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Archive for the ‘Bone Marrow Stem Cells’ Category

Nurse asking people to sign up as bone-marrow donors – Kewanee Star Courier

Wyoming resident and pediatric nurse Elizabeth Groter has partnered with DKMS (Dynamic Kernel Module Support), the nonprofit leading the fight against blood cancer, to host a bone marrow registration drive in Toulon Friday. The event will be held from 3 to 7 p.m. at the Stark County High School cafeteria, and will help register potential lifesaving donors. Anyone in good general health who is between 18 and 55 can register. The process involves filling out a simple form, understanding the donation methods and swabbing the inside of each cheek for 30 seconds. There is no charge to register. Donations help DKMS cover the $65 registration processing fee but are not required. Groter is a pediatric nurse at Childrens Hospital of Illinois, and a DKMS representative. She was inspired to host a drive with DKMS after experiencing first-hand how simple it is to be added to the KDMS bone marrow registry. With her job experience, Groter has met countless children battling leukemia and other blood cancers who are in need of bone marrow transplants, and wanted to make a difference by helping to grow the registry to find lifesaving matches for patients. Groters uncle is a leukemia survivor and another source of her inspiration. Becoming a part of the bone marrow registry to be a possible match for someone with blood cancer is so incredibly easy, and Im going to make it even easier for you. By doing something as simple as this, you could possibly change someones life in an instant, said Groter. According to DKMS, 70 percent of people suffering from blood-related illnesses must rely on donors outside their families to save their life. Swabbing your cheek is all it takes to register as a potential donor. Anyone who wishes to register as a potential donor but is unable to attend Fridays drive can register online at DKMS is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to eradicating blood cancers like leukemia and other blood-related illnesses. The organization inspires men and woman around to the world to register as bone marrow and blood stem cell donors.

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Nurse asking people to sign up as bone-marrow donors - Kewanee Star Courier

Stem cell technique may aid in bone repair – Bel Marra Health

Home Bone Health Stem cell technique may aid in bone repair

A new method for repairing damaged bones with stem cell and carbon material has been developed by researchers working with the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST). The method involves using stem cells from human bone marrow and carbon sheets with photocatalytic properties, and may help to create better treatments for bone injuries like periodontal disease and fractures.

During their study, researchers found that carbon nitride sheets that absorb red light encourage proliferation and growth of bone, as well as osteogenic differentiation. Human bone marrow stem cells have previously been used in the treatment of fractures, as they promote bone regeneration even in patients who have lost large areas of bone because of trauma or disease. The use of carbon nitride sheets alongside the bone marrow stem cells in this study were an attempt to accelerate the regeneration process.

Researchers found that when the carbon nitride was exposed to red light, it absorbed the light and emitted fluorescence, which is already known to expedite bone regeneration. The study also showed proliferation in osteogenic differentiation genes and accelerated bone formation in cells that were cultured in the lab.

This new stem cell research shows that coupling human bone marrow stem cells with carbon nitride could prove to be an effective way to create new bone material in areas that are lacking. With further research, this method could soon be applied to helping to heal bone fractures and wear-and-tear related to diseases like osteoporosis, as well as used to create new joints and teeth.

Related: Improve bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis with lifestyle changes

Related Reading:

Eat these foods for strong bones

Six tips to improve your bone health

New Stem Cell Technique Shows Promise for Bone Repair

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Stem cell technique may aid in bone repair - Bel Marra Health

Senior Becomes the Match to donate bone marrow and saves life – Villanovan (subscription)

On Feb. 2, Naomi Ng 16 donated peripheral blood stem cells at an outpatient clinic as part of the Be The Match donor program. She was matched after registering for Be The Match through the Andy Talley Bone Marrow Foundation.

You swab your cheek and you might save someones life, Ng said. Its so easy to register to be a donor that you dont think about the impact.

Ng was informed of the potential match in the fall of 2016 and completed initial blood work. Having graduated in May with a degree in Environmental Studies, she had just begun working for Amtrak in D.C. as senior service planner. She was not contacted again until mid-December, and completed the non-surgical procedure several weeks later.

The Andy Talley Bone Marrow Foundation, a non-profit created in 2010 by the recently retired head football coach. Talley began promoting awareness about bone marrow donation in 1992 by hosting testing opportunities on campus. In 2008, he partnered with Be The Match to form the Get in the Game. Save a Life initiative. The foundation has now enlisted over 78 college football programs to participate in the foundations mission, registering young, healthy college students with the Be the Match registry to increase the chances of finding a bone marrow match for patients diagnosed with blood cancer.

Like many University students Ng registered at one of Talleys on campus testing drives. She swabbed her cheek, filled out the paperwork and doubted that she would ever get a call. I kind of forget that I had registered for it, Ng said. I had hoped obviously, because I wouldnt have registered if I didnt want to do it. Its just such a slim chance.

The donation of peripheral blood stem cells is one of two methods for collecting the blood-forming cells that recipients need. For five days before the procedure, Ng was given injections of filgrastim to increase the number of stem cells in her blood. On the day of the procedure she was connected to a machine via a needle in one arm and her blood was run through the machine and returned to her body through the other arm.

Although the filgrastim injections were painful, Ng described the procedure as pretty non-invasive, saying, I actually slept through the procedure. When I woke up I was like, thats it? I can leave now?

Ngs match is a 66-year old man, but his age and gender are the only things she knows about him. A year after the procedure, Be The Match will help to facilitate contact between the two if desired by donor and recipient.

Its a really emotional experience, Ng said. Ive never met this guy. I dont know his name. I dont know anything about him, but I feel like I have an emotional connection to him now. I dont know yet, but I might have saved his life.

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Senior Becomes the Match to donate bone marrow and saves life - Villanovan (subscription)

Whitstable family make plea for bone marrow donor – Kent Online – Kent Online

Wednesday, February 15 2017

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Home Whitstable News Article

12 February 2017

by Eleanor Perkins

The son of a man who needs a bone marrow transplant has made a desperate plea for people to join a donor register to help find the perfect match.

Yevi Ilangakoon, from Whitstable, was diagnosed with myelofibrosis - a serious bone marrow disorder which disrupts the bodys normal production of blood cells - in 2009.

It affects about one in every 100,000 people and can progress into leukaemia.

Yevi Ilangakoon, who needs a bone marrow transplant, with son Yovaan

Originally from Sri Lanka, Mr Ilangakoon currently manages by using medication but his only cure would be a bone marrow transplant using stem cells.

But since medical professionals have been unable to find a 100% match, his family have launched an appeal encouraging people to sign up as donors online - particularly those in the South Asian community.

His son Yovaan Ilangakoon said: My dads condition has deteriorated significantly and it now has the potential to turn into leukaemia. His life expectancy is now limited.

His only hope is to have a bone marrow transplant using stem cells. The medical team has searched the worldwide registers but has not been able to find a 100% match as yet.

"This is mainly due to the South Asian community being under represented on the bone marrow registers.

I am trying to get as many people on the bone marrow register, particularly those from South Asian origin in order to find a match for him and hundreds of others in similar situations.

Mr Ilangakoon says signing up online is simple and takes less than two minutes. People will then be sent a kit via the post.

He added: All you have to do is swab the inside of your cheek with the cotton bud they send you and send it back to them in the pre-paid envelope. Its that simple.

If you ever become a match for a person who needs a stem cell transplant, donating your stem cells is as simple as donating blood.

We are relying on our faith in Jesus and are confident that soon he will find a match and have a successful transplant and be healed completely.

God has always been faithful to our family.

If you are above 30 years and living in the UK, register here.If you are below 30,register here.

Click here for more news from Whitstable.

Click here for more news from around the county.

KM Group2017

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Whitstable family make plea for bone marrow donor - Kent Online - Kent Online

Lights, Carbon Nitride, Bone Regeneration! – Asian Scientist Magazine

Growing stem cells on carbon nitride sheets not only activates bone-related genes, but also releases calcium ions when exposed to red light.

Asian Scientist Newsroom | February 15, 2017 | In the Lab

AsianScientist (Feb. 15, 2017) - Light absorbing nanosheets could help bone regrowth, according to a study by researchers at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology published in ACS Nano.

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been successfully used to treat fractures by regenerating lost bone tissue. To increase the area of bone regeneration, scientists have attempted to enhance the function of stem cells using carbon nanotubes, graphenes and nano-oxides.

In the present study, Professors Kim Kwang S. and Suh Pann-Ghill examined the bone regenerative abilities of carbon nitride (C3N4) nanosheets. Firstly, Kim's team synthesized carbon nitrogen derivatives from melamine compounds. Then, they analyzed the light-absorbing characteristics of C3N4 sheets at a wavelength range of 455-635 nanometers (nm).

They found that the C3N4 sheets emit fluorescence at the wavelength of 635 nm when exposed to red light in a liquid state. The released electrons induced calcium to accumulate in the cytoplasm, thereby speeding up bone regeneration.

Suh's team then conducted studies investigating biomedical applications of this material. To do so, they cultured stem cells and cancer cells in a medium containing 200 g/ml of C3N4 sheets. The material showed no cytotoxicity after two days of testing, suggesting that it is biocompatible.

They also confirmed that C3N4 sheets induce stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts to promote mineral formation, turning on osteogenic differentiation marker genes such as ALP, BSP, and OCN. Moreover, Runx2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2), a key transcription factor in osteoblast differentiation was also activated. This gene activation resulted in the increased osteoblast differentiation and accelerated bone formation.

This research has opened up the possibility of developing a new medicine that effectively treats skeletal injuries, such as fractures and osteoporosis, said co-author Professor Seo Young-Kyo. It will be a very useful tool for making artificial joints and teeth with the use of 3D printing.

This is an important milestone in the analysis of biomechanical functions needed for the development of biomaterials, including adjuvants for hard tissues such as damaged bones and teeth.

The research team expects that their findings affirm the potential of C3N4 sheets in developing bone formation and directing hBMSCs toward bone regeneration.

The article can be found at: Tiwari et al. (2016) Accelerated Bone Regeneration by Two-Photon Photoactivated Carbon Nitride Nanosheets.

Source: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology. Disclaimer: This article does not necessarily reflect the views of AsianScientist or its staff.

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Lights, Carbon Nitride, Bone Regeneration! - Asian Scientist Magazine

Stem cell registry drive at SAU seeks to connect potential donors with people who need help – Magnoliareporter

When three Southern Arkansas University nursing students started organizing this weeks stem cell registry drive more than three months ago, they were not aware that a member of the Mulerider family is one of more than 1,400 whose life could be saved.

The stem cell/bone marrow registry drive is scheduled for 9 a.m.-3:30 p.m. on Tuesday and Wednesday both in the Reynolds Center Rotunda and the SAU Baptist Collegiate Ministry.

For more information, contact Dr. Becky Parnell at (870)235-4365 or at .

The SAU BSN students initially behind the project are Renee Langley, Tabitha Elliott and Courtney Owens. Parnell explained that while attending the Arkansas Student Nurses Association annual meeting in Little Rock, the students were introduced to the need for bone marrow donors. They even registered to be possible donors themselves.

Parnell said they realized this project was a perfect example of how nurses can impact the care of people outside the normal hospitalized patient.

They recognized how many people this could potentially impact and wanted to recruit more people (to register), said Parnell. I have seen the bone marrow process it is truly a life-saving intervention for many people that are devastated by leukemia.

