Page 11234..1020..»

Archive for the ‘Bone Marrow Stem Cells’ Category

Preconditioning of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem …

JavaScript is disabled on your browser. Please enable JavaScript to use all the features on this page.Abstract

Oxidative stress on transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) during acute inflammation is a critical issue in cell therapies. N-acetyl-L cysteine (NAC) promotes the production of a cellular antioxidant molecule, glutathione (GSH). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-treatment with NAC on the apoptosis resistance and bone regeneration capability of BMSCs. Rat femur-derived BMSCs were treated in growth medium with or without 5mM NAC for 6h, followed by exposure to 100MH2O2 for 24h to induce oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with NAC significantly increased intracellular GSH levels by up to two fold and prevented H2O2-induced intracellular redox imbalance, apoptosis and senescence. When critical-sized rat femur defects were filled with a collagen sponge containing fluorescent-labeled autologous BMSCs with or without NAC treatment, the number of apoptotic and surviving cells in the transplanted site after 3 days was significantly lower and higher in the NAC pre-treated group, respectively. By the 5th week, significantly enhanced new bone formation was observed in the NAC pre-treated group. These data suggest that pre-treatment of BMSCs with NAC before local transplantation enhances bone regeneration via reinforced resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis at the transplanted site.

Acute inflammation


Cell conditioning


Local transplantation


Recommended articlesCiting articles (0)

2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Preconditioning of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem ...

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: Aging and tissue …

JavaScript is disabled on your browser. Please enable JavaScript to use all the features on this page.Abstract

Bone has well documented natural healing capacity that normally is sufficient to repair fractures and other common injuries. However, the properties of bone change throughout life, and aging is accompanied by increased incidence of bone diseases and compromised fracture healing capacity, which necessitate effective therapies capable of enhancing bone regeneration. The therapeutic potential of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone repair has been long proposed and examined. Actions of MSCs may include direct differentiation to become bone cells, attraction and recruitment of other cells, or creation of a regenerative environment via production of trophic growth factors. With systemic aging, MSCs also undergo functional decline, which has been well investigated in a number of recent studies. In this review, we first describe the changes in MSCs during aging and discuss how these alterations can affect bone regeneration. We next review current research findings on bone tissue engineering, which is considered a promising and viable therapeutic solution for structural and functional restoration of bone. In particular, the importance of MSCs and bioscaffolds is highlighted. Finally, potential approaches for the prevention of MSC aging and the rejuvenation of aged MSC are discussed.



Stem cell niche

Bone healing


Recommended articlesCiting articles (0)

2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Read more:
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: Aging and tissue ...

Bone Marrow & Blood Stem Cell Transplant | IU Health

What are Bone Marrow and Stem Cells?

Bone marrow is a sponge-like tissue found inside bones. Within bone marrow, stem cells grow and develop into the three main types of blood cells:

Stem cells also grow many other cell types of the immune system.

At IU Health, we offer many types of bone marrow transplant, including:

For this type of transplant, we use your own stem cells. We collect the stem cells and then place them back into your body.

We use this method to treat blood-related cancers like multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, as well as certain germ-cell cancers.

CAR T-cell therapy is an emerging form of cancer immunotherapy. This therapy involves supercharging a patients T cells, a subtype of white blood cell, to recognize and attack cancer cells.

IU Health is the first healthcare system in Indiana to offer CAR T-cell therapy to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL).

For this type of transplant, the stem cells of another person are used. The donor can be a relative or a nonrelative whose blood cells are a close match.

The stem cells can come from peripheral (circulating) blood, bone marrow or umbilical cord blood (the blood in the cord connecting a fetus to a placenta).

This method is used to treat blood-related cancers like leukemias and some lymphomas or multiple myeloma. It is also used to treat bone marrow failure disorders like myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and aplastic anemia.

If you have an acute leukemia or lymphoma, IU Health Medical Center conducts haploidentical (half-matched) stem cell transplantation. This procedure also greatly expands the potential donor pool, making more patients eligible for the transplant.

Read more from the original source:
Bone Marrow & Blood Stem Cell Transplant | IU Health

Learn How to Donate Bone Marrow | Be The Match

Join Be The Match Registry

The first step to being someone's cure is to join Be The Match Registry. If you are between the ages of 18-44, committed to donating to any patient in need, and meet the health guidelines, there are two ways to join.

Join in-person at a donor registry drive in your community.Be The One to Save a Life

Find a donor registry drive

Or join online today:

Join online

If you are between the ages of 18 and 44 patients especially need you. Research shows that cells from younger donors lead to more successful transplants. Doctors request donors in the 18-44 age group 86% of the time.

At donor registry drives, we focus on adding registry members most likely to donate. If you are between the ages of 45 and 60 and want to join the registry, you're welcome to join online with a $100 tax-deductible payment to cover the cost to join.

There are many other ways you can be the cure for patients with blood cancers.

Check outFAQs about donationor call us at 1 (800) MARROW2 for more information about bone marrow donation.

Read the original:
Learn How to Donate Bone Marrow | Be The Match

Stem Cells from Fat vs. Bone Marrow Best Sources for …

Stromal vascular fraction was dramatically better than bone marrow concentrate in its ability to differentiate into cartilage.Two other important features were also well documented in this study. SVF created significantly more colony forming units than BMC, another significant predictor of healing response. Perhaps most importantly, SVF was dramatically better than BMC in its ability to differentiate into cartilage.

Second, a study by Han Chao et al has also demonstrated that fat derived stem cells also have a higher proliferation potential for neural tissue and are a better source for not only cartilage regeneration but also for nervous system regeneration.

The studies gave a very comprehensive look at comparing BMC and SVF in the ability to repair cartilage damage in a same procedure protocol. Every significant measurement comparing bone marrow to adipose tissue for stem cell harvesting demonstrated that adipose derived stem cells provided better cell content and superior ability to differentiate into cartilage than bone marrow. Our extensive clinical experience with the procedure for Colorado patients suffering from pain in the knees, other joints, soft tissue, and a wide range of back problems clearly demonstrates the same.

Using the most effective combination of autologous stem cell sources is one of several criteria to identify a legitimate stem cell clinic. Other important characteristics we recommend paying attention to when choosing a stem cell clinic, include the presence of a physician who owns and operates the clinic, X-ray guided injections administered by a trained injection specialist, and a clinic that takes time to discuss your questions. A review of your imaging and clinical data is needed in order to determine if stem cell therapy is right for you.

*Individual patient results may vary. Contact us today to find out if stem cell therapy may be able to help you.

View original post here:
Stem Cells from Fat vs. Bone Marrow Best Sources for ...

BONE MARROW – Stem Cell International

Inside of our bones is where we find this soft, sponge-like material called bone marrow. This bone marrow is filled with blood-forming stem cells that can either divide and form more blood-forming stem cells, or they can transform into three types of blood cells: white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets.

This method of stem cell therapy is most commonly used for patients suffering from some types of cancer.

How it Works

There are two types of bone marrow transplants; autologous and allogeneic. An autologous bone marrow transplant is when the stem cells are taken from your own body, while an allogeneic process will use the stem cells from a healthy donor.

The procedure starts with an anesthesia being administered to the patient before a doctor begins harvesting the bone marrow from the hip bone, or sometimes, the sternum. The bone marrow is then moved through a process that removes blood and bone from the marrow. The stem cells are then isolate and will be released into your bloodstream, like a blood transfusion.

Who Can Benefit

The conditions most commonly treated with a bone marrow transplant include:

If you are suffering from any of the above diseases, it doesnt mean you are automatically a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. You need to meet with a physician first to be sure this is the most appropriate treatment for your needs. Here at Stem Cell International, our expert physicians would love to talk with you.

What You Can Expect

If you decide this therapy may be right for you, each one of our patients will meet with a physician to discuss your medical history and desired outcomes of the entire process. This is also important for you and the physician to become more comfortable with each other and be absolutely sure this is the best route for your needs.

Did You Know

If you decide a bone marrow transplant is the best route for your needs, you can expect to see and feel improvements anywhere from 2 to 8 weeks. Although, complete recovery of immune function could take several months.

If youre interested in being treated with a bone marrow transplant at Stem Cell International, one of our stem cell experts would be happy to help you decide. Get in touch today!

Read more here:
BONE MARROW - Stem Cell International

Blood and bone marrow stem cell donation – Mayo Clinic


If you are planning to donate stem cells, you have agreed to allow doctors to draw bone marrow stem cells from either your blood or bone marrow for transplantation.

There are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic and bone marrow stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are studied in therapeutic cloning and other types of research. Bone marrow stem cells are formed and mature in the bone marrow and are then released into the bloodstream. This type of stem cell is used in the treatment of cancers.

In the past, surgery to draw bone marrow stem cells directly from the bone was the only way to collect stem cells. Today, however, it's more common to collect stem cells from the blood. This is called peripheral blood stem cell donation.

Stem cells can also be collected from umbilical cord blood at birth. However, only a small amount of blood can be retrieved from the umbilical cord, so this type of transplant is generally reserved for children and small adults.

Every year, thousands of people in the U.S. are diagnosed with life-threatening diseases, such as leukemia or lymphoma, for which a stem cell transplant is the best or the only treatment. Donated blood stem cells are needed for these transplants.

You might be considering donating blood or bone marrow because someone in your family needs a stem cell transplant and doctors think you might be a match for that person. Or perhaps you want to help someone else maybe even someone you don't know who's waiting for a stem cell transplant.

Bone marrow stem cells are collected from the posterior section of the pelvic bone under general anesthesia. The most serious risk associated with donating bone marrow involves the use and effects of anesthesia during surgery. After the surgery, you might feel tired or weak and have trouble walking for a few days. The area where the bone marrow was taken out might feel sore for a few days. You can take a pain reliever for the discomfort. You'll likely be able to get back to your normal routine within a couple of days, but it may take a couple of weeks before you feel fully recovered.

The risks of this type of stem cell donation are minimal. Before the donation, you'll get injections of a medicine that increases the number of stem cells in your blood. This medicine can cause side effects, such as bone pain, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, nausea and vomiting. These usually disappear within a couple of days after you stop the injections. You can take a pain reliever for the discomfort. If that doesn't help, your doctor can prescribe another pain medicine for you.

