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Merck Announces KEYNOTE-598 Trial Evaluating KEYTRUDA in Combination With Ipilimumab Versus KEYTRUDA Monotherapy in Certain Patients With Metastatic…

Merck Announces KEYNOTE-598 Trial Evaluating KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) in Combination With Ipilimumab Versus KEYTRUDA Monotherapy in Certain Patients With Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer To Stop for Futility and Patients to Discontinue Ipilimumab

Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that it will be stopping KEYNOTE-598, a Phase 3 trial investigating KEYTRUDA, Mercks anti-PD-1 therapy, in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy ), compared with KEYTRUDA monotherapy, for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors express PD-L1 (tumor proportion score [TPS] 50%) with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. Merck is discontinuing the study following the recommendation of an independent Data Monitoring Committee (DMC), which determined the benefit/risk profile of the combination did not support continuing the trial. At an interim analysis, the combination of KEYTRUDA and ipilimumab showed no incremental benefit in overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS), the studys dual primary endpoints, compared with KEYTRUDA alone and crossed futility boundaries. No new safety signals for KEYTRUDA monotherapy were observed, however the combination of KEYTRUDA and ipilimumab was associated with a higher incidence of grade 3-5 adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and AEs leading to discontinuation or death, compared with KEYTRUDA monotherapy. Merck will inform study investigators of the recommendation from the DMC and the DMC is advising that patients in the study discontinue treatment with ipilimumab/placebo. Data from this study will be submitted for presentation at an upcoming scientific congress and communicated to regulatory agencies.

We conducted KEYNOTE-598 in order to explicitly explore whether combining our anti-PD-1 therapy, KEYTRUDA, with ipilimumab provided additional benefits beyond treatment with KEYTRUDA alone in the metastatic non-small cell lung cancer setting, said Dr. Roy Baynes, senior vice president and head of global clinical development, chief medical officer, Merck Research Laboratories. It is very clear that in this study, the addition of ipilimumab did not add clinical benefit but did add toxicity. KEYTRUDA monotherapy remains a standard of care for the treatment of certain patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors express PD-L1.

While the combination of an anti-PD-1 therapy plus ipilimumab has been approved in certain indications, studies supporting these approvals have, for the most part, not compared the combination directly with anti-PD-1 monotherapy. Bristol Myers Squibb has reported topline results of CheckMate-915, a Phase 3 study in adjuvant melanoma that directly compared treatment with ipilimumab in combination with an anti-PD-1 therapy versus the anti-PD-1 therapy alone. In two separate news releases issued over the last year, the company announced the study did not meet its co-primary endpoints in the all-comer population or in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1

Merck has an extensive clinical development program in lung cancer and is advancing multiple registration-enabling studies with KEYTRUDA in combination with other treatments and as monotherapy. The lung program is evaluating KEYTRUDA across all stages of disease and lines of therapy in over 200 trials with more than 10,000 patients.

About KEYNOTE-598

KEYNOTE-598 (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03302234 ) is a randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 trial investigating KEYTRUDA in combination with ipilimumab compared to KEYTRUDA monotherapy for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors express PDL1 (TPS 50%) with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. The dual primary endpoints are OS and PFS. Secondary endpoints include objective response rate, duration of response and safety. The study enrolled 568 patients who were randomized (1:1) to receive:

About Lung Cancer

Lung cancer, which forms in the tissues of the lungs, usually within cells lining the air passages, is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than die of colon and breast cancers combined. The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell and small cell. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for about 85% of all cases. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 10% to 15% of all lung cancers. Before 2014, the five-year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the U.S. with NSCLC and SCLC was estimated to be 5% and 6%, respectively.

About KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Injection, 100 mg

KEYTRUDA is an anti-PD-1 therapy that works by increasing the ability of the bodys immune system to help detect and fight tumor cells. KEYTRUDA is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocytes which may affect both tumor cells and healthy cells.

Merck has the industrys largest immuno-oncology clinical research program. There are currently more than 1,200 trials studying KEYTRUDA across a wide variety of cancers and treatment settings. The KEYTRUDA clinical program seeks to understand the role of KEYTRUDA across cancers and the factors that may predict a patients likelihood of benefitting from treatment with KEYTRUDA, including exploring several different biomarkers.

Selected KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) Indications

Melanoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph node(s) following complete resection.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic squamous NSCLC.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with NSCLC expressing PD-L1 [tumor proportion score (TPS) 1%] as determined by an FDA-approved test, with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations, and is stage III where patients are not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, or metastatic.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors express PD-L1 (TPS 1%) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving KEYTRUDA.

Small Cell Lung Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy and at least 1 other prior line of therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with platinum and fluorouracil (FU), is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent HNSCC whose tumors express PD-L1 [combined positive score (CPS) 1] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL).

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients with refractory cHL, or cHL that has relapsed after 2 or more lines of therapy.

Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), or who have relapsed after 2 or more prior lines of therapy. KEYTRUDA is not recommended for treatment of patients with PMBCL who require urgent cytoreductive therapy.

Urothelial Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who are not eligible for cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and whose tumors express PD-L1 [combined positive score (CPS) 10], as determined by an FDA-approved test, or in patients who are not eligible for any platinum-containing chemotherapy regardless of PD-L1 status. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy or within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-unresponsive, high-risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with carcinoma in situ (CIS) with or without papillary tumors who are ineligible for or have elected not to undergo cystectomy.

Microsatellite Instability-High or Mismatch Repair Deficient Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR)

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials. The safety and effectiveness of KEYTRUDA in pediatric patients with MSI-H central nervous system cancers have not been established.

Microsatellite Instability-High or Mismatch Repair Deficient Colorectal Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic MSI-H or dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC).

Gastric Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after two or more prior lines of therapy including fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy and if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Esophageal Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 10) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy.

Cervical Cancer

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express PD-L1 (CPS 1) as determined by an FDA-approved test. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA, in combination with axitinib, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Tumor Mutational Burden-High

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic tumor mutational burden-high (TMB-H) [10 mutations/megabase (mut/Mb)] solid tumors, as determined by an FDA-approved test, that have progressed following prior treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials. The safety and effectiveness of KEYTRUDA in pediatric patients with TMB-H central nervous system cancers have not been established.

Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) that is not curable by surgery or radiation.

Selected Important Safety Information for KEYTRUDA

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Pneumonitis occurred in 3.4% (94/2799) of patients with various cancers receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 1 (0.8%), 2 (1.3%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (0.3%), and 5 (0.1%). Pneumonitis occurred in 8.2% (65/790) of NSCLC patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3-4 in 3.2% of patients, and occurred more frequently in patients with a history of prior thoracic radiation (17%) compared to those without (7.7%). Pneumonitis occurred in 6% (18/300) of HNSCC patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3-5 in 1.6% of patients, and occurred in 5.4% (15/276) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with platinum and FU as first-line therapy for advanced disease, including Grades 3-5 in 1.5% of patients. Pneumonitis occurred in 8% (31/389) of patients with cHL receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3-4 in 2.3% of patients.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis. Evaluate suspected pneumonitis with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold KEYTRUDA for Grade 2; permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 3 or 4 or recurrent Grade 2 pneumonitis.

Immune-Mediated Colitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated colitis. Colitis occurred in 1.7% (48/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.4%), 3 (1.1%), and 4 (

Immune-Mediated Hepatitis (KEYTRUDA) and Hepatotoxicity (KEYTRUDA in Combination With Axitinib)

Immune-Mediated Hepatitis

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. Hepatitis occurred in 0.7% (19/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.1%), 3 (0.4%), and 4 (

Hepatotoxicity in Combination With Axitinib

KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib can cause hepatic toxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grades 3 and 4 ALT and AST elevations compared to KEYTRUDA alone. With the combination of KEYTRUDA and axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT (20%) and increased AST (13%) were seen. Monitor liver enzymes before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are administered as single agents. For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt KEYTRUDA and axitinib, and consider administering corticosteroids as needed.

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

KEYTRUDA can cause adrenal insufficiency (primary and secondary), hypophysitis, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.8% (22/2799) of patients, including Grade 2 (0.3%), 3 (0.3%), and 4 (

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, hypophysitis (including hypopituitarism), thyroid function (prior to and periodically during treatment), and hyperglycemia. For adrenal insufficiency or hypophysitis, administer corticosteroids and hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA for Grade 2 adrenal insufficiency or hypophysitis and withhold or discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 3 or Grade 4 adrenal insufficiency or hypophysitis. Administer hormone replacement for hypothyroidism and manage hyperthyroidism with thionamides and beta-blockers as appropriate. Withhold or discontinue KEYTRUDA for Grade 3 or 4 hyperthyroidism. Administer insulin for type 1 diabetes, and withhold KEYTRUDA and administer antihyperglycemics in patients with severe hyperglycemia.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis and Renal Dysfunction

KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated nephritis. Nephritis occurred in 0.3% (9/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.1%), 3 (0.1%), and 4 (

Immune-Mediated Skin Reactions

Immune-mediated rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (some cases with fatal outcome), exfoliative dermatitis, and bullous pemphigoid, can occur. Monitor patients for suspected severe skin reactions and based on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA and administer corticosteroids. For signs or symptoms of SJS or TEN, withhold KEYTRUDA and refer the patient for specialized care for assessment and treatment. If SJS or TEN is confirmed, permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue in patients receiving KEYTRUDA and may also occur after discontinuation of treatment. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or exclude other causes. Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold KEYTRUDA and administer corticosteroids. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Based on limited data from clinical studies in patients whose immune-related adverse reactions could not be controlled with corticosteroid use, administration of other systemic immunosuppressants can be considered. Resume KEYTRUDA when the adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or less following corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA for any Grade 3 immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening immune-mediated adverse reaction.

The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% (unless otherwise indicated) of 2799 patients: arthritis (1.5%), uveitis, myositis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, myasthenia gravis, vasculitis, pancreatitis, hemolytic anemia, sarcoidosis, and encephalitis. In addition, myelitis and myocarditis were reported in other clinical trials, including classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-marketing use.

Treatment with KEYTRUDA may increase the risk of rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. Consider the benefit of treatment vs the risk of possible organ rejection in these patients.

Infusion-Related Reactions

KEYTRUDA can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions, including hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, which have been reported in 0.2% (6/2799) of patients. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions. For Grade 3 or 4 reactions, stop infusion and permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

Fatal and other serious complications can occur in patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) before or after being treated with a PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibody. Transplant-related complications include hyperacute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) after reduced intensity conditioning, and steroid-requiring febrile syndrome (without an identified infectious cause). These complications may occur despite intervening therapy between PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and allogeneic HSCT. Follow patients closely for evidence of transplant-related complications and intervene promptly. Consider the benefit versus risk of treatment with a PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibody prior to or after an allogeneic HSCT.

Increased Mortality in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

In trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of KEYTRUDA to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of these patients with a PD-1 or PD-L1 blocking antibody in this combination is not recommended outside of controlled trials.

Embryofetal Toxicity

Based on its mechanism of action, KEYTRUDA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of this potential risk. In females of reproductive potential, verify pregnancy status prior to initiating KEYTRUDA and advise them to use effective contraception during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Adverse Reactions

In KEYNOTE-006, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 9% of 555 patients with advanced melanoma; adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation in more than one patient were colitis (1.4%), autoimmune hepatitis (0.7%), allergic reaction (0.4%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), and cardiac failure (0.4%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) with KEYTRUDA were fatigue (28%), diarrhea (26%), rash (24%), and nausea (21%).

In KEYNOTE-002, KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 12% of 357 patients with advanced melanoma; the most common (1%) were general physical health deterioration (1%), asthenia (1%), dyspnea (1%), pneumonitis (1%), and generalized edema (1%). The most common adverse reactions were fatigue (43%), pruritus (28%), rash (24%), constipation (22%), nausea (22%), diarrhea (20%), and decreased appetite (20%).

In KEYNOTE-054, KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 509 patients; the most common (1%) were pneumonitis (1.4%), colitis (1.2%), and diarrhea (1%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. The most common adverse reaction (20%) with KEYTRUDA was diarrhea (28%).

In KEYNOTE-189, when KEYTRUDA was administered with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy in metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 20% of 405 patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis (3%) and acute kidney injury (2%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) with KEYTRUDA were nausea (56%), fatigue (56%), constipation (35%), diarrhea (31%), decreased appetite (28%), rash (25%), vomiting (24%), cough (21%), dyspnea (21%), and pyrexia (20%).