When Parnell began promoting the registry event on campus, it was brought to her attention that Sydney Galway, the daughter of a Magnolia native, 1984 SAU alum and Board of Governors Chair Beth Galway, is suffering with acute myeloid leukemia.

Sydney Galway is in dire need of a bone marrow transplant.

When Sydney was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, the doctors told us that Sydneys only cure would come from a bone marrow transplant. The doctors were, and are, confident of the success of her treatment due to the fact that she has a high chance to find a perfect bone marrow donor, said Galway.

Her increased chance of finding a match, Galway explained, is simply because she is a Caucasian female which has one of the highest bone marrow donor rates. She has a 97 percent chance to find a donor.

Of course, the first donor they looked at was her sister. A sibling has only a 25 percent chance to be a match; a parent even less. Sydneys sister was not a match, said Galway.

Donor matches are generally based on race. With todays diverse community, the need for bone marrow donors from minority and mixed race groups is high. An African American patient has only a 66 percent chance to find a match.

The doctors and nurses that I have talked to indicate that the need is huge for African Americans as well as donors from India, said Galway.

She said that the treatment for Sydney, who is a sophomore in college, is now in phase 3. Her next step is a bone marrow transplant.

We hope to have a perfect match for her and pray that the donor will be willing to do all that is necessary for providing the blood or bone marrow needed for the transplant, said Galway.

The drive is being sponsored by SAUs Department of Nursing and University Health Services. Junior and senior BSN students will also be assisting in the bone marrow drive as a professional development activity.

Becoming a member of a stem cell/bone marrow registry only requires that you provide a swab of the cells inside your cheek. To register is a painless and fast way to possibly save a life.

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Stem cell registry drive at SAU seeks to connect potential donors with people who need help - Magnoliareporter

SNA strives to find bone marrow donors at MU – MU The Parthenon

Saving a life can begin with a simple swab of a cheek.

Marshalls Student Nurses Association is trying to help accomplish this goal through a bone marrow registry drive with Be The Match, a nonprofit organization, Feb. 15 in the Memorial Student Center. Anyone from ages 18 to 44 with no major preexisting diseases are eligible to register.

The main idea is that Be The Match connects critically ill patients with a life-saving bone marrow donor, senior nursing major Molly Arthur said. Most patients do not find a marrow match within their own family, so they have to rely on a complete stranger to donate to them.

The SNA decided to do this drive after meeting several patients through their clinicals at Cabell Huntington Hospital who have the possibility of receiving a bone marrow transplant through the course of their treatment.

I know a little boy who went recently to see if he had any matches to get a transplant, and they had 10 people that were matches for him, senior nursing major Jenna Fields said. If he would need one later on, they would wipe out his immune system and replace it through the bone marrow to fight off the disease.

In order to register, donors will go through a series of questions about their medical history and will have their cheeks swabbed to collect cells, which will take about 10 minutes. According to Be The Match registry, only one in every 430 people go on to donate.

There are three ways to donate: peripheral blood stem cells through an IV, bone marrow through the hip by a surgical procedure and cord blood after giving birth.

They put an IV in, they take the blood out and spin out what they need and everything else goes back into your body. Its just like giving blood, and you potentially save a life, senior nursing major Alison Evans said.

The registry drive is taking place in the Don Morris Room from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Jan. 15. The SNA has a goal of registering 100 donors.

The more people on the registry, the more likely you are to find a match, Evans said. The goal is to get as many people on the registry as possible to potentially raise someones percentage of finding a match.

Heather Barker can be contacted at [emailprotected]

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SNA strives to find bone marrow donors at MU - MU The Parthenon

Lion-hearted fighter beats the odds – The Straits Times

Ten-year-old Boon Kye Feng prances around the living room in furry purple pants that match the lion's head he is wearing.

He lifts the head and moves it from side to side to a beat only he can hear.

Even when the little lion gets thirsty, he drinks water through the opening in the head.

Seeing him at play, it may be difficult for strangers to tell that he has spent almost half his life battling leukaemia.

His family fought it along with him, gifting two transplants - cord blood from his baby sister and stem cells from his mother - to keep him alive.


I believe Kye Feng is a 'miracle'. We have all learnt a lot from him, not only in the science of managing the disease and the doctor-patient relationship, but also in his love of life, and his fearlessness and resilience, despite the years of pain and suffering.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR TAN POH LIN, from the paediatric haematology- oncology division of NUH.

Despite the intensive treatment, his parents said he had remained positive and playful.

It had started in late 2011 when Kye Feng developed spots and bruises which his parents thought were sandfly bites.

When the spots appeared a second time, his mother, Mrs Celine Boon, decided to take him for a check-up.

Doctors found that his white blood cell count was very high and told the family he could have leukaemia (cancer of the blood).

It was diagnosed as juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), a rare form of the disease.

But Mrs Boon, 38, was not too surprised.

This was because Kye Feng and his twin brother, Kye Teck, had previously developed juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), a skin disorder that is usually benign and self-limiting.

They also have an older sister, now 16, who was unaffected.

While reading up on JXG earlier, Mrs Boon had come across a potential link to JMML.

She said: "Still, I had never expected that it would happen to my son. I was quite alarmed."

JMML is so rare that blood samples had to be sent to Germany to confirm the diagnosis.

Kye Feng began chemotherapy at KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH) in 2012 to control the condition while waiting for a bone marrow transplant.

Although KKH doctors had not seen a JMML case in about 10 years, they did the transplant as there were few other options.

His father, Mr Roy Boon, 46, said: "It was all trial and error. There's no exact treatment for JMML."

Mrs Boon was then pregnant with their fourth child and doctors said the baby girl's cord blood could be used for the transplant as there is a 25 per cent chance of a match between siblings.

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) is a very rare form of childhood leukaemia. The hallmark symptom of the disease is the increased number of white blood cells known as monocytes.

Normal monocytes protect the body from infections, but those in patients with this leukaemia are cancerous and reproduce uncontrollably. The monocytes may then infiltrate organs such as the liver, spleen, lungs, lymph nodes and even skin.

In Western countries, one in a million children are afflicted with the disease each year. Based on Singapore population statistics last year, there is an average of one case every three years.

For the majority of JMML patients, a haematopoietic - or blood forming - stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the only curative option.

Stem cells are cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. They can develop into different forms, including white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Such a transplant can help patients develop new and healthy blood cells.

Stem cells can be found in the bone marrow, blood, fat tissue and placenta. They are abundant in the bone marrow but, even so, make up only 1 per cent of all cells there.

They can be "harvested" directly from the bone marrow or from the blood, whether they are from an adult volunteer or from umbilical cord blood.

The bone marrow must be stimulated to coax or force the stem cells into the peripheral blood system, but techniques are well-tested and safe.

After undergoing HSCT, 50 per cent of the patients will go on to become long-term survivors.

Abigail Ng

Source: Associate Professor Tan Poh Lin, senior consultant at the division of paediatric haematology-oncology, National University Hospital.

Thankfully, it was a full match for Kye Feng, who had the transplant and recovered well.

He looked forward to starting Primary 1 with his brother.

But before the March holidays of his first year in school, doctors noticed that the percentage of donor cells in him was beginning to fall, signalling that there could be a problem.

When it became clear that the cancer had returned, Mrs Boon said she broke down and cried.

"I was shocked. There weren't any physical symptoms. Why did it happen so quickly? It wasn't even one year after the transplant and things had looked so promising," she said.


The family sought a second opinion from the National University Hospital (NUH) and entered into the care of Associate Professor Tan Poh Lin from the paediatric haematology-oncology division.

While doctors from both hospitals suggested a second transplant for Kye Feng, there was more bad news.

His illness was mutating into mixed-phenotype acute leukaemia, a combination of two forms of cancer.

He also faced a life-threatening infection that caused high fever and bloating.

Besides beginning palliative care to improve his quality of life, the family continued to push for treatment, including natural killer-cell therapy and the removal of Kye Feng's enlarged spleen in a complicated seven-hour operation.

Even though the test results showed that leukaemic cells remained in his bone marrow, Kye Feng had a second transplant in September 2015, this time using stem cells from his mother.

Doctors usually recommend transplants only when patients register no leukaemic cells.

Mrs Boon said: "If he didn't have the transplant, he would have only six months more. With the transplant, he would at least have a chance of recovery.

"He was fighting hard. If I didn't give him the chance, I would never know if he could have survived."

Kye Feng responded well to his mother's stem cells.

Dr Tan said: "I believe Kye Feng is a 'miracle'. We have all learnt a lot from him, not only in the science of managing the disease and the doctor-patient relationship, but also in his love of life, and his fearlessness and resilience, despite the years of pain and suffering."

The crucial three months after the transplant passed by without issue, but the boy developed a graft versus host disease (GVHD) one year later.

Still, his parents were relieved that it was not a second relapse.

He was put on medication for GVHD and will recover completely.

In the meantime, the family is treasuring the time they can spend together.

Mrs Boon said: "We will relax and go with the flow, as long as Kye Feng is happy."

Continued here:
Lion-hearted fighter beats the odds - The Straits Times

5 reasons you should sign up for the bone marrow registry right now – New York Daily News


Saturday, February 11, 2017, 5:00 AM

So, bless your heart, youve already signed up for your states organ donor registry. Now its time to kick your lifesaving quest up a notch and sign up for the National Marrow Donor Program, which helps match potential donors with patients fighting leukemia, lymphoma and other deadly diseases.

Here are five reasons to throw your name in the hat, if you needed some convincing:

You can join in person by stopping by a registration drive or by spending a few minutes on Either way, youll get a registration kit to provide a cheek swab, which the organization uses to identify tissue type and match with a patient.

People aged 18 to 44 hit the sweet spot, as theyre called upon 90% of the time the younger the donor, the smoother the recovery for both patient and donor, said Lauren Wollny, the New Jersey/New York community engagement representative for the nonprofit Icla Da Silva Foundation. The 45- to 60-year-old crowd can still sign up, albeit for a $100 tax-deductible fee that helps the nonprofit cover costs.

Bradley Cooper urges public to join bone marrow registry

Just 1 in 430 volunteers ever even get a call to begin the donation process.

Once youre identified as a match, youll submit to a blood test, physical exam and pregnancy test, all free of charge. A doctor will then recommend one of two procedures: a nonsurgical peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation (75% of the time), or bone marrow donation (25%), which involves surgery and anesthesia but isnt nearly as horrifying as youve heard.

For PBSC, the most common method, youll receive an injection of the drug filgrastim for five days leading up to the donation. On the big day, youll head to a clinic or blood center to have a needle draw blood from one arm, pass it through a machine that isolates the blood-forming cells, and return the blood to the other arm voila. Depending on the size of both patient and donor, it can take four to eight hours which you might use to reflect on what a terrific thing youre doing for a total stranger.

For bone marrow donation youll head to the OR, where a doctor will siphon liquid marrow from the back of your pelvic bone with a needle. The anesthesia will keep you numb, and though you may later feel back or hip soreness, fatigue and other side effects, you should be back to your normal routine within a week.

EXCLUSIVE: Bone marrow recipients to meet FDNY donors

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This is the one that gets a really bad rap, Wollny told the Daily News. Its not as bad as people make it out to be.

All in all, the average length of the donation process from start to finish is about 20 to 30 hours over a month or two and your own personal case manager will see you through the entire thing.

