/chemokines from primary OBs following exposure to BPs.42 Increased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were found in response to BPs. Similarly, increased R/C expression is present in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ. Following treatment with the highest dose of BPs, the secretions of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 (P<0.001) and R/C (P<0.001) were significantly increased after 14 days. In addition, the secretion of proinflammatory R/C from OBs exposed to BPs increased. It has also been determined that R/C plays a role in the etiology of the osteolytic changes that are present in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ.37,57 The aim of another study was to investigate the effect of BPs on human OBs in vitro, while considering RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG), both of which mediate OC differentiation.40 OPG increased significantly in the group that received BPs at a dose of 10 M, while RANKL expression decreased significantly with different concentrations of BPs. In summary, exposure to various BP concentrations had a positive effect on OB differentiation, but did not affect proliferation. In contrast, the BP-associated changes in RANKL and OPG production contributed to the suppression of osteoclastic bone resorption. Excess R/C leads to OC inhibition which, in our model, also leads to a disturbance in RANK/RANKL homeostasis (see Figure 2). The chain of reactions that arise from pre-existing AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and BP administration result in the development of BRONJ in response to the subsequent OB depression; it also leads to increased OC apoptosis. In addition, bone densification takes place following BP administration as a result of increased OB activity. As such, osteonecrosis occurs in the jawbone when BPs are used parenterally. The reasons for these different reactions to BPs have not yet been clarified.

Figure 2 The effects of BP administration and the characteristics of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ both include depressed alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity with subsequent R/C overexpression. On the one hand, this leads to OC inhibition and, on the other, to RANK/RANKL deactivation, which subsequently causes increased OC apoptosis and depressed OB activity resulting in BRONJ development. Legend: The red arrows indicate deactivation; the green arrows show a reversal of the effect following BP administration.

The first step in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a)-induced OC genesis occurs in the bone marrow.58 Although mature OCs erode the resorption of the bone as a focal point over the course of months to years, the lifespan of individual OCs is only a few weeks. Thus, mature OCs must be constantly replaced. With respect to OC formation, TNF-a directly stimulates the formation of mature OCs,59,60 and supports and promotes the survival of mature OCs.61 TNF-a increases the survival time of OCs to extend the duration of bone resorption. In the early stages of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, the situation for OCs is highly contradictory: the extremely low TNF-a values found in areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ as compared to the values in healthy jawbone samples (as documented in our previous studies) indicate that any inflammatory erosion due to TNF-a supported OC formation is unlikely. Due to reduced TNF-a activation, OC formation in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is inhibited, which results in a fatty-degenerative morphology.62

In the same way, BPs inhibit the ability of OCs to resorb bone. They do so by suppressing farnesyl diphosphate synthetase activity, which inhibits OC recruitment and impacts the life expectancy of OCs through increased apoptosis. Where the OC function is excessively inhibited, dying OCs will not be replaced, and the capillary network of the bone will not be maintained, which leads to BRONJ.19 The ability of BPs to regulate bone turnover by suppressing OC activity has led to its widespread use in the treatment of osteoporosis, Pagets disease, humoral hypercalcemia, and in tumors metastasizing to bone.17,63 Several studies have shown the effectiveness of BPs in suppressing OC activity in arthritic bone erosions, which was comparable to the effects of OPG injections.64

The initial alkaline phosphatase (AP) situation in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is as follows: AP has an optimum pH in the alkaline range. The pH level of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ areas, however, is reduced as a consequence of the proinflammatory characteristics of R/C overexpression, resulting in a chronic inflammatory state. AP activity is thus inhibited within the increasingly acidic environment of such areas. Furthermore, BPs increase R/C secretion from OBs, and the acidity of areas affected by AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, together with an excess of R/C, leads to OC inhibition.65 At the same time, there is also reduced osteogenesis due to the suppression of AP activity,66 as well as the overexpression of R/C that is present in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ areas and also caused by BP administration. In our model, these two factors led to OC inhibition via disturbed RANK//RANKL homeostasis. In addition, depressed OB activity and increased OC apoptosis result in BRONJ development. While the skeletal bone consolidation that results from BP administration occurs in response to increased OB activity, BRONJ develops in the jawbone when BP is administered parenterally. The reasons for these different responses to BPs have not yet been clarified. If we apply these considerations to an existing AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ area (as shown in Figure 2), then BRONJ and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ both show suppressed AP activity with subsequent R/C overexpression.67 This leads to OC inhibition and RANK/RANKL deactivation and, subsequently, increased OC apoptosis. Decreased OB activity may ultimately lead to the development of exposed BRONJ.

Despite the similarities detailed in the section titled Osteoimmunological parameters of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and BRONJ with the same impact in response to BPs, BRONJ and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ present two very different clinical pictures; different reactions to BP administration are also likely to occur.

The initial involvement of RANKL in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ has been described in the literature as follows: pathological increases in levels of R/C and MCP-3 from activated OBs stimulate chemotactic recruitment and RANKL formation of resorptive OCs and aggravate local osteolysis. However, BP administration indirectly inhibits OC maturation by increasing OPG protein secretion and decreases transmembrane RANKL expression in human OBs. Several studies have shown that although BPs do not significantly affect RANKL gene expression, they reduce transmembrane RANKL protein expression in OBs.68,69 This shows that BPs, in addition to directly inhibiting mature OCs, prevent OC recruitment and differentiation by splitting transmembrane RANKL into OBs. OC activation and RANKL activation in areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, and OC inhibition and RANKL inhibition in BRONJ distinguish these two forms of derailed bone metabolism and thus yield different clinical results. Specifically, imperceptible fatty osteolysis of the marrow structures in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and painful BRONJ sequestrum arise as a result. BPs have been shown to downregulate the expression of RANKL, the OC-differentiating factor produced by OBs.70

The initial involvement of OPG in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is described in the literature. Since the TNF-a level found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ represents only 50% of the TNF-a level in healthy jawbone,36,37 the OPG enzyme that belongs to the TNF family is deactivated. In the resulting osteolysis found in areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, this leads to reduced RANKL binding and thus results in OC activation. In conclusion, data from previously published studies have suggested that BPs modulate the production of OPG by normal OBs, which may contribute to the inhibition of OC bone resorption.71 As the production of OPG increases with OB maturation, the amplification of OPG by BPs may be linked to OB differentiation via stimulatory BP effects. BPs have been shown to increase the gene expression for the decoy receptor, OPG, in human OBs.71 OPG balance is disturbed in both AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and BRONJ, albeit in opposite ways. However, the prior imbalance of OPG activity in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ may increase the effects associated with BP administration.