For the donation, you'll have a thin, plastic tube (catheter) placed in a vein in your arm. If the veins in your arms are too small or have thin walls, you may need to have a catheter put in a larger vein in your neck, chest or groin. This rarely causes side effects, but complications that can occur include air trapped between your lungs and your chest wall (pneumothorax), bleeding, and infection. During the donation, you might feel lightheaded or have chills, numbness or tingling around your mouth, and cramping in your hands. These will go away after the donation.

If you want to donate stem cells, you can talk to your doctor or contact the National Marrow Donor Program, a federally funded nonprofit organization that keeps a database of volunteers who are willing to donate.

If you decide to donate, the process and possible risks of donating will be explained to you. You will then be asked to sign a consent form. You can choose to sign or not. You won't be pressured to sign the form.

After you agree to be a donor, you'll have a test called human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. HLAs are proteins found in most cells in your body. This test helps match donors and recipients. A close match increases the chances that the transplant will be a success.

If you sign up with a donor registry, you may or may not be matched with someone who needs a blood stem cell transplant. However, if HLA typing shows that you're a match, you'll undergo additional tests to make sure you don't have any genetic or infectious diseases that can be passed to the transplant recipient. Your doctor will also ask about your health and your family history to make sure that donation will be safe for you.

A donor registry representative may ask you to make a financial contribution to cover the cost of screening and adding you to the registry, but this is usually voluntary. Because cells from younger donors have the best chance of success when transplanted, anyone between the ages of 18 and 44 can join the registry for free. People ages 45 to 60 are asked to pay a fee to join; age 60 is the upper limit for donors.

If you're identified as a match for someone who needs a transplant, the costs related to collecting stem cells for donation will be paid by that person or by his or her health insurance.

Collecting stem cells from bone marrow is a type of surgery and is done in the operating room. You'll be given an anesthetic for the procedure. Needles will be inserted through the skin and into the bone to draw the marrow out of the bone. This process usually takes one to two hours.

After the bone marrow is collected, you'll be taken to the recovery room while the anesthetic wears off. You may then be taken to a hospital room where the nursing staff can monitor you. When you're fully alert and able to eat and drink, you'll likely be released from the hospital.

If blood stem cells are going to be collected directly from your blood, you'll be given injections of a medication to stimulate the production of blood stem cells so that more of them are circulating in your bloodstream. The medication is usually started several days before you're going to donate.

During the donation, blood is usually taken out through a catheter in a vein in your arm. The blood is sent through a machine that takes out the stem cells. The rest of the blood is then returned to you through a vein in your other arm. This process is called apheresis. It takes two to six hours and is done as an outpatient procedure. You'll typically undergo two to four apheresis sessions, depending on how many blood stem cells are needed.

Recovery times vary depending on the individual and type of donation. But most blood stem cell donors are able to return to their usual activities within a few days to a week after donation.

Recovery times vary depending on the individual and type of donation. But most blood stem cell donors are able to return to their usual activities within a few days to a week after donation.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Dec. 20, 2018

See the rest here:
Blood and bone marrow stem cell donation - Mayo Clinic

Bone Marrow Stem Cells | NSI Stem Cell

Stem cell therapies have come a long way since the 1970s and 1980s. Today the ethical issues of harvesting stem cells have long been resolved through the discovery of several sources of potent stem cell types. Common sources include in the umbilical cord and placenta (post birth), bone marrow, and the fatty layer that lies just beneath everyones skin (adipose fat tissue). Of these resources, by far the most commonly accessed in the United States are adipose fat and bone marrow stem cells.The National Stem Cell Institute (NSI), a leading stem cell clinic in the U.S., has seen the development of these living resources usher in an exciting new age known as regenerative medicine. Because of their potency and new technologies that allow ease of access, stem cells are changing the very face of medicine. In particular, the harvesting of bone marrow stem cells has developed into a procedure that is minimally invasive, far more comfortable than bone marrow harvesting of the past, and able to be complete in just a few hours.Some Basics About Bone Marrow Stem CellsBone marrow is the living tissue found in the center of our bones. Marrow is a soft, sponge-like tissue. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow and yellow marrow. In adults, red marrow is found mainly in the central skeleton, such as the pelvis, sternum, cranium, ribs, vertebrae, and scapulae. But it is also found in the ends of long bones such as in the arms and legs.When it comes to bone marrow stem cells, red marrow is what its all about. Red marrow holds an abundance of them. Stem cells are a kind of protocell that has not yet been assigned an exact physical or neurological function. You can think of them as microscopic packets of potential that stay on high alert for signals telling them where they are needed and what type of cell they need to become.Bone marrow stem cells are multipotent, which means they have the ability to become virtually any type of tissue cell, including:

Original post:
Bone Marrow Stem Cells | NSI Stem Cell

Whole Bone Marrow –

Bone Marrow (BM) contains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which have the potential to self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate into multi-lineage blood cells. Multipotent, non-hematopoietic stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, can be isolated from human BM as well. These non-hematopoietic, mesenchymal stem cells are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation into bone, cartilage, muscle, tendons, and fat. BM is drawn into a 60cc syringe containing heparin (80 U/mL of BM) from the posterior iliac crest, 25 mL/site, from a maximum of four sites.CustomizationLet us know how we can customize your product today Custom InquiryDonor CriteriaAge18-65 years oldWeight>= 130 lbsScreened before donationHIV (HIV 1 & 2 Ab)HBV (Surface Antigen HbsAg)HCV (HCVAb)Donation FrequencyMinimum 10 weeks between donationsDonors with any of the following will be excluded from donatingPregnancyHistory of heart, lung, liver, or kidney diseaseHistory of asthmaBlood and bleeding disorders including sickle cell diseaseNeurologic disordersAutoimmune disordersCancerDiabetesOther CriteriaMust be in general good healthMust have accessible hipsComplete Blood Count lab test must meet protocol specsRequired to sign procedure-specific consent form

Originally posted here:
Whole Bone Marrow -

Bone Marrow – Boston Stem Cell Center

The problem with the embryonic stem cells are the many complications associated with them. Besides the ethical considerations, from a practical point of view, we are still a long way from being able to utilize these cells in a safe and consistent manner.

When using embryonic stem cells, you are inheriting any potential diseases that the baby may have. For instance, the baby may have a gene that increases susceptibility to cancer. In fact, the embryonic cells themselves may act as a tumor since there is no natural check on these cells. Furthermore, these cells are foreign materials to the body, and the body will react and attack these cells in an immune response. This can sometimes cause a serious medical condition called graft versus host disease. In that case, the patient may have to be placed on immunosuppressant drugslike an organ transplant patient. With our present technology, embryonic stem cells are not the answer. For those reasons, the FDA has put significant restrictions on the use of this type of cell in humans.

Bone Marrow - Boston Stem Cell Center

Bone Marrow Transplantation: Autologous and Allogeneic …

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the new name for bone marrow transplantation.

The bone marrow is home to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), also called pluripotent stem cells because they can give rise to any cell your body requires at any given moment. These specialized cells play an essential role in replenishing our blood supply on a daily basis to maintain blood counts in a healthy host. These cells can be collected either by performing repeated bone marrow aspirations or by mobilizing HSCs into the circulation using special medications called cytokines (like GCSF, also called neupogen), and filtering them out of your blood using a highly specialized process called apheresis. After they are collected from your body, these stem cells can be preserved by storing them in a chemical called DMSO, and placing them in a freezer. Stem cell transplantation refers to a process whereby the patients HSCs are replaced by new cells (either from yourself [autologous] or someone else [allogeneic] that grow into a healthy hematopoietic system.

There are many types of HSCTs depending on the source of stem cells as described below:

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation:

Autologous stem cell transplants are predicated on a simple concept: if a little chemotherapy has the potential to cure, than a lot could be even better. For lymphoma that has come back after conventional chemotherapy, this disease is not usually sensitive to lower doses of chemotherapy, so there is a need to consider higher doses. The challenge of course, is that higher doses of chemotherapy, while effective at treating the lymphoma, can also destroy all your bodys normal blood cells. Hence, after receiving high dose chemotherapy, there is a need to re-infuse your own normal stem cells, collected before you get the high dose therapy.

The use of your own stem cells, collected and frozen prior to the high dose therapy, is referred to as an autologous stem cell transplant. The most common indications for this kind of stem cell transplant are recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Typically, the patient undergoes chemotherapy to put their cancer into remission. At some point during their treatment they are assessed for HSCT that includes evaluation of the marrow to ensure healthy stem cells as well as adequate heart, lung and liver function. If they qualify then the stem cells are collected usually by apheresis.

In this process, stem cells that have been stimulated to divide and mobilized by medications (ex: GCSF or Neupogen) are filtered out of the circulation through an IV and stored for future use. Once the stem cells are collected, the patient undergoes further conditioning chemotherapy to destroy all cancer cells in their body. This kind of treatment can be toxic to stem cells and may result in long term inability to produce blood. The previously collected stem cells are infused back into the patient and after 7 to 10 days the blood counts recover and the patient can go home. Since these are the patients own cells there is no danger of graft rejection or graft versus host disease. The immune system may take up to a year to fully recover.

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation:

Unlike autologous stem cell transplants, allogeneic stem cell transplants are predicated on the idea that if your immune system could not detect and destroy your lymphoma before it became obvious, then maybe an immune system from someone else (a sibling or an unrelated but matched person), can identify your lymphoma as foreign, and mount an immune response against it. The problem of course is that while the donor immune system, now transplanted and growing in a new host (that is the patient), can recognize the lymphoma as foreign (graft versus lymphoma effect, or GVL), it can also recognize the normal organs of the host as foreign, and mount a graft versus host (GVHD) response against your skin, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Drugs to suppress the immune system, called immunosuppressants, are often used to help control GVHD, but can obviously compromise some of the GVL effect as well. It is a double edge sword you want GVL without the GVHD, but unfortunately the two go and-in-hand. Indications for allogeneic stem cell transplant typically include acute myeloid leukemia, aggressive lymphomas, and stem cell disorders. A donor for a patient is defined by HLA typing of blood and tissues.