People are most likely to match with someone of the same ethnic background since the tissue types used for matching are inherited and the registry is starved for donors who are black or African American, Hispanic, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Asian, Alaska native, Native American and multiracial. If one of those describes your ancestry, go be a hero, please.

The Fort Lee, N.J., 12-year-old was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia last year, undergoing several rounds of chemo and a bone marrow transplant from her mom before eventually being pronounced cancer-free. But after a relapse in November, Lopez is fighting for her life once again and desperately in need of another bone marrow transplant.

New York tries to increase organ donations to those in need

The Long Island City-based Icla Da Silva Foundation will hold combo registry drive/fundraisers for the tween in New Jersey (Fort Lee and Union City), Georgia, Texas and Florida this Sunday. If youre free and in good health, you should go.

We hope to find Briana a match, and if we find other people a match as well, fantastic, Wollny said. Its so simple to save a life if it was you, wouldnt you want someone to do that for you?

Read more from the original source:
5 reasons you should sign up for the bone marrow registry right now - New York Daily News

Stem cell registry drive at SAU Feb. 14-15 – SAU

When three Southern Arkansas University nursing students started organizing next weeks stem cell registry drive more than three months ago, they were not aware that a member of the Mulerider family is one of more than 1,400 whose life could be saved.

The stem cell/bone marrow registry drive is scheduled for 9 a.m.-3:30 p.m. on February 14-15 both in the Reynolds Center Rotunda and the SAU Baptist Collegiate Ministry. For more information, contact Dr. Becky Parnell at (870)235-4365 or at

The SAU BSN students initially behind the project are Renee Langley, Tabitha Elliott and Courtney Owens. Parnell explained that while attending the Arkansas Student Nurses Association annual meeting in Little Rock, the students were introduced to the need for bone marrow donors. They even registered to be possible donors themselves. She said they realized this project was a perfect example of how nurses can impact the care of people outside the normal hospitalized patient.

They recognized how many people this could potentially impact and wanted to recruit more people (to register), said Parnell. I have seen the bone marrow process it is truly a life-saving intervention for many people that are devastated by leukemia.

When Parnell began promoting the registry event on campus, it was brought to her attention that the daughter of Magnolia native, 1984 SAU alum and Board of Governors Chair Beth Galway, Sydney, is suffering with acute myeloid leukemia and in dire need of a bone marrow transplant.

When Sydney was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, the doctors told us that Sydneys only cure would come from a bone marrow transplant. The doctors were, and are, confident of the success of her treatment due to the fact that she has a high chance to find a perfect bone marrow donor, said Galway.

Her increased chance of finding a match, Galway explained, is simply because she is a Caucasian female which has one of the highest bone marrow donor rates. She has a 97% chance to find a donor.

Of course, the first donor they looked at was her sister. A sibling has only a 25% chance to be a match; a parent even less. Sydneys sister was not a match, said Galway.

Donor matches are generally based on race. With todays diverse community, the need for bone marrow donors from minority and mixed race groups is high. An African American patient has only a 66% chance to find a match.

The doctors and nurses that I have talked to indicate that the need is huge for African Americans as well as donors from India, said Galway.

She said that the treatment for Sydney, who is a sophomore in college, is now in phase 3. Her next step is a bone marrow transplant.

We hope to have a perfect match for her and pray that the donor will be willing to do all that is necessary for providing the blood or bone marrow needed for the transplant, said Galway.

The drive is being sponsored by SAUs Department of Nursing and University Health Services. Junior and senior BSN students will also be assisting in the bone marrow drive as a professional development activity.

Becoming a member of a stem cell/bone marrow registry only requires that you provide a swab of the cells inside your cheek. To register is a painless and fast way to possibly save a life.

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Stem cell registry drive at SAU Feb. 14-15 - SAU

OCASCR scientists make progress in TSET-funded adult stem cell research –

OCASCR scientist Lin Liu at work. Photo provided.

Working together, scientists from Oklahoma State University, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation are advancing adult stem cell research to treat some of todays most devastating diseases.

Under the umbrella of the Oklahoma Center for Adult Stem Cell Research (OCASCR), created with funding from the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust, these scientists have amassed groundbreaking findings in one of the fastest growing areas of medical research.

We have made exciting progress, said OCASCR scientist Lin Liu, director of the Oklahoma Center for Respiratory and Infectious Diseases and director of the Interdisciplinary Program in Regenerative Medicine at Oklahoma State University.

We can convert adult stem cells into lung cells using our engineering process in petri dishes, which offers the possibility to repair damaged lung tissues in lung diseases, said Liu, whose research primarily focuses on lung and respiratory biology and diseases.

Using our engineered cells, we can also reverse some pathological features. These studies give us hope for an eventual application of these cells in humans.

Adult stem cells in the body are capable of renewing themselves and becoming various types of cells.

Until recently, stem cell treatments were largely restricted to blood diseases. However, new studies suggest many other types of adult stem cells can be used for medical treatment, and the Oklahoma Center for Adult Stem Cell Research was created to promote this branch of research.

OCASCR scientist Lin Liu and his team discussing their work. Photo provided.

Liu said the discipline provides hope for many ailments.

What most fascinated me in stem cell research is the hope that we may be able to use stem cells from our own body; for example, bone marrow or fat tissues to cure lung diseases, Liu said.

It is impossible to know exactly which diseases will respond to treatments.However, results of early experiments suggest many diseases should benefit from this type of research, including lung, heart, Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, as well as cancer, diabetes and spinal cord injuries. The field is often referred to as regenerative medicine, because of the potential to create good cells in place of bad ones.

While the application of stem cells can be broad, Liu hopes that his TSET-funded work will help develop treatments for diseases caused by tobacco use.

The goal of my research team is to find cures for lung diseases, Liu said. One such disease is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

COPD is the third leading cause of death in the country and cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD.

Cigarette smoking is also a risk factor for another fatal lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which has a mean life expectancy of 3 to 5 years after diagnosis, he added.

There is no cure for COPD or IPF. The current treatments of COPD and IPF only reduce symptoms or slow the disease progression.

Using OCASCR/TSET funding, my team is researching the possibility to engineer adult stem cells using small RNA molecules existing in the body to cure COPD, IPF and other lung diseases such as pneumonia caused by flu, Liu said.

This is vital research, considering that more than11 million peoplehave been diagnosed with COPD, but millions more may have the disease without even knowing it, according to the American Lung Association.

Despite declining smoking rates and increased smokefree environments, tobacco use continues to cause widespread health challenges and scientists will continue working to develop treatments to deal with the consequences of smoking.

We need to educate the public more regarding the harms of cigarette smoking, Liu said. My research may offer future medicines for lung diseases caused by cigarette smoking.

Under the umbrella of the Oklahoma Center for Adult Stem Cell Research (OCASCR), created with funding from the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust, these scientists have amassed groundbreaking findings in one of the fastest growing areas of medical research. Photo provided.

Liu has been conducting research in the field of lung biology and diseases for more than two decades.

However, his interests in adult stem cell therapy began in 2010 when OCASCR was established through a grant with TSET, which provided funding to Oklahoma researchers for stem cell research.

I probably would have never gotten my feet into stem cell research without OCASCR funding support, he said. OCASCR funding also facilitated the establishment of the Interdisciplinary Program in Regenerative Medicine at OSU.

These days, Liu finds himself fully immersed in the exciting world of adult stem cell research and collaborating with some of Oklahomas best scientific minds.

Dr. Liu and his colleagues are really thriving. It was clear seven years ago that regenerative medicine was a hot topic and we already had excellent scientists in the Oklahoma, said Dr. Paul Kincade, founding scientific director of OCASCR. All they needed was some resources to re-direct and support their efforts. OSU investigators are using instruments and research grants supplied by OCASCR to compete with groups worldwide. TSET can point to their achievements with pride.

The Oklahoma Center for Adult Stem Cell Research represents collaboration between scientists all across the state, aiming to promote studies by Oklahoma scientists who are working with stem cells present in adult tissues.

The center opened in 2010 and has enhanced adult stem cell research by providing grant funding for researchers, encouraging recruitment of scientists and providing education to the people of Oklahoma.

We are fortunate that the collaboration at the Oklahoma Center for Adult Stem Cell Research is yielding such positive results, said John Woods, TSET executive director. This research is leading to ground breaking discoveries and attracting new researchers to the field. TSET is proud to fund that investments for Oklahomans.

Funding research is a major focus for TSET and it comes with benefits reaching beyond the lab. For every $1 TSET has invested at OCASCR, scientists have been able to attract an additional $4 for research at Oklahoma institutions, TSET officials said.

TSET also supports medical research conducted by the Stephenson Cancer Center and the Oklahoma Tobacco Research Center.

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OCASCR scientists make progress in TSET-funded adult stem cell research -

Genetic profiling can guide stem cell transplantation for patients with … – Science Daily

Genetic profiling can guide stem cell transplantation for patients with ...
Science Daily
A single blood test and basic information about a patient's medical status can indicate which patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are likely to benefit ...

and more »

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Genetic profiling can guide stem cell transplantation for patients with ... - Science Daily

Bone marrow registration drive planned to honor Salina man – Salina Journal (subscription)

A 45-year-old Salina man who was diagnosed with leukemia in November is being honored by a bone marrow registration drive Saturday being held at his church.

This is open to the whole community we want to stress that, said Linda Ourada, a member of the health ministry committee at St. Mary Queen of the Universe Catholic Church Parish Center, 230 E. Cloud. The drive will be held from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Saturday at the parish center.

Its possible that Phong Vos sister is a match for him, said Vos wife, Mary Pham.

More blood work is planned to determine if the match is close enough. In the meanwhile, the effort to sign up possible donors for Vo or anyone else who needs a bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell donation is planned.

Pam Welsh, of Salina, said that more than a decade ago, she had her cheek swabbed during a bone marrow registration drive when a Bennington woman needed a match. She said she was called about a year later and told she was one of three people who were a possible match for a patient. She said she went to Salina Regional Health Center to have blood drawn for further testing.

I was given a choice if I wanted to continue in the process, she said. There was never any pressure.

She said that after the blood tests showed she was a good match for the patient, a nurse came to her house to give her shots to boost her stem cell count. Then she and a friend drove to a Wichita hospital, where she underwent an outpatient procedure during which her blood was drawn from one arm and passed through a machine that filtered out blood stem cells before the blood was returned to her other arm. Welsh said the procedure took one day, and then she took the next day off to recover. All expenses were paid by DKMS, an international organization that fights blood cancer and blood disorders, she said.

She said she found out that her blood was given to a 55-year-old man with some form of leukemia. She was told he was still alive when DKMS contacted her for a five-year checkup.

Although she never met him, Welsh said that for her there was a huge reward in knowing that I was able to help this man knowing that I gave him more years.

Its just a good feeling, she said.

Pham said Vo started feeling ill in October and has since undergone chemotherapy at Via Christi Hospital in Wichita and the University of Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City. However, the leukemia has persisted.

Pham, who works for Schwans, has lived in Salina since her grandparents and an aunt, who had lived here since 1975, acted as her sponsors when she immigrated from Vietnam about 21 years ago. She met Vo, who moved here in the late 1990s, at work, and they were married at St. Marys. They have four sons, ages 11, 11, 10 and 8, who have missed their father during his long hospital stays.

When my husband got sick, I was panicked, and I was like, What do I need to do? I dont know what to do, Pham said. Soon she was told about DKMS, which will attempt to match potential donors who register at the Salina drive with Vo and other patients.