With respect to the exposed variant of BRONJ, radiographic procedures are required in order to determine the extent to which the degree of ossification has increased.72 However, the existence of this variant of BRONJ is clinically evident. In contrast, the non-exposed BRONJ variant and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ are associated with very similar problems in terms of diagnostic imaging. As with AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, the prevalence of this variant of BRONJ is largely underestimated as the disease is often underdiagnosed and under-reported.73 Studies have shown that almost a quarter of patients with BRONJ remain undiagnosed.74

The initial histopathological presentation of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ found in the literature is as follows: Bouquot describes these bone modeling disorders as ischemic osteonecrosis, which is a bone disease characterized by the degeneration and death of marrow and bone due to a slow or abrupt decrease in marrow blood flow.75 Clumps of coalesced, liquefied fat (oil cysts) may be seen. Bone death is represented by a focal loss of OCs. Dark masses of calcific necrotic detritus may often be present.75 The histopathological features of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ include necrotic adipocytes and fibrosis, but an almost complete absence of inflammatory cells.76 Additional research has shown the role of aseptic necrosis following injury or drug therapy in the pathophysiology of BRONJ. Aseptic bone necrosis, as found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ, has been reported as a manifestation of selected systemic diseases and also documented following operations, trauma, and immunosuppressive therapy at the site of BRONJ.77,78 The development of aseptic necrosis has been documented in the upper and lower jaw, particularly following osteotomies.79,80 Researchers have observed a relationship between oral BP use and non-specific aseptic osteonecrosis among a cohort of older cardiovascular patients.81 Other researchers have identified necrotic liquefaction, which often extend to large areas of the jaw, especially within BRONJ lesions of cancer patients, as shown using digital volume tomography (DVT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).82 Research has been published on BRONJ samples that were characterized by low to moderate inflammation.83 This is in accordance with other reports of histopathological analyses of BRONJ samples.48,78,8486 Bone samples from BRONJ patients were investigated by microscopy and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in the bone tissues was not observed.87 These studies have demonstrated that aseptic necrosis, a lack of inflammatory reactions, and empty OC lacunae are common histopathological features of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and BRONJ.

The diagnostic difficulties associated with BRONJ and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ present another common feature. In order to diagnose BRONJ with imaging procedures, the Task Force Report of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research highlights that the differential diagnosis of BRONJ should exclude other common intraoral diseases such as periodontitis, gingivitis, infectious osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis (NICO), bone tumors, and metastases.15 The authors of the report thus rule out an etiological equation for diagnosing NICO and BRONJ. The current review is focused on the potential role of imaging techniques in the diagnosis of the early stages of BRONJ. A combination of clinical and radiological symptoms suggest that, while not specific to BRONJ, they may collectively be more comprehensive and representative of the bone disease process.2 The American Association of Maxillofacial Surgery accepts the use of imaging techniques when detecting BRONJ during presurgical evaluation.72 It is important for the BRONJ patient that various imaging methods be examined critically prior to being adopted for the early detection and diagnosis of BRONJ.

Figure 3 Left panel shows jawbone area 18; hematoxylin and eosin staining, magnification 200. The lower half of the image illustrates eosinophilic bone substance with empty osteocyte cavities corresponding to devitalized bone sequestrum. Middle part of the left panel: Highly irregular trabecular surfaces with a wide edging comprised of Actinomyces colonies surrounded by a wall of leukocytes. Upper part of left panel: Fibrin particles and individual lymphocytes. Right panel: Actinomyces granules visualized in a PAS reaction; the red color represents a broad band of granules in the middle. The lower edge of the right panel images once again shows a bone sequestrum and typically empty osteocyte lacunae. Diagnosis: Aseptic bone necrosis with Actinomyces colonization.

The histopathological changes in necrotic bone may be visualized with MRI scans, as with CBCT/DVT. The images detect progressive cell death and the repair response (ie, edema). As the fat cells in normal bone marrow provide high signal intensity, it may be assumed that signal changes evident in the marrow are related to the death of fat cells. Necrotic adipocytes are a morphological characteristic of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ.76 Following the application of a contrast agent, areas of ischemia may be identified as non-enhancing regions. Cases in which fibrosis and sclerosis of the bone occur may also result in lower signal intensity. Nevertheless, the currently available data on MRI results for BRONJ are limited,96 as are those related to AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ. Studies showed positron-emission tomography (PET) as a sensitive method for diagnosis of BRONJ. Thus, PET could be useful for evaluating the severity of BRONJ.97

2D-OPG is used to identify osteopathies of the jawbone. However, this imaging technique fails to show AIOJ/BMD/FDJ areas, thus generating false-negative findings. As a result, AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ have been highly neglected in dentistry and medicine.98 Therefore, transalveolar ultrasound sonography (TAU) appears to be necessary as an additional imaging technique in order to improve the diagnosis of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ.99,100 A newly developed TAU device (TAU-n) measures sound velocity attenuation when the bone marrow has been penetrated. An ultrasound transmitter is placed over the jaw area and a thumbnail-sized receiver is placed inside the mouth. To obtain reproducible results when measuring bone density, the transmitter and receiver are arranged in a coplanar and fixed position. The parts of the receiving unit are placed inside a patients mouth, the acoustic coupling between those parts and the alveolar ridge is performed with the aid of a semi-solid gel (Figure 3). With the receiver containing 91 piezoelectric fields, sound waves are registered and converted into a color graph of the corresponding areas of bone density (Figure 4).On the graphic visualization, green indicates healthy, dense, and solid bone, yellow indicates the presence of ischemic metabolism, and orange and red highlight areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ presence.101

Figure 4 Left panel shows positioning of transmitter (outside) and receiver (enoral) in the lower jaw; the red band marks the cheek. Right panel shows the transmitter (in blue at the right) and receiver (in green at the left) in a fixed coplanar position (blue bar connecting the transmitter and receiver); semi-solid gel pads between the transmitter and the cheek on the outside of the mouth and between receiver and the alveolar ridge in the enoral position; trans-alveolar ultrasonic impulse from the transmitter to receiver (arrows in blue).

Figure 5 Inconspicuous 2D-OPG findings (left panel); suspected osteolytic processes in areas 1719 in the sagittal section of the image using DVT (right panel). Lower panel: TAU measurement from region 17 to retromolar region 19. Legend: Green areas indicate normal bone density; yellow, orange, and red areas show decreasing bone density until complete osteolysis is reached.