In KEYNOTE-407, when KEYTRUDA was administered with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein-bound in metastatic squamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of 101 patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection. Adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE-407 were similar to those observed in KEYNOTE-189 with the exception that increased incidences of alopecia (47% vs 36%) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 25%) were observed in the KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy arm compared to the placebo and chemotherapy arm in KEYNOTE-407.

In KEYNOTE-042, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 19% of 636 patients with advanced NSCLC; the most common were pneumonitis (3%), death due to unknown cause (1.6%), and pneumonia (1.4%). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were pneumonia (7%), pneumonitis (3.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.4%), and pleural effusion (2.2%). The most common adverse reaction (20%) was fatigue (25%).

In KEYNOTE-010, KEYTRUDA monotherapy was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 682 patients with metastatic NSCLC; the most common was pneumonitis (1.8%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) were decreased appetite (25%), fatigue (25%), dyspnea (23%), and nausea (20%).

Adverse reactions occurring in patients with SCLC were similar to those occurring in patients with other solid tumors who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.

In KEYNOTE-048, KEYTRUDA monotherapy was discontinued due to adverse events in 12% of 300 patients with HNSCC; the most common adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation were sepsis (1.7%) and pneumonia (1.3%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) were fatigue (33%), constipation (20%), and rash (20%).

In KEYNOTE-048, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin) and FU chemotherapy, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 16% of 276 patients with HNSCC. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonia (2.5%), pneumonitis (1.8%), and septic shock (1.4%). The most common adverse reactions (20%) were nausea (51%), fatigue (49%), constipation (37%), vomiting (32%), mucosal inflammation (31%), diarrhea (29%), decreased appetite (29%), stomatitis (26%), and cough (22%).

In KEYNOTE-012, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 17% of 192 patients with HNSCC. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 45% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were pneumonia, dyspnea, confusional state, vomiting, pleural effusion, and respiratory failure. The most common adverse reactions (20%) were fatigue, decreased appetite, and dyspnea. Adverse reactions occurring in patients with HNSCC were generally similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy, with the exception of increased incidences of facial edema and new or worsening hypothyroidism.

In KEYNOTE-204, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 148 patients with cHL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients; those 1% included pneumonitis, pneumonia, pyrexia, myocarditis, acute kidney injury, febrile neutropenia, and sepsis. Three patients died from causes other than disease progression. The most common adverse reactions (20%) were upper respiratory tract infection (41%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (22%), and pyrexia, fatigue, and cough (20% each).

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Merck Announces KEYNOTE-598 Trial Evaluating KEYTRUDA in Combination With Ipilimumab Versus KEYTRUDA Monotherapy in Certain Patients With Metastatic...

Alopecia Market Analysis, COVID-19 Impact,Outlook, Opportunities, Size, Share Forecast and Supply Demand 2021-2027|Trusted Business Insights -…

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Trusted Business Insights presents an updated and Latest Study on Alopecia Market 2020-2029. The report contains market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market.The report further elaborates on the micro and macroeconomic aspects including the socio-political landscape that is anticipated to shape the demand of the Alopecia market during the forecast period (2020-2029).It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary, and SWOT analysis.

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Report Overview: Alopecia Market

The global alopecia market size was valued at USD 1.5 billion in 2020 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 8.4% over the forecast period 2021-2027. Rising prevalence of androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata diseases is the key factor driving market growth.

Lifestyle alterations, such as immoderate intake of tobacco and alcohol, and escalating stress indices are considered as strong triggers for the disease. Though the exact disease cause remains unknown, the genetic factors have been linked to several cases. Moreover, the rise in disposable incomes as well as building emphasis on aesthetics are poised to drive the market demand and product penetration for alopecia.

Aging and hormonal anomalies have been listed as potent causative agents for alopecia. Furthermore, gender plays a key role in disease susceptibility. According to the American Hair Loss Association, it was stated that over 95% of loss of hair in men is caused due to androgenetic alopecia. In addition, a steady increase in consumer awareness toward alopecia therapeutic options are likely to positively impact the market in the future.

Moreover, the rising prevalence of chronic diseases, such as acute stress disorder, Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cancer, lupus, and hypopituitarism across the globe, is expected to augment the revenue growth over the forecast period.

Continuous development of new therapeutic strategies is anticipated to boost growth through the projection period. Emergence of rapid-action JAK inhibitors and hair growth stimulation through PRP treatment and pluripotent stem cells are propelling the market growth. The upcoming launch of some breakthrough products indicates a favorable future for the global market.

Disease Type Insights: Alopecia Market

Based on disease types, the market is categorized into androgenetic, areata, cicatricial, totalis, universalis, traction, and others. Between the types, alopecia areata lead the segment in 2019, capturing almost 30% of total market share. The segment growth is supported by a high disease prevalence worldwide and increasing consumer awareness. The disorder is most prevalent in people suffering from autoimmune diseases, namely Downs syndrome, diabetes, and hyperthyroidism. Alopecia areata can progress into alopecia universalis and totalis.

Androgenetic alopecia is estimated to exhibit the fastest growth, driven majorly by the anticipated launch of multiple promising pipeline candidates and an escalating incidence rate. Androgens spawn the condition in people with a genetic disposition to alopecia. Various treatment strategies such as licensed oral, topical, and surgical therapies are accessible for androgenetic alopecia.

End-use Insights: Alopecia Market

Dermatology clinics generated the maximum revenue among all the end-use segments in 2019 and are forecasted to exhibit a lucrative growth rate over the next few years. Increasing number of transplantation and restoration surgeries, coupled with the widespread application of prescription medicines, is expected to contribute significantly to the market position of dermatology clinics.

Homecare settings are powered by broadening penetration of laser treatment and a rise in regulatory sanctions of home-use products. Furthermore, advanced technology, increasing emphasis on convenience, patient compliance, and market presence of contemporary products such as helmets, laser combs, and laser caps are projected to fuel the homecare segment growth.

Key FDA-sanctioned home-use products include Theradome hair grow helmet by Theradome, Inc., iRestore laser hair growth system by Freedom Laser Therapy, Inc., and Hair Max Advanced Laser Comb & HairMax Laser Band 82 by Lexington International.Sales Channel Insights

Based on sales channel, the market is bifurcated into prescription and OTC products. In 2019, prescription products lead the segment and are expected to expand at a significant CAGR over the forecast period. Finasteride and corticosteroids are a few majorly prescribed products for alopecia.Increasing demand for cost-effective treatment, easy accessibility of therapies, and addressing adverse effects associated with approved medications are fueling the requirement for OTC medicines. In addition, an upsurge in the quantity of FDA-licensed OTC products for alopecia is another growth-booster.Gender InsightsAlopecia is less prominent in women than in men. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the American Hair Loss Association, nearly 50% of men experience some grade of hair fall by 50 years of age. Androgen is a leading cause of androgenetic alopecia in men. Moreover, expanding geriatric population base and increasing intake of tobacco are some of the additional factors poised to augment the alopecia market growth.

Female hair-loss occurs irrespective of age; however, almost 40% of women tend to suffer from hair loss by 50 years of age. Female alopecia is driven by an alarming rise in PCOS incidence rates, escalating number of cosmetic practices, and harmful lifestyle patterns. An increase in health consciousness among women is expected to increase the market growth.

Regional Insights: Alopecia Market

Key regional markets include North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa (MEA). North America contributed more than 34.0% market share in 2019. Enlarging disease prevalence, technological advancements, novel product development, and increasing disposable income are few contributors to North Americas market share.Asia Pacific region is positioned to exhibit the fastest growth over the next few years. Large population base and rising consumer awareness toward available treatment options are the key factors driving regional growth. Economic betterment and increased per capita healthcare spending, in developing countries such as India, China, and Singapore are expected to create strong commercial opportunities.Alopecia Market Share InsightsSome of the major companies operating in the market include

Rising R&D activities to improve treatment options, accelerated regulatory approvals, and strategic business initiatives undertaken by the key players sum up the major competitive approaches paving the road for expansion. For instance, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc. launched a public health initiative at the global level to provide comprehensive health solutions in Africa, in April 2016.This report forecasts revenue growth at global, regional, and country levels and provides an analysis of the latest industry trends in each of the sub-segments from 2015 to 2027. Trusted Business Insights has segmented the global alopecia market report on the basis of disease type, end use, sales channel, gender, and region:

Disease Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

End-use Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

Sales Channel Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

Gender Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

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Male Hypogonadism Market Projected to be Resilient During 2025 – The Market Feed

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Snapshot

Hypogonadism in males refers to a condition in the male body where the testes show a significantly reduced level of functioning than normal. The overall result of male hypogonadism is a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of male sex hormones. This state is more commonly known as interrupted stage 1 puberty. Hypoandrogenism, or the low androgen or testosterone level in a male can vary in severity from person to person. It is often the cause of partial or complete infertility. There are multiple forms of male hypogonadism and even more ways to classify them. Most endocrinologists commonly classify male hypogonadism on the basis of the level of defectiveness of the male reproductive system.

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In many cases, doctors also measure the level of gonadotropins to classify a patient between primary and secondary male hypogonadism. Primary male hypogonadism refers to the cause of the condition being due to defective gonads. There are different types of primary male hypogonadism, including Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. Secondary male hypogonadism is caused by defects in pituitary or hypothalamic glands. They include Kallmann syndrome and hypopituitarism.

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Overview

Male Hypogonadism refers to a clinical condition, wherein the testes fail to produce enough testosterone leading to delayed puberty or incomplete development. The condition is related to impaired development of muscle mass, development of breast tissues, impaired body hair growth, and lack of deepening of the voice.

The male Hypogonadism market can be segmented by therapy, type, drug delivery, and geography.

The report presents an in-depth analysis of the global male hypogonadism market with current trends and future estimates to explain the imminent investment pockets. The quantitative analysis of the market for the forecast period from 2017 to 2025 will enable stakeholders to capitalize on the prevailing growth opportunities.

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Trends and Opportunities

The top driver of the male hypogonadism market includes rising prevalence of testosterone deficiency among men, increasing infertility rates, and increasing awareness among individuals about hypogonadism treatment due to awareness drives organized by several governments across the world. Moreover, high risk of hypogonadism among the geriatric population with obesity and diabetes, and increasing prevalence of chronic disorders among the geriatrics are further expected to boost the markets growth.

However, factors such as high side effects of testosterone products are challenging the growth of testosterone replacement therapy market. Top players in the market are focused on research and development to introduce newer products with fewer or negligible side effects and improved results. For example, LPCN 1111, a product which is under development from Lipocine Inc., is a newer testosterone prodrug that utilizes Lipral technology for enhanced systemic absorption and for enhanced solubility of testosterone. Nevertheless, technological advancements are anticipated to extend new opportunities to the markets growth.

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Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Regional Overview

The global male Hypogonadism market can be analyzed with respect to the regional segments of North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. North America held the majority share of the global market in the recent past and is expected to retain its dominant position in the near future. This is mainly due to the rise in the number of individuals suffering from primary and secondary conditions of hypogonadism, and rising awareness among individuals about treatment options for the condition. Moreover, the presence of ultra-modern healthcare infrastructure and increasing popularity of technologically advanced products are expected to offer new opportunities for top players in this market. The region is closely followed by Europe.

Asia Pacific is expected to offer lucrative opportunities to this market due to the modernization of the healthcare infrastructure in the emerging economies of India and China and the increasing awareness about the treatment for the condition. In Asia Pacific, the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and infertility rates along with the rising geriatric population base with diabetes and obesity are propelling the growth of this market. China, Taiwan, and Malaysia are some of the countries that display the highest rate of male hypogonadism.

Major Companies Mentioned in Report

Some of the key players in the male Hypogonadism market include AbbVie Inc., Astrazeneca plc, Eli Lilly and Company Ltd., Merck & Co. Inc., SA, Finox Biotech, Laboratories Genevrier, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Allergan plc, Bayer AG, Endo International plc, IBSA Institut Biochimque, and Ferring.

Key players are focused on product approval for growth considerations and to cater to the changing demand of the industry. The introduction of innovative and technologically advanced products is also the focus of key players to increase their market share and for serving patients in a better manner.

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Male Hypogonadism Market Projected to be Resilient During 2025 - The Market Feed

Alopecia Market Analysis, COVID-19 Impact,Outlook, Opportunities, Size, Share Forecast and Supply Demand 2021-2027|Trusted Business Insights – KYT24

Trusted Business Insights answers what are the scenarios for growth and recovery and whether there will be any lasting structural impact from the unfolding crisis for the Alopecia market.