The bone marrow registration process for DKMS is simple, said Linda Ourada, who is helping to organize the event.

Its not like drawing blood, Ourada said. People get this mixed up with a blood drive. Theres no blood involved.

A swab is taken from the inside of the cheek, which is then sent for DNA analysis and entered into a global donor computer registry that already includes information about 7 million potential donors.

Every day in the United States, there are 14,000 people waiting for this blood stem cell donation, and only 30 percent get a family match, so that leaves 70 percent out there looking for a suitable donation from someone like us, Ourada said.

Ourada said that in 2012, more than 250 people registered and nine potential matches were contacted for further testing during a bone marrow drive at the church to honor a St. Louis family with Salina ties who had four boys with a rare form of blood cancer.

There is no cost to register as a donor, although monetary donations are being accepted to cover the approximately $65 in costs associated with registering each possible donor.

Potential donors must be between the ages of 18 and 55, in general good health and be willing to donate should their marrow be matched with a person who needs it. Further details about weight and height requirements or other limiting factors can be found at

The donation process may be accomplished one of two ways, depending on the patients needs. The preferred method is a blood transfusion, but for some patients, an actual bone marrow graft is necessary. The marrow is harvested through a hollow needle from a hip bone in an outpatient surgical procedure.

Bone marrow could be used to treat blood cancers, anemias, genetic disorders and other life-threatening ailments.

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Bone marrow registration drive planned to honor Salina man - Salina Journal (subscription)

Can storing your stem cells be the key to fighting disease and living longer? – WXYZ

(WXYZ) - When we get sick, it's common for us to reach for some medicine or maybe even have surgery to deal with disease or pain, but what if you could use your own healthy cells to fight back instead?

Right now, there's a procedure being performed in metro Detroit where healthy stem cells are stored so they can be reintroduced to your system and potentially have life changing or life saving benefits.

Dr. Michael Schenden is the first plastic surgeon in the US to perform the Forever Labs stem cell collection. He starts by harvesting her bone marrow to save those healthy stem cells.

"They should be available for many, many different medical applications is a wonderful thing," says Dr. Schenden.

The company behind this procedure is based in Ann Arbor and it's called Forever Labs.

We're told about 30 people have decided to store their stem cells this way. Sonja Michelsen is one of them. She had her daughter in her early 40s and felt like storing her own stem cells could pay off in the future.

"I want to be able to be here with her throughout her life," she says.

She knows there's no guarantee banking her stem cells will help her in the future, but she sees it as an investment that could pay off if her health takes a turn.

"To have that peace of mind that you do have something to use down the road .. is huge," she says.

Steven Clausnitzer is CEO of Forever Labs. He says by re-introducing your own healthy cells, you may be able to fight disease in the future.

"There are a number of ways people are already using these cells. Maybe the most promising .. orthopedic surgeons .. are reintroducing them into joints in lieu of surgery," he says.

Clausnitzer says there are about 500 clinical trials right now that are using stem cells that, one day, may be able to treat everything from osteoarthritis to multiple scleroses to cardiovascular disease.

This kind of stem cell banking is a 15 minute outpatient procedure. It starts with a local anesthetic in the lower back.

He says the number of your stem cells diminishes with age, as does their therapeutic quality.

"My stem cells were stored at 38. I'm going to turn 40 this year. I rest assured knowing I have my 38-year-old stem cells rendered biologically inert. They're no longer aging .. even as I do," says Clausnitzer.

Mark Katakowski is president of Forever Labs. He says his research showed him the rejuvenating and healing power of stem cells in animals. He believes it can have the same effect in humans.

He says the best time to store the stem cells is when you're young.

"There's a slower decline between 20 and 40 years-old and then it picks up. When you put them in the right place at the right time, they can actually improve recovery in a bunch of therapeutic applications," he says.

Katakowski says there's no limit as to how long they can be stored.

Should a person pass away, their stored stem cells would be destroyed unless arrangements have been made for them to be given to a family member.

At this point, the procedure is not FDA approved. The Forever Labs stem cell collection isn't covered by insurance. It costs around $3,500 to have the procedure done and $250 a year for storage.

The company says it plans to bring the first clinical trials for longevity to market in the next 7-10 years, once there is a large enough differential time between when our first clients stored their cells and can then reintroduce.

It says its goal is that its clientele will be able to participate in the first longevity based human trials utilizing autologous stem cell treatments of healthy individuals.

To learn more about Forever Labs, go to:

Can storing your stem cells be the key to fighting disease and living longer? - WXYZ

More people to get access to life-saving stem cell transplants – Erie Media

This post was originally published on this site New Facility at Sunnybrook Part of Plan to Expand Care for People with Blood Diseases

Ontario is investing in a new facility at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre that will offer specialized treatment for people with blood cancers such as leukemia.

Premier Kathleen Wynne was at Sunnybrook in Toronto Tuesday to announce the governments support for a new Complex Malignant Haematology (CMH) site. Sunnybrook will become the second hospital in the Greater Toronto Area along with Princess Margaret Cancer Care to provide a full range of potentially life-saving CMH services, including stem cell transplants.

Ontario is also improving treatment for people with blood diseases by:

Investing to improve care for people with blood cancers and disorders is part of our plan to build a better Ontario by providing patients with faster access to the right health care.

Kathleen Wynne: Premier of Ontario

Stem cell transplants can help lessen the terrible toll that cancer takes on families. We are providing support so hospitals can offer more patients access to a life-saving treatment and the chance for a new lease on life.

Dr. Eric Hoskins: Minister of Health and Long-Term Care

Today marks a major milestone for Ontario patients needing stem cell transplants. With this investment, patients will have better access to timely service and state-of-the-art treatment, but most importantly, more patients will be able to receive stem cell transplants right here in Ontario.

Dr. Barry McLellan: President and CEO, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre

This is a life-saving investment. We are grateful to the Ontario government for the funding to provide care and build a new state-of-the-art facility for patients who are afflicted with this serious illness.

Michael Sherar: President and CEO, Cancer Care Ontario; Co-convener, Complex Malignant Hematology Hematopoietic Cell Therapy Consultation Group

Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre is an important and valued partner in Ontarios cancer care system. The addition of a new Complex Malignant Haematology site is a critical step in our efforts to ensure that patients receive timely access to transplant services in Ontario.

Source Government of Ontario press release

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More people to get access to life-saving stem cell transplants - Erie Media

‘Magic’ blood test could make bone marrow transplants for blood … – Cancer Research UK

A blood test could help predict the risk of complication following a bone marrow transplant in some blood cancer patients, according to a new US study.

The test could help identify which patients given a transplant are likely to develop a potentially fatal complication, the researchers report in The Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight.

"The test worked in different hospitals and in different groups of patients in the US and Europe, suggesting that it could be used widely" Professor Ronjon Chakraverty, Cancer Research UK

In doing so, the test could allow early intervention and potentially save many lives, said lead researcher Professor James Ferrara from Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Bone marrow transplants, in which a patients blood stem cells are replaced with those from a donor, are given to some patients with blood cancer to cure their disease. But around half of patients who receive the procedure develop a serious and often fatal complication called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

This happens when the donated immune cells recognise the patients body as a threat and launch an attack against it, causing inflammation that sometimes doesnt respond to treatment.

For this latest study, researchers from 11 cancer centres in the US and Europe looked at blood samples from almost 1,300 bone marrow transplant patients to see if they could predict whether a patient will develop GVHD, and also their outlook.

They developed a test, called MAGIC (Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium), looked at four different molecules in the blood. The researchers found that measuring the levels of two of these molecules ST2 and REG3a just one week after the transplant procedure, could help identify those at high risk of developing the complication and dying.

Researchers at Mount Sinai are now using these results to design clinical trials looking into whether certain immunotherapy drugs, normally given at the onset of GVHD, could improve the outlook for some patients if given earlier on, after the test identifies them as high risk.

Professor Ronjon Chakraverty, a Cancer Research UK expert on stem cell transplants, said: This study reveals that a blood test performed just one week following a bone marrow transplant accurately identifies which patients are at the greatest risk of this life-threatening condition.

Importantly, the test worked in different hospitals and in different groups of patients in the US and Europe, suggesting that it could be used widely. Tests such as this could spot patients who are most at risk, and make sure they get special targeted treatment before GVHD develops.

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'Magic' blood test could make bone marrow transplants for blood ... - Cancer Research UK

USM women’s soccer players organize bone marrow drive for teammate with rare disease – Press Herald

Ally Little described the past month of her life as a nightmare from which she just cant wake up.

On Dec. 22, the University of Southern Maine soccer player learned she had a rare and life-threatening disease in which her bone marrow stops producing healthy blood cells. However, the words severe aplastic anemia meant nothing to Little at the time.

Its really hard because I didnt know what this was before I had it, said Little, a 20-year-old sophomore from Stoneham, Massachusetts. No one has really heard of aplastic anemia or what the treatment is.

A bone marrow transplant is the cure for this disease, and Little has yet to find a matching donor. Littles teammates have organized a bone marrow donor registry drive from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Wednesday at Abromson Mezzanine at the USM Portland campus and from 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. at Costello Complex at the Gorham campus.

Diagnosed during winter break, Little broke the news to her teammates on social media.

It hit home, said USM womens soccer coach Lisa Petruccelli. This is really the first time someone their age at this juncture is struggling with something like this.

Littles initial symptoms didnt seem serious. She started getting pounding headaches around Thanksgiving, but she had gotten headaches before. Physical activities such as skiing or working out for soccer became unusually exhausting, which Little attributed to dehydration. She didnt go to her doctor until she noticed blood in her stool.

(Aplastic anemia) is believed to be an autoimmune system gone wrong, said Paul Scribner, Senior Director of Patient Advocacy Programs with the Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AAMDS). The disease usually results from the destruction of bone marrow stem cells by the immune system. Other symptoms include infections and the tendency to bruise and bleed easily. With such innocuous warning signs, Scribner said a lot of people find out when they go to their doctor because theyre feeling run down.

After bloodwork, Little was told that her results were very abnormal. She spent the next few days in the hospital undergoing tests while doctors prepared her for the worst case scenario leukemia.

That was obviously horrifying, Little said. We didnt find out until about three days later that it was severe aplastic anemia.

Aplastic anemia is rare and can occur at any age. In the United States, about 600 to 900 people are diagnosed each year, according to AAMDS. The disease is considered severe when all three types of blood cells red blood cells (carry oxygen), white blood cells (fight infections) and platelets (help blood to clot) are very low in number.

I was kind of relieved it wasnt cancer, Little said. Then, doctors explained to me that its really not that good. It was devastating.

Little couldnt go back to school. With her compromised immune system, crowds are off limits. She cant play contact sports or do anything that could put her at risk of internal bleeding. She gets blood transfusions every week, and she can tell when shes due for another by the dizziness and headaches she gets. The long-term risk of too many transfusions, Scribner said, is iron overload.

Most days, I feel OK, Little said. I dont really feel sick, which is good. But its hard to remember I cant do certain things.

Little is buying time until she can get a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside of the bones that produces the bodys blood cells. She didnt find a match among her family or with Be The Match a national bone marrow registry that contains 22.5 million adult donors.

Registering at the drive is simple. Potential donors must be between 18-44 years old and fill out basic paperwork and get their cheek swabbed to have their tissue type added to the registry a process that takes just a few minutes. After that, they will remain registered until age 61, unless they withdraw.