HLA stands for Human Leukocyte Antigen, and describes a series of proteins that exist on the surface of all cells in your body, and which is defined genetically. The degree of relatedness between individuals can be described by the similarities or differences in these genes that code for the HLA proteins, and are used to determine who might be a suitable donor for any given patient. The more closely related the individuals (say identical twins), the lower the risk of GVHD, but the lower the risk of GVL. The greater the difference in the HLA, the greater the risk of GVHD, but consequently, the greater the GVL benefit. Of course, if the toxicity of the GVHD is so great, producing increased mortality, then the GVL benefit becomes inconsequential. Thus, allogeneic transplanters walk a very fine line in assessing each patients individual risk and benefit with this type of transplant.

An HLA matched donor is needed for the host to allow the donor blood cells to engraft in the marrow, otherwise they will be rejected by the bodys immune system. The best donor, usually meaning the least degree of graft versus host disease (GVHD), is usually a sibling. Each person has about a 25% chance of having an HLA matched sibling donor. HLA matching is different from blood typing and can be done by a simple blood test or obtaining a swab from the inside of a persons mouth. Should no siblings be identified as a match, than a search is initiated to find an unrelated HLA match through the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). Once a match is identified, the patient is admitted to the hospital to receive conditioning chemotherapy and / or radiation therapy. At the end of this treatment, stem cells from the donor are infused into the patient and allowed to engraft. Even with an HLA matched donor there is a considerable risk of GVHD where the new grafted donor cells will attack the patients organs.

After the transplant, the patient is given immunosuppressive medications to prevent this condition, and is required to be on these for a considerable period of time.

Cord blood transplants:

Umbilical cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells and can be used as a source of stem cells in cases where an unrelated donor cannot be found. This has saved the lives of many patients. HSCT is a complicated process that requires a commitment from the patient and their families for the best outcome .You will be referred to a specialized center for HSCT where you will receive further details and education about the process.

Read more here:
Bone Marrow Transplantation: Autologous and Allogeneic ...

Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplant HSCT : National …

In January 2019, an international team of researchers led by Richard K. Burt, MD (Northwestern University, Chicago, IL) published results of the first randomized, control trial of bone marrow stem cell transplant (HSCT) in people with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS. They enrolled 110 people whose MS was not controlled by available disease-modifying therapies. Half received immunosuppressant therapy followed by hematopoietic (blood cell-producing) stem transplant. The other half were switched to a different disease-modifying therapy. Significantly fewer people experienced MS progression in the group that underwent HSCT, compared with the group who were switched to a different MS disease-modifying therapy. There were no deaths or life-threatening adverse events in either group. The investigators consider this study to be preliminary and recommend that further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine longer-term outcomes and safety. Read the summary or read the abstract in JAMA.

In December 2018, Drs. John Moore, David Ma (St. Vincents Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) and colleagues reported results of a small clinical trial of HSCT conducted at a single medical center in Australia. This trial enrolled 35 people with relapsing-remitting MS or secondary progressive MS whose disease had not responded well to disease-modifying medications. There was no control group or blinding; all participants underwent the HSCT procedure. The team reported on results after following participants from 12 to 66 months after transplantation. After 12 months, 82% remained free of relapses, MRI-detected new or enlarging lesions, and progression (called Event-Free Survival or EFS). At two years after transplant, 65% of the group had EFS, and at three years 60%. EFS was better in those who had relapsing MS. Of 8 who experienced MS progression after transplantation, 2 had relapsing-remitting MS and 6 had secondary progressive MS. Twelve of thirteen whose disability scores improved after transplantation had relapsing-remitting MS.At this center, which has a long experience with bone marrow transplants, there were no transplant-related deaths. Many experienced complications expected from the chemotherapy cocktail (called BEAMS) used to deplete their bone marrow cells in preparation for the transplant. Read a summary or read the abstract in the JNNP.

In April 2017, researchers in Italy combined and analyzed results from 15 previously published studies of HSCT (Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation) involving 764 people with various forms of MS. They found that overall, the procedure showed a significant benefit against disease activity and progression. Two years after transplantation, about 83% of all participants had not progressed; overall, studies involving more people with relapsing-remitting MS had lower progression rates. The pooled results showed an overall transplant-related mortality rate of 2.1%.There were fewer deaths in later studies as researchers gained more experience with the procedure. Read a summary of more details here or the abstract in Neurology

In February 2017, results of an international study were published. The study evaluated long-term outcomes from HSCT in 261 people with different forms of MS. The transplants took place between 1995 and 2006, with a follow-up period of up to 16 years. Several different transplant protocols were followed. After 5 years, 46% still had not experienced any progression or worsening of symptoms, including 73% of those with relapsing MS and 33% of those with secondary progressive MS. Eight deaths (2.8%) occurred within 100 days of the transplant. Most of these occurred during the early development of the procedure; improvements in patient selection and transplant techniques have significantly reduced the mortality. Those with the best outcomes tended to be younger, had relapsing MS, lower accumulation of disability and had used fewer MS therapies prior to the transplant procedure. Additional research is needed to better understand who might benefit from this procedure and how it compares to the benefits of powerful immune-modulating therapies now available. A phase 3 trial of HSCT is now in planning stages. The Society is engaged with the team planning the trial and is encouraging quick action to design and launch the trial.Read a summary of the results or the paper in JAMA Neurology

In February 2017, results were published from a multi-center, 5-year trial called theHALT MS Study. It tested HSCT in 24 people with MS and active relapsing-remitting disease that was not controlled by disease-modifying medications. Results suggest that after five years, 69.2% of participants experienced no new disease activity after the procedure and did not need disease-modifying therapies to control their disease. All participants experienced severe and/or life threatening adverse events. Most of these occurred within the first 30 days after transplant and were related to low white blood cell counts and infections. This trial, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, is an important addition to research needed to determine whether this approach to stem cell transplantation is safe and effective in people with MS. A larger, phase 3 trial is in planning stages.Read a summary of the results or the paper in Neurology

In June 2016 researchers in Canada published results of a long-term HSCT trial involving 24 people with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS whose disease was not controlled with available therapies. Three years after the procedure, 70% remained free of disease activity, with no relapses, no new MRI-detected inflammatory brain lesions, and no signs of progression. None of the surviving participants experienced clinical relapses or required MS disease-modifying therapies to control their disease, and 40% experienced reductions in disability. One participant died and another required intensive hospital care for liver complications. All participants developed fevers, which were frequently associated with infections, and other toxicities.Read more about this study

In October 2015, researchers at the University of Genoa and other institutions in Italy reported on a small trial of HSCT in seven people with very active relapsing-remitting MS that was not controlled with MS disease-modifying therapy. They underwent a low-intensity lympho-ablative regimen in which the immune system was suppressed but not completely depleted before the stem cell transplant as an approach to reducing toxicity. The investigators did MRI scans (for 3 years) and clinical evaluations (for 5 years). They found dramatic reductions of MRI-detected inflammation after the procedure, but did not achieve complete absence of inflammation. After 5 years, two participants remained stable, one significantly improved, and four had mild disease progression. One experienced a relapse after treatment. No severe side effects occurred. The authors conclude that the low-intensity regimen they used was not sufficient to treat aggressive MS.Read an abstract from the paper(Multiple Sclerosis 2015 Oct;21(11):1423-30) In January 2015, doctors at Northwestern University published their10-year experience of treating people with HSCT. The report included 123 people with relapsing-remitting MS and 28 with secondary-progressive MS. Their method is nonmyeloblative HSCT, in which the immune system is suppressed but not completely depleted before the stem cell transplant. Individuals were followed from 6 months to 5 years, or an average of 2.5 years. The EDSS disability scores improved, compared to pretreatment, by one point or more in 64% of those followed out to year 4. Relapses and MRI-detected disease activity were also reduced. In evaluating which type of individuals benefited from the therapy, the doctors suggested that people with relapsing-remitting MS who had had MS for ten years or less showed improvements in their disability scores, whereas those with secondary-progressive MS or disease duration greater than ten years did not show improvements on their disability scores. They reported no treatment-related deaths or serious infections. ITP (immune-mediated thrombocytopenia), a potentially serious bleeding disorder, developed in 7 people, and thyroid disorders developed in 7 people.Read a summary of their resultsor thepaper in JAMA (Published onlineJanuary 20, 2015).

Ongoing Research in HSCTAdditional research is focusing on figuring out who might benefit from this procedure and how to reduce its risks. HSCTis being investigated in Canada, the United States, Europe and elsewhere. For example:

Dr. Richard Burt of Northwestern University in Chicago has recently begun a new phase 3 clinical trial at Northwestern to try to determine the optimal protocol for safety and benefit. Read more about this trial on A clinical trial is getting underway at medical centers in Denmark, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. The trial is testing treatment with HSCT compared with alemtuzumab in people with active relapsing-remitting MS. Read more about this trial on

Read the original post:
Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplant HSCT : National ...

Bone Marrow Stem Cells Stall Out in Chronic Lymphocytic …

Snow and ice cause cars to stall out on the road to their destination. In patients with CLL, its their stem cells that stall out and researchers want to know why.

For patients who have chronic lymphocytic leukemia, fighting off a serious infection can be difficult and often is just not possible. And a team of Mayo researchers is starting to find out why in a paper published recently in the journal Leukemia.

What is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

This disease is cancer of an immune cell called a B lymphocyte. These cells form in bone marrow and migrate out to patrol in the blood stream and lymphoid organs. But in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the immune system is depleted, a state called immunodeficiency. Because of that, people with this type of leukemia are prone to serious infections and the diseases those may cause. They are also prone to developing other types of cancer.

And its those resulting problems that may ultimately contribute to death explains Kay Medina, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic immunologist. Dr. Medina specializes in how immune cells develop from bone marrow stem cells.

In our bone marrow, stem cells convert to red blood cells, platelets or a variety of immune cells. Those are then sent into the blood stream where they do their job. Red blood cells replace cells that are worn out.

White blood cells patrol the byways of our circulation, chasing down everything from cellular debris to bacteria to virus particles.But not in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Joining the Team

Research on chronic lymphocytic leukemia is going on in several labs at Mayo Clinic. Dr. Medina got involved after speaking with colleagues Wei Ding, M.B.B.S, Ph.D., and Neil Kay, M.D., both chronic lymphocytic leukemia physician researchers.