Trusted Business Insights presents an updated and Latest Study on Alopecia Market 2020-2029. The report contains market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market.The report further elaborates on the micro and macroeconomic aspects including the socio-political landscape that is anticipated to shape the demand of the Alopecia market during the forecast period (2020-2029).It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary, and SWOT analysis.

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Report Overview: Alopecia Market

The global alopecia market size was valued at USD 1.5 billion in 2020 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 8.4% over the forecast period 2021-2027. Rising prevalence of androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata diseases is the key factor driving market growth.

Lifestyle alterations, such as immoderate intake of tobacco and alcohol, and escalating stress indices are considered as strong triggers for the disease. Though the exact disease cause remains unknown, the genetic factors have been linked to several cases. Moreover, the rise in disposable incomes as well as building emphasis on aesthetics are poised to drive the market demand and product penetration for alopecia.

Aging and hormonal anomalies have been listed as potent causative agents for alopecia. Furthermore, gender plays a key role in disease susceptibility. According to the American Hair Loss Association, it was stated that over 95% of loss of hair in men is caused due to androgenetic alopecia. In addition, a steady increase in consumer awareness toward alopecia therapeutic options are likely to positively impact the market in the future.

Moreover, the rising prevalence of chronic diseases, such as acute stress disorder, Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cancer, lupus, and hypopituitarism across the globe, is expected to augment the revenue growth over the forecast period.

Continuous development of new therapeutic strategies is anticipated to boost growth through the projection period. Emergence of rapid-action JAK inhibitors and hair growth stimulation through PRP treatment and pluripotent stem cells are propelling the market growth. The upcoming launch of some breakthrough products indicates a favorable future for the global market.

Disease Type Insights: Alopecia Market

Based on disease types, the market is categorized into androgenetic, areata, cicatricial, totalis, universalis, traction, and others. Between the types, alopecia areata lead the segment in 2019, capturing almost 30% of total market share. The segment growth is supported by a high disease prevalence worldwide and increasing consumer awareness. The disorder is most prevalent in people suffering from autoimmune diseases, namely Downs syndrome, diabetes, and hyperthyroidism. Alopecia areata can progress into alopecia universalis and totalis.

Androgenetic alopecia is estimated to exhibit the fastest growth, driven majorly by the anticipated launch of multiple promising pipeline candidates and an escalating incidence rate. Androgens spawn the condition in people with a genetic disposition to alopecia. Various treatment strategies such as licensed oral, topical, and surgical therapies are accessible for androgenetic alopecia.

End-use Insights: Alopecia Market

Dermatology clinics generated the maximum revenue among all the end-use segments in 2019 and are forecasted to exhibit a lucrative growth rate over the next few years. Increasing number of transplantation and restoration surgeries, coupled with the widespread application of prescription medicines, is expected to contribute significantly to the market position of dermatology clinics.

Homecare settings are powered by broadening penetration of laser treatment and a rise in regulatory sanctions of home-use products. Furthermore, advanced technology, increasing emphasis on convenience, patient compliance, and market presence of contemporary products such as helmets, laser combs, and laser caps are projected to fuel the homecare segment growth.

Key FDA-sanctioned home-use products include Theradome hair grow helmet by Theradome, Inc., iRestore laser hair growth system by Freedom Laser Therapy, Inc., and Hair Max Advanced Laser Comb & HairMax Laser Band 82 by Lexington International.Sales Channel Insights

Based on sales channel, the market is bifurcated into prescription and OTC products. In 2019, prescription products lead the segment and are expected to expand at a significant CAGR over the forecast period. Finasteride and corticosteroids are a few majorly prescribed products for alopecia.Increasing demand for cost-effective treatment, easy accessibility of therapies, and addressing adverse effects associated with approved medications are fueling the requirement for OTC medicines. In addition, an upsurge in the quantity of FDA-licensed OTC products for alopecia is another growth-booster.Gender InsightsAlopecia is less prominent in women than in men. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the American Hair Loss Association, nearly 50% of men experience some grade of hair fall by 50 years of age. Androgen is a leading cause of androgenetic alopecia in men. Moreover, expanding geriatric population base and increasing intake of tobacco are some of the additional factors poised to augment the alopecia market growth.

Female hair-loss occurs irrespective of age; however, almost 40% of women tend to suffer from hair loss by 50 years of age. Female alopecia is driven by an alarming rise in PCOS incidence rates, escalating number of cosmetic practices, and harmful lifestyle patterns. An increase in health consciousness among women is expected to increase the market growth.

Regional Insights: Alopecia Market

Key regional markets include North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa (MEA). North America contributed more than 34.0% market share in 2019. Enlarging disease prevalence, technological advancements, novel product development, and increasing disposable income are few contributors to North Americas market share.Asia Pacific region is positioned to exhibit the fastest growth over the next few years. Large population base and rising consumer awareness toward available treatment options are the key factors driving regional growth. Economic betterment and increased per capita healthcare spending, in developing countries such as India, China, and Singapore are expected to create strong commercial opportunities.Alopecia Market Share InsightsSome of the major companies operating in the market include

Rising R&D activities to improve treatment options, accelerated regulatory approvals, and strategic business initiatives undertaken by the key players sum up the major competitive approaches paving the road for expansion. For instance, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc. launched a public health initiative at the global level to provide comprehensive health solutions in Africa, in April 2016.This report forecasts revenue growth at global, regional, and country levels and provides an analysis of the latest industry trends in each of the sub-segments from 2015 to 2027. Trusted Business Insights has segmented the global alopecia market report on the basis of disease type, end use, sales channel, gender, and region:

Disease Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

End-use Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

Sales Channel Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

Gender Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2015 2027)

Looking for more? Check out our repository for all available reports on Alopecia in related sectors.

Quick Read Table of Contents of this Report @ Alopecia Market 2020 and Forecast 2021-2027 Includes Business Impact Analysis of COVID-19

Trusted Business InsightsShelly ArnoldMedia & Marketing ExecutiveEmail Me For Any ClarificationsConnect on LinkedInClick to follow Trusted Business Insights LinkedIn for Market Data and Updates.US: +1 646 568 9797UK: +44 330 808 0580

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Alopecia Market Analysis, COVID-19 Impact,Outlook, Opportunities, Size, Share Forecast and Supply Demand 2021-2027|Trusted Business Insights - KYT24

U.S. Food and Drug Administration Accepts for Priority Review Applications for OPDIVO (nivolumab) in Combination with CABOMETYX (cabozantinib) in…

PRINCETON, N.J. & ALAMEDA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Oct 19, 2020--

Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY) and Exelixis, Inc. (NASDAQ: EXEL) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) and supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA), respectively, for OPDIVO (nivolumab) in combination with CABOMETYX (cabozantinib) for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The FDA granted Priority Review to both applications and assigned a Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) goal date, or target action date, of February 20, 2021.

These filings were based on results from the Phase 3 CheckMate -9ER trial, which evaluated OPDIVO in combination with CABOMETYX in patients with previously untreated advanced RCC versus sunitinib. In CheckMate -9ER, OPDIVO in combination with CABOMETYX demonstrated significant improvements across all efficacy endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR), versus the comparator, sunitinib.

We have witnessed practice-changing advancements in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma in recent years, but we recognize the importance of providing patients and physicians with additional options that can help them take control of the disease, said Mark Rutstein, vice president, development program lead, OPDIVO, Bristol Myers Squibb. In the CheckMate -9ER trial, combining OPDIVO and CABOMETYX, two proven agents with strong clinical legacies in advanced renal cell carcinoma, led to superior efficacy across all endpoints. We look forward to working with the FDA to bring this potential treatment option to physicians and their patients who choose an immunotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor regimen.

With their complementary mechanisms of action and evidence that CABOMETYX may promote a more immune-permissive environment, we believe there is opportunity for additive or synergistic effects with this potential combination regimen, said Gisela Schwab, M.D., president, product development and medical affairs and chief medical officer, Exelixis. Based on strong supporting data from CheckMate -9ER, the acceptance of our application is important progress in our efforts to make CABOMETYX in combination with OPDIVO available to patients with advanced kidney cancer who need additional treatment options. We look forward to working with the FDA throughout the ongoing review process.

The combination of OPDIVO plus CABOMETYX was well tolerated, with a low rate of treatment-related discontinuations, and reflected the known safety profiles of the immunotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitor components in patients with previously untreated advanced RCC. In addition, patient-reported outcomes data from CheckMate -9ER showed that OPDIVO in combination with CABOMETYX was associated with statistically significant improvements in health-related quality of life at most time points versus sunitinib. On September 19, 2020, results from the trial were presented as a Proffered Paper during a Presidential Symposium at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Virtual Congress 2020.

Bristol Myers Squibb and Exelixis thank the patients and investigators who were involved in the CheckMate -9ER clinical trial.

About CheckMate -9ER

CheckMate -9ER is an open-label, randomized, multi-national Phase 3 trial evaluating patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A total of 651 patients (23% favorable risk, 58% intermediate risk, 20% poor risk; 25% PD-L11%) were randomized to receive OPDIVO plus CABOMETYX (n=323) vs. sunitinib (n=328). The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). The primary efficacy analysis is comparing the doublet combination vs. sunitinib in all randomized patients. The trial is sponsored by Bristol Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical Co and co-funded by Exelixis, Ipsen and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited.

About Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, accounting for more than 140,000 deaths worldwide each year. RCC is approximately twice as common in men as in women, with the highest rates of the disease in North America and Europe. The five-year survival rate for those diagnosed with metastatic, or advanced, kidney cancer is 12.1%.

Bristol Myers Squibb: Advancing Cancer Research

At Bristol Myers Squibb, patients are at the center of everything we do. The goal of our cancer research is to increase patients quality of life, long-term survival and make cure a possibility. We harness our deep scientific experience, cutting-edge technologies and discovery platforms to discover, develop and deliver novel treatments for patients.

Building upon our transformative work and legacy in hematology and Immuno-Oncology that has changed survival expectations for many cancers, our researchers are advancing a deep and diverse pipeline across multiple modalities. In the field of immune cell therapy, this includes registrational CAR T cell agents for numerous diseases, and a growing early-stage pipeline that expands cell and gene therapy targets, and technologies. We are developing cancer treatments directed at key biological pathways using our protein homeostasis platform, a research capability that has been the basis of our approved therapies for multiple myeloma and several promising compounds in early- to mid-stage development. Our scientists are targeting different immune system pathways to address interactions between tumors, the microenvironment and the immune system to further expand upon the progress we have made and help more patients respond to treatment. Combining these approaches is key to delivering potential new options for the treatment of cancer and addressing the growing issue of resistance to immunotherapy. We source innovation internally, and in collaboration with academia, government, advocacy groups and biotechnology companies, to help make the promise of transformational medicines a reality for patients.

About Opdivo

Opdivo is a programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor that is designed to uniquely harness the bodys own immune system to help restore anti-tumor immune response. By harnessing the bodys own immune system to fight cancer, Opdivo has become an important treatment option across multiple cancers.

Opdivo s leading global development program is based on Bristol Myers Squibbs scientific expertise in the field of Immuno-Oncology and includes a broad range of clinical trials across all phases, including Phase 3, in a variety of tumor types. To date, the Opdivo clinical development program has treated more than 35,000 patients. The Opdivo trials have contributed to gaining a deeper understanding of the potential role of biomarkers in patient care, particularly regarding how patients may benefit from Opdivo across the continuum of PD-L1 expression.

In July 2014, Opdivo was the first PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor to receive regulatory approval anywhere in the world. Opdivo is currently approved in more than 65 countries, including the United States, the European Union, Japan and China. In October 2015, the Companys Opdivo and Yervoy combination regimen was the first Immuno-Oncology combination to receive regulatory approval for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and is currently approved in more than 50 countries, including the United States and the European Union.

About CABOMETYX

In the U.S., CABOMETYX tablets are approved for the treatment of patients with advanced RCC and for the treatment of patients with HCC who have been previously treated with sorafenib. CABOMETYX tablets have also received regulatory approvals in the European Union, Japan and additional countries and regions worldwide. In 2016, Exelixis granted Ipsen exclusive rights for the commercialization and further clinical development of cabozantinib outside of the United States and Japan. In 2017, Exelixis granted exclusive rights to Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited for the commercialization and further clinical development of cabozantinib for all future indications in Japan. Exelixis holds the exclusive rights to develop and commercialize cabozantinib in the United States.