However for those in need of bone marrow finding a perfect match is not so easy.

Think about Megabucks and how hard it is to match that, said Jackie McLoon, Assistant Account Executive with Rhode Island Blood Center as well as a bone marrow donor. McLoon, a representative with Be the Match, has helped the USM soccer team organize its drive. Everyday, there are donors getting added to the database. Hopefully, her match shows up one of these days.

Only 30 percent of patients in need of a marrow transplant have a matching donor in their family. Be The Match helps the 14,000 patients a year who suffer from leukemia, lymphoma or a variety of bone marrow functioning diseases. McLoon said a protein called human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is used to match patients with donors, and potential matches will then undergo bloodwork to determine if they would be a good fit. Only about 1 in 500 registrants go on to actually donate marrow.

There are 10 things that they are supposed to match, Little said. They think one of my 10 is very rare.

But her teammates are optimistic. On Saturday, they attended a home basketball game clad in T-shirts adorned with the phrase: All for Ally. They gushed about Littles kind personality and reminisced about all the times they crashed in her room.

Shes the best teammate ever. Shes so sweet oh my god, I love her, said Jessica Preble, a sophomore on the team. If you ask anything of her, shell drop everything and do it.

This team is kind of used to bad things happening to our girls, said Dayna Staffiere, noting that one of their teammates lost her dad at sea last season when the cargo ship El Faro sank after encountering Hurricane Joaquin. It just brings us all closer.

When Little isnt at the hospital, shes usually working on her online classes or walking her dog. She said the support from family, friends and her soccer team is what keeps her going.

Were the ones who are supposed to be strong for her, but shes so strong for us, Preble said. Just a cheek swab and some paperwork could help save her life.

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USM women's soccer players organize bone marrow drive for teammate with rare disease - Press Herald

Jillian Altenburg: Sharing her gift of lifeand bone marrowwith young leukemia patient – Cut Bank Pioneer Press

An act of kindness can change your life in a positive way. But how much better would it be if that same act ends up changing someone elses life in an amazing way too? Jillian Altenburg can answer that.

It will change me for the better, but I am even happier I have the ability to change someone elses life for the better, Jillian said.

This month, Jillian will go through a bone marrow donor procedure for a little child struggling with leukemia. Not only will this change Jillian forever, but it gives a small child a new chance at life.

Jillian, the daughter of Gary Altenburg and Lori Altenburg, is a Cut Bank High School 2013 graduate. She will be part of another graduation this May when she receives her nursing degree from the MSU-BSN college of nursing program in Great Falls.

Jillian first learned about being a bone marrow donor while in her freshman year of college at MSU-Bozeman. It was during one of my classes we heard about a child who was looking for a bone marrow match and after class the organization called Be the Match was introduced to us.

Be the Match is an organization that matches bone marrow donors to patients in need of a bone marrow transplant. Jillian became a potential donor that day after class when she had her cheek swabbed and entered into the program.

It was a few years before she heard anything from Be the Match, but this past December Jillian received a call saying she could be a match for a patient needing bone marrow.

I didnt know if I was the only match or if there were other potential matches too, Jillian stated. They asked me to do some blood work and they said it usually takes 60 days to determine if I would be a perfect match. But it only took a week for them to get back to me and let me know I was a perfect match for this little child with leukemia.

It was then that things started happening fast for Jillian. They told me that the child was in remission and that there is a window of time to do the procedure, so they gave me the date it would be done and where I needed to be for the procedure and explained what would be happening. And Be the Match would be picking up the tab for everything.

According to Jillian, there are two ways to collect bone marrow. One of those is by putting needles in my arm to gather stem cells. The other is by cutting a slit on both sides of my pelvis and inserting a hollow needle into the bone to pull out what they need. Normally they can take up to six cups of bone marrow, but with this being a child needing the bone marrow, they probably will not need that much.

After the procedure, Jillian will be discharged but will need to stay close to the hospital for another night in a hotel to make sure all is okay. Once that is determined, she can return home.

They say the procedure is painful and I will be sore. But ever since I learned I was a match, there was no choice in this for me. I actually feel like the lucky one, having this opportunity to help this child, Jillian said.

Within seven days of harvesting Jillians bone marrow, the child will receive the bone marrow that is so desperately needed for survival. During that time, Jillian should feel better and better each day. And within two weeks of having made the donation, Jillians body will have replaced the bone marrow taken from her.

Even though Be the Match tells all their potential donors that they can opt out of the program at any time, that was not an option for Jillian. Once they start prepping the patient to receive a bone marrow transplant, they really dont want people to say they have changed their minds. I have no intention of doing that anyway. When they called me, it was not a decision I had to think about. I knew I was going to do it. It feels good to be able to help someone and change their life for the better, she said.

The day Jillian shared the news with her mom Lori, that she was a potential bone marrow match for someone, Lori said, I got that warm, fuzzy feeling, but as we spoke longer it turned to worry, mostly for this child who has had to deal with these awful circumstances. I knew Jillian would be fine. She is strong, very physically fit and young. She has everything going for her in being a good donor.

Lori will be accompanying Jillian when she has the procedure done and will be there for her all the way through to recovery. We have always teased Jillian that she is still attached to her moms umbilical cord, so we both know I have to go, even though I know it doesnt stretch quite that far, laughed Lori.

Lori admitted she did not know Jillian had even put her name into the Be the Match program. We have lost many loved ones due to cancer, with number one being Jillians Grama Nancy (Loris mom). Even so, when I got the call from Jillian that she was contacted by the Be the Match program because she was a possible bone marrow match, it was very, very surprising. But I feel super proud and very blessed that she was chosen. To say I am not a little nervous would be a fib, but she will be in good hands and we know friends and family are praying for her and the child who will receive the donation, Lori shared.

For a year following the transplant, Jillian will not know the name of the child she made the donation to. I can find out through Be the Match how this little one is doing, but for up to a year they want me to remain anonymous. After a year, we can have contact.

As Jillian said, she knew without a doubt, she would be going through this procedure the minute she was called and told she was a perfect match. And while she admitted she is a little scared, she countered that with, It will be worth it.

There are two lives being changed with one procedure. Jillians life will be forever changed by this. And the young child? With Jillians donation, there is hope that many years can be added to that young little life.

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Jillian Altenburg: Sharing her gift of lifeand bone marrowwith young leukemia patient - Cut Bank Pioneer Press

Program seeks to boost bone marrow, stem cell donations from indigenous people – CTV News

By filling out a form, and swabbing his mouth, Harlee O'Watch could save a life.

"To find a match, because the list of donors is so low, is really unlikely," said the 22-year-old.

O'Watch is one of four young adults from Carry the Kettle First Nation who registered with the OneMatch program, which connects donors with people in need of bone marrow or stem cell transplants.

A problem for the 14 indigenous people currently waiting for a match is that, out of the 17,000 people on the Canadian registry, fewer than one per cent are indigenous.

"It doesn't give me much hope if I ever get sick and need a blood transfusion or bone marrow transplant, said OWatch.

It doesn't give me much hope because, if there's no potential matches, I'm going to die, bottom line, and I don't want to die."

Robyn Henwood works for Canadian Blood Services, which runs OneMatch. She covers Alberta to Northern Ontario and the Northwest Territories, including the Prairies, and visited Carry the Kettle to recruit. A match requires a genetic twin and indigenous people are only in Canada.

"It does get more complicated [with] these different ethnic backgrounds. . . even within First Nations that get brought into it, said Henwood.

The chances of finding a match becomes that much more difficult."

This means someone who is Cree cannot donate to someone who is Mohawk, she said.

In the past year, Canadian Blood Services has visited less than 12 reserves to help find matches for indigenous people. Carry the Kettle is Henwoods third community.

"We have been leaving messages and voicemails, not getting a lot of response back, she said.

I'm hoping a new technique will work. Things like this, this is so important to spread our message."

According to Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, more than 50 per cent of indigenous people live in urban centres. And yet, Henwood says finding indigenous donors in cities is also a struggle.

"Trying to get someone to sign up and commit for the next 30 to 40 years, to potentially save a stranger's life is not an easy thing to do," she said.

Henwood says informing indigenous people about one match will empower more to donate. Until then, the chance of survival for those waiting on the registry is low.

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Program seeks to boost bone marrow, stem cell donations from indigenous people - CTV News

Quebec family hopes to raise awareness for patients in need with stem cell registry drive –

Its been a long and difficult road for West Island resident Kevin Butterfill and his Fiance Natasha Camacho-Gomes.

Kevin had testicular cancer in Oct. 2015, he did chemo, he then had the tumor removed and he was in remission, Gomes said.

Its what happened in July 2016 that is causing a lot of grief for Butterfills loved ones.

He proposed to Camacho-Gomes, his girlfriend since 2009, but a week later more health complications arose.

He was diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) which is a bone marrow disorder.

And to make matters even worse, Butterfill found out the MDS transformed into acute myeloid leukemia in January.

The past two years have been a roller coaster ride for Kevins mother, Heather Butterfill.

Were staying strong, Heather Butterfill said. Im very faithful that hes going to come out of this stronger than ever.

On Saturday, family and friendsgathered at a Provigo grocery store in Kirkland, encouraging those who know Kevin to sign-up to the bone marrow registry.

READ MORE:Venclexta gets accelerated approval to treat leukemia

Butterfill will need a bone marrow stem cell transplant to recover from the leukemia.

However, according to Hema-Qubec stem cell registry manager Susie Joron, the odds of the perfect match being a friend are slim.

Theres 60,000 transplants every year worldwide, Joron said. The chances of having a friend or a neighbour being matched to that one person that we know is very unlikely.

Gomes said the aim of the event is raise awareness about the stem cell donor registry.

A lot of people were interested in joining and trying to see if they were Kevins match, Camacho-Gomes said.

But a really important thing [to note] is that when you join the stem cell registry youre tested against everyone, so you have the potential to save anyones life.

Regardless of who ends up being Butterfills perfect match, friends like Jonathan Coleman are still hoping they can help.

To hear something like this happen to somebody like that, a good-hearted kid, it sucks and sad to hear, Coleman said. You want do anything you can to help him out.

READ MORE:Id do it again in a heartbeat: debunking myths around stem cell donation as #MenGiveLife kicks off

While Butterfill awaits news of a bone marrow donor for his stem cell transplant, Gomes will hope for a perfect match and move on to planning their wedding.

They set a tentative date for Victoria Day 2018.

For more information on stem cell donation and the registry, visit the Hma-Quebec website.

2017Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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Quebec family hopes to raise awareness for patients in need with stem cell registry drive -

Yes there’s hope, but treating spinal injuries with stem cells is not a reality yet – The Conversation AU

The 2017 Australian of the Year award went to Professor Alan Mackay-Sim for his significant career in stem cell science.

The prize was linked to barbeque-stopping headlines equating his achievements to the scientific equivalent of the moon landing and paving the road to recovery for people with spinal cord injuries.

Such claims in the media imply that there is now a scientifically proven stem cell treatment for spinal cord injury. This is not the case.

For now, any clinic or headline claiming miracle cures should be viewed with caution, as they are likely to be trading on peoples hope.

Put simply, injury to the spinal cord causes damage to the nerve cells that transmit information between the brain and the rest of the body.