Mayo has a strong tradition of encouraging physician/basic research collaborations to advance knowledge of disease mechanisms, development, and assessment of new treatment approaches, says Dr. Medina.

The basic research helps us understand the cause of the disease, in this case the leukemia cell, but it also helps to understand what the disease does to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, blood and bone marrow, she says.

Bone marrow is the organ that replenishes all cells in the immune system but has not been evaluated for functional proficiency in CLL patients, explains Dr. Medina.

Checking out the Cells and their Environment

Kay Medina, Ph.D.

Dr. Medinas team, with funding from Mayo Clinics Center for Biomedical Discovery, decided to look at bone marrow stem cells and their ability to generate all blood cell types. Some of the immune deficiency may be the result of treatment, but untreated patients have the same problem. The chronic nature of the disease itself may also dampen immune activity. But Dr. Medina explains that the leukemia cells may promote an environment that suppresses immune function.

Our research seeks to add to the discussion by identifying additional ways patients with CLL are unable to fight off tumors and other diseases, says Dr. Medina.

In a paper published late last year, Dr. Medina and her team, including first author Bryce Manso who is a student in the Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, examined bone marrow and blood samples from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and healthy controls to determine the frequency of bone marrow stem cells in each sample and how well they did their job.

Bryce Manso, presenting a poster to a conference attendee.

The authors reported that, in general, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have fewer stem cells in their bone marrow, and those stem cells that remain work less well than stem cells from controls.

Stalled-Out Bone Marrow Stem Cells

As to why this happens, the authors found that it was linked to loosening controls for the on/off switches which regulate this process, proteins called transcription factors. These proteins regulate key functions in the cell, and are out of whack in samples from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. They may prevent bone marrow stem cells from pursuing a pathway for development; stalling-out their ability to differentiate, resulting in decreased production of important blood cells that provide the first line of defense against infectious agents.

But, Dr. Medina cautions, there is more to this story.

This is an emerging area of research in that its both a unique explanation for the clinical problem of immune deficiency and it has been minimally studied, says Dr. Medina. Future studies are planned to look at specific transcription factors that control stem cell differentiation as well as how the presence of leukemic cells in the bone marrow alter blood cell development. They will then relate this information to clinically relevant complications reported in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, she says.

Basic Research to Improve Patient Care

Dr. Medina, her team, and their clinical colleagues hope that by understanding how bone marrow function is impaired in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, they can develop unique strategies to boost bone marrow function or find alternate treatments that do not block or modify marrow function.

Through this work we hope to find ways to reduce infections and the incidence of second cancers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Our research has the potential to improve quality of life as well as extend the lives of these patients says Dr. Medina.


Related Resources:

Tags: basic science, blood cancer, cancer, Center for Biomedical Discovery, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Findings, immunology, Kay Medina, leukemia, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Neil Kay, News, Progress Updates, Wei Ding

More here:
Bone Marrow Stem Cells Stall Out in Chronic Lymphocytic ...

What is a stem cell or bone marrow transplant? | non …

You might have a stem cell or bone marrow transplant as part of your treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Find out how a transplant works and why you might have it.

A transplant allows you to have high doses of chemotherapy and other treatments. The stem cellsare collected from the bloodstream or the bone marrow.

Stem cells are very earlycells made inthe bone marrow. Bone marrow is a spongy material that fills the bones.

These stem cells develop into red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen around the body. White blood cells are part of your immune system and help to fight infection. Platelets help to clot the blood to prevent bleeding.

These stem cells develop into red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

You have a stem cell transplant after very high doses of chemotherapy. You might have targeted drugs with the chemotherapy. You may also have radiotherapy to your whole body. This is called total body irradiation or TBI.

The radiotherapy and chemotherapy has a good chance of killing the lymphomacells. But it also kills the stem cells in your bone marrow.Soyour team either collects:

After the treatment you have the stem cells into your bloodstreamthrough a drip. The cells find their way back to your bone marrow where theystart making blood cells again and your bone marrow slowly recovers.

The main difference between a stem cell and bone marrow transplant is whether stem cells are collected from the bloodstream or bone marrow.

A stem cell transplant uses stem cells from your bloodstream, or a donors bloodstream. This is also called a peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

A bone marrow transplant uses stem cells from your bone marrow, or a donors bone marrow.

Stem cell transplants are the most common type of transplant. Bone marrow transplants are not used as much. This is because:

You might have a bone marrow transplant if collecting stem cells has been difficult in your situation.

The aim of NHL treatment is usually to put it into remission. Remission means there is no sign of lymphoma.

Your doctor might suggest a transplant if your NHL:

High dose chemotherapy and a transplant aims to cure some types of NHL. Or it might control the lymphoma for longer if a cure is not possible.

Depending on your situation, you might have a transplant using:

See the article here:
What is a stem cell or bone marrow transplant? | non ...

Steps of PBSC or bone marrow donation – Be The Match

Step 1: Get ready to donate

Once you join the Be The Match Registry, you will be included in patient searches every day. If you match a patient, you will be contacted to confirm that you are willing to donate. If you agree to move forward, you will be asked to update your health information and participate in additional testing to see if you are the best match for the patient. If you are the best match, you will:

There are two methods of donation: PBSC and bone marrow. The patients doctor will choose which one is best for the patient.

The time it takes for a donor to recover varies. It depends on the person and type of donation. Most donors are able to return to work, school and other activities within 1 to 7 days after donation. Be The Match considers donor safety a top priority and will follow up with you regularly until you are able to resume normal activity.

Continued here:
Steps of PBSC or bone marrow donation - Be The Match

An injectable bone marrowlike scaffold enhances T cell …

Goronzy, J. J. & Weyand, C. M. Successful and maladaptive T cell aging. Immunity 46, 364378 (2017).

Liston, A., Enders, A. & Siggs, O. M. Unravelling the association of partial T-cell immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 545558 (2008).

Blazar, B. R., Murphy, W. J. & Abedi, M. Advances in graft-versus-host disease biology and therapy. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 12, 443458 (2012).

Krenger, W., Blazar, B. R. & Hollnder, G. A. Thymic T-cell development in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood 117, 67686776 (2011).

Zlotoff, D. A. et al. Delivery of progenitors to the thymus limits T-lineage reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. Blood 118, 19621970 (2011).

Chaudhry, M. S., Velardi, E., Dudakov, J. A. & Brink, M. R. Thymus: the next (re) generation. Immunol. Rev. 271, 5671 (2016).

Mohtashami, M., Shukla, S., Zandstra, P. & Ziga-Pflcker, J. C. in Synthetic Immunology 95120 (Watanabe, T. & Takahama, Y., eds, Springer, Tokyo, 2016).

Perales, M.-A. et al. Recombinant human interleukin-7 (CYT107) promotes T-cell recovery after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood 120, 48824891 (2012).

Skrombolas, D. & Frelinger, J. G. Challenges and developing solutions for increasing the benefits of IL-2 treatment in tumor therapy. Exp. Rev. Clin. Immunol. 10, 207217 (2014).

Dudakov, J. A. et al. Interleukin-22 drives endogenous thymic regeneration in mice. Science 336, 9195 (2012).

Cobbold, M. et al. Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific CTL to stem cell transplant patients after selection by HLApeptide tetramers. J. Exp. Med. 202, 379386 (2005).

Rooney, C. M. et al. Infusion of cytotoxic T cells for the prevention and treatment of EpsteinBarr virusinduced lymphoma in allogeneic transplant recipients. Blood 92, 15491555 (1998).

Zakrzewski, J. L. et al. Tumor immunotherapy across MHC barriers using allogeneic T-cell precursors. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 453 (2008).

Van Coppernolle, S. et al. Functionally mature CD4 and CD8 TCR cells are generated in OP9-DL1 cultures from human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. J. Immunol. 183, 48594870 (2009).

Awong, G. et al. Human proT-cells generated in vitro facilitate hematopoietic stem cellderived T-lymphopoiesis in vivo and restore thymic architecture. Blood 122, 42104219 (2013).

Love, P. E. & Bhandoola, A. Signal integration and crosstalk during thymocyte migration and emigration. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11, 469 (2011).

Radtke, F., MacDonald, H. R. & Tacchini-Cottier, F. Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by Notch. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 13, 427 (2013).

Serwold, T., Ehrlich, L. I. R. & Weissman, I. L. Reductive isolation from bone marrow and blood implicates common lymphoid progenitors as the major source of thymopoiesis. Blood 113, 807815 (2009).

Vionnie, W. et al. Specific bone cells produce DLL4 to generate thymus-seeding progenitors from bone marrow. J. Exp. Med. 212, 759774 (2015).

Smith, K. Y. et al. Thymic size and lymphocyte restoration in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection after 48 weeks of zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 181, 141147 (2000).

Wozney, J. M. et al. Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities. Science 242, 15281534 (1988).

Koshy, S. T., Zhang, D. K., Grolman, J. M., Stafford, A. G. & Mooney, D. J. Injectable nanocomposite cryogels for versatile protein drug delivery. Acta Biomater. 65, 3643 (2018).

Brainard, D. M. et al. Induction of robust cellular and humoral virus-specific adaptive immune responses in human immunodeficiency virusinfected humanized BLT mice. J. Virol. 83, 73057321 (2009).

Douek, D. C. et al. Assessment of thymic output in adults after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and prediction of T-cell reconstitution. Lancet 355, 18751881 (2000).

Smadja, D. M. et al. Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 are selectively expressed by late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells and promote neoangiogenesis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 28, 21372143 (2008).

Lafage-Proust, M.-H. et al. Assessment of bone vascularization and its role in bone remodeling. Bonekey Rep. 4, 662 (2015).

Kuznetsov, S. A. et al. The interplay of osteogenesis and hematopoiesis: expression of a constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor in osteogenic cells perturbs the establishment of hematopoiesis in bone and of skeletal stem cells in the bone marrow. J. Cell Biol. 167, 11131122 (2004).

Song, J. et al. An in vivo model to study and manipulate the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Blood 115, 25922600 (2010).