OPDIVO INDICATIONS

OPDIVO (nivolumab), as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab), is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab), is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors express PD-L1 (1%) as determined by an FDA-approved test, with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab) and 2 cycles of platinum-doublet chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with metastatic or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving OPDIVO.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with progression after platinum-based chemotherapy and at least one other line of therapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab), is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who have received prior anti-angiogenic therapy.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab), is indicated for the treatment of patients with intermediate or poor risk, previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) that has relapsed or progressed after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and brentuximab vedotin or after 3 or more lines of systemic therapy that includes autologous HSCT. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with disease progression on or after platinum-based therapy.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric (12 years and older) patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) that has progressed following treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab), is indicated for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) that has progressed following treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab), in combination with YERVOY (ipilimumab), is indicated for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the confirmatory trials.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph nodes or metastatic disease who have undergone complete resection.

OPDIVO (nivolumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after prior fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based chemotherapy.

OPDIVO IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Severe and Fatal Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

Immune-mediated adverse reactions listed herein may not be inclusive of all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions.

Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue. While immune-mediated adverse reactions usually manifest during treatment, they can also occur at any time after starting or discontinuing YERVOY. Early identification and management are essential to ensure safe use of YERVOY. Monitor for signs and symptoms that may be clinical manifestations of underlying immune-mediated adverse reactions. Evaluate clinical chemistries including liver enzymes, creatinine, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level, and thyroid function at baseline and before each dose. Institute medical management promptly, including specialty consultation as appropriate.

Withhold or permanently discontinue YERVOY depending on severity. In general, if YERVOY requires interruption or discontinuation, administer systemic corticosteroid therapy (1 to 2 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent) until improvement to Grade 1 or less followed by corticosteroid taper for at least 1 month. Consider administration of other systemic immunosuppressants in patients whose immune-mediated adverse reaction is not controlled with corticosteroid therapy. Institute hormone replacement therapy for endocrinopathies as warranted.

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis. Fatal cases have been reported. Monitor patients for signs with radiographic imaging and for symptoms of pneumonitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or more severe pneumonitis. Permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 and withhold until resolution for Grade 2. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, fatal cases of immune-mediated pneumonitis have occurred. Immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 3.1% (61/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 6% (25/407) of patients. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 10% (5/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 4.4% (24/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 1.7% (2/119) of patients. In NSCLC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 9% (50/576) of patients, including Grade 4 (0.5%), Grade 3 (3.5%), and Grade 2 (4.0%) immune-mediated pneumonitis. Four patients (0.7%) died due to pneumonitis. The incidence and severity of immune-mediated pneumonitis in patients with NSCLC treated with OPDIVO 360 mg every 3 weeks in combination with YERVOY 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks and 2 cycles of platinum-doublet chemotherapy were comparable to treatment with OPDIVO in combination with YERVOY only. The incidence and severity of immune-mediated pneumonitis in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with OPDIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks with YERVOY 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks were similar to those occurring in NSCLC.

In Checkmate 205 and 039, pneumonitis, including interstitial lung disease, occurred in 6.0% (16/266) of patients receiving OPDIVO. Immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 4.9% (13/266) of patients receiving OPDIVO: Grade 3 (n=1) and Grade 2 (n=12).

Immune-Mediated Colitis

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated colitis. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 (of more than 5 days duration), 3, or 4 colitis. Withhold OPDIVO monotherapy for Grade 2 or 3 and permanently discontinue for Grade 4 or recurrent colitis upon re-initiation of OPDIVO. When administered with YERVOY, withhold OPDIVO and YERVOY for Grade 2 and permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 or recurrent colitis. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated colitis occurred in 2.9% (58/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated colitis occurred in 26% (107/407) of patients including three fatal cases. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated colitis occurred in 10% (5/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated colitis occurred in 10% (52/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated colitis occurred in 7% (8/119) of patients.

In a separate Phase 3 trial of YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated diarrhea/colitis occurred in 12% (62/511) of patients, including Grade 3-5 (7%).

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/reactivation has been reported in patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune-mediated colitis. In cases of corticosteroid-refractory colitis, consider repeating infectious workup to exclude alternative etiologies. Addition of an alternative immunosuppressive agent to the corticosteroid therapy, or replacement of the corticosteroid therapy, should be considered in corticosteroid-refractory immune-mediated colitis if other causes are excluded.

Immune-Mediated Hepatitis

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. Monitor patients for abnormal liver tests prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater transaminase elevations. For patients without HCC, withhold OPDIVO for Grade 2 and permanently discontinue OPDIVO for Grade 3 or 4. For patients with HCC, withhold OPDIVO and administer corticosteroids if AST/ALT is within normal limits at baseline and increases to >3 and up to 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), if AST/ALT is >1 and up to 3 times ULN at baseline and increases to >5 and up to 10 times the ULN, and if AST/ALT is >3 and up to 5 times ULN at baseline and increases to >8 and up to 10 times the ULN. Permanently discontinue OPDIVO and administer corticosteroids if AST or ALT increases to >10 times the ULN or total bilirubin increases >3 times the ULN. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 1.8% (35/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 13% (51/407) of patients. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 20% (10/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 7% (38/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 8% (10/119) of patients.

In Checkmate 040, immune-mediated hepatitis requiring systemic corticosteroids occurred in 5% (8/154) of patients receiving OPDIVO.

In a separate Phase 3 trial of YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 4.1% (21/511) of patients, including Grade 3-5 (1.6%).

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated hypophysitis, immune-mediated adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune thyroid disorders, and Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypophysitis, signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, thyroid function prior to and periodically during treatment, and hyperglycemia. Withhold for Grades 2, 3, or 4 endocrinopathies if not clinically stable. Administer hormone replacement as clinically indicated and corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hypophysitis. Withhold for Grade 2 or 3 and permanently discontinue for Grade 4 hypophysitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 3 or 4 adrenal insufficiency. Withhold for Grade 2 and permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 adrenal insufficiency. Administer hormone-replacement therapy for hypothyroidism. Initiate medical management for control of hyperthyroidism. Withhold OPDIVO for Grade 3 and permanently discontinue for Grade 4 hyperglycemia.

In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (12/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, hypophysitis occurred in 9% (36/407) of patients. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, hypophysitis occurred in 4% (2/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, hypophysitis occurred in 4.6% (25/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated hypophysitis occurred in 3.4% (4/119) of patients. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 1% (20/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 5% (21/407) of patients. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 18% (9/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 7% (41/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 5.9% (7/119) of patients. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, hypothyroidism or thyroiditis resulting in hypothyroidism occurred in 9% (171/1994) of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 2.7% (54/1994) of patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, hypothyroidism or thyroiditis resulting in hypothyroidism occurred in 22% (89/407) of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 8% (34/407) of patients receiving this dose of OPDIVO with YERVOY. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, hypothyroidism or thyroiditis resulting in hypothyroidism occurred in 22% (11/49) of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 10% (5/49) of patients receiving this dose of OPDIVO with YERVOY. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, hypothyroidism or thyroiditis resulting in hypothyroidism occurred in 22% (119/547) of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 12% (66/547) of patients receiving this dose of OPDIVO with YERVOY. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, hypothyroidism or thyroiditis resulting in hypothyroidism occurred in 15% (18/119) of patients. Hyperthyroidism occurred in 12% (14/119) of patients. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, diabetes occurred in 0.9% (17/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, diabetes occurred in 1.5% (6/407) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, diabetes occurred in 2.7% (15/547) of patients.

In a separate Phase 3 trial of YERVOY 3 mg/kg, severe to life-threatening endocrinopathies occurred in 9 (1.8%) patients. All 9patients had hypopituitarism, and some had additional concomitant endocrinopathies such as adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, and hypothyroidism. Six of the 9 patients were hospitalized for severe endocrinopathies.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis and Renal Dysfunction

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated nephritis. Monitor patients for elevated serum creatinine prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grades 2-4 increased serum creatinine. Withhold OPDIVO for Grade 2 or 3 and permanently discontinue for Grade 4 increased serum creatinine. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction occurred in 1.2% (23/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction occurred in 2.2% (9/407) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction occurred in 4.6% (25/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction occurred in 1.7% (2/119) of patients.

Immune-Mediated Skin and Dermatologic Adverse Reactions

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated rash, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), some cases with fatal outcome. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 3 or 4 rash. Withhold for Grade 3 and permanently discontinue for Grade 4 rash. For symptoms or signs of SJS or TEN, withhold OPDIVO and refer the patient for specialized care for assessment and treatment; if confirmed, permanently discontinue. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, immune-mediated rash occurred in 9% (171/1994) of patients. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated rash occurred in 22.6% (92/407) of patients. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated rash occurred in 35% (17/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated rash occurred in 16% (90/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, immune-mediated rash occurred in 14% (17/119) of patients.

YERVOY can cause immune-mediated rash or dermatitis, including bullous and exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Topical emollients and/or topical corticosteroids may be adequate to treat mild to moderate non-bullous exfoliative rashes. Withhold YERVOY until specialist assessment for Grade 2 and permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 exfoliative or bullous dermatologic conditions.

In a separate Phase 3 trial of YERVOY 3 mg/kg, immune-mediated rash occurred in 15% (76/511) of patients, including Grade 3-5 (2.5%).

Immune-Mediated Encephalitis

OPDIVO can cause immune-mediated encephalitis. Fatal cases have been reported. Evaluation of patients with neurologic symptoms may include, but not be limited to, consultation with a neurologist, brain MRI, and lumbar puncture. Withhold OPDIVO in patients with new-onset moderate to severe neurologic signs or symptoms and evaluate to rule out other causes. If other etiologies are ruled out, administer corticosteroids and permanently discontinue OPDIVO for immune-mediated encephalitis. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy, encephalitis occurred in 0.2% (3/1994) of patients. Fatal limbic encephalitis occurred in one patient after 7.2 months of exposure despite discontinuation of OPDIVO and administration of corticosteroids. Encephalitis occurred in one melanoma patient receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg (0.2%) after 1.7 months of exposure. Encephalitis occurred in one RCC patient receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg (0.2%) after approximately 4 months of exposure. Encephalitis occurred in one MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patient (0.8%) receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg after 15 days of exposure.

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, permanently discontinue or withhold OPDIVO, administer high-dose corticosteroids, and, if appropriate, initiate hormone-replacement therapy. Dose modifications for YERVOY for adverse reactions that require management different from these general guidelines are summarized as follows. Withhold for Grade 2 and permanently discontinue YERVOY for Grade 3 or 4 neurological toxicities. Withhold for Grade 2 and permanently discontinue YERVOY for Grade 3 or 4 myocarditis. Permanently discontinue YERVOY for Grade 2, 3, or 4 ophthalmologic adverse reactions that do not improve to Grade 1 within 2 weeks while receiving topical therapy OR that require systemic therapy. Across clinical trials of OPDIVO monotherapy or in combination with YERVOY , the following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions, some with fatal outcome, occurred in <1.0% of patients receiving OPDIVO: myocarditis, rhabdomyolysis, myositis, uveitis, iritis, pancreatitis, facial and abducens nerve paresis, demyelination, polymyalgia rheumatica, autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barr syndrome, hypopituitarism, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, gastritis, duodenitis, sarcoidosis, histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi lymphadenitis), motor dysfunction, vasculitis, aplastic anemia, pericarditis, myasthenic syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In addition to the immune-mediated adverse reactions listed above, across clinical trials of YERVOY monotherapy or in combination with OPDIVO, the following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions, some with fatal outcome, occurred in <1% of patients unless otherwise specified: autoimmune neuropathy (2%), meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and demyelination, myasthenic syndrome/myasthenia gravis, nerve paresis, angiopathy, temporal arteritis, pancreatitis (1.3%), arthritis, polymyositis, conjunctivitis, cytopenias (2.5%), eosinophilia (2.1%), erythema multiforme, hypersensitivity vasculitis, neurosensory hypoacusis, psoriasis, blepharitis, episcleritis, orbital myositis, scleritis, and solid organ transplant rejection. Some cases of ocular IMARs have been associated with retinal detachment.

If uveitis occurs in combination with other immune-mediated adverse reactions, consider a Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like syndrome, which has been observed in patients receiving OPDIVO and YERVOY and may require treatment with systemic steroids to reduce the risk of permanent vision loss.