A clinical case of a 55-year-old patient with prostate carcinoma who was treated with parenteral BPs received an X-ray diagnosis of non-exposed BRONJ with normal intraoral findings in the right upper jawbone from area 17 to retromolar area 19. While 2D-OPG of area 18/19 showed no suspicious findings, the CBCT/DVT image demonstrated ossification irregularities and partial cavities that resembled AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ. The development and progression of BRONJ could not be reliably determined by reference to these images and it was not possible to make a differential diagnosis. In contrast, TAU-n images clearly indicated osteolysis (see Figure 4, below). The postoperative light microscopy findings from area 18/19 showed marrow with adipose tissue, significant fibrillar and myxoid degeneration of adipocytes, individual lymphocytes, and mast cells; however, no florid inflammation was observed. These are the typical histological features of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ.76 It is worth noting, however, that there was a large bone sequestrum with empty OC cavities, highly irregular trabecular surfaces, and empty marrow spaces, with Actinomyces colonization (Figure 3).

Several reviews have indicated that light microscopy examinations were able to detect that 68.8% of BRONJ cases featured Actinomyces colonization.32 Anaerobic Actinomyces has long been associated with necrotic bone findings in BRONJ lesions.102 Actinomyces colonization is thus a top priority as a possible pathological trigger with respect to BRONJ. Since we have not identified bacterial colonization in areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ in our own studies,103 an accompanying secondary Actinomyces colonization seems to be an additional prerequisite for the development of BRONJ from an area of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ in response to BP administration.

Table 1 displays all studies and their impact on the research question based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria in literature review.

Table 1 The Table Displays the Criteria for Inclusion of Specific Manuscripts in Our Research. Exclusion Criteria Were Unspecific Reviews Concentrating on Exposed BRONJ Only

Can hitherto little-known, yet according to our clinical experience37,76 epidemiologically widespread AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ represent cofactors in the development of BRONJ? The development of biological processes takes place in different stages and during various phases of transition. This also seems to be the case for BRONJ, as the exposed form found in the maxillofacial region represents the final, late-stage form of the NE-BRONJ variant. The focus of our study is thus on the early stage of BRONJ (Stage 0) without exposed bone, as based on the recommendations of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.5,20,104 Our hypothesis considers the NE-BRONJ variant as one stage of development featuring an unrecognized BMD that is characteristic of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and amplified by BP administration. The cumulative effects of BPs on pre-existing AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ support this premise. The relationship between AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and the administration of BPs (as shown in Figure 6) leads, etiologically, to the non-exposed BRONJ variant, which is less clearly described in the literature than the late-stage form of BRONJ, and also results in considerable oral impairment.

Figure 6 Overview of the individual osteoimmunological signal cascades present in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and their conversion or amplification following BP administration, resulting in the development of BRONJ. Legend: A pair of arrows, one red and one green, indicates the reinforcement or, in one instance, the reversal of the typical overexpression or inhibition found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ following BP administration.

As BPs and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ exert the same effects, resulting in the hyperfunctioning of R/C expression, OB activity, hypoxia/ischemia, and the inhibition of OC activity, vascularization, and AP activity, AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ may be regarded as a prerequisite to the formation of BRONJ. Changes in silent AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ processes, including strongly inhibited OC production, reduced RANKL activity, and increased OPG activity, appear to induce the occurrence of BRONJ. Figure 7 presents a hypothetical three-step model detailing the basic stages for the development of BRONJ at AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ areas. Regions with fatty-degenerative changes may be the focal point for the subsequent development of BRONJ, as such changes may constitute an additional risk factor. This is consistent with the hypothesis described in the literature, whereby bone necrosis precedes clinically evident ONJ that is exposed through the oral mucosa.78,105 Regions featuring subclinical changes and necrotic bone may represent significant risk factors in the development of BRONJ.104 Further, it is known that patients at each stage exhibit a very different bone composition.104

Figure 7 Three-step model for the development of BRONJ beginning with undetected AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ followed by the development of the NE-BRONJ variant, and finally by BRONJ.Notes: Exposed bone BNOJ (left panel). Bony sequestrum BRONJ (right panel). Figure courtesy of Professor J Bouquot.

The prevention of BRONJ is of paramount importance and has been repeatedly emphasized.106108 Thus, BPs should not be regarded as the sole cause of osteonecrosis. The results of this study indicate that unresolved areas of wound healing at extraction sites especially in former wisdom tooth areas may directly contribute to the pathogenesis of BRONJ. Other research has already described the involvement of the jaw in BRONJ as opposed to other bone sites.109 This may be because BPs are preferentially deposited in bones with high turnover rates such as the jawbone. The jawbone also presents with hidden conditions that according to our hypothesis share common characteristics with those found in AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ. Under the influence of BPs, areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ may develop the pathological features of BRONJ. Efforts to prevent BRONJ, therefore, should not ignore the fact that BRONJ and AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ share similar osteoimmunological characteristics with respect to amplifying or reversing derailed signal cascades. Since AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ represent chronic, subclinical states, the sudden formation of BRONJ may be interpreted as a subsequent acute event. The early detection of BRONJ (as well as AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ) using X-ray techniques appears to be difficult. A new risk-benefit analysis should be considered: Patients should be screened for hidden oral risk factors, such as AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ. Thus, TAU may be used to measure bone density and fill this diagnostic gap. When parenteral BP therapy is administered, periodontal prophylaxis and tooth restoration should take precedence;110,111 furthermore, AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ should be diagnosed first, preferably (and accurately) with TAU-n, and then surgically eliminated. The formation of difficult-to-treat BRONJ could be avoided in certain cases if the exacerbation of pre-existing areas of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ is prevented before initiating anti-tumorigenic BP therapy. Surgical opening of the cortex, removal of ischemic marrow, and accompanying wound care represent the only way to address cases of AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ.112 Consultation with an oncologist is mandatory, as the oncologist may insist on radiation therapy and the prevention of osteoradionecrosis of the jawbones via tooth restoration. To the best of our knowledge, we have highlighted, for the first time, the possible impact chains flowing from AIOJ/BMD/FDOJ and leading to the development of NE-BRONJ and further to exposed BRONJ. We also support the hypothesis presented herein with scientific data from the available literature. Due to the lack of clinical studies investigating these impact chains, multiple studies are necessary to elucidate the hypothesized relationships.