Wils, E.-J. et al. Flt3 ligand expands lymphoid progenitors prior to recovery of thymopoiesis and accelerates T cell reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. J. Immunol. 178, 35513557 (2007).

Maillard, I. et al. Notch-dependent T-lineage commitment occurs at extrathymic sites following bone marrow transplantation. Blood 107, 35113519 (2006).

Garber, K. Driving T-cell immunotherapy to solid tumors. Nat. Biotechnol. 36, 215219 (2018).

Jangalwe, S., Shultz, L. D., Mathew, A. & Brehm, M. A. Improved B cell development in humanized NOD-scid IL2R null mice transgenically expressing human stem cell factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3. Immun. Inflamm. Dis. 4, 427440 (2016).

Ripamonti, U. Bone induction by recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1, BMP-7) in the primate Papio ursinus with expression of mRNA of gene products of the TGF- superfamily. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 9, 911928 (2005).

Heliotis, M., Lavery, K., Ripamonti, U., Tsiridis, E. & Di Silvio, L. Transformation of a prefabricated hydroxyapatite/osteogenic protein-1 implant into a vascularised pedicled bone flap in the human chest. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 35, 265269 (2006).

Warnke, P. et al. Growth and transplantation of a custom vascularised bone graft in a man. Lancet 364, 766770 (2004). Dendritic cell activating scaffold in melanoma.

Carragee, E. J., Hurwitz, E. L. & Weiner, B. K. A critical review of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 trials in spinal surgery: emerging safety concerns and lessons learned. Spine J. 11, 471491 (2011).

Biffi, R. et al. Use of totally implantable central venous access ports for high-dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: results of a monocentre series of 376 patients. Ann. Oncol. 15, 296300 (2004).

Li, M. O. & Rudensky, A. Y. T cell receptor signalling in the control of regulatory T cell differentiation and function. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 16, 220 (2016).

Hoffmann, P., Ermann, J., Edinger, M., Fathman, C. G. & Strober, S. Donor-type CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells suppress lethal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J.Exp. Med. 196, 389399 (2002).

Wan, Y. Y. & Flavell, R. A. YinYang functions of transforming growth factor- and T regulatory cells in immune regulation. Immunol. Rev. 220, 199213 (2007).

Bencherif, S. A. et al. Injectable cryogel-based whole-cell cancer vaccines. Nat. Commun. 6, 7556 (2015).

Palchaudhuri, R. et al. Non-genotoxic conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a hematopoietic-cell-specific internalizing immunotoxin. Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 738 (2016).

Bencherif, S. A. et al. Injectable preformed scaffolds with shape-memory properties. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 1959019595 (2012).

Macdonald, M. L. et al. Tissue integration of growth factoreluting layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayer coated implants. Biomaterials 32, 14461453 (2011).

Sprinzak, D. et al. Cis-interactions between Notch and Delta generate mutually exclusive signalling states. Nature 465, 86 (2010).

Nandagopal, N. et al. Dynamic ligand discrimination in the Notch signaling pathway. Cell 172, 869880 (2018).

Zakrzewski, J. L. et al. Adoptive transfer of T-cell precursors enhances T-cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nat. Med. 12, 1039 (2006).

See the rest here:
An injectable bone marrowlike scaffold enhances T cell ...

Bone Marrow for Spine and Orthopaedic Stem Cell Treatment …

Stem cells are the next frontier in the treatment of orthopaedic and spinal disorders, and the Cary Orthopaedics team is leading the way.

Using stem cells harvested from an adult patients own bone marrow,Dr. Sameer Mathurand Dr. Nael Shanti both board-certified orthopaedic spinal surgeons have developed a minimally invasive remedy for those suffering from degenerative disc disease, back pain and spinal arthritis. Applying a similar approach, Cary OrthosDr. Douglas Martini a fellowship-trained, board-certified orthopaedic surgeon specializing in sports medicine has crafted a pain-relief solution for patients living with osteoarthritis and soft tissue injuries.

Multiple research studies have shown a significant reduction in low back and joint pain and improved function after stem cell injections. While these treatments are new, 80% to 90% of patients are already reporting improvement in their symptoms after orthopaedic stem cell treatments.

Many patients suffering from degenerative disc diseases or low back pain are often not ideal candidates for surgery, and some who have chosen to undergo surgery have had unsatisfactory results. Therefore, the typical remedy for chronic orthopaedic conditions is extensive physical therapy combined with oral anti-inflammatory medications. The result: The majority of patients still had to live with pain.

Physicians at Cary Orthopaedics are utilizing orthopaedic stem cell treatment using the patients own bone marrow, the soft, spongy tissue found in the center of bones. Bone marrow in adults contains a rich reservoir of multipotent stem cells also known as Mesenchymal Precursor Cells (MPCs) that can be extracted from the patients pelvis or hip bone. Due to their unique, regenerative composition, these cells can become various types of tissues including soft tissue, bone or cartilage, which make them an excellent resource for repairing and rebuilding damaged tissue, accelerating the healing process and improving overall function.

Thanks to advancements in technology, the removal and harvesting process has become easier and less expensive. Since this is a minimally invasive procedure, it has fewer side effects compared to traditional surgery, and it causes minimal discomfort to the patient.

Bone marrow injections are a breakthrough for patients in pain. Dr. Martini, a sports medicine physician at Cary Orthopaedics, has been active in the sports medicine community, previously serving as team physician for the Carolina Hurricanes, numerous colleges, and local high schools. After 25 years of experience in sports medicine, he realizes the need for improved treatment options for the greying athlete. He has begun incorporating bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BAC) into the treatment of both acute and chronic soft tissue and joint-related injuries. I believe this will be equally helpful to the patient who needs to exercise for overall health benefits as it would be for those who need to stay at their peak athletic performance, says Dr. Martini.

We have found based on our research and experience that stem cell therapy can be very safe and effective when used with the appropriate patient population, said Kevin G. Morrison, PA-C, a member of Dr. Martinis team. All the feedback to this point has been quite positive, both on the process of having the procedure done as well as the early response. But ultimately long-term data will need to be compiled and critically examined.

Much of the previous research into stem cells has centered around placental stem cells, which can also adapt into other types of tissues. However, these have not performed well when put to the test for orthopaedic treatment. Bone marrow aspirate concentrate provides MPCs that can transform into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes, all of which are important in treating orthopedic conditions.

The latest research around mesenchymal stem cells, specifically bone marrow aspiration, is certainly promising. Dr. Martini will continue to collect more data and review patients responses.

Dr. Mathur has been an instrumental force in elevating the level of patient care at Cary Orthopaedic Spine Center since joining the practice in 2008. Dr. Mathur completed his medical school at the University of Pennsylvania and spinal reconstructive fellowship at the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. He also taught at Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. Over the last 10 years, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, he has conducted significant study of disc degeneration and analysis of the expression of genes that may damage the disc.

In the past decade, there have been several advancements in spinal surgery, but regenerative medicine is the next frontier, said Dr. Mathur. I see so many patients that have low back pain and leg pain from degenerative disc disease. For many, there is no good surgical treatment, and stem cell injections may be a viable option.

As an orthopaedic spine specialist, Dr. Mathur is not only an expert in spinal surgery but also in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of spinal problems. His depth of experience allows him to best determine whether a patient would benefit from physical therapy, stem cell injections or surgical intervention. When providing stem cell treatment, Dr. Mathur performs a single injection for all patients, whereas other clinics typically require multiple injections over several weeks.

There is currently extensive, ongoing research on the application of stem cell therapy and tissue regeneration, including an application for spinal cord injury and disc pathology, which is very exciting, said Dr. Shanti, who has dedicated a great deal of time researching the potential impact stem cell therapy can provide for his patients. Dr. Shanti believes stem cell therapy is the next great advancement in healthcare with an application for a wide spectrum of medical conditions.

Recently recognized as Top Orthopaedic Doctor by The Leading Physicians of the World for the outstanding patient care, Dr. Shantis in-depth experience and understanding of the spine allows him to guide his patients especially those with chronic back pain to the most appropriate path of treatment with the shared collaborative goal of pain relief. Dr. Shanti completed his spine surgery fellowship training at the prestigious New England Baptist Hospital, Tufts University program with an emphasis on minimally invasive spine surgery, and he has authored and presented multiple papers and textbooks on the advancement of minimally invasive spine surgery.

Orthopaedic stem cell treatment is an excellent solution for patients with degenerative disc disease and also those suffering from arthritis of the spine, bulging disc, low back pain, facet joint pain or disc with annular tears.

The stem cell injection is a same-day procedure that generally takes one hour to perform. The actual extraction of bone marrow takes up to 10 minutes. The bone marrow extraction site typically the back of the patients hip or pelvis bone is numbed using a mixture of local anesthetics. A suctioned syringe is attached to a long needle that reaches the posterior aspect of the hip. The patient may experience a minimal amount of discomfort during the extraction.

The sample is collected, transferred through a filter, and then placed into a centrifuge for spinning. The speed separates the stem cells and platelets from the bone marrow. This concentration of stem cells is then reintroduced into the degenerative or painful area under image guidance with fluoroscopy to confirm accurate placement.

The harvesting site will be numb for 1 to 2 hours after the procedure, so the patient will need to have transportation home. It is permissible to fly after the treatment, but this may cause increased pain or discomfort.

Stem cell therapy relies on the bodys own regenerative process to heal, which takes time. Patients have seen the benefits in two to three months after treatment; however, many have noticed improvements in symptoms sooner.

The recommended age range for the treatment is 20 to 70 years old. As the body ages, the quality and quantity of stem cells slowly decline. After age 70, patients may experience a sharper decline in stem cells, resulting in less beneficial outcomes.

If you think you might be a candidate for orthopaedic stem cell therapy treatment, contact Cary Orthopaedics to schedule a consultation.

See the rest here:
Bone Marrow for Spine and Orthopaedic Stem Cell Treatment ...

Become a Donor | The Bone Marrow Foundation

Jack, diagnosed with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), and his donor Kristy

To become a donor it just takes a small vial of blood or swab of cheek cells to be typed as a bone marrow/stem cell donor. There are many patients who are desperately waiting to find a donor match. You may be able to save someones life. There are donor registry sites throughout the country.

You must be between the ages of 18 and 60 and in general good health. You should be committed to helping any patient. A simple blood test or cheek cell swab that is given through an authorized National Marrow Donor Program Donor Center or Recruitment Group is needed to obtain your HLA tissue type so it can be entered into the National Registry. You will have to complete a short health questionnaire and sign a form stating that you understand what it means to be listed in the Registry.

The cost for HLA tissue typing ranges from $45 to $96 depending on the Donor Center, the level of testing performed, and the laboratory that analyzes the test results. There may be funding available to offset this cost through the Donor Center. After the initial testing, all medical expenses are covered by the recipient or the recipients insurance. Please contact your local Donor Center for further information.

To find out more information and to become a donor:

Delete Blood Cancer |

The National Marrow Donor Program/Be The

The American Bone Marrow Donor

The Gift of

The Icla da Silva Foundation, Inc.Helping Children and Adults with Leukemia(866)

Every 15 minutes, someone in the United States is diagnosed with a medical condition (over 35,000 people a year) such as leukemia, anemias, myelodysplastic disorders and other life-threatening diseases that require treatment with bone marrow/stem cell transplants. Nearly 70 percent of these patients must rely on an unrelated donor to offer them this precious gift of life. Unfortunately, many patients who are in need of a bone marrow/stem cell transplant cannot find a suitable donor no relatives that match and no match among volunteer donors.

Fortunately, there is an alternative that has been researched and is now proving to be a good option for many of these patientsstem cells from a newborns placental and umbilical cord blood. A newborns umbilical cord and placenta contains stem cells that are the building blocks for mature blood and immune system cells. Umbilical cord blood is collected at the time of birth under controlled conditions, shipped to a blood bank where it is tested, typed and stored.

Two studies published in The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 351:2276-285 and an editorial by Miguel A. Sanz, M.D., Ph.D. in the same issue, concluded that cord blood should be considered as an acceptable source of stem cells in the absence of a matched bone marrow donor. For many gravely ill patients (who do not have an available donor who is a match), the immediate availability of typed cord blood units is a compelling reason for its use. And for ethnic minorities, who may have unique combinations of HLA types, the chances of finding a donor match with cord blood is greater than from the existing bone marrow donor pool.

If you have a family history of certain diseases you might choose to save your babys cord blood with a private bank. Alternatively, you can donate the cord blood to a public bank. The Bone Marrow Foundation encourages you to direct any questions you have concerning the use and storage of cord blood to your physician or other appropriate health care professional. The following are further resources for more information on public and private banking:

Public Banking National Marrow Donor

National Cord Blood ProgramNew York Blood Center310 East 67th StreetNew York, NY 100211-866- 767-NCBP (6227)

Parents Guide to Cord Blood

Read this article:
Become a Donor | The Bone Marrow Foundation

Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Transplant | Weill Cornell Medicine

Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Transplant

The Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Program at Weill Cornell Medicine was established with the mission of providing the best care and most innovative research in a compassionate and comfortable environment.

We take a multidisciplinary approach to care for patients with cancer and blood diseases who need stem cell transplants, providing world-class clinical care in collaboration with experts in leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma and other blood disorders. Based at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, one of the top ten general hospitals in the nation, the expertise of our consulting team is unsurpassed.

Our patients and families cope with life-threatening illness; as such, sensitivity and compassion are a priority for our team. We view each patient as an individual, and our approach ensures that each treatment regimen is narrowly tailored to meet the unique, changing needs of our patients and their families before, during and after transplant.

As New Yorks premier healthcare institution, Weill Cornell Medicine is at the forefront of scientific research and clinical trials, enabling us to provide a full range of diagnostic and treatment protocols, including the latest breakthroughs in medicine.

Our Team

Our team of internationally-recognized bone marrow transplant and stem cell surgery specialists is known for advanced work and published research in:

Treating patients with aggressive leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes

Bridge protocols for patients with refractory lymphoma and leukemia

Novel strategies to mobilize stem cells and improve transplantation for patients with multiple myeloma, leukemia and lymphoma

Transplants for solid tumors, severe auto-immune disorders, and AIDS


We pride ourselves on exceptional outcomes and offer patients the most advanced diagnostic methods and treatment therapies to improve quality of life, including:

Umbilical cord blood transplant

Outpatient transplant

Autologous stem cell transplant; uses stem cells extracted from the bone marrow or peripheral blood of the patients own blood

Allogeneic stem cell transplant; uses stem cells extracted from the bone marrow or peripheral blood of a matching donor

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; used to treat certain cancers of the blood/bone marrow, including leukemia and myeloma

Matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantation through the National Donor Matching Program

Non-ablative "mini" transplants

Haplo-Cord Transplant, allowing us to find donors for all patients, regardless of age or ethnic background

Bendamustine, a therapy that is well-tolerated and has excellent response rates in patients with myeloma

Novel forms of transplant, offering hope and success to older patients with leukemia

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are important to improve outcomes and offer new treatment options. At Weill Cornell Medicine, we conduct more studies in blood cancers than any of our regional peers, allowing us to provide our patients with access to many multi-phase clinical trials. As active members of the international cancer research community, our oncologists also collaborate with other research centers to offer patients the most promising treatments available.

Second Opinions

In concert with your referring physician, we are always available to offer a second opinion in the form of a consultation with one of our specialists.

Why Choose Us?

Our collaborative approach means our patients receive supportive, comprehensive care and the most cutting-edge stem cell therapy and treatments. This enables patients to receive the best possible transplant outcomes. Additionally, we offer more allogeneic stem cell transplants for older adults than any other center in New York City and the entire tri-state area.

For more information or to schedule an appointment, call us at 212-746-2119 or 212-746-2646.

Located in New York City, Weill Cornell Medical College is ranked among the nations best by U.S. News & World Report year after year.

See original here:
Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Transplant | Weill Cornell Medicine

What is BMC, Bone Marrow Stem Cell Therapy?

Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC) Therapy, also known as Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) Therapy, is a promising cutting-edge regenerative therapy to help accelerate healing in moderate to severe osteoarthritis and tendon injuries. While similar to Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in its ability to harness the bodys ability to heal itself through the aid of growth factors, BMC also utilizes regenerative cells that are contained within a patients own bone marrow. The marrow contains a rich reservoir of pluripotent stem cells that can be withdrawn from the patients hip bone and used for the procedure. Unlike other cells of the body, stem cells are undifferentiated, meaning they are able to replicate themselves into various types of tissue.

In the past, the process of removing and harvesting these cells was often difficult and expensive. With recent medical advancements in both the aspiration of the bone marrow and harvesting of the regenerative cells, the procedure can be done with minimal discomfort and patients are sent home the same day. The process is relatively simple. The patient is first numbed using a mixture of local anesthetics. Under the guidance of an X-Ray machine, the physician then removes a small amount of the patients bone marrow from the hip bone which is then placed into a centrifuge to separate the regenerative cells and platelets from the rest of the blood products. The final product is a concentrate which has approximately 5-10 times the baseline levels of regenerative cells and growth factors. This point of care treatment allows for minimal manipulation of cells which are then injected to the injured area. The entire process takes approximately 2 hours and patients go home the same day.

Read more:
What is BMC, Bone Marrow Stem Cell Therapy?

How Bone Marrow and Stem Cells are Collected | BMT Infonet

Language English

If you are providing the blood stem cells for a transplant, they will either be collected from your bloodstream (peripheral blood) or from your bone marrow.

The largest concentration of blood stem cells is in your bone marrow. However, the blood stem cells can be moved or "mobilized" out of the bone marrow into the bloodstream (peripheral blood) where they can be easily collected. Most transplants these days use stem cells collected from the bloodstream.

When blood stem cells are collected from the bloodstream, the procedure is called a peripheral blood stem cell collection or harvest.

Prior to the harvest, you will receive injections of a drug such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or plerixifor (Mozobil) over a four to five day period. These drugs move stem cells out of the bone marrow into the bloodstream.

Most people tolerate these drugs well, although mild, flu-like symptoms are common. The symptoms end a few days after the injections stop.

If you are collecting stem cells for your own transplant, chemotherapy drugs may be used to help move the stem cells out of your bone marrow into the bloodstream.

Peripheral blood stem cell collections are done in an outpatient clinic.

The procedure is painless. However, you may feel lightheaded, cold or numb around the lips. Some people feel cramping in their hands which is caused by the blood thinning agent used during the procedure. These symptoms cease when the procedure ends.

The procedure used to collect bone marrow for transplant is called a bone marrow harvest. It is a surgical procedure that takes place in a hospital operating room. Typically it is done as an outpatient procedure.

The amount of bone marrow harvested depends on the size of the patient and the concentration of blood stem cells in your marrow.

Typically one to two quarts of marrow and blood are harvested. While this may sound like a lot, your body can usually replace it in four weeks.

When the anesthesia wears off, you may feel some discomfort in your hip and lower back for several days. The pain is similar to what you would feel if you took a hard fall and bruised your hip. You may find sitting for a long period of time or climbing stairs uncomfortable for a few days. The pain is usually relieved with acetaminophen (Tylenol).

How Bone Marrow and Stem Cells are Collected | BMT Infonet

What is a Bone Marrow Transplant (Stem Cell Transplant …

A bone marrow transplant, also called a stem cell transplant, is a treatment for some types of cancer. For example, you might have one if you have leukemia, multiple myeloma, or some types of lymphoma. Doctors also treat some blood diseases with stem cell transplants.

In the past, a stem cell transplant was more commonly called a bone marrow transplant because the stem cells were collected from the bone marrow. Today, stem cells are usually collected from the blood, instead of the bone marrow. For this reason, they are now often called stem cell transplants.

A part of your bones called bone marrow makes blood cells. Marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside bones. It contains cells called hematopoietic stem cells (pronounced he-mah-tuh-poy-ET-ick). These cells can turn into several other types of cells. They can turn into more bone marrow cells. Or they can turn into any type of blood cell.

Certain cancers and other diseases keep hematopoietic stem cells from developing normally. If they are not normal, neither are the blood cells that they make. A stem cell transplant gives you new stem cells. The new stem cells can make new, healthy blood cells.

The main types of stem cell transplants and other options are discussed below.