Infusion-Related Reactions

OPDIVO can cause severe infusion-related reactions, which have been reported in <1.0% of patients in clinical trials. Discontinue OPDIVO in patients with Grade 3 or 4 infusion-related reactions. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion in patients with Grade 1 or 2. Severe infusion-related reactions can also occur with YERVOY. Discontinue YERVOY in patients with severe or life-threatening infusion reactions and interrupt or slow the rate of infusion in patients with mild or moderate infusion reactions. In patients receiving OPDIVO monotherapy as a 60-minute infusion,infusion-relatedreactions occurred in 6.4%(127/1994) of patients. In a separate trial in which patients received OPDIVO monotherapy as a 60-minute infusion or a 30-minute infusion, infusion-related reactions occurred in 2.2% (8/368) and 2.7% (10/369) of patients, respectively. Additionally, 0.5% (2/368) and 1.4% (5/369) of patients, respectively, experienced adverse reactions within 48 hours of infusion that led to dose delay, permanent discontinuation or withholding of OPDIVO. In melanoma patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks, infusion-related reactions occurred in 2.5% (10/407) of patients. In HCC patients receiving OPDIVO 1 mg/kg with YERVOY 3 mg/kg, infusion-related reactions occurred in 8% (4/49) of patients. In RCC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, infusion-related reactions occurred in 5.1% (28/547) of patients. In MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg with YERVOY 1 mg/kg, infusion-related reactions occurred in 4.2% (5/119) of patients. In MPM patients receiving OPDIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks with YERVOY 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks, infusion-related reactions occurred in 12% (37/300) of patients.

In separate Phase 3 trials of YERVOY 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, infusion-related reactions occurred in 2.9% (28/982).

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Fatal and other serious complications can occur in patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) before or after being treated with a PD-1 receptor blocking antibody or YERVOY. Transplant-related complications include hyperacute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) after reduced intensity conditioning, and steroid-requiring febrile syndrome (without an identified infectious cause). These complications may occur despite intervening therapy between PD-1 or CTLA-4 receptor blockade and allogeneic HSCT.

Follow patients closely for evidence of transplant-related complications and intervene promptly. Consider the benefit versus risks of treatment with a PD-1 receptor blocking antibody or YERVOY prior to or after an allogeneic HSCT.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on mechanism of action, OPDIVO and YERVOY can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with OPDIVO or YERVOY and for at least 5 months after the last dose.

Increased Mortality in Patients with Multiple Myeloma when OPDIVO is Added to a Thalidomide Analogue and Dexamethasone

In clinical trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of OPDIVO to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of patients with multiple myeloma with a PD-1 or PD-L1 blocking antibody in combination with a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone is not recommended outside of controlled clinical trials.

Lactation

It is not known whether OPDIVO or YERVOY is present in human milk. Because many drugs, including antibodies, are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from OPDIVO or YERVOY, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 5 months after the last dose.

Serious Adverse Reactions

In Checkmate 037, serious adverse reactions occurred in 41% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=268). Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred in 42% of patients receiving OPDIVO. The most frequent Grade 3 and 4 adverse drug reactions reported in 2% to <5% of patients receiving OPDIVO were abdominal pain, hyponatremia, increased aspartate aminotransferase, and increased lipase. In Checkmate 066, serious adverse reactions occurred in 36% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=206). Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred in 41% of patients receiving OPDIVO. The most frequent Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients receiving OPDIVO were gamma-glutamyltransferase increase (3.9%) and diarrhea (3.4%). In Checkmate 067, serious adverse reactions (74% and 44%), adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation (47% and 18%) or to dosing delays (58% and 36%), and Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (72% and 51%) all occurred more frequently in the OPDIVO plus YERVOY arm (n=313) relative to the OPDIVO arm (n=313). The most frequent (10%) serious adverse reactions in the OPDIVO plus YERVOY arm and the OPDIVO arm, respectively, were diarrhea (13% and 2.2%), colitis (10% and 1.9%), and pyrexia (10% and 1.0%). In Checkmate 227, serious adverse reactions occurred in 58% of patients (n=576). The most frequent (2%) serious adverse reactions were pneumonia, diarrhea/colitis, pneumonitis, hepatitis, pulmonary embolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hypophysitis. Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.7% of patients; these included events of pneumonitis (4 patients), myocarditis, acute kidney injury, shock, hyperglycemia, multi-system organ failure, and renal failure. In Checkmate 9LA, serious adverse reactions occurred in 57% of patients (n=358). The most frequent (>2%) serious adverse reactions were pneumonia, diarrhea, febrile neutropenia, anemia, acute kidney injury, musculoskeletal pain, dyspnea, pneumonitis, and respiratory failure. Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 7 (2%) patients, and included hepatic toxicity, acute renal failure, sepsis, pneumonitis, diarrhea with hypokalemia, and massive hemoptysis in the setting of thrombocytopenia. In Checkmate 017 and 057, serious adverse reactions occurred in 46% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=418). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients receiving OPDIVO were pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, dyspnea, pyrexia, pleural effusion, pneumonitis, and respiratory failure. In Checkmate 032, serious adverse reactions occurred in 45% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=245). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients receiving OPDIVO were pneumonia, dyspnea, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, and dehydration. In Checkmate 743, serious adverse reactions occurred in 54% of patients receiving OPDIVO plus YERVOY. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients were pneumonia, pyrexia, diarrhea, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, dyspnea, acute kidney injury, infusion-related reaction, musculoskeletal pain, and pulmonary embolism. Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 4 (1.3%) patients and included pneumonitis, acute heart failure, sepsis, and encephalitis. In Checkmate 025, serious adverse reactions occurred in 47% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=406). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients were acute kidney injury, pleural effusion, pneumonia, diarrhea, and hypercalcemia. In Checkmate 214, serious adverse reactions occurred in 59% of patients receiving OPDIVO plus YERVOY. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients were diarrhea, pyrexia, pneumonia, pneumonitis, hypophysitis, acute kidney injury, dyspnea, adrenal insufficiency, and colitis. In Checkmate 205 and 039, adverse reactions leading to discontinuation occurred in 7% and dose delays due to adverse reactions occurred in 34% of patients (n=266). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 26% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 1% of patients were pneumonia, infusion-related reaction, pyrexia, colitis or diarrhea, pleural effusion, pneumonitis, and rash. Eleven patients died from causes other than disease progression: 3 from adverse reactions within 30 days of the last OPDIVO dose, 2 from infection 8 to 9 months after completing OPDIVO, and 6 from complications of allogeneic HSCT. In Checkmate 141, serious adverse reactions occurred in 49% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=236). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients receiving OPDIVO were pneumonia, dyspnea, respiratory failure, respiratory tract infection, and sepsis. In Checkmate 275, serious adverse reactions occurred in 54% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=270). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients receiving OPDIVO were urinary tract infection, sepsis, diarrhea, small intestine obstruction, and general physical health deterioration. In Checkmate 142 in MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO with YERVOY, serious adverse reactions occurred in 47% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients were colitis/diarrhea, hepatic events, abdominal pain, acute kidney injury, pyrexia, and dehydration. In Checkmate 040, serious adverse reactions occurred in 49% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=154). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients were pyrexia, ascites, back pain, general physical health deterioration, abdominal pain, pneumonia, and anemia. In Checkmate 040, serious adverse reactions occurred in 59% of patients receiving OPDIVO with YERVOY (n=49). Serious adverse reactions reported in 4% of patients were pyrexia, diarrhea, anemia, increased AST, adrenal insufficiency, ascites, esophageal varices hemorrhage, hyponatremia, increased blood bilirubin, and pneumonitis. In Checkmate 238, Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions occurred in 25% of OPDIVO-treated patients (n=452). The most frequent Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions reported in 2% of OPDIVO-treated patients were diarrhea and increased lipase and amylase. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 18% of OPDIVO-treated patients. In Attraction-3, serious adverse reactions occurred in 38% of patients receiving OPDIVO (n=209). Serious adverse reactions reported in 2% of patients who received OPDIVO were pneumonia, esophageal fistula, interstitial lung disease and pyrexia. The following fatal adverse reactions occurred in patients who received OPDIVO: interstitial lung disease or pneumonitis (1.4%), pneumonia (1.0%), septic shock (0.5%), esophageal fistula (0.5%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (0.5%), pulmonary embolism (0.5%), and sudden death (0.5%).

Common Adverse Reactions

In Checkmate 037, the most common adverse reaction (20%) reported with OPDIVO (n=268) was rash (21%). In Checkmate 066, the most common adverse reactions (20%) reported with OPDIVO (n=206) vs dacarbazine (n=205) were fatigue (49% vs 39%), musculoskeletal pain (32% vs 25%), rash (28% vs 12%), and pruritus (23% vs 12%). In Checkmate 067, the most common (20%) adverse reactions in the OPDIVO plus YERVOY arm (n=313) were fatigue (62%), diarrhea (54%), rash (53%), nausea (44%), pyrexia (40%), pruritus (39%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), vomiting (31%), decreased appetite (29%), cough (27%), headache (26%), dyspnea (24%), upper respiratory tract infection (23%), arthralgia (21%), and increased transaminases (25%). In Checkmate 067, the most common (20%) adverse reactions in the OPDIVO arm (n=313) were fatigue (59%), rash (40%), musculoskeletal pain (42%), diarrhea (36%), nausea (30%), cough (28%), pruritus (27%), upper respiratory tract infection (22%), decreased appetite (22%), headache (22%), constipation (21%), arthralgia (21%), and vomiting (20%). In Checkmate 227, the most common (20%) adverse reactions were fatigue (44%), rash (34%), decreased appetite (31%), musculoskeletal pain (27%), diarrhea/colitis (26%), dyspnea (26%), cough (23%), hepatitis (21%), nausea (21%), and pruritus (21%). In Checkmate 9LA, the most common (>20%) adverse reactions were fatigue (49%), musculoskeletal pain (39%), nausea (32%), diarrhea (31%), rash (30%), decreased appetite (28%), constipation (21%), and pruritus (21%). In Checkmate 017 and 057, the most common adverse reactions (20%) in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=418) were fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, cough, dyspnea, and decreased appetite. In Checkmate 032, the most common adverse reactions (20%) in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=245) were fatigue (45%), decreased appetite (27%), musculoskeletal pain (25%), dyspnea (22%), nausea (22%), diarrhea (21%), constipation (20%), and cough (20%). In Checkmate 743, the most common adverse reactions (20%) in patients receiving OPDIVO and YERVOY were fatigue (43%), musculoskeletal pain (38%), rash (34%), diarrhea (32%), dyspnea (27%), nausea (24%), decreased appetite (24%), cough (23%), and pruritus (21%). In Checkmate 025, the most common adverse reactions (20%) reported in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=406) vs everolimus (n=397) were fatigue (56% vs 57%), cough (34% vs 38%), nausea (28% vs 29%), rash (28% vs 36%), dyspnea (27% vs 31%), diarrhea (25% vs 32%), constipation (23% vs 18%), decreased appetite (23% vs 30%), back pain (21% vs 16%), and arthralgia (20% vs 14%). In Checkmate 214, the most common adverse reactions (20%) reported in patients treated with OPDIVO plus YERVOY (n=547) were fatigue (58%), rash (39%), diarrhea (38%), musculoskeletal pain (37%), pruritus (33%), nausea (30%), cough (28%), pyrexia (25%), arthralgia (23%), decreased appetite (21%), dyspnea (20%), and vomiting (20%). In Checkmate 205 and 039, the most common adverse reactions (20%) reported in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=266) were upper respiratory tract infection (44%), fatigue (39%), cough (36%), diarrhea (33%), pyrexia (29%), musculoskeletal pain (26%), rash (24%), nausea (20%) and pruritus (20%). In Checkmate 141, the most common adverse reactions (10%) in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=236) were cough and dyspnea at a higher incidence than investigators choice. In Checkmate 275, the most common adverse reactions (20%) reported in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=270) were fatigue (46%), musculoskeletal pain (30%), nausea (22%), and decreased appetite (22%). In Checkmate 142 in MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO as a single agent, the most common adverse reactions (20%) were fatigue (54%), diarrhea (43%), abdominal pain (34%), nausea (34%), vomiting (28%), musculoskeletal pain (28%), cough (26%), pyrexia (24%), rash (23%), constipation (20%), and upper respiratory tract infection (20%). In Checkmate 142 in MSI-H/dMMR mCRC patients receiving OPDIVO with YERVOY, the most common adverse reactions (20%) were fatigue (49%), diarrhea (45%), pyrexia (36%), musculoskeletal pain (36%), abdominal pain (30%), pruritus (28%), nausea (26%), rash (25%), decreased appetite (20%), and vomiting (20%). In Checkmate 040, the most common adverse reactions (20%) in patients receiving OPDIVO (n=154) were fatigue (38%), musculoskeletal pain (36%), abdominal pain (34%), pruritus (27%), diarrhea (27%), rash (26%), cough (23%), and decreased appetite (22%). In Checkmate 040, the most common adverse reactions (20%) in patients receiving OPDIVO with YERVOY (n=49), were rash (53%), pruritus (53%), musculoskeletal pain (41%), diarrhea (39%), cough (37%), decreased appetite (35%), fatigue (27%), pyrexia (27%), abdominal pain (22%), headache (22%), nausea (20%), dizziness (20%), hypothyroidism (20%), and weight decreased (20%). In Checkmate 238, the most common adverse reactions (20%) reported in OPDIVO-treated patients (n=452) vs ipilimumab-treated patients (n=453) were fatigue (57% vs 55%), diarrhea (37% vs 55%), rash (35% vs 47%), musculoskeletal pain (32% vs 27%), pruritus (28% vs 37%), headache (23% vs 31%), nausea (23% vs 28%), upper respiratory infection (22% vs 15%), and abdominal pain (21% vs 23%). The most common immune-mediated adverse reactions were rash (16%), diarrhea/colitis (6%), and hepatitis (3%). In Attraction-3, the most common adverse reactions occurring in 20% of OPDIVO-treated patients (n=209) were rash (22%) and decreased appetite (21%).