AIOJ, aseptic-ischemic osteonecrosis of the jawbone; BMD, bone marrow defects; BRONJ, bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw; CBCT, cone beam computed tomography; CCL5, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5; DVT, digital volume tomography; FDOJ, fatty-degenerative osteonecrosis/osteolysis of the jawbone; HU, hounsfield units; OPG, orthopantomogram; R/C, RANTES/CCL5; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; TAU, transalveolar ultrasonography; TAU-n, new transalveolar ultrasonography device.

Hereby we confirm that written informed consent has been provided by the patient to have the case details and any accompanying images published. The data were collected as part of the normal everyday medical care of the patients and evaluated retrospectively. Institutional approval was not required to publish the case details.

English language editing of this manuscript was provided by Journal Prep Services. Additional English language editing was provided by Natasha Gabriel.

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

The corresponding author, Johann Lechner, is the holder of a patent used in the TAU-n apparatus and its associated software and reports a patent CaviTAU licensed to Dr. Johann Lechner. Bernd Zimmermann is an employee of QINNO. The authors report no other potential conflicts of interest for this work.

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[Full text] Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Beyond Bisphosphonates: Are There Any Unknown | CCIDE - Dove Medical Press

Shipyard worker Brad Lawson from Walney may have saved a stranger’s life with his stem cell donation – NW Evening Mail

A SHIPYARD worker has potentially saved a stranger's life after donating his stem cells to a person in desperate need.

Brad Lawson, from Walney, first signed up to be a stem cell donor six years ago after an event at his college.

Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body.

Every 14 minutes, someone is diagnosed with blood cancer such as leukaemia.

For many, a bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant is their only chance.

They need cells from a healthy person with the same tissue type to replace and repair their own damaged cells.

About 30 per cent of people in need can find a suitable donor in their family but the other 70 per cent rely on a stranger to save their lives.

This is what prompted Mr Lawson to travel hundreds of miles to London to give his much-needed donation.

The 23-year-old said: "I first signed onto the register six years ago and hadn't thought much about it since.

"Then I was shocked to get a phone call the other week to say they'd matched a patient with my stem cells.

"It's quite rare to match with someone - it's only one in 800 people so I knew I had to help."

Mr Lawson travelled down to London where he underwent peripheral blood stem cell collection.

The process involves having a course of injections prior to collection to stimulate the bone marrow and increase the number of stem cells and white blood cells in the blood.

He said: "I had no hesitation about going down there when I got the call. When you sign up, you need to be fully committed if you do get a call.

"This could be someone's chance of survival and I would never pull out of something like that.

"The process was actually really easy. It takes about five hours and isn't painful at all.

"I absolutely hate needles and didn't find it painful at all."

Mr Lawson said it felt 'rewarding' to know his donation could have possibly saved a stranger's life.

"You could potentially give someone the chance to survive by signing up," he said.

"It's an amazing thing to do which could seriously make a difference.

"I may be in that position one day where I desperately need stem cells and would like to think someone out there would help me.

"Donations literally saves lives. It's a really rewarding thing to do to be able to help someone in this way."

Mr Lawson is urging the public to sign up to the register.

"Only about two per cent of people in the UK are actually on the register," he said.

"I'm telling everyone to sign up and raise awareness of stem cell donation.

"The more people we can get to sign up, and save lives, the better."

To register, visit: http://www.dkms.org.uk/en/register-now.

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Shipyard worker Brad Lawson from Walney may have saved a stranger's life with his stem cell donation - NW Evening Mail

Bone Marrow Processing Systems Market- Global Research Analysis, Trends, Competitive Share and Forecasts 2018 2025 – NeighborWebSJ

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy are usually performed on the back of the hipbone, or posterior iliac crest. An aspirate can also be obtained from the sternum (breastbone). For the sternal aspirate, the patient lies on their back, with a pillow under the shoulder to raise the chest. A trephine biopsy should never be performed on the sternum, due to the risk of injury to blood vessels, lungs or the heart.

The need to selectively isolate and concentrate selective cells, such as mononuclear cells, allogeneic cancer cells, T cells and others, is driving the market. Over 30,000 bone marrow transplants occur every year. The explosive growth of stem cells therapies represents the largest growth opportunity for bone marrow processing systems.

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Europe and North America spearheaded the market as of 2018, by contributing over 74.0% to the overall revenue. Majority of stem cell transplants are conducted in Europe, and it is one of the major factors contributing to the lucrative share in the cell harvesting system market.

In 2018, North America dominated the research landscape as more than 54.0% of stem cell clinical trials were conducted in this region. The region also accounts for the second largest number of stem cell transplantation, which is further driving the demand for harvesting in the region.

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Asia Pacific is anticipated to witness lucrative growth over the forecast period, owing to rising incidence of chronic diseases and increasing demand for stem cell transplantation along with stem cell-based therapy. Japan and China are the biggest markets for harvesting systems in Asia Pacific. Emerging countries such as Mexico, South Korea, and South Africa are also expected to report lucrative growth over the forecast period. Growing investment by government bodies on stem cell-based research and increase in aging population can be attributed to the increasing demand for these therapies in these countries.

Major players operating in the global bone marrow processing systems market are ThermoGenesis (Cesca Therapeutics inc.), RegenMed Systems Inc., MK Alliance Inc., Fresenius Kabi AG, Harvest Technologies (Terumo BCT), Arthrex, Inc. and others.

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Bone Marrow Processing Systems Market- Global Research Analysis, Trends, Competitive Share and Forecasts 2018 2025 - NeighborWebSJ

Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market 2018: Production, Sales, Supply, Demand, Analysis and Forecast To 2026 | BioRestorative Therapies, Inc.,…

The Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market report provides a holistic evaluation of the market for the forecast period (20192025). The report comprises various segments as well as an analysis of the trends and factors that are playing a substantial role in the market. These factors; the market dynamics involve the drivers, restraints, opportunities and challenges through which the impact of these factors in the market are outlined. The drivers and restraints are intrinsic factors whereas opportunities and challenges are extrinsic factors of the market. The Global Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market study provides an outlook on the development of the market in terms of revenue throughout the prognosis period.

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Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are stem cells derived from adipocytes, and can differentiate into variety of cell types. ADSCs have multipotency similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thus ADSCs substitute for bone marrow as a source of stem cells. Numerous manual and automatic stem cell separation procedures are adopted in order to separate adipose stem cells (ASCs) from adipose tissue. Flow cytometry can also be used to isolate ADSCs from other stem cells within a cell solution.