Autologous transplant. This is also called an AUTO transplant or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.

In an AUTO transplant, you get your own stem cells after doctors treat the cancer. First, your health care team collects stem cells from your blood and freezes them. Next, you have powerful chemotherapy, and rarely, radiation therapy. Then, your health care team thaws your frozen stem cells. They put them back in your blood through a tube placed in a vein (IV).

It takes about 24 hours for your stem cells to reach the bone marrow. Then they start to grow, multiply, and help the marrow make healthy blood cells again.

Allogeneic transplantation. This is also called an ALLO transplant.In an ALLO transplant, you get another persons stem cells. It is important to find someone whose bone marrow matches yours. This is because you have certain proteins on your white blood cells called human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The best donor has HLA proteins as much like yours as possible.

Matching proteins make a serious condition called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) less likely. In GVHD, healthy cells from the transplant attack your cells. A brother or sister may be the best match. But another family member or volunteer may also work.

Once you find a donor, you receive chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Next, you get the other persons stem cells through a tube placed in a vein (IV). The cells in an ALLO transplant are not typically frozen. This way, your doctor can give you the cells as soon as possible after chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

There are 2 types of ALLO transplants. The best type for each person depends on his or her age, health, and the type of disease being treated.

Ablative, which uses high-dose chemotherapy

Reduced intensity, which uses milder doses of chemotherapy

If your health care team cannot find a matched adult donor, there are other options. Research is ongoing to determine which type of transplant will work best for different people.

Umbilical cord blood transplant. This may be an option if you cannot find a donor match. Cancer centers around the world use cord blood.

Parent-child transplant and haplotype mismatched transplant. These types of transplants are being used more often. The match is 50%, instead of near 100%. Your donor might be a parent, child, brother, or sister.

Your doctor will recommend an AUTO or ALLO transplant based mostly on the disease you have. Other factors include the health of your bone marrow and your age and general health. For example, if you have cancer or other disease in your bone marrow, you will probably have an ALLO transplant. In this situation, doctors do not recommend using your own stem cells.

Choosing a transplant is complicated. You will need help from a doctor who specializes in transplants. You might need to travel to a center that does many stem cell transplants. Your donor might also need to go. At the center, you will talk with a transplant specialist and have an examination and medical tests.

Before a transplant, you should also think about non-medical factors. These include:

Who can care for you during treatment

How long you will be away from work and family responsibilities

If your insurance pays for the transplant

Who can take you to transplant appointments

Your health care team can help you find answers to these questions.

The information below tells you the main parts of AUTO and ALLO transplants. Your health care team usually does the steps in order. But sometimes certain steps happen in advance, such as collecting stem cells. Ask your health care team what to expect before, during, and after a transplant.

Part 1: Collecting your stem cells

During this part, you get injections of a medication to raise your number of stem cells.Your doctor may collect stem cells through your veins using standard IVs or a catheter, which is placed in a large vein in the chest. This stays in place throughout your stay at the hospital. The catheter is used to give chemotherapy, other medications, and blood transfusions.

Time: Several days

Where it is done: Clinic or hospital building. You do not need to stay in the hospital overnight.

Part 2: Transplant treatment

You get high doses of chemotherapy, and rarely, radiation therapy.

Time: 5 to 10 days

Where it is done: A clinic or hospital. At many transplant centers, people need to stay in the hospital for the duration of the transplant, usually about 3 weeks. At some centers, a person receives treatment in the clinic and can come in every day.

Part 3: Getting your stem cells back

This part is called the stem cell infusion. Your health care team puts your stem cells back in your blood through the transplant catheter.

Time: Each infusion usually takes less than 30 minutes. You may receive more than 1 infusion.

Where it is done: A clinic or hospital.

Part 4: Recovery

You take antibiotics and other drugs. You get blood transfusions through your transplant catheter, if needed. This is also when your health care team helps with any transplant side effects.

Time: Approximately 2 weeks

Where it is done: A clinic or hospital. You might be staying in the hospital.

Part 1: Collecting stem cells from your donor

During this part, the health care team gives your donor injections of a medication to increase white cells in the blood, if the cells are collected from blood. Some donors will donate bone marrow in the operating room during a procedure which takes several hours.

Time: Varies based on how the stem cells are collected

Where it is done: A clinic or hospital

Part 2: Transplant treatment

You get chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy.

Time: 5 to 7 days

Where it is done: Many ALLO transplants are done in the hospital.

Part 3: Getting the donor cells

This part is called the stem cell infusion. Your health care team puts the donors stem cells in your blood through the transplant catheter. It takes less than 1 hour. The transplant catheter stays in until after treatment.

Time: 1 day

Where it is done: A clinic or hospital

Part 4: Recovery

During the recovery, you receive antibiotics and other drugs. This includes medications to prevent graft-versus-host disease. If needed, you get blood transfusions through your catheter. This is also when your health care team takes care of any side effects from the transplant.

After the transplant, people visit the clinic frequently at first and less often over time.

Time: It varies.For an ablative transplant, people are usually in the hospital for about 4 weeks in total.For a reduced intensity transplant, people are in the hospital or visit the clinic daily for about a week.

The words successful transplant might mean different things to you, your family, and your health care team. Below are 2 ways to measure transplant success: Your blood counts are back to safe levels. A blood count is the number of red cells, white cells, and platelets in your blood. A transplant makes these numbers very low for 1 to 2 weeks. This causes risks of:

Infection from low numbers of white cells, which fight infections

Bleeding from low numbers of platelets, which stop bleeding

Tiredness from low numbers of red cells, which carry oxygen

Doctors lower these risks by giving blood and platelet transfusions after a transplant. You also take antibiotics to help prevent infections. When the new stem cells multiply, they make more blood cells. Then your blood counts improve. This is one way to know if a transplant is a success.

It controls your cancer. Doctors do stem cell transplants with the goal of curing disease. A cure may be possible for some cancers, such as some types of leukemia and lymphoma. For other people, remission is the best result. Remission is having no signs or symptoms of cancer. After a transplant, you need to see your doctor and have tests to watch for any signs of cancer or complications from the transplant.

Talking often with your health care team is important. It gives you information to make decisions about your treatment and care. The following questions may help you learn more about stem cell transplant:

Which type of stem cell transplant would you recommend? Why?

If I will have an ALLO transplant, how will we find a donor? What is the chance of a good match?

What type of treatment will I have before the transplant? Will radiation therapy be used?

How long will my treatment take? How long will I stay in the hospital?

How will a transplant affect my life? Can I work? Can I exercise and do regular activities?

How will we know if the transplant works?

What if the transplant does not work? What if the cancer comes back?

What are the short-term side effects that may happen during treatment or shortly after?

What are the long-term side effects that may happen years later?

What tests will I need later? How often will I need them?

If I am worried about managing the costs of treatment, who can help me with these concerns?

Side Effects of a Bone Marrow Transplant (Stem Cell Transplant)

Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

Donating Bone Marrow is Easy and Important: Here's Why

How Umbilical Cord BloodCan Save Someone's Life

Bone Marrow Transplants and Older Adults: 3 Important Questions

Be the Match: About Transplant

Be the Match: National Marrow Donor Program

Blood & Marrow Transplant Information Network (BMT InfoNet) National Bone Marrow Transplant Link (nbmtLINK)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Learn About Transplant as a Treatment Option

Go here to read the rest:
What is a Bone Marrow Transplant (Stem Cell Transplant ...

Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Transplant | IU Health

To prepare your body for bone marrow or stem cell transplant, youll be treated with high doses of chemotherapy with or without radiation to destroy cancerous cells. Some healthy cells may also be destroyed, which can cause unpleasant side effects. These side effects typically go away after a few weeks.

Once this preparation is complete, new stem cells will be transplanted through your veins and the cells will make their way to your bone marrow. These stem cells will mature into healthy marrow, to produces healthy blood and immune cells.

Stem cells transplants can come from your own bone marrow (autologous) or a donors marrow (allogeneic). Whether autologous or allogeneic stem cells are used depends on your condition, and the procedures have some differences.

Uses your own stem cells. Before chemotherapy, your stem cells are collected by apheresis, frozen with a preservative and stored until they are needed. Because the cells are yours, theres no risk of your body rejecting the transplanted stem cells. This method is appropriate for blood-related cancers like multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, as well as certain germ-cell cancers.

Use healthy cells from a donor, when an immunological effect is needed to fight your cancer. Your donor will usually be a sibling or a strong match from the national registry. If a matched sibling or unrelated donor cannot be found, cord blood stem cells or a mismatched relative donor may be used.

The donors stem cells are collected by apheresis or from the bone marrow in a surgical procedure. Youll need to take medicines to suppress your immune system to prevent rejection and keep the donors immune cells from attacking your normal cells. Donor-cell transplant is used to treat blood-related cancers like leukemias and some lymphomas or multiple myeloma, and bone marrow failure disorders like myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia.

Follow this link:
Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Transplant | IU Health

All Things Stem Cell Visual Stem Cell Glossary

Stem cells: Cells that are able to (1) self-renew (can create more stem cells indefinitely) and (2) differentiate into (become) specialized, mature cell types.

Embryonic stem cells: Stem cells that are harvested from a blastocyst. These cells are pluripotent, meaning they can differentiate into cells from all three germ layers.

Embryonic stem cells are isolated from cells in a blastocyst, a very early stage embryo. Once isolated from the blastocyst, these cells form colonies in culture (closely packed groups of cells) and can become cells of the three germ layers, which later make up the adult body.

Adult stem cells (or Somatic Stem Cell): Stem cells that are harvested from tissues in an adult body. These cells are usually multipotent, meaning they can differentiate into cells from some, but not all, of the three germ layers. They are thought to act to repair and regenerate the tissue in which they are found in, but usually they can differentiate into cells of completely different tissue types.

Adult stem cells can be found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the body; shown here are only a few examples.

The Three Germ Layers: These are three different tissue types that exist during development in the embryo and that, together, will later make up the body. These layers include the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm.

The three germ layers form during the gastrula stage of development. The layers are determined by their physical position in the gastrula. This stage follows the zygote and blastocyst stages; the gastrula forms when the embryo is approximately 14-16 days old in humans.