In a separate Phase 3 trial of YERVOY 3 mg/kg, the most common adverse reactions (5%) in patients who received YERVOY at 3 mg/kg were fatigue (41%), diarrhea (32%), pruritus (31%), rash (29%), and colitis (8%).

Please see U.S. Full Prescribing Information for OPDIVO and YERVOY.

Checkmate Trials and Patient Populations

Checkmate 037previously treated metastatic melanoma; Checkmate 066previously untreated metastatic melanoma; Checkmate 067previously untreated metastatic melanoma, as a single agent or in combination with YERVOY; Checkmate 227previously untreated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with YERVOY; Checkmate 9LApreviously untreated recurrent or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in combination with YERVOY and 2 cycles of platinum-doublet chemotherapy by histology; Checkmate 017second-line treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer; Checkmate 057second-line treatment of metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer; Checkmate 032small cell lung cancer; Checkmate 743 previously untreated unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma, in combination with YERVOY; Checkmate 025previously treated renal cell carcinoma; Checkmate 214previously untreated renal cell carcinoma, in combination with YERVOY; Checkmate 205/039classical Hodgkin lymphoma; Checkmate 141recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; Checkmate 275urothelial carcinoma; Checkmate 142MSI-H or dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer, as a single agent or in combination with YERVOY; Checkmate 040hepatocellular carcinoma, as a single agent or in combination with YERVOY; Checkmate 238adjuvant treatment of melanoma; Attraction-3esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

CABOMETYX Important Safety Information

Warnings and Precautions

Hemorrhage: Severe and fatal hemorrhages occurred with CABOMETYX. The incidence of Grade 3 to 5 hemorrhagic events was 5% in CABOMETYX patients in RCC and HCC studies. Discontinue CABOMETYX for Grade 3 or 4 hemorrhage. Do not administer CABOMETYX to patients who have a recent history of hemorrhage, including hemoptysis, hematemesis, or melena.

Perforations and Fistulas: Gastrointestinal (GI) perforations, including fatal cases, occurred in 1% of CABOMETYX patients. Fistulas, including fatal cases, occurred in 1% of CABOMETYX patients. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of perforations and fistulas, including abscess and sepsis. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who experience a Grade 4 fistula or a GI perforation.

Thrombotic Events: CABOMETYX increased the risk of thrombotic events. Venous thromboembolism occurred in 7% (including 4% pulmonary embolism) and arterial thromboembolism in 2% of CABOMETYX patients. Fatal thrombotic events occurred in CABOMETYX patients. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction or serious arterial or venous thromboembolic event requiring medical intervention.

Hypertension and Hypertensive Crisis: CABOMETYX can cause hypertension, including hypertensive crisis. Hypertension occurred in 36% (17% Grade 3 and <1% Grade 4) of CABOMETYX patients. Do not initiate CABOMETYX in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Monitor blood pressure regularly during CABOMETYX treatment. Withhold CABOMETYX for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with medical management; when controlled, resume at a reduced dose. Discontinue CABOMETYX for severe hypertension that cannot be controlled with anti-hypertensive therapy or for hypertensive crisis.

Diarrhea: Diarrhea occurred in 63% of CABOMETYX patients. Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 11% of CABOMETYX patients. Withhold CABOMETYX until improvement to Grade 1 and resume at a reduced dose for intolerable Grade 2 diarrhea, Grade 3 diarrhea that cannot be managed with standard antidiarrheal treatments, or Grade 4 diarrhea.

Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE): PPE occurred in 44% of CABOMETYX patients. Grade 3 PPE occurred in 13% of CABOMETYX patients. Withhold CABOMETYX until improvement to Grade 1 and resume at a reduced dose for intolerable Grade 2 PPE or Grade 3 PPE.

Proteinuria: Proteinuria occurred in 7% of CABOMETYX patients. Monitor urine protein regularly during CABOMETYX treatment. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome.

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ): ONJ occurred in <1% of CABOMETYX patients. ONJ can manifest as jaw pain, osteomyelitis, osteitis, bone erosion, tooth or periodontal infection, toothache, gingival ulceration or erosion, persistent jaw pain, or slow healing of the mouth or jaw after dental surgery. Perform an oral examination prior to CABOMETYX initiation and periodically during treatment. Advise patients regarding good oral hygiene practices. Withhold CABOMETYX for at least 3 weeks prior to scheduled dental surgery or invasive dental procedures, if possible. Withhold CABOMETYX for development of ONJ until complete resolution.

Original post:
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Accepts for Priority Review Applications for OPDIVO (nivolumab) in Combination with CABOMETYX (cabozantinib) in...

Man scared to return home after being stabbed and beaten by intruders in the middle of the night – Yorkshire Live

A man has been left in excruciating pain in hospital after he was stabbed and attacked with bats by three men who broke into his home in Sheffield.

Scott Sinclair, 46, is in hospital with serious injuries after the attack took place in the early hours of September 17 at his home in Valley Road.

He was stabbed four times in his head, neck and back, has a broken shoulder and ribs and his shin has been left in pieces.

Mr Sinclair said that the pain is 'horrendous' and he won't be able to return to the home that he loves.

After an earlier dispute at around 1am Mr Sinclair said that he woke up at 4.30am to three men attacking him in his home.

He said: "I was woken up to the most horrendous pain. I could see a bright light shining at me and three men standing over me.

"They were hitting me with baseball bats, sticks and at one point even a shovel.

"I was screaming at the pain, at first I actually thought that it was a nightmare and that it wasn't real.

"I think I passed out and I felt a prodding sensation four times and now I know that it was me being stabbed by them.

"They left and I just could not move I was in so much pain.

"I started to scream help me and my neighbours heard and ran around to come and help me.

"They really were amazing, they were talking to me and telling me that I was going to be OK whilst they called for help.

"I was scared stiff and still in bewilderment at what had happened."

As well as the injuries sustained in the attack Mr Sinclair also has a number of disabilities including a damaged vertebra which he sustained in a crash, Fibromyalgia and hypopituitarism which affects his bodies ability to produce vital hormones.

Now he fears he will be left in a wheelchair for at least 18 months due to the severity of his injuries.

Mr Sinclair added: "I can't return home as it's not safe.

"I am absolutely devastated about that and I absolutely loved living there.

"I am going to have to start afresh and move out of Sheffield and it's going to be awful but I have no choice.

"I've not slept since it happened, it has just been horrendous."

South Yorkshire Police have said that they are investigating the attack.

A spokeswoman for the force said: ""An investigation is underway into reports of a burglary and assault on Valley Road in Sheffield.

"It is reported that on Thursday 17 September around 4:30am two offenders broke into a property on Valley Road and assaulted a man.

"The man was taken to hospital by ambulance, his injuries are not believed to be life-threatening.

"Officers attended and conducted a search of the area. Enquiries are on-going to locate those involved in the incident.

"Anyone with information is asked to call 101 quoting incident number 96 of 17 September 2020."

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Man scared to return home after being stabbed and beaten by intruders in the middle of the night - Yorkshire Live

Disabled Sheffield man reveals horrific injuries after being stabbed in his own home – The Star

The 46-year-old remains in hospital with multiple injuries, including stab wounds to his neck, head and chest, fractures to his left shoulder, ribs and left arm, and a shattered shin.

He said his injuries are so severe he is in excruciating pain and will be in a wheelchair for at least the next 18 months.

"I just want to thank my neighbours who heard me shouting and ran to my aid, he said.

"If they hadnt responded to my calls, with the amount of pain I was in and the fact I absolutely couldnt move, I was that broken, I dont think I would be here today.

"I thought it was a nightmare until I felt the searing pain. Theyd left me for dead.

"My shins broken in four pieces and is being held together by pins, and Im still in terrible pain.

"But the thing Im most gutted about is that I wont be able to return to my home and the most incredible community in Meersbrook, where Ive enjoyed living so much for the last 11 years.

Mr Sinclair said that even if he felt safe returning to his house he wouldnt be able to return because his injuries are so bad the terraced property would no longer be suitable.

The former welder already had a number of disabilities, including fibromyalgia, which causes pain and tiredness, spinal injuries from a crash 10 years ago, which left him unable to work, and a rare condition called hypopituitarism, which affects his body's ability to produce vital hormones.

He was first attacked at around 1am that before before the second more serious assault, involving three assailants, happened at around 4.30am.

No one has been arrested.

Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101 or Crimestoppers, anonymously, on 0800 555 111.

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Disabled Sheffield man reveals horrific injuries after being stabbed in his own home - The Star

BAVENCIO Pivotal Phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 Results Published in The New England Journal of Medicine – PRNewswire

ROCKLAND, Mass. and NEW YORK, Sept. 18, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- EMD Serono, the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany in the US and Canada, and Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) today announced the publication of detailed results from the Phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 study online ahead of print in The New England Journal of Medicine. These results were published simultaneously with additional analyses being presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Virtual Congress 2020 and describe the efficacy of BAVENCIO(avelumab) as a first-line maintenance treatment across various subgroups of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) and highlight exploratory biomarkers as well as patient-reported outcomes. In June, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved BAVENCIO for the maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC that has not progressed with first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy based on the JAVELIN Bladder 100 results.

In the JAVELIN Bladder 100 study, BAVENCIO plus best supportive care (BSC) significantly extended overall survival (OS) compared with BSC alone in the two primary populations of all randomized patients and patients whose tumors were PD-L1+, and significantly more patients who received BAVENCIO as first-line maintenance were alive at one year.1 The clinical benefits of BAVENCIO were seen across a range of patient populations.1,2

"These data, which supported the recent FDA approval and updates to NCCN and ESMO guidelines, establish that BAVENCIO first-line maintenance treatment could fundamentally change clinical practice for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma," said Thomas Powles, MBBS, MRCP, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Oncology, Lead for Solid Tumour Research at Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, and Director of Barts Cancer Centre, London, UK. "It is notable that the longer overall survival with BAVENCIO maintenance therapy was observed across all pre-specified subgroups examined and that this prolonged overall survival was gained without a detrimental impact on patients' quality of life."

Primary AnalysisIn the JAVELIN Bladder 100 study, OS was significantly longer with BAVENCIO plus BSC compared to BSC alone in the primary population of all randomized patients (n=700) whose disease had not progressed on first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy:

In the other primary population of patients with PD-L1+ tumors (n=358):

All endpoints were measured from the time of randomization, after completion of four to six cycles of chemotherapy.

Subgroup AnalysisResults of an exploratory subgroup analysis show that consistent results were observed with the JAVELIN Bladder regimen of BAVENCIO first-line maintenance across pre-specified subgroups, including best response to first-line chemotherapy, type of chemotherapy regimen, site of baseline metastasis, and other baseline factors.1 In particular, hazard ratios for OS based on response to first-line chemotherapy were as follows:

With regard to first-line chemotherapy regimen, hazard ratios were as follows:

Further detail from the subgroup analysis were presented in an on-demand mini oral session at the meeting (Presentation #704MO). Additional data evaluating the association between clinical outcomes and exploratory biomarkers will be presented in the Proffered Paper 1 - GU, non prostate session on Saturday, September 19 (Presentation #699O), and patient-reported outcomes are featured in an on-demand e-poster display (Presentation #745P).