Major Players included in this report are as follows BioRestorative Therapies, Inc., Celltex Therapeutics Corporation, Antria, Inc., Cytori Therapeutics Inc., Intrexon Corporation, Mesoblast Ltd., iXCells Biotechnologies, Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Tissue Genesis, Inc., Cyagen US Inc., Celprogen, Inc., and Lonza Group, among others.

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Adipose Derived Stem Cell Therapy Market 2018: Production, Sales, Supply, Demand, Analysis and Forecast To 2026 | BioRestorative Therapies, Inc.,...

Bone Marrow Processing System Market: Segmental Highlights and Table of Content 2025 – NeighborWebSJ

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy are usually performed on the back of the hipbone, or posterior iliac crest. An aspirate can also be obtained from the sternum (breastbone). For the sternal aspirate, the patient lies on their back, with a pillow under the shoulder to raise the chest. A trephine biopsy should never be performed on the sternum, due to the risk of injury to blood vessels, lungs or the heart.

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The need to selectively isolate and concentrate selective cells, such as mononuclear cells, allogeneic cancer cells, T cells and others, is driving the market. Over 30,000 bone marrow transplants occur every year. The explosive growth of stem cells therapies represents the largest growth opportunity for bone marrow processing systems.Europe and North America spearheaded the market as of 2016, by contributing over 74.0% to the overall revenue. Majority of stem cell transplants are conducted in Europe, and it is one of the major factors contributing to the lucrative share in the cell harvesting system market.

In 2016, North America dominated the research landscape as more than 54.0% of stem cell clinical trials were conducted in this region. The region also accounts for the second largest number of stem cell transplantation, which is further driving the demand for harvesting in the region.Asia Pacific is anticipated to witness lucrative growth over the forecast period, owing to rising incidence of chronic diseases and increasing demand for stem cell transplantation along with stem cell-based therapy.

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Japan and China are the biggest markets for harvesting systems in Asia Pacific. Emerging countries such as Mexico, South Korea, and South Africa are also expected to report lucrative growth over the forecast period. Growing investment by government bodies on stem cell-based research and increase in aging population can be attributed to the increasing demand for these therapies in these countries.

Major players operating in the global bone marrow processing systems market are ThermoGenesis (Cesca Therapeutics inc.), RegenMed Systems Inc., MK Alliance Inc., Fresenius Kabi AG, Harvest Technologies (Terumo BCT), Arthrex, Inc. and others

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Bone Marrow Processing System Market: Segmental Highlights and Table of Content 2025 - NeighborWebSJ

Global stem cell banking market Analysis With Key Players, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2028 – The Courier

DBMR has added a new report titled Global stem cell banking market with analysis provides the insights which bring marketplace clearly into the focus and thus help organizations make better decisions. This market research report contains fundamental, secondary and advanced information related to the global status and trend, market size, sales volume, market share, growth, future trends analysis, segment and forecasts from 2020 2027. This Global stem cell banking market report helps businesses to define their own strategies for the up gradation in the existing product, possible modifications required in the future product, sales, marketing promotion and distribution of the product in the existing and the new market. In this report, a thorough investment analysis is offered which forecasts imminent opportunities for the market players and develops the strategies to grow return on investment (ROI).

Global stem cell banking market is set to witness a substantial CAGR of 11.03% in the forecast period of 2019- 2026. The report contains data of the base year 2018 and historic year 2017. The increased market growth can be identified by the increasing procedures of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), emerging technologies for stem cell processing, storage and preservation. Increasing birth rates, awareness of stem cell therapies and higher treatment done viva stem cell technology.

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Competitive Analysis:

Global stem cell banking market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of inflammatory disease drug delivery market for Global, Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa.

Key Market Competitors:

Few of the major competitors currently working in global inflammatory disease drug delivery market are: NSPERITE N.V, Caladrius, ViaCord, CBR Systems, Inc, SMART CELLS PLUS, LifeCell International, Global Cord Blood Corporation, Cryo-Cell International, Inc., StemCyte India Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd, Cordvida, ViaCord, Cryoviva India, Vita34 AG, CryoHoldco, PromoCell GmbH, Celgene Corporation, BIOTIME, Inc., BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics and others

Market Definition:Global Stem Cell Banking Market

Stem cells are cells which have self-renewing abilities and segregation into numerous cell lineages. Stem cells are found in all human beings from an early stage to the end stage. The stem cell banking process includes the storage of stem cells from different sources and they are being used for research and clinical purposes. The goal of stem cell banking is that if any persons tissue is badly damaged the stem cell therapy is the cure for that. Skin transplants, brain cell transplantations are some of the treatments which are cured by stem cell technique.

Cord Stem Cell Banking MarketDevelopment and Acquisitions in 2019

Cord Stem Cell Banking MarketScope

Cord Stem Cell Banking Marketis segmented on the basis of countries into U.S., Canada and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, U.K., Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Rest of Europe in Europe, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) in the Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) as a part of Middle East and Africa (MEA), Brazil, Argentina and Rest of South America as part of South America.

All country based analysis of the cord stem cell banking marketis further analyzed based on maximum granularity into further segmentation. On the basis of storage type, the market is segmented into private banking, public banking. On the basis of product type, the market is bifurcated into cord blood, cord blood & cord tissue. On the basis of services type, the market is segmented into collection & transportation, processing, analysis, storage. On the basis of source, market is bifurcated into umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, peripheral blood stem, menstrual blood. On the basis of indication, the market is fragmented into cerebral palsy, thalassemia, leukemia, diabetes, autism.

Cord stem cell trading is nothing but the banking of the vinculum plasma cell enclosed in the placenta and umbilical muscle of an infant. This ligament plasma comprises the stem blocks which can be employed in the forthcoming time to tackle illnesses such as autoimmune diseases, leukemia, inherited metabolic disorders, and thalassemia and many others.

Market Drivers

Market Restraint

Key Pointers Covered in the Cord Stem Cell Banking MarketIndustry Trends and Forecast to 2026

Key Developments in the Market:

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Global stem cell banking market Analysis With Key Players, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2028 - The Courier

Mum of girl, 8, with rare illness is in ‘torture’ waiting for results of vital operation – Irish Mirror

Little Evie's mum confessed it's "torture" and the "worst bit for a parent" waiting to find out results of her daughter's life-saving transplant.