Endoderm: One of the three germ layers. Specifically, this is the inner layer of cells in the embryo and it will develop into lungs, digestive organs, the liver, the pancreas, and other organs.

Mesoderm: One of the three germ layers. Specifically, this is the middle layer of cells in the embryo and it will develop into muscle, bone, blood, kidneys, connective tissue, and related structures.

Ectoderm: One of the three germ layers. Specifically, this is the outer layer of cells in the embryo and it will develop into skin, the nervous system, sensory organs, tooth enamel, eye lens, and other structures.

Differentiation, Differentiated: The process by which a stem cell turns into a different, mature cell. When a stem cell has become the mature cell type, it is called differentiated and has lost the ability to turn into multiple different cell types; it is also no longer undifferentiated.

Directed differentiation: To tightly control a stem cell to become a specific mature cell type. This can be done by regulating the conditions the cell is exposed to (i.e. specific media supplemented with different factors can be used).

The differentiation of stem cells can be controlled by exposing the cells to specific conditions. This regulation can cause the cells to become a specific, desired mature cell type, such as neurons in this example.

Undifferentiated: A stem cell that has not become a specific mature cell type. The stem cell holds the potential to differentiate, to become different cell types.

Potential, potency: The number of different kinds of mature cells a given stem cell can become, or differentiate into.

Totipotent: The ability to turn into all the mature cell types of the body as well as embryonic components that are required for development but do not become tissues of the adult body (i.e. the placenta).

A totipotent cell has the ability to become all the cells in the adult body; such cells could theoretically create a complete embryo, such as is shown here in the early stages.

Pluripotent: The ability to turn into all the mature cell types of the body. This is shown by differentiating these stem cells into cell types of the three different germ layers.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from an early stage embryo, called the blastocyst. These isolated cells can turn into cells representative of the three germ layers, all the mature cell types of the body.

Multipotent: The ability to turn into more than one mature cell type of the body, usually a restricted and related group of different cell types.

Mesenchymal stem cells are an example of multipotent stem cells; these stem cells can become a wide variety, but related group, of mature cell types (bone, cartilage, connective tissue, adipose tissue, and others).

Unipotent: The ability to give rise to a single mature cell type of the body.

Tissue Type: A group of cells that are similar in morphology and function, and function together as a unit.

Mesenchyme Tissue: Connective tissue from all three germ layers in the embryo. This tissue can become cells that make up connective tissue, cartilage, adipose tissue, the lymphatic system, and bone in the adult body.

Mesenchyme tissue can come from all three of the germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) in the developing embryo, shown here at the gastrula stage. The mesenchyme can become bone, cartilage, connective tissue, adipose tissue, and other components of the adult body.

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Stem cells that can create all the blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). These stem cells reside within bone marrow in adults and different organs in the fetus.

Hematopoietic stem cells can become, or differentiate into, all the different blood cell types. This process is referred to as hematopoiesis.

Bone marrow: Tissue within the hollow inside of bones that contains hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

Development: The process by which a fertilized egg (from the union of a sperm and egg) becomes an adult organism.

Zygote: The single cell that results from a sperm and egg uniting during fertilization. The zygote undergoes several rounds of cell division before it becomes an embryo (after about four days in humans).

When an egg is fertilized by a sperm, the resultant single cell is referred to as a zygote.

Blastocyst: A very early embryo (containing approximately 150 cells) that has not yet implanted into the uterus. The blastocyst is a fluid-filled sphere that contains a group of cells inside it (called the inner cell mass) and is surrounded by an outer layer of cells (the trophoblast, which forms the placenta).

The blastocyst contains three primary components: the inner cell mass, which can become the adult organism, the trophoblast, which becomes the placenta, and the blastocoele, which is a fluid-filled space. The blastocyst develops into the gastrula, a later stage embryo.

Inner Cell Mass: A small group of cells that are attached inside the blastocyst. Human embryonic stem cells are created from these cells in blastocysts that are four or five days post-fertilization. The cells from the inner cell mass have the potential to develop into an embryo, then later the fetus, and eventually the entire body of the adult organism.

Cells taken from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst (a very early stage embryo) can become embryonic stem cells.

Embryo: The developing organism from the end of the zygote stage (after about four days in humans) until it becomes a fetus (until 7 to 8 weeks after conception in humans).

Models: A biological system that is easy to study and similar enough to another, more complex system of interest so that knowledge of the model system can be used to better understand the more complex system. Such systems can include cells and whole organisms.

Model organism: An organism that is easy to study and manipulate and is similar enough to another organism of interest so that by understanding the model organism, a greater understanding of the other organism may be gained. For example, rats and mice can be used as model organisms to better understand humans.

Shown are several different model organisms frequently used in laboratory studies.

Severe Combined Immune-Deficient (SCID) mouse: A mouse lacking a functional immune system, specifically lacking or abnormal T and B lymphocytes. This is due to inbreeding or genetic engineering. They are extensively used for tissue transplants, because they lack an immune system to reject foreign substances, and for studying an immunocompromised system.

Cellular models: A cell system that can be used to understand normal, or diseased, functions that the cell has within the body. By taking cells from the body and studying them outside of the body, in culture, different conditions can be manipulated and the results studied, whereas this can be much more difficult, or impossible, to do within the body.

Stem cells obtained from different tissues of the body can be used as models to study normal, or diseased, cells in these tissues.

Cell Types:

Somatic Cell: Any cell in the body, developing or adult, other than the germline cells (the gametes, or sperm and eggs).

Gametes: The cells in the body that carry the genetic information that will be passed to the offspring. In other words, these are the germline cells: an egg (for females) or sperm (for males) cell.

Other terms:

Regenerative Medicine: A field of research that investigates how to repair or replace damaged tissues, usually by using stem cells. In this manner, stem cells may be differentiated into, or made to become, the type of cell that is damaged and then used in transplants. Also see clinical trials.

Clinical trials: A controlled test of a new drug or treatment on human subjects, normally performed after successful trials with model organisms. lists many stem cell clinical trials.

Stem cells have great potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases and medical conditions.

Cell Surface Marker proteins, or simply Cell Markers: A protein on the surface of a cell that identifies the cell as a certain cell type.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT): A technique that uses an egg and a somatic cell (a non-germline cell). The nucleus, which contains the genetic material, is removed from the egg and the nucleus from the somatic cell is removed and combined with the egg. The resultant cell contains the genetic material of the nucleus donor, and is turned into a totipotent state by the egg. This cell has the potential to develop into an organism, a clone of the nucleus donor.

Dolly the sheep was cloned through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). An adult cell from the mammary gland of a Finn-Dorset ewe acted as the nuclear donor; it was fused with an enucleated egg from a Scottish Blackface ewe, which acted as the cytoplasmic (or egg) donor. An electrical pulse acted to fuse the cells and activate the oocyte after injection into the surrogate mother ewe. A successfully implanted oocyte developed into the lamb Dolly, a clone of the nuclear donor, the Finn-Dorset ewe.

Clone: A genetic, identical copy of an individual organism through asexual methods. A clone can be created through somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Other stem cell glossaries:

Image creditsImages of Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm, Bone Marrow, Neurons, Cartilage, Hand Skeleton, Connective and Adipose Tissue, Gastrula, Clinical Trials, Mouse, Rat, Drosophila, C. Elegans, Arabidopsis, Sea Urchin, Xenopus, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer to Create Dolly and other images were taken from the Wikimedia Commons and redistributed and altered freely as they are all in the public domain. The image of Hematopoiesis was also taken from the Wikimedia Commons and redistributed according to the GNU Free Documentation License.

2009. Teisha Rowland. All rights reserved.

Read more from the original source:
All Things Stem Cell Visual Stem Cell Glossary

Bone marrow suppression – Wikipedia

Bone marrow suppressionSynonymMyelotoxicity, myelosuppression

Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).[1] Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine.[2] The risk is especially high in cytotoxic chemotherapy for leukemia.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in some rare instances, may also cause bone marrow suppression. The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur right at the start of chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the bloodstream (these are not dividing rapidly). Instead, the drugs affect new blood cells that are being made by the bone marrow.[3] When myelosuppression is severe, it is called myeloablation.[4]

Many other drugs including common antibiotics may cause bone marrow suppression. Unlike chemotherapy the affects may not be due to direct destruction of stem cells but the results may be equally serious. The treatment may mirror that of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression or may be to change to an alternate drug or to temporarily suspend treatment.

Because the bone marrow is the manufacturing center of blood cells, the suppression of bone marrow activity causes a deficiency of blood cells. This condition can rapidly lead to life-threatening infection, as the body cannot produce leukocytes in response to invading bacteria and viruses, as well as leading to anaemia due to a lack of red blood cells and spontaneous severe bleeding due to deficiency of platelets.

Parvovirus B19 inhibits erythropoiesis by lytically infecting RBC precursors in the bone marrow and is associated with a number of different diseases ranging from benign to severe. In immunocompromised patients, B19 infection may persist for months, leading to chronic anemia with B19 viremia due to chronic marrow suppression.[5]

Bone marrow suppression due to azathioprine can be treated by changing to another medication such as mycophenolate mofetil (for organ transplants) or other disease-modifying drugs in rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease.

Bone marrow suppression due to anti-cancer chemotherapy is much harder to treat and often involves hospital admission, strict infection control, and aggressive use of intravenous antibiotics at the first sign of infection.[citation needed]

G-CSF is used clinically (see Neutropenia) but tests in mice suggest it may lead to bone loss.[6][7]

GM-CSF has been compared to G-CSF as a treatment of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression/Neutropenia.[8]

In developing new chemotherapeutics, the efficacy of the drug against the disease is often balanced against the likely level of myelotoxicity the drug will cause. In-vitro colony forming cell (CFC) assays using normal human bone marrow grown in appropriate semi-solid media such as ColonyGEL have been shown to be useful in predicting the level of clinical myelotoxicity a certain compound might cause if administered to humans.[9] These predictive in-vitro assays reveal effects the administered compounds have on the bone marrow progenitor cells that produce the various mature cells in the blood and can be used to test the effects of single drugs or the effects of drugs administered in combination with others.

See more here:
Bone marrow suppression - Wikipedia