Safety No new safety signals were identified in the JAVELIN Bladder 100 study, and the safety profile was consistent with previous studies of BAVENCIO monotherapy.1 Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 57 patients (16.6%) treated with BAVENCIO plus BSC; no grade 3 or higher treatment-related events occurred in the control arm.1 No grade 4 or fatal immune-related adverse events occurred.1 Investigators attributed two patient deaths in the BAVENCIO plus BSC arm (0.6%), due to sepsis and ischemic stroke, to study treatment toxicity.1

About JAVELIN Bladder 100JAVELIN Bladder 100 (NCT02603432) is a Phase III, multicenter, multinational, randomized, open-label, parallel-arm study investigating first-line maintenance treatment with BAVENCIO plus BSC versus BSC alone in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC. The primary endpoint was OS in the two primary populations of all patients and patients with PD-L1+ tumors defined by the Ventana SP263 assay. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, anti-tumor activity, safety, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, predictive biomarkers and patient-reported outcomes in the co-primary populations. All primary and secondary endpoints are measured from the time of randomization.

About Urothelial Carcinoma Bladder cancer is the tenth most common cancer worldwide.4 In 2018, there were over half a million new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed, with around 200,000 deaths from the disease globally.4 In the US, an estimated 80,470 cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed in 2019, with around 12,500 locally advanced or metastatic cases presented annually.5,6 UC, which accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers,7 becomes harder to treat as it advances, spreading through the layers of the bladder wall.8 Only 25% to 55% of patients receive any second-line therapy after first-line chemotherapy.9-15 In the US and EU5 markets, approximately 40% to 50% of patients receive an immune checkpoint inhibitor in second-line therapy.3 For patients with advanced UC, the five-year survival rate is 5%.5

About BAVENCIO (avelumab)BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.16-18 In November 2014, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.

BAVENCIO Approved IndicationsBAVENCIO (avelumab) is indicated in the US for the maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) that has not progressed with first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy. BAVENCIO is also indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib is indicated in the US for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

BAVENCIO is currently approved for patients with MCC in 50 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.

BAVENCIO Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved Label BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis and evaluate suspected cases with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3), life-threatening (Grade 4), or recurrent moderate (Grade 2) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis occurred in 1.2% of patients, including one (0.1%) patient with fatal, one (0.1%) with Grade 4, and five (0.3%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause hepatotoxicity and immune-mediated hepatitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for abnormal liver tests prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hepatitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) immune-mediated hepatitis until resolution and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred with BAVENCIO as a single agent in 0.9% of patients, including two (0.1%) patients with fatal, and 11 (0.6%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are used as monotherapy. Withhold BAVENCIO and axitinib for moderate (Grade 2) hepatotoxicity and permanently discontinue the combination for severe or life-threatening (Grade 3 or 4) hepatotoxicity. Administer corticosteroids as needed. In patients treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib, Grades3 and 4 increased ALT and AST occurred in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively, and immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 7% of patients, including 4.9% with Grade3 or 4.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated colitis. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis. Withhold BAVENCIO until resolution for moderate or severe (Grade 2 or 3) colitis until resolution. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening (Grade 4) or recurrent (Grade 3) colitis upon reinitiation of BAVENCIO. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.5% of patients, including seven (0.4%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency during and after treatment, and administer corticosteroids as appropriate. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency was reported in 0.5% of patients, including one (0.1%) with Grade 3.

Thyroid disorders can occur at any time during treatment. Monitor patients for changes in thyroid function at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation. Manage hypothyroidism with hormone replacement therapy and control hyperthyroidism with medical management. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis, were reported in 6% of patients, including three (0.2%) with Grade 3.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus including diabetic ketoacidosis: Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Withhold BAVENCIO and administer antihyperglycemics or insulin in patients with severe or life-threatening (Grade 3) hyperglycemia, and resume treatment when metabolic control is achieved. Type 1 diabetes mellitus without an alternative etiology occurred in 0.1% of patients, including two cases of Grade 3 hyperglycemia.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction. Monitor patients for elevated serum creatinine prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater nephritis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) or severe (Grade 3) nephritis until resolution to Grade 1 or lower. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for life-threatening (Grade 4) nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.1% of patients.

BAVENCIO can result in other severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions involving any organ system during treatment or after treatment discontinuation. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, evaluate to confirm or rule out an immune-mediated adverse reaction and to exclude other causes. Depending on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue BAVENCIO, administer high-dose corticosteroids, and initiate hormone replacement therapy, if appropriate. Resume BAVENCIO when the immune-mediated adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or lower following a corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for any severe (Grade 3) immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated adverse reaction. The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% of 1738 patients treated with BAVENCIO as a single agent or in 489 patients who received BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib: myocarditis including fatal cases, pancreatitis including fatal cases, myositis, psoriasis, arthritis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pemphigoid, hypopituitarism, uveitis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, and systemic inflammatory response.

BAVENCIO can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Premedicate patients with an antihistamine and acetaminophen prior to the first 4 infusions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions, including pyrexia, chills, flushing, hypotension, dyspnea, wheezing, back pain, abdominal pain, and urticaria. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for mild (Grade 1) or moderate (Grade 2) infusion-related reactions. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) infusion-related reactions. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% of patients, including three (0.2%) patients with Grade 4 and nine (0.5%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinibcan cause major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including severe and fatal events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue BAVENCIO and axitinib for Grade 3-4 cardiovascular events. MACEoccurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3-4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3-4 congestive heart failure (1.8%).

BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise patients of the potential risk to a fetus including the risk of fetal death. Advise females of childbearing potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BAVENCIO and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO. It is not known whether BAVENCIO is excreted in human milk. Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants.

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) were fatigue (50%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (23%), nausea (22%), infusion-related reaction (22%), rash (22%), decreased appetite (20%), and peripheral edema (20%).

Selected treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic MCC were lymphopenia (49%), anemia (35%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (34%), thrombocytopenia (27%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (20%).

A fatal adverse reaction (sepsis) occurred in one (0.3%) patient with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) receiving BAVENCIO plus best supportive care (BSC) as first-line maintenance treatment. In patients with previously treated locally advanced or metastatic UC, fourteen patients (6%) who were treated with BAVENCIO experienced either pneumonitis, respiratory failure, sepsis/urosepsis, cerebrovascular accident, or gastrointestinal adverse events, which led to death.

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC receiving BAVENCIO plus BSC (vs BSC alone) as first-line maintenance treatment were fatigue (35% vs 13%), musculoskeletal pain (24% vs 15%), urinary tract infection (20% vs 11%), and rash (20% vs 2.3%). In patients with previously treated locally advanced or metastatic UC receiving BAVENCIO, the most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) were fatigue, infusion-related reaction, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, decreased appetite, and urinary tract infection.

Selected laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC receiving BAVENCIO plus BSC (vs BSC alone) as first-line maintenance treatment were blood triglycerides increased (34% vs 28%), alkaline phosphate increased (30% vs 20%), blood sodium decreased (28% vs 20%), lipase increased (25% vs 16%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased (24% vs 12%), blood potassium increased (24% vs 16%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased (24% vs 12%), blood cholesterol increased (22% vs 16%), serum amylase increased (21% vs 12%), hemoglobin decreased (28% vs 18%), and white blood cell decreased (20% vs 10%).

Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.8% of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. These included sudden cardiac death (1.2%), stroke (0.2%), myocarditis (0.2%), and necrotizing pancreatitis (0.2%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were diarrhea (62% vs 48%), fatigue (53% vs 54%), hypertension (50% vs 36%), musculoskeletal pain (40% vs 33%), nausea (34% vs 39%), mucositis (34% vs 35%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (33% vs 34%), dysphonia (31% vs 3.2%), decreased appetite (26% vs 29%), hypothyroidism (25% vs 14%), rash (25% vs 16%), hepatotoxicity (24% vs 18%), cough (23% vs 19%), dyspnea (23% vs 16%), abdominal pain (22% vs 19%), and headache (21% vs 16%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) worsening from baseline in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were blood triglycerides increased (71% vs 48%), blood creatinine increased (62% vs 68%), blood cholesterol increased (57% vs 22%), alanine aminotransferase increased (ALT) (50% vs 46%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (AST) (47% vs 57%), blood sodium decreased (38% vs 37%), lipase increased (37% vs 25%), blood potassium increased (35% vs 28%), platelet count decreased (27% vs 80%), blood bilirubin increased (21% vs 23%), and hemoglobin decreased (21% vs 65%).

Please see full US Prescribing Informationand Medication Guideavailable at http://www.BAVENCIO.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany-Pfizer AllianceImmuno-oncology is a top priority for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer. The global strategic alliance between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer enables the companies to benefit from each other's strengths and capabilities and further explore the therapeutic potential of BAVENCIO, an anti-PD-L1 antibody initially discovered and developed by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. The immuno-oncology alliance is jointly developing and commercializing BAVENCIO. The alliance is focused on developing high-priority international clinical programs to investigate BAVENCIO as a monotherapy as well as combination regimens, and is striving to find new ways to treat cancer.

All Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, press releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the EMD Group Website. In case you are a resident of the USA or Canada please go to http://www.emdgroup.com/subscribeto register again for your online subscription of this service as our newly introduced geo-targeting requires new links in the email. You may later change your selection or discontinue this service.

About EMD Serono, Inc.EMD Serono - the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt,Germany, in the U.S. andCanada- is engaged in the discovery, research and development of medicines for patients with difficult to treat diseases. The business is committed to transforming lives by developing and delivering meaningful solutions that help address the therapeutic and support needs of individual patients. Building on a proven legacy and deep expertise in neurology, fertility and endocrinology, EMD Serono is developing potential new oncology and immuno-oncology medicines while continuing to explore potential therapeutic options for diseases such as psoriasis, lupus and MS. Today, the business has approximately 1,500 employees around the country with commercial, clinical and research operations based in the company's home state ofMassachusetts.www.emdserono.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GermanyMerck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, a leading science and technology company, operates across healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 57,000 employees work to make a positive difference to millions of people's lives every day by creating more joyful and sustainable ways to live. From advancing gene editing technologies and discovering unique ways to treat the most challenging diseases to enabling the intelligence of devices the company is everywhere. In 2019, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, generated sales of 16.2 billion in 66 countries.

The company holds the global rights to the name and trademark "Merck" internationally. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the business sectors of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany operate as EMD Serono in healthcare, MilliporeSigma in life science, and EMD Performance Materials. Since its founding 1668, scientific exploration and responsible entrepreneurship have been key to the company's technological and scientific advances. To this day, the founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed company.

Pfizer Inc.: Breakthroughs that change patients' livesAt Pfizer, we apply science and our global resources to bring therapies to people that extend and significantly improve their lives. We strive to set the standard for quality, safety and value in the discovery, development and manufacture of health care products, including innovative medicines and vaccines. Every day, Pfizer colleagues work across developed and emerging markets to advance wellness, prevention, treatments and cures that challenge the most feared diseases of our time. Consistent with our responsibility as one of the world's premier innovative biopharmaceutical companies, we collaborate with health care providers, governments and local communities to support and expand access to reliable, affordable health care around the world. For more than 150 years, we have worked to make a difference for all who rely on us. We routinely post information that may be important to investors on our website at http://www.pfizer.com.In addition, to learn more, please visit us on http://www.pfizer.comand follow us on Twitter at @Pfizerand @Pfizer_News, LinkedIn, YouTubeand like us on Facebook at Facebook.com/Pfizer.

Pfizer Disclosure Notice The information contained in this release is as of September 18, 2020. Pfizer assumes no obligation to update forward-looking statementscontained in this release as the result of new information or future events or developments.

This release contains forward-looking information about BAVENCIO (avelumab), including an indication for first-line maintenance therapy for BAVENCIO for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, the alliance between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germanyand Pfizer involving BAVENCIO and clinical development plans, including their potential benefits, that involves substantial risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. Risks and uncertainties include, among other things, uncertainties regarding the commercial success of BAVENCIO; the uncertainties inherent in research and development, including the ability to meet anticipated clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for our clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, regulatory approval dates and/or launch dates, as well as the possibility of unfavorable new clinical data and further analyses of existing clinical data; risks associated with interim data; the risk that clinical trial data are subject to differing interpretations and assessments by regulatory authorities; whether regulatory authorities will be satisfied with the design of and results from our clinical studies; whether and whenany drug applications may be filed in any other jurisdictions for BAVENCIO for first-line maintenance therapy for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma in any jurisdictions or for any other potential indications for BAVENCIO or combination therapies in any jurisdictions; whether and when regulatory authorities in any jurisdictions where any applications are pending or may be submitted for BAVENCIO or combination therapies, including BAVENCIO for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma may approve any such applications, which will depend on myriad factors, including making a determination as to whether the product's benefits outweigh its known risks and determination of the product's efficacy, and, if approved, whether they will be commercially successful; decisions by regulatory authorities impacting labeling, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters that could affect the availability or commercial potential of BAVENCIO, including BAVENCIO for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma; the impact of COVID-19 on our business, operations and financial results; and competitive developments.