Evie Hodgson, eight, was given a vital transplant from a stem cell donor after she was diagnosed with the rare blood disorder, aplastic anaemia.

The mother and daughter spoke to Holly Willoughby and Phillip Schofield on This Morning via video link from hospital in Newcastle on Tuesday.

It was at Great North Childrens Hospital where the little girl had the six-hour operation for the transplant.

Tina, 37, of Whitby, North Yorkshire, admitted it was "torturous" waiting to find out whether her daughter's body accepts the new bone marrow.

Their journey isn't over yet as the family won't find out for three to four weeks.

However, the mother expressed her relief was "phenomenal" now Evie had the life-saving transplant.

She said: "This is the worst bit for a parent. We got the donor, we had been searching for the transplant. It went ahead. The relief was phenomenal.

"We're waiting for her body to accept new stem cells. They've said three to four weeks. It's torture."

She added: "Absolutely, hopefully we will have some good news then."

Little Evie told This Morning presents that she feels "great" right now.

The brave girl gushed about the "kind" nurses and doctors who have been looking after her.

She said: "Yes, all the nurses and doctors are very kind to me. They're always getting me chocolate milk."

The mother and daughter duo will join Holly and Phil once again in three to four weeks' time once the results are in.

Evie was diagnosed with aplastic anaemia in May last year.

Aplastic anaemia is a disease where the body has a deficiency of all blood cells types.

Last year, Evie was unable to undergo vital surgery because her original donor dropped out in September.

At the time, the original donor was the only match available in the world before the new match was found.

The Mirrors Change the Law for Life crusade saw a new opt out' system introduced in England last May.

Named Max and Keiras Law in honour of our poster boy Max Johnson, 13, of Winsford, Cheshire, and his heart donor Keira Ball, nine, who died in a car accident near her home in Barnstaple, Devon, it means everyone is understood to be a donor when they die.

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Mum of girl, 8, with rare illness is in 'torture' waiting for results of vital operation - Irish Mirror

Bone Therapeutics and Rigenerand sign partnership for cell therapy process development – GlobeNewswire

Gosselies, Belgium and Modena, Italy, 14January 2021, 7am CET BONE THERAPEUTICS (Euronext Brussels and Paris: BOTHE), the cell therapy company addressing unmet medical needs in orthopedics and other diseases, and Rigenerand SRL, the biotech company that both develops and manufactures medicinal products for cell therapy applications, primarily for regenerative medicine and oncology, today announce the signing of a first agreement for a process development partnership.

Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies are currently being developed at an incredible pace and are evaluated in numerous clinical studies covering diverse therapeutic areas such as bone and cartilage conditions, liver, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases in which MSCs could have a significant positive effect. Advances in process development to scale up these therapies could have major impacts for both their approval and commercial viability. This will be essential to bring these therapies to market to benefit patients as quickly as possible, said Miguel Forte, CEO, Bone Therapeutics. Hence, whilst Bone Therapeutics is driving on its existing clinical development programs, we have signed a first formal agreement with Rigenerand as a fellow MSC-based organization. This will result in both companies sharing extensive expertise in the process development and manufacturing of MSCs and cell and gene therapy medicinal products. Bone Therapeutics also selected Rigenerand to partner with for their additional experience with wider process development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), including the conditioning and editing of MSCs. Rigenerand was founded by Massimo Dominici, a world opinion leader in the cell therapy with an unparalleled MSC expertise and knowledge.

The scope of collaborations between Bone Therapeutics and Rigenerand aims to focus on different aspects of product and process development for Bone Therapeutics expanding therapeutic portfolio. Rigenerand will contribute to improving the processes involved in the development and manufacture of Bone Therapeutics MSC based allogeneic differentiated cell therapy products as they advance towards patients. The first collaboration between the two organizations will initially focus on augmented professional bone-forming cells cells that are differentiated and programmed for a specific task. There is also potential for Bone Therapeutics to broaden its therapeutic targets and explore new mechanisms of action with potential gene modifications for its therapeutic portfolio.

In addition to Rigenerands MSC expertise, Bone Therapeutics also selected Rigenerand as a partner for Rigenerands GMP manufacturing facility. This facility, situated in Modena, Italy, has been designed to host a number of types of development processes for ATMPs. These include somatic, tissue engineered and gene therapy processes. These multiple areas of Rigenerand capabilities enable critical development of new processes and implementation of the gene modification of existing processes. In addition, Rigenerand has built considerable experience in cGMP manufacturing of MSC-based medicinal products, including those that are genetically modified.

Process development and manufacturing is a key part of the development for ATMPs internationally. Navigating these therapies through the clinical development phase and into the market requires a carefully considered process development pathway, said Massimo Dominici, scientific founder, Rigenerand, professor of medical oncology, and former President of the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy (ISCT). This pathway needs to be flexible, as both the market and materials of these therapies continues to evolve alongside an improved clinical efficacy.

Rigenerand will offer considerable input from its experience of MSC-based therapies to enable Bone Therapeutics to keep and further accelerate the pace in development of the product processes of its MSC based allogeneic differentiated cell therapy as they advance towards patients, said Giorgio Mari, CEO, Rigenerand. We will continue to use our MSC expertise in the development of Rigenerands own products, as well as in process development and manufacturing cell and gene therapies for partner organizations across the globe.

About Bone Therapeutics

Bone Therapeutics is a leading biotech company focused on the development of innovative products to address high unmet needs in orthopedics and other diseases. The Company has a, diversified portfolio of cell and biologic therapies at different stages ranging from pre-clinical programs in immunomodulation to mid-to-late stage clinical development for orthopedic conditions, targeting markets with large unmet medical needs and limited innovation.

Bone Therapeutics is developing an off-the-shelf next-generation improved viscosupplement, JTA-004, which is currently in Phase III development for the treatment of pain in knee osteoarthritis. Consisting of a unique combination of plasma proteins, hyaluronic acid - a natural component of knee synovial fluid, and a fast-acting analgesic, JTA-004 intends to provide added lubrication and protection to the cartilage of the arthritic joint and to alleviate osteoarthritic pain and inflammation. Positive Phase IIb efficacy results in patients with knee osteoarthritis showed a statistically significant improvement in pain relief compared to a leading viscosupplement.