Depending on which part of the spine is involved, the injury can affect the nerves that control the muscles in our legs and arms; those that control bowel and bladder function and how we regulate body temperature and blood pressure; and those that carry the sensation of being touched. This occurs in part because injury and subsequent scarring affect not just the nerves but also the insulation that surrounds and protects them. The insulation the myelin sheath is damaged and the body cannot usually completely replace or regenerate this covering.

Stem cells can self-reproduce and grow into hundreds of different cell types, including nerves and the cells that make myelin. So the blue-sky vision is that stem cells could restore some nerve function by replacing missing or faulty cells, or prevent further damage caused by scarring.

Studies in animals have applied stem cells derived from sources including brain tissue, the lining of the nasal cavity, tooth pulp, and embryos (known as embryonic stem cells).

Dramatic improvements have been shown on some occasions, such as rats and mice regaining bladder control or the ability to walk after injury. While striking, such improvement often represents only a partial recovery. It holds significant promise, but is not direct evidence that such an approach will work in people, particularly those with more complex injuries.

The translation of findings from basic laboratory stem cell research to effective and safe treatments in the clinic involves many steps and challenges. It needs a firm scientific basis from animal studies and then careful evaluation in humans.

Many clinical studies examining stem cells for spinal repair are currently underway. The approaches fit broadly into two categories:

using stem cells as a source of cells to replace those damaged as a result of injury

applying cells to act on the bodys own cells to accelerate repair or prevent further damage.

One study that has attracted significant interest involves the injection of myelin-producing cells made from human embryonic stem cells. Researchers hoped that these cells, once injected into the spinal cord, would mature and form a new coating on the nerve cells, restoring the ability of signals to cross the spinal cord injury site. Preliminary results seem to show that the cells are safe; studies are ongoing.

Other clinical trials use cells from patients own bone marrow or adipose tissue (fat), or from donated cord blood or nerves from fetal tissue. The scientific rationale is based on the possibility that when transplanted into the injured spinal cord, these cells may provide surrounding tissue with protective factors which help to re-establish some of the connections important for the network of nerves that carry information around the body.

The field as it stands combines years of research, and tens of millions of dollars of investment. However, the development of stem cell therapies for spinal cord injury remains a long way from translating laboratory promise into proven and effective bedside treatments.

Each case is unique in people with spinal cord injury: the level of paralysis, and loss of sensation and function relate to the type of injury and its location. Injuries as a result of stab wounds or infection may result in different outcomes from those incurred as a result of trauma from a car accident or serious fall. The previous health of those injured, the care received at the time of injury, and the type of rehabilitation they access can all impact on subsequent health and mobility.

Such variability means caution needs to accompany claims of man walking again particularly when reports relate to a single individual.

In the case that was linked to the Australian of the Year award, the actual 2013 study focused on whether it was safe to take the patients own nerves and other cells from the nose and place these into the damaged region of the spine. While the researchers themselves recommended caution in interpreting the results, accompanying media reports focused on the outcome from just one of the six participants.

While the outcome was significant for the gentleman involved, we simply do not know whether recovery may have occurred for this individual even without stem cells, given the type of injury (stab wounds), the level of injury, the accompanying rehabilitation that he received or a combination of these factors. It cannot be assumed a similar outcome would be the case for all people with spinal injury.

Finding a way to alleviate the suffering of those with spinal cord injury, and many other conditions, drives the work of thousands of researchers and doctors around the globe. But stem cells are not a silver bullet and should not be immune from careful evaluation in clinical trials.

Failure to proceed with caution could actually cause harm. For example, a paraplegic woman who was also treated with nasal stem cells showed no clinical improvement, and developed a large mucus-secreting tumour in her spine. This case highlights the need for further refinement and assessment in properly conducted clinical trials before nasal stem cells can become part of mainstream medicine.

Its also worth noting that for spinal cord injury, trials for recovery of function are not limited to the use of stem cells but include approaches focused on promoting health of surviving nerves (neuroprotection), surgery following injury, nerve transfers, electrical stimulation, external physical supports known as exoskeletons, nanotechnology and brain-machine interfaces.

Ultimately, determining which of these approaches will improve the lives of people with spinal injury can only be done through rigorous, ethical research.

Original post:
Yes there's hope, but treating spinal injuries with stem cells is not a reality yet - The Conversation AU

Search goes on for bone marrow match for little Longworth lad … – Oxford Mail

ANDREW and Judy Kim are still searching the globe for a donor for their two-year-old son after he was diagnosed with a rare genetic condition.

The couple's son Alastair was diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disorder (CGD) in February last year.

Mr and Mrs Kim launched an appeal for help in September but the search is still on for a matching donor and their son still needs hospital treatment.

The life-threatening condition wipes out his immune system, meaning even the most minor infections leave him seriously ill.

A course of genetic therapy treatment to help him fight infections has been launched and Alastair has been treated at Oxford Children's Hospital and Great Ormond Street Hospital in London.

The only hope of a permanent cure lies in a bone marrow stem cell donor but it needs to be a 90 per cent genetic match and the family is calling for more East Asians to sign up as donors.

Mr Kim, 37, a medical research engineer, said: "It is not easy to find a match and we pray every day that it will work out.

"We have to make sure that Alastair does not get a cut because it could get infected and he does not have the ability to fight off bacteria.

"That could cascade down the line to something very dangerous for him.

"If we get ill then we have to stay away from him he loves our dog Choco Pie but he is not allowed to stroke her.

"We are doing our best to stay positive and raise awareness about his condition."

Mr and Mrs Kim, who live near Longworth with their other son Micah, five, have already searched the international register of more than four million donors but without success.

They are both of Korean descent so a matching donor will most likely be of Korean, Japanese or Chinese heritage.

The number of East Asians on international donor registers is very limited of the 617,000 registered donors in the UK just 0.5 per cent are east Asian.

The couple, who moved to Oxfordshire from Chicago nine years ago, are now appealing for people around the world, particularly East Asians, to order a free kit through a website they have set up, and take a two-minute home test to see if they could help.

Alastair has had numerous infections since he was born in September 2014.

He spent the first year-and-a-half of his life in and out of hospital but CGD is so rare, doctors never thought to test him for it but eventually a doctor at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford decided to test Alastair for the condition.

The couple desperately want to find a matching donor, but also want to increase the number of East Asians on the donor register.

The couple have run several blood drives at Mrs Kim's office at Oxford University and at Harwell Oxford.

More than 90 people came forward and of those, five were able to donate blood that helped Alastair to fight infections.

Mr Kim added: "At a couple of blood drives we have found matches for other people and hopefully one day a match will found for Alastair."

To join the register go to

See original here:
Search goes on for bone marrow match for little Longworth lad ... - Oxford Mail

Bone Marrow Transplantation | Hematology and Oncology

What is a bone marrow transplant?

Bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a special therapy for patients with certain cancers or other diseases. A bone marrow transplant involves taking cells that are normally found in the bone marrow (stem cells), filtering those cells, and giving them back either to the donor (patient) or to another person. The goal of BMT is to transfuse healthy bone marrow cells into a person after their own unhealthy bone marrow has been treated to kill the abnormal cells.

Bone marrow transplant has been used successfully to treat diseases such as leukemias, lymphomas, aplastic anemia, immune deficiency disorders, and some solid tumor cancers since 1968.

What is bone marrow?

Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside bones. It is the medium for development and storage of most of the body's blood cells.

The blood cells that produce other blood cells are called stem cells. The most primitive of the stem cells is called the pluripotent stem cell, which is different than other blood cells with regards to the following properties:

It is the stem cells that are needed in bone marrow transplant.

Why is a bone marrow transplant needed?

The goal of a bone marrow transplant is to cure many diseases and types of cancer. When the doses of chemotherapy or radiation needed to cure a cancer are so high that a person's bone marrow stem cells will be permanently damaged or destroyed by the treatment, a bone marrow transplant may be needed. Bone marrow transplants may also be needed if the bone marrow has been destroyed by a disease.

A bone marrow transplant can be used to:

The risks and benefits must be weighed in a thorough discussion with your doctor and specialists in bone marrow transplants prior to procedure.

What are some diseases that may benefit from bone marrow transplant?

The following diseases are the ones that most commonly benefit from bone marrow transplant:

However, patients experience diseases differently, and bone marrow transplant may not be appropriate for everyone who suffers from these diseases.

What are the different types of bone marrow transplants?

There are different types of bone marrow transplants depending on who the donor is. The different types of BMT include the following:

How are a donor and recipient matched?

Matching involves typing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue. The antigens on the surface of these special white blood cells determine the genetic makeup of a person's immune system. There are at least 100 HLA antigens; however, it is believed that there are a few major antigens that determine whether a donor and recipient match. The others are considered "minor" and their effect on a successful transplant is not as well-defined.

Medical research is still investigating the role all antigens play in the process of a bone marrow transplant. The more antigens that match, the better the engraftment of donated marrow. Engraftment of the stem cells occurs when the donated cells make their way to the marrow and begin producing new blood cells.

Most of the genes that "code" for the human immune system are on one chromosome. Since we only have two of each chromosome, one we received from each of our parents, a full sibling of a patient in need of a transplant has a one in four chance of having gotten the same set of chromosomes and being a "full match" for transplantation.

The bone marrow transplant team

The group of specialists involved in the care of patients going through transplant is often referred to as the transplant team. All individuals work together to provide the best chance for a successful transplant. The team consists of the following:

An extensive evaluation is completed by the bone marrow transplant team. The decision for you to undergo a bone marrow transplant will be based on many factors, including the following:

For a patient receiving the transplant, the following will occur in advance of the procedure:

Preparation for the donor

How are the stem cells collected?

A bone marrow transplant is done by transferring stem cells from one person to another. Stem cells can either be collected from the circulating cells in the blood (the peripheral system) or from the bone marrow.

If the donor is the person himself or herself, it is called an autologous bone marrow transplant. If an autologous transplant is planned, previously collected stem cells, from either peripheral (apheresis) or harvest, are counted, screened, and ready to infuse.

The bone marrow transplant procedure

The preparations for a bone marrow transplant vary depending on the type of transplant, the disease requiring transplant, and your tolerance for certain medications. Consider the following:

The days before transplant are counted as minus days. The day of transplant is considered day zero. Engraftment and recovery following the transplant are counted as plus days. For example, a patient may enter the hospital on day -8 for preparative regimen. The day of transplant is numbered zero. Days +1, +2, etc., will follow. There are specific events, complications, and risks associated with each day before, during, and after transplant. The days are numbered to help the patient and family understand where they are in terms of risks and discharge planning.

During infusion of bone marrow, the patient may experience the following:

After infusion, the patient may:

After leaving the hospital, the recovery process continues for several months or longer, during which time the patient cannot return to work or many previously enjoyed activities. The patient must also make frequent follow-up visits to the hospital or doctor's office.

When does engraftment occur?

Engraftment of the stem cells occurs when the donated cells make their way to the marrow and begin producing new blood cells. Depending on the type of transplant and the disease being treated, engraftment usually occurs around day +15 or +30. Blood counts will be checked frequently during the days following transplant to evaluate initiation and progress of engraftment. Platelets are generally the last blood cell to recover.

Engraftment can be delayed because of infection, medications, low donated stem cell count, or graft failure. Although the new bone marrow may begin making cells in the first 30 days following transplant, it may take months, even years, for the entire immune system to fully recover.

What complications and side effects may occur following BMT?