A further description of risks and uncertainties can be found in Pfizer's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, and in its subsequent reports on Form 10-Q, including in the sections thereof captioned "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Information and Factors That May Affect Future Results", as well as in its subsequent reports on Form 8-K, all of which are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and available at http://www.sec.gov and http://www.pfizer.com.

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Original post:
BAVENCIO Pivotal Phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 Results Published in The New England Journal of Medicine - PRNewswire

Kristine Barnett: Indiana mum who abandoned ‘adult’ daughter who tried to kill her cleared of neglect charges – MEAWW

LAFAYETTE, INDIANA: Pending neglect charges against an adoptive mother who has claimed that her daughter lied about her age and was an adult with growth disorder when she took her in have been dismissed by a judge, who conceded that the girl was not a child in the eyes of the law. The case of Natalia Barnett has caught international attention after her adoptive parents, 45-year-old Kristine Barnett and her 43-year-old ex-husband Michael Barnett were arrested and charged with two counts of neglect of a dependent in September 2019.

That arrest had taken place after a five-year investigation concerning the 2013 abandonment of then-11-year-old Natalia. The pair stood accused of renting an apartment in Lafayette, Indiana, in July 2013, legally changing her age to 22, and leaving her alone at the residence before moving to Canada with their two biological sons. Natalia was found a year later by the authorities and told them she had not seen the Barnetts since they moved to Canada. when questioned, Kristine claimed that she abandoned the girl because she was a "sociopath" who had tried to kill her on multiple occasions. Having adopted Natalia from Ukraine in 2010 at what she believed was the age of 8, she said she and Michael quickly realized that the girl was, in fact, an adult.

It was a plot straight from the 2009 psychological horror film 'Orphan,' where Isabelle Fuhrman's Russian persona Esther suffers from hypopituitarism, a rare hormonal disorder that stunted her physical growth and caused proportional dwarfism, leading to her posing as a nine-year-old girl to potential victims. "She [Natalia] would make statements and draw pictures saying she wanted to kill family members, roll them up in a blanket, and put them in the backyard," Kristine told the Daily Mail in an explosive interview. "She was standing over people in the middle of the night. You couldn't go to sleep. We had to hide all the sharp objects."

"I saw her putting chemicals, bleach, Windex something like that, in my coffee and I asked her, what are you doing? She said: 'I am trying to poison you,'" she continued. "The media is painting me to be a child abuser but there is no child here."

Asked why she believed Natalia was not a child, the 45-year-old revealed she had adult teeth, never grew a single inch, and had periods which she had tried to hide from her and Michael. "I was giving her a bath and I noticed that she had full pubic hair. I was so shocked. I had just been told she was a six-year-old and it was very apparent she wasn't," she said. "The doctors all confirmed she was suffering a severe psychological illness only diagnosed in adults," she added. "She was jumping out of moving cars. She was smearing blood on mirrors. She was doing things you could never imagine a little child doing."

It all came to a head during a 2012 birthday outing, which was when Natalia reportedly tried to push Kristine into an electric fence. She was subsequently placed long-term at a state-run psychiatric unit, where she is said to have confessed to being far older than she appeared and described her attempts to kill her family as "fun." In June 2012, the Barnetts successfully applied to Marion County Superior Court in Indianapolis, Indiana to have Natalia's age "corrected" so she could receive the appropriate psychiatric treatment for an adult. Judge Gerald S Zore accepted that the couple's allegations were 'true' and revised Natalia's date of birth to September 4, 1989 changing her age from eight to 22.

In a November 2019 interview with Dr. Phil, Natalia dismissed Kristine's claims and insisted she was still a child. She said she thought the Barnetts were the right family for her after she moved around a lot of homes but that notion was quickly proved wrong. "I'm 16," she stressed. "I was six years old when I came to the United States. I just know that a family came and visited me and after a while, they adopted me."

Natalia also denied all claims of trying to harm or kill the Barnetts or their children. She told Dr. Phil the poison claims were a misunderstanding while cleaning with Kristine and that the stabbing allegations were false as well because she would only have entered their bedroom at night if she had had a nightmare. A month after that interview, prosecutors filed more serious felony charges of neglect against Kristine and Michael for not getting Natalia needed medical treatment because of her dwarfism.

And as both have continued to protest their innocence, Kristine received some respite from a Tippecanoe County court ruling this past week that moved to dismiss charges stemming from allegations that Natalia was a minor. Tippecanoe Superior 2 Judge Steve Meyer pointed out on Friday, August 14, that some of the neglect charges against the Barnetts were based on Natalia's age from her Ukrainian records that said she was born in 2003. However, as per the 2012 Marion County Superior Court ruling that he does not have the authority to change, he said Natalia was not a child. He also noted that agents of the state had the opportunity to challenge the superior court's ruling several steps along the way of bringing the charges against the Barnetts but did not do so. "The record supports a conclusion that the state has had its fair share of 'bites at the apple," Meyer wrote. "(A)s a matter of law, she is an adult."

Following the ruling, Michael filed a motion to dismiss those charges against him as well, with his attorney, Terrance Kinnard, doing so on his behalf on Monday, August 17.

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Kristine Barnett: Indiana mum who abandoned 'adult' daughter who tried to kill her cleared of neglect charges - MEAWW

Global Alopecia Market was valued at approximately USD 2.40 billion in 2019, and is expected to generate revenue of around USD 4.45 billion by end of…

Trusted Business Insights answers what are the scenarios for growth and recovery and whether there will be any lasting structural impact from the unfolding crisis for the Alopecia market.

Trusted Business Insights presents an updated and Latest Study on Alopecia Market 2019-2029. The report contains market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market.The report further elaborates on the micro and macroeconomic aspects including the socio-political landscape that is anticipated to shape the demand of the Alopecia market during the forecast period (2019-2029).It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary, and SWOT analysis.

Get Sample Copy of this Report @ Alopecia Market by disease (Androgenic Alopecia, Alopecia Areata, Cicatricial Alopecia, Traction Alopecia, Alopecia Totalis, Alopecia Universalis, and Others, by drug type (Corticosteroids, 5 Ar Inhibitors and Others), by gender (Male, Female); by route of administration (Topical, Injectable and Oral) and distribution channel (Retail Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies and Online Pharmacies)-Global Industry Analytics COVID-19 Business Impact, and Trends, 2020-2026

Abstract

The report covers forecast and analysis for the Alopecia market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data from 2016 to 2019 along with a forecast from 2020 to 2026 based on revenue (USD Billion). The study includes drivers and restraints for the Alopecia market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the Alopecia market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the Alopecia market we have included competitive landscape and analysis of Porters Five Forces model for the market. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein disease, drug type, gender, route of administration, distribution channel, and regional segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness.

The word alopecia means hair loss. Alopecia isnt limited to the scalp; its possible on the body anywhere. The hair cycle comprises of three phases: Anagen, which is called as growth phase. Second phase is catagen, also called as rest phase and the fading phase, which is called as telogen phase. Ninety percent of the hair is in the development period (anagen) and the remainder, which corresponds to ten percent in the resting and shedding phases. When the hair falls out, this is the telogen phase and the hair is going to regenerate, and it begins to develop again in the (development) anagen process. Alopecia can be subdivided into two broad categories: scarring and non-scarring. Non-scarring or androgenic alopecia is the most common form. Many men start losing hair in the 20s, while women start losing their hair in their 40s or 50s. As a person grows older they lose hair. The pattern is the disparity between masculine hair loss and female hair loss. Front and temporal zone are the area where men usually lose hair because this area is more sensitive to di-hydrogen testosterone. while women appear to lose hair from the scalps central field. Female hair loss will also not result in complete baldness, while male hair loss can result in complete baldness. Males do not loose hair in the back of the scalp as this area is androgenic hormone resistant.

The study provides a decisive view on the Alopecia market by segmenting the market based on disease, drug type, gender, route of administration, distribution channel, and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2020 to 2026. Based on disease, the market is segmented into androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, cicatricial alopecia, traction alopecia and others. The study projects that the alopecia areata will dominate the Alopecia market owing to the upsurge in the number of patients suffering with the alopecia areata.

Based on drug type, the market is segmented into corticosteroids, 5 ar inhibitors, potassium channel openers and others. Corticosteroids segment is expected to dominate the market due to the more number of patients being treated by Corticosteroids in treatment of alopecia areata. Based on gender, the market is segmented into male and female .Based on distribution channel, the market is segmented into Retail Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies and Online Pharmacies. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Geographically speaking, North America dominated the alopecia market. Large alopecia patient pool, availability of developed infrastructure, growing awareness and presence of key players has led to increased demand for alopecia treatment.

The increase in lifestyle spending as well as growing peoples awareness drives the growth of the market for alopecia treatment. In addition, the rise in the occurrence of chronic diseases, like acute stress disorder, polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cancer, lupus, and hypopituitarism is accelerating the growth of the demand for alopecia treatment. Increasing aging population and increasing people concerned with improving the hair is expected to boost the market for alopecia treatment. The increasing demand for surgical hair transplants and increased customer awareness of possible treatment, like prp treatment which in turn boosts the growth of the market for alopecia treatment. However, the high cost and adverse effects associated with treatment may hamper the growth of the market for alopecia tretment.

Key players within global Alopecia market include Cipla Inc., Dr. Reddys Laboratories, Johnson and Johnson AG, Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, Transitions Hair Pty Ltd., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Merck & Co., Inc., Transitions Hair Pty Ltd, Cirrus Hair Centers, Lexington International LLC, Vita-Cos-Med Klett-Loch GmbH, Follica, Inc., and Capillus. amongst others.

The report segments global Alopecia market as follows:

Global Alopecia Market: Disease Segment Analysis

Androgenic alopeciaAlopecia areataCicatricial alopeciaTraction alopeciaAlopecia TotalisAlopecia UniversalisOthers

Global Alopecia Market: Drug type Segment Analysis

Corticosteroids5 AR InhibitorsPotassium Channel openersOthers

Global Alopecia Market: By Gender Segment Analysis

MaleFemale

Global Alopecia Market: By Route of Administration Segment Analysis

TopicalOralInjectable

Global Alopecia Market: Distribution channel Segment Analysis

Hospital PharmaciesRetail PharmaciesOnline Pharmacies

Global Alopecia Market: Regional Segment Analysis

North America

The U.S.Canada

Europe

FranceThe UKSpainGermanyItalyRest of Europe

Asia Pacific

ChinaJapanIndiaSouth KoreaSoutheast AsiaRest of Asia Pacific

Latin America

BrazilMexicoRest of Latin America

Middle East & Africa

GCCSouth AfricaRest of Middle East & Africa

Quick Read Table of Contents of this Report @ Alopecia Market by disease (Androgenic Alopecia, Alopecia Areata, Cicatricial Alopecia, Traction Alopecia, Alopecia Totalis, Alopecia Universalis, and Others, by drug type (Corticosteroids, 5 Ar Inhibitors and Others), by gender (Male, Female); by route of administration (Topical, Injectable and Oral) and distribution channel (Retail Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies and Online Pharmacies)-Global Industry Analytics COVID-19 Business Impact, and Trends, 2020-2026

Trusted Business InsightsShelly ArnoldMedia & Marketing ExecutiveEmail Me For Any ClarificationsConnect on LinkedInClick to follow Trusted Business Insights LinkedIn for Market Data and Updates.US: +1 646 568 9797UK: +44 330 808 0580

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Global Alopecia Market was valued at approximately USD 2.40 billion in 2019, and is expected to generate revenue of around USD 4.45 billion by end of...

20 Of The Most Shocking Plot Twists In Movies That We Never Predicted – ScoopWhoop

A good plot twist is one that seamlessly fits into the story, while leaving the audience gasping in shock, prompting them to revisit the film, simply to figure out the clues.

Disclaimer: Spoilers Ahead

In no particular order, here are some of the most epic plot twists that movies have gifted us, over the years:

Can there be more 'Bollywood' plot reveal than a song? Mehbooba Mehbooba wins the cake for the most filmy yet perfect plot reveal.

Admit it, no one predicted that.

When her husband cheats on her, Amy plans the perfect revenge - frame him for her murder and escape the married life.

The climax, when Vidya Bagchi's real identity is revealed, is even more shocking than watching insurance agent-cum-contract killer Bob Biswas pushing her in front of a train.

The scene where a supposedly blind pianist watches a crime scene