Bone Therapeutics core technology is based on its cutting-edge allogeneic cell therapy platform with differentiated bone marrow sourced Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) which can be stored at the point of use in the hospital. Currently in pre-clinical development, BT-20, the most recent product candidate from this technology, targets inflammatory conditions, while the leading investigational medicinal product, ALLOB, represents a unique, proprietary approach to bone regeneration, which turns undifferentiated stromal cells from healthy donors into bone-forming cells. These cells are produced via the Bone Therapeutics scalable manufacturing process. Following the CTA approval by regulatory authorities in Europe, the Company has initiated patient recruitment for the Phase IIb clinical trial with ALLOB in patients with difficult tibial fractures, using its optimized production process. ALLOB continues to be evaluated for other orthopedic indications including spinal fusion, osteotomy, maxillofacial and dental.

Bone Therapeutics cell therapy products are manufactured to the highest GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) standards and are protected by a broad IP (Intellectual Property) portfolio covering ten patent families as well as knowhow. The Company is based in the BioPark in Gosselies, Belgium. Further information is available at http://www.bonetherapeutics.com.

About Rigenerand

Rigenerand SRL is a biotech company that both develops and manufactures medicinal products for cell therapy applications, primarily for regenerative medicine and oncology and 3D bioreactors as alternative to animal testing for pre-clinical investigations.

Rigenerand operates through three divisions:

Rigenerand is developing RR001, a proprietary ATMP gene therapy medicinal product for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). RR001 has been granted an Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) by US-FDA and from the European Medicine Agency. The Clinical trial is expected to start in Q2 2021.

Rigenerand is headquartered in Medolla, Modena, Italy, with more than 1,200 square metres of offices, R&D and quality control laboratories and a cell factory of 450 square metres of sterile cleanroom (EuGMP Grade-B) with BSL2/BSL3 suites for cell and gene therapies manufacturing. It combines leaders and academics from biopharma and medical device manufacturing sectors.

For further information, please contact:

Bone Therapeutics SAMiguel Forte, MD, PhD, Chief Executive OfficerJean-Luc Vandebroek, Chief Financial OfficerTel: +32 (0)71 12 10 00investorrelations@bonetherapeutics.com

For Belgian Media and Investor Enquiries:BepublicCatherine HaquenneTel: +32 (0)497 75 63 56catherine@bepublic.be

International Media Enquiries:Image Box CommunicationsNeil Hunter / Michelle BoxallTel: +44 (0)20 8943 4685neil.hunter@ibcomms.agency / michelle@ibcomms.agency

For French Media and Investor Enquiries:NewCap Investor Relations & Financial CommunicationsPierre Laurent, Louis-Victor Delouvrier and Arthur RouillTel: +33 (0)1 44 71 94 94bone@newcap.eu

Certain statements, beliefs and opinions in this press release are forward-looking, which reflect the Company or, as appropriate, the Company directors current expectations and projections about future events. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and assumptions could adversely affect the outcome and financial effects of the plans and events described herein. A multitude of factors including, but not limited to, changes in demand, competition and technology, can cause actual events, performance or results to differ significantly from any anticipated development. Forward looking statements contained in this press release regarding past trends or activities should not be taken as a representation that such trends or activities will continue in the future. As a result, the Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to release any update or revisions to any forward-looking statements in this press release as a result of any change in expectations or any change in events, conditions, assumptions or circumstances on which these forward-looking statements are based. Neither the Company nor its advisers or representatives nor any of its subsidiary undertakings or any such persons officers or employees guarantees that the assumptions underlying such forward-looking statements are free from errors nor does either accept any responsibility for the future accuracy of the forward-looking statements contained in this press release or the actual occurrence of the forecasted developments. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this press release.

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Bone Therapeutics and Rigenerand sign partnership for cell therapy process development - GlobeNewswire

Unlocking The Unlimited Potential Of Stem Cells – CodeBlue

As we enter 2021, it goes without saying that Covid-19 has changed how we live our lives. On top of pushing multiple industries to adopt digital processes like never before, the pandemic has accelerated the advancements in the field of biotechnology, with one of the most recent successes being the development of Covid-19 vaccines with a 95 per cent success rate.

Prior to that, however, the world has already seen several leaps forward in the world of biotechnology over the past decades, especially in the field of medicine. Before Covid-19, diseases like H1N1 and SARS ravaged the world. Through a significant amount of research in the field of biotechnology, we have made sure that those diseases no longer pose a great threat.

Beyond creating more robust defences against diseases, one of the most well-known biotechnological breakthroughs is the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) method. This breakthrough gave birth to Dolly the sheep in 1996, which opened a floodgate for future exploration and development in the field of biotechnology.

In recent years, some of the most exciting news in biotechnology came from stem cell research. For instance, CRISPR, a powerful gene-editing technology is now being used to treat sickle-cell anemia and can potentially cure cancer and HIV in the future.

As stem cell research continues to progress, it is important for patients to be aware of the kinds of stem cells which can be collected and stored, along with their unlimited potential for curing a variety of diseases.

Biotechnological Breakthroughs Over The Years In A Continuous Bid for Medical Advancement

In the 1980s, stem cells could only be collected right before the transplant, which posed a few problems. They included not having enough stem cells if the patient develops a complication and the risk that the quality and validity of stem cells might be compromised.

Since then, many discoveries have been made and developed in the biotechnology industry. These include isolation, cryopreservation, and long-term storage technology which paved the way for stem cell storage and cord blood banking.

Through this technology, we are able to collect and store stem cells for future use. This allows for more stem cells to be well-preserved ahead of time, giving patients the assurance and peace of mind needed.

With stem cells being increasingly used in a variety of medical cases, cord blood banking a simple and harmless procedure in which cord blood, also known as umbilical cord blood (UCB), is collected and cryopreserved for future use.

In recent years, UCB has gained more prominence among medical experts. This is because cord blood is loaded with stem cells that can be used to treat diseases such as anemia and immune system disorders.

One thing to note is that UCB can only be collected at the time of delivery. However, among patients and their loved ones, cord blood banking remains something that doesnt quite come to mind when considering health insurance plans for their children. Many parents are under the notion that because they are healthy, their babies are also healthy.

Because of this, they do not see the importance of collecting and storing UCB at birth. Aside from that, they also fail to realise that no one can truly predict when a loved one might need this particular form of treatment in the future. Hence, storing UCB is a form of biological insurance, to ensure that if something were to befall a family member one day, there are means to treat it.

With that said, there are many different types of stem cells. Each of them functions differently to carry out a specific task.

Examples Of Stem Cells In Action

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are stem cells that produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets to treat blood disorders.