Complications may vary, depending on the following:

The following are complications that may occur with a bone marrow transplant. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. These complications may also occur alone, or in combination:

Long-term outlook for a bone marrow transplantation

Prognosis greatly depends on the following:

As with any procedure, in bone marrow transplant the prognosis and long-term survival can vary greatly from person to person. The number of transplants being done for an increasing number of diseases, as well as ongoing medical developments, have greatly improved the outcome for bone marrow transplant in children and adults. Continuous follow-up care is essential for the patient following a bone marrow transplant. New methods to improve treatment and to decrease complications and side effects of a bone marrow transplant are continually being discovered.

More here:
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Hematology and Oncology

Donating Bone Marrow | Cancer.Net

Bone marrow is a soft, spongy material found in your large bones. It makes more than 200 billion new blood cells every day, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. But for people with bone marrow disease, including several types of cancer, the process doesnt work properly. Often, a bone marrow transplant is a persons best chance of survival and a possible cure. The good news is that donating bone marrow can be as easy and painless as giving blood.

A bone marrow transplant replaces diseased bone marrow with healthy tissue, usually stem cells found in the blood. Thats why bone marrow transplants are also called stem cell transplants. In an allogeneic transplantation (ALLO transplant), blood stem cells from the bone marrow are transplanted from a donor into the patient. The donor stem cells can come from either the blood that circulates throughout another persons body or from umbilical cord blood.

But theres a catch. Before a person receives an ALLO transplant, a matching donor must be found using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. This special blood test analyzes HLAs, which are specific proteins on the surface of white blood cells and other cells that make each persons tissue type unique. HLA-matched bone marrow is less likely to cause a possible side effect of transplantation called graft vs. host disease (GVHD). GVHD is when immune cells in the transplanted tissue recognize the recipients body as foreign and attack it.

Only about 30% of people who need a transplant can find an HLA-matched donor in their immediate family. For the remaining 70% of people, doctors need to find HLA-matched bone marrow from other donors. In 2016, that equals about 14,000 people from very young children up to older adults in the United States who need to find a donor outside of their close family.

The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) has a registry of potential donors that might be the match a patient needs. Heres how the donation process works:

You register with the NMDP online or in person at a donor center. You can find a center by calling the toll-free number 1-800-MARROW2.

You collect cells from your cheek with a cotton swab or provide a small blood sample. This is done by following directions in a mail-in kit or at a donor center. The sample is analyzed to determine your HLA type, which is recorded in the NMDP national database.

If an HLA match is made with a patient in need, the NMDP contacts you. A donor center takes a new sample of your blood, which is sent to the patients transplant center to confirm the HLA match. Once doctors confirm the match, youd meet with a counselor from the NMDP to talk about the procedures, benefits, and risks of the donation process. You then decide whether youre comfortable with donating.

If you agree to donate bone marrow, youll likely do whats called a peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection. Heres how it works:

For 5 days leading up to the donation, youll get a daily 5-minute injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a white blood cell growth hormone.

On day 5, a trained health care provider will place a needle in each of your arms. One needle will remove blood, and a machine circulates the blood and collects the stem cells. Your blood then is returned to your body through the second needle. The process takes about 3 hours and may be repeated on a second donation day. Side effects include headaches, bone soreness, and discomfort from the needles during the process.

Although less common, some donors may be asked to undergo a bone marrow harvest, during which doctors take bone marrow from the back of a donors hip bone during surgery. Donors usually go home the same day of the surgery and can return to normal activity within 1 week. Common side effects include nausea, headache, and fatigue, most often related to the anesthesia. Bruising or discomfort in the lower back is also common.

The end result? You could help cure someones disease.

Read the rest here:
Donating Bone Marrow | Cancer.Net

Bone – Wikipedia

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals and also enable mobility as well as support for the body. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. Mineralized osseous tissue, or bone tissue, is of two types, cortical and cancellous, and gives a bone rigidity and a coral-like three-dimensional internal structure. Other types of tissue found in bones include marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage.

Bone is an active tissue composed of different types of bone cells. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the creation and mineralisation of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the reabsorption of bone tissue. The mineralised matrix of bone tissue has an organic component of mainly collagen called ossein and an inorganic component of bone mineral made up of various salts.

In the human body at birth, there are over 270 bones,[1] but many of these fuse together during development, leaving a total of 206 separate bones in the adult,[2] not counting numerous small sesamoid bones. The largest bone in the body is the thigh-bone (femur) and the smallest is the stapes in the middle ear.

Bone is not a uniformly solid material, but is mostly a matrix. The primary tissue of bone, bone tissue (osseous tissue), is relatively hard and lightweight. Its matrix is mostly made up of a composite material incorporating the inorganic mineral calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxylapatite (this is the bone mineral that gives bones their rigidity) and collagen, an elastic protein which improves fracture resistance.[3] Bone is formed by the hardening of this matrix around entrapped cells. When these cells become entrapped from osteoblasts they become osteocytes.[citation needed]

The hard outer layer of bones is composed of cortical bone also called compact bone. Cortical referring to the outer (cortex) layer. The hard outer layer gives bone its smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult human skeleton.[citation needed] However, that proportion may be much lower, especially in marine mammals and marine turtles, or in various Mesozoic marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs,[4] among others.[5]

Cortical bone consists of multiple microscopic columns, each called an osteon. Each column is multiple layers of osteoblasts and osteocytes around a central canal called the Haversian canal. Volkmann's canals at right angles connect the osteons together. The columns are metabolically active, and as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. Cortical bone is covered by a periosteum on its outer surface, and an endosteum on its inner surface. The endosteum is the boundary between the cortical bone and the cancellous bone.

Filling the interior of the bone is the cancellous bone also known as trabecular or spongy bone tissue. It is an open cell porous network. Thin formations of osteoblasts covered in endosteum create an irregular network of spaces. Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Trabecular marrow is composed of a network of rod- and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allow room for blood vessels and marrow. Trabecular bone accounts for the remaining 20% of total bone mass but has nearly ten times the surface area of compact bone.[8]

Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue, can be found in almost any bone that holds cancellous tissue. In newborns, all such bones are filled exclusively with red marrow, but as the child ages it is mostly replaced by yellow, or fatty marrow. In adults, red marrow is mostly found in the bone marrow of the femur, the ribs, the vertebrae and pelvic bones.[citation needed]

Bone is a metabolically active tissue composed of several types of cells. These cells include osteoblasts, which are involved in the creation and mineralization of bone tissue, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, which are involved in the reabsorption of bone tissue. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are derived from osteoprogenitor cells, but osteoclasts are derived from the same cells that differentiate to form macrophages and monocytes. Within the marrow of the bone there are also hematopoietic stem cells. These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Bones consist of living cells embedded in a mineralized organic matrix. This matrix consists of organic components, mainly collagen "organic" referring to materials produced as a result of the human body and inorganic components, primarily hydroxyapatite and other salts of calcium and phosphate. Above 30% of the acellular part of bone consists of the organic components, and 70% of salts. The strands of collagen give bone its tensile strength, and the interspersed crystals of hydroxyapatite give bone its compressional strength. These effects are synergistic.

The inorganic composition of bone (bone mineral) is primarily formed from salts of calcium and phosphate, the major salt being hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). The exact composition of the matrix may change over time and with nutrition, with the ratio of calcium to phosphate varying between 1.3 and 2.0 (per weight), and trace minerals such as magnesium, sodium, potassium and carbonate also being found.

The organic part of matrix is mainly composed of Type I collagen. Collagen composes 9095% of the organic matrix, with remainder of the matrix being a homogenous liquid called ground substance consisting of proteoglycans such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Collagen consists of strands of repeating units, which give bone tensile strength, and are arranged in an overlapping fashion that prevents shear stress. The function of ground substance is not fully known. Two types of bone can be identified microscopically according to the arrangement of collagen:

Woven bone is produced when osteoblasts produce osteoid rapidly, which occurs initially in all fetal bones, but is later replaced by more resilient lamellar bone. In adults woven bone is created after fractures or in Paget's disease. Woven bone is weaker, with a smaller number of randomly oriented collagen fibers, but forms quickly; it is for this appearance of the fibrous matrix that the bone is termed woven. It is soon replaced by lamellar bone, which is highly organized in concentric sheets with a much lower proportion of osteocytes to surrounding tissue. Lamellar bone, which makes its first appearance in humans in the fetus during the third trimester,[16] is stronger and filled with many collagen fibers parallel to other fibers in the same layer (these parallel columns are called osteons). In cross-section, the fibers run in opposite directions in alternating layers, much like in plywood, assisting in the bone's ability to resist torsion forces. After a fracture, woven bone forms initially and is gradually replaced by lamellar bone during a process known as "bony substitution." Compared to woven bone, lamellar bone formation takes place more slowly. The orderly deposition of collagen fibers restricts the formation of osteoid to about 1 to 2m per day. Lamellar bone also requires a relatively flat surface to lay the collagen fibers in parallel or concentric layers.[citation needed]

The extracellular matrix of bone is laid down by osteoblasts, which secrete both collagen and ground substance. These synthesise collagen within the cell, and then secrete collagen fibrils. The collagen fibres rapidly polymerise to form collagen strands. At this stage they are not yet mineralised, and are called "osteoid". Around the strands calcium and phosphate precipitate on the surface of these strands, within a days to weeks becoming crystals of hydroxyapatite.

In order to mineralise the bone, the osteoblasts secrete vesicles containing alkaline phosphatase. This cleaves the phosphate groups and acts as the foci for calcium and phosphate deposition. The vesicles then rupture and act as a centre for crystals to grow on. More particularly, bone mineral is formed from globular and plate structures.[17][18]

There are five types of bones in the human body: long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid.[19]

In the study of anatomy, anatomists use a number of anatomical terms to describe the appearance, shape and function of bones. Other anatomical terms are also used to describe the location of bones. Like other anatomical terms, many of these derive from Latin and Greek. Some anatomists still use Latin to refer to bones. The term "osseous", and the prefix "osteo-", referring to things related to bone, are still used commonly today.

Some examples of terms used to describe bones include the term "foramen" to describe a hole through which something passes, and a "canal" or "meatus" to describe a tunnel-like structure. A protrusion from a bone can be called a number of terms, including a "condyle", "crest", "spine", "eminence", "tubercle" or "tuberosity", depending on the protrusion's shape and location. In general, long bones are said to have a "head", "neck", and "body".

When two bones join together, they are said to "articulate". If the two bones have a fibrous connection and are relatively immobile, then the joint is called a "suture".

The formation of bone is called ossification. During the fetal stage of development this occurs by two processes, Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.[citation needed] Intramembranous ossification involves the creation of bone from connective tissue, whereas in the process of endochondral ossification bone is created from cartilage.

Intramembranous ossification mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones of the skull but also the mandible, maxilla, and clavicles; the bone is formed from connective tissue such as mesenchyme tissue rather than from cartilage. The steps in intramembranous ossification are:[citation needed]

Endochondral ossification, on the other hand, occurs in long bones and most of the rest of the bones in the body; it involves an initial hyaline cartilage that continues to grow. The steps in endochondral ossification are:[citation needed]

Endochondral ossification begins with points in the cartilage called "primary ossification centers." They mostly appear during fetal development, though a few short bones begin their primary ossification after birth. They are responsible for the formation of the diaphyses of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones. Secondary ossification occurs after birth, and forms the epiphyses of long bones and the extremities of irregular and flat bones. The diaphysis and both epiphyses of a long bone are separated by a growing zone of cartilage (the epiphyseal plate). When the child reaches skeletal maturity (18 to 25 years of age), all of the cartilage is replaced by bone, fusing the diaphysis and both epiphyses together (epiphyseal closure).[citation needed] In the upper limbs, only the diaphyses of the long bones and scapula are ossified. The epiphyses, carpal bones, coracoid process, medial border of the scapula, and acromion are still cartilaginous.[21]

The following steps are followed in the conversion of cartilage to bone:

Bones have a variety of functions:

Bones serve a variety of mechanical functions. Together the bones in the body form the skeleton. They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, which function together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in three-dimensional space (the interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics).