One of the most effective uses of HSC is in the treatment of childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). With stem cells transplant, more than 90% of cases have been successfully treated. A typical treatment method of ALL is through chemotherapy drugs and radiation.

However, there are times when a higher dosage of drugs and radiation is required to treat certain patients and this can be severely damaging to the patients bone marrow. In these cases, HSC transplants after using higher doses of drugs to kill the cancer cells help the patients to produce normal blood-forming cells to restore the bone marrow functions.

Aside from that, HSC can potentially be very effective in treating blood disorders such as cancer, thalassemia (a blood disorder when the body doesnt make enough of a protein called hemoglobin), and aplastic anemia (a condition that leaves one fatigued and more prone to infections and uncontrolled bleeding).

Another type of stem cells is Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC). These can be obtained from Umbilical Cord Lining and Wharton Jelly. These are very versatile and important types of stem cells.

In recent times, doctors have been using MSC to treat patients with severe respiratory syndrome as a result of Covid-19 infection. The results were very promising and the patients showed improvements after their treatment. Because the immune system is now functioning better, we have seen a decrease in the inflammatory response and an improvement in theimmune response.

More than that, MSCs have shown a great deal of promise in addressing autism, a disease that did not have a viable cure previously. Currently, many clinical trials are being conducted around the world in universities with stem cell departments, like Duke Universitys Autism trial.

Aside from that, MSCs are also used in clinical trials to study potential cures for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers Disease. Another exciting area of research is using MSCs to treat heart conditions, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, and cancer.

Stem cell research has definitely come a long way, from the discovery of embryonic stem cells in mice in 1981 by Martin Evans of Cardiff University, to being able to treat an increasing number of diseases over the years.

While there is no guarantee that stem cell transplants will completely cure any particular disease, the potential of stem cells is undeniable. Doctors across the world are working relentlessly to discover more and more of the seemingly endless potential of stem cells.

Dr Menaka Hariharan is the Medical Director of StemLife.

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Unlocking The Unlimited Potential Of Stem Cells - CodeBlue

Hemostemix steps into the new year with capital and its critical clinical study data in hand – InvestorIntel

With a new management team spearheading Hemostemix Inc. (TSXV: HEM | OTC: HMTXF), the Company started 2021 with its critical clinical study data in hand. Raising over $4 million in 2020 and then in December adding an additional $4 million to the coffers ($2.75 million at a 50% premium), Hemostemix completed a 1-for-20 share consolidation as it charges into the New Year.

Receiving a copy of its entire clinical trial database relating to the clinical trial for Critical Limb Ischaemia (CLI) using its ACP-01 therapy (Angiogenic Cell Precursors) in November 2020 was a key event for Hemostemixs management team and it garnered real interest from the market.

Hemostemix Platform for Stem Cell Therapies

Based in Calgary and founded in 2006, Hemostemix is a clinical-stage biotechnology company specializing in blood-derived stem cell therapeutics with its lead product (ACP-01) in Stage 2 clinical trials for the treatment of CLI.

CLI is a disease caused by the narrowing of arteries in the limbs, particularly the legs, hands, and feet, causing chronic pain and soreness. Untreated CLI can sometimes require the amputation of the specific limb.

Stem cell treatments have been used for over 30 years to treat people with cancer conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma.

There are two main types of stem cell transplants: allogeneic and autologous. In an allogeneic stem cell transplant procedure, the patient receives stem cells from a donor. In an autologous stem cell transplant procedure, the patient provides themselves the stem cells for the procedure from various sources, including bone marrow or blood.

Hemostemixs autologous stem cell therapy platform uses the patients own blood to harvest the stem cells and the treatment helps to restore circulation in the damaged tissues.

Hemostemix has a strong intellectual property (IP) portfolio of 91 patents and has treated more than 500 patients with clinical results showing an improvement in 83% of the patients receiving its ACP-01 stem cell therapy.

Advantages with Hemostemixs process include the use of blood, which is safer and less invasive than extracting bone marrow, and since you are using the patients own blood, there is no immune rejection.

The clinical trials have shown that ACP-01 is safe and effective in the treatment of CLI. Now that Hemostemix has received the entire clinical trial database, it has entered into a contract with a new Clinical Research Organization (CRO) to complete the midpoint statistical analyses of the efficacy of ACP-01 and expects to publish the results this quarter.

Hemostemix Not a 1-Trick Pony Company

ACP-01 has the potential to treat other conditions such as Angina, Ischemic & Dilated Cardiomyopathy, and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). Currently, Hemostemix is preparing for Phase 2 trials for the treatment of Angina and is seeking joint-venture partners to fund the other Phase 2 trials.

Hemostemix has also developed NCP-01 (Neural Cellular Precursor) from blood with the potential, through building new neuronal lineage cells in a patient, to treat Alzheimers disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Parkinsons disease, spinal cord injuries, and stroke-related issues. NCP-01 is currently in the R&D phase and is pre-clinical.

Market Size

According to the American Heart Association, Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for approximately 1 of every 3 deaths in the United States in 2019.

Factors that increase the risk of CLI include diabetes, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, obesity, or smoking, all risk factors also associated with CVD.

Unfortunately, most of these factors are increasing at an alarming rate a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, showed the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes has more than doubled from 3.3% in 1995 to 7.40% in 2015, affecting 23.4 million Americans.

According to a market research report released in 2019, the value of just the global CLI treatment market is projected to reach US$5.39 billion by 2025, up from US$3.13 billion in 2018, at an annual growth rate of 8%.

Competitive Landscape and Market Cap Comparisons

Even with Hemostemixs recent market surge, its market cap is only C$32.5 million. Similar-sized biotech companies focusing on CLI trade much higher.

Cynata Therapeutics Limited (ASX: CYP) is an Australian biotechnology company with a Phase 2 clinical-stage trial for its stem cell therapy for CLI using bone marrow and has a market cap of C$93.6 million.

Pluristem Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ: PSTI) is a Phase 3 bio-therapeutics company, based in Israel, that also has an allogeneic cell therapy for the treatment of CLI using the placenta and has a market cap of C$231.9 million.

In November 2020, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE: BMY) bought MyoKardia, Inc. for US$13.1 billion. MyoKardia was a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company that developed therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and its lead product was a Phase III clinical trial drug used in the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

As a company shifts from Phase 2 to Phase 3 clinical trials, the market cap often has a step-function shift higher, making it an ideal time to look at Hemostemix.

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Hemostemix steps into the new year with capital and its critical clinical study data in hand - InvestorIntel

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