Bones protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs. Because of the way that bone is formed, bone has a high compressive strength of about 170 MPa (1800 kgf/cm),[3] poor tensile strength of 104121 MPa, and a very low shear stress strength (51.6 MPa).[23][24] This means that bone resists pushing(compressional) stress well, resist pulling(tensional) stress less well, but only poorly resists shear stress (such as due to torsional loads). While bone is essentially brittle, bone does have a significant degree of elasticity, contributed chiefly by collagen. The macroscopic yield strength of cancellous bone has been investigated using high resolution computer models.[25]

Mechanically, bones also have a special role in hearing. The ossicles are three small bones in the middle ear which are involved in sound transduction.

Cancellous bones contain bone marrow. Bone marrow produces blood cells in a process called hematopoiesis.[26] Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. Progenitor cells such as the hematopoietic stem cell divide in a process called mitosis to produce precursor cells. These include precursors which eventually give rise to white blood cells, and erythroblasts which give rise to red blood cells. Unlike red and white blood cells, created by mitosis, platelets are shed from very large cells called megakaryocytes. This process of progressive differentiation occurs within the bone marrow. After the cells are matured, they enter the circulation. Every day, over 2.5 billion red blood cells and platelets, and 50100 billion granulocytes are produced in this way.

As well as creating cells, bone marrow is also one of the major sites where defective or aged red blood cells are destroyed.

Bone is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape. This is accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cells are stimulated by a variety of signals, and together referred to as a remodeling unit. Approximately 10% of the skeletal mass of an adult is remodelled each year.[32] The purpose of remodeling is to regulate calcium homeostasis, repair microdamaged bones from everyday stress, and also to shape and sculpt the skeleton during growth.[citation needed]. Repeated stress, such as weight-bearing exercise or bone healing, results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum stress (Wolff's law). It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bone's piezoelectric properties, which cause bone to generate small electrical potentials under stress.[33]

The action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are controlled by a number of chemical enzymes that either promote or inhibit the activity of the bone remodeling cells, controlling the rate at which bone is made, destroyed, or changed in shape. The cells also use paracrine signalling to control the activity of each other.[citation needed] For example, the rate at which osteoclasts resorb bone is inhibited by calcitonin and osteoprotegerin. Calcitonin is produced by parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland, and can bind to receptors on osteoclasts to directly inhibit osteoclast activity. Osteoprotegerin is secreted by osteoblasts and is able to bind RANK-L, inhibiting osteoclast stimulation.[34]

Osteoblasts can also be stimulated to increase bone mass through increased secretion of osteoid and by inhibiting the ability of osteoclasts to break down osseous tissue.[citation needed] Increased secretion of osteoid is stimulated by the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary, thyroid hormone and the sex hormones (estrogens and androgens). These hormones also promote increased secretion of osteoprotegerin.[34] Osteoblasts can also be induced to secrete a number of cytokines that promote reabsorbtion of bone by stimulating osteoclast activity and differentiation from progenitor cells. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and stimulation from osteocytes induce osteoblasts to increase secretion of RANK-ligand and interleukin 6, which cytokines then stimulate increased reabsorption of bone by osteoclasts. These same compounds also increase secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor by osteoblasts, which promotes the differentiation of progenitor cells into osteoclasts, and decrease secretion of osteoprotegerin.[citation needed]

Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested that certain growth factors may work to locally alter bone formation by increasing osteoblast activity. Numerous bone-derived growth factors have been isolated and classified via bone cultures. These factors include insulin-like growth factors I and II, transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and bone morphogenetic proteins.[35] Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the bone matrix. The release of these growth factors from the bone matrix could cause the proliferation of osteoblast precursors. Essentially, bone growth factors may act as potential determinants of local bone formation.[35] Research has suggested that trabecular bone volume in postemenopausal osteoporosis may be determined by the relationship between the total bone forming surface and the percent of surface resorption.[36]

A number of diseases can affect bone, including arthritis, fractures, infections, osteoporosis and tumours. Conditions relating to bone can be managed by a variety of doctors, including rheumatologists for joints, and orthopedic surgeons, who may conduct surgery to fix broken bones. Other doctors, such as rehabilitation specialists may be involved in recovery, radiologists in interpreting the findings on imaging, and pathologists in investigating the cause of the disease, and family doctors may play a role in preventing complications of bone disease such as osteoporosis.

When a doctor sees a patient, a history and exam will be taken. Bones are then often imaged, called radiography. This might include ultrasound X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan and other imaging such as a Bone scan, which may be used to investigate cancer. Other tests such as a blood test for autoimmune markers may be taken, or a synovial fluid aspirate may be taken.

In normal bone, fractures occur when there is significant force applied, or repetitive trauma over a long time. Fractures can also occur when a bone is weakened, such as with osteoporosis, or when there is a structural problem, such as when the bone remodels excessively (such as Paget's disease) or is the site of the growth of cancer. Common fractures include wrist fractures and hip fractures, associated with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures associated with high-energy trauma and cancer, and fractures of long-bones. Not all fractures are painful. When serious, depending on the fractures type and location, complications may include flail chest, compartment syndromes or fat embolism. Compound fractures involve the bone's penetration through the skin.

Fractures and their underlying causes can be investigated by X-rays, CT scans and MRIs. Fractures are described by their location and shape, and several classification systems exist, depending on the location of the fracture. A common long bone fracture in children is a SalterHarris fracture.[39] When fractures are managed, pain relief is often given, and the fractured area is often immobilised. This is to promote bone healing. In addition, surgical measures such as internal fixation may be used. Because of the immobilisation, people with fractures are often advised to undergo rehabilitation.

There are several types of tumour that can affect bone; examples of benign bone tumours include osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor of bone, aneurysmal bone cyst, and fibrous dysplasia of bone.

Cancer can arise in bone tissue, and bones are also a common site for other cancers to spread (metastasise) to. Cancers that arise in bone are called "primary" cancers, although such cancers are rare. Metastases within bone are "secondary" cancers, with the most common being breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, and kidney cancer. Secondary cancers that affect bone can either destroy bone (called a "lytic" cancer) or create bone (a "sclerotic" cancer). Cancers of the bone marrow inside the bone can also affect bone tissue, examples including leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone may also be affected by cancers in other parts of the body. Cancers in other parts of the body may release parathyroid hormone or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. This increases bone reabsorption, and can lead to bone fractures.

Bone tissue that is destroyed or altered as a result of cancers is distorted, weakened, and more prone to fracture. This may lead to compression of the spinal cord, destruction of the marrow resulting in bruising, bleeding and immunosuppression, and is one cause of bone pain. If the cancer is metastatic, then there might be other symptoms depending on the site of the original cancer. Some bone cancers can also be felt.

Cancers of the bone are managed according to their type, their stage, prognosis, and what symptoms they cause. Many primary cancers of bone are treated with radiotherapy. Cancers of bone marrow may be treated with chemotherapy, and other forms of targeted therapy such as immunotherapy may be used.Palliative care, which focuses on maximising a person's quality of life, may play a role in management, particularly if the likelihood of survival within five years is poor.

Osteoporosis is a disease of bone where there is reduced bone mineral density, increasing the likelihood of fractures. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass, relative to the age and sex-matched average, as measured by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, with the term "established osteoporosis" including the presence of a fragility fracture.[43] Osteoporosis is most common in women after menopause, when it is called "postmenopausal osteoporosis", but may develop in men and premenopausal women in the presence of particular hormonal disorders and other chronic diseases or as a result of smoking and medications, specifically glucocorticoids. Osteoporosis usually has no symptoms until a fracture occurs. For this reason, DEXA scans are often done in people with one or more risk factors, who have developed osteoporosis and be at risk of fracture.

Osteoporosis treatment includes advice to stop smoking, decrease alcohol consumption, exercise regularly, and have a healthy diet. Calcium supplements may also be advised, as may Vitamin D. When medication is used, it may include bisphosphonates, Strontium ranelate, and osteoporosis may be one factor considered when commencing Hormone replacement therapy.[44]

The study of bones and teeth is referred to as osteology. It is frequently used in anthropology, archeology and forensic science for a variety of tasks. This can include determining the nutritional, health, age or injury status of the individual the bones were taken from. Preparing fleshed bones for these types of studies can involve the process of maceration.

Typically anthropologists and archeologists study bone tools made by Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Bones can serve a number of uses such as projectile points or artistic pigments, and can also be made from external bones such as antlers.

Bird skeletons are very lightweight. Their bones are smaller and thinner, to aid flight. Among mammals, bats come closest to birds in terms of bone density, suggesting that small dense bones are a flight adaptation. Many bird bones have little marrow due to their being hollow.[45]

A bird's beak is primarily made of bone as projections of the mandibles which are covered in keratin.

A deer's antlers are composed of bone which is an unusual example of bone being outside the skin of the animal once the velvet is shed.[46]

The extinct predatory fish Dunkleosteus had sharp edges of hard exposed bone along its jaws.[citation needed]

Many animals possess an exoskeleton that is not made of bone, These include insects and crustaceans.

Bones from slaughtered animals have a number of uses. In prehistoric times, they have been used for making bone tools. They have further been used in bone carving, already important in prehistoric art, and also in modern time as crafting materials for buttons, beads, handles, bobbins, calculation aids, head nuts, dice, poker chips, pick-up sticks, ornaments, etc. A special genre is scrimshaw.

Bone glue can be made by prolonged boiling of ground or cracked bones, followed by filtering and evaporation to thicken the resulting fluid. Historically once important, bone glue and other animal glues today have only a few specialized uses, such as in antiques restoration. Essentially the same process, with further refinement, thickening and drying, is used to make gelatin.

Broth is made by simmering several ingredients for a long time, traditionally including bones.

Ground bones are used as an organic phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizer and as additive in animal feed. Bones, in particular after calcination to bone ash, are used as source of calcium phosphate for the production of bone china and previously also phosphorus chemicals.[citation needed]

Bone char, a porous, black, granular material primarily used for filtration and also as a black pigment, is produced by charring mammal bones.

Oracle bone script was a writing system used in Ancient china based on inscriptions in bones.

To point the bone at someone is considered bad luck in some cultures, such as Australian aborigines, such as by the Kurdaitcha.

Osteopathic medicine is a school of medical thought originally developed based on the idea of the link between the musculoskeletal system and overall health, but now very similar to mainstream medicine. As of 2012[update], over 77,000 physicians in the United States are trained in Osteopathic medicine colleges.[47]

The wishbones of fowl have been used for divination, and are still customarily used in a tradition to determine which one of two people pulling on either prong of the bone may make a wish.

Various cultures throughout history have adopted the custom of shaping an infant's head by the practice of artificial cranial deformation. A widely practised custom in China was that of foot binding to limit the normal growth of the foot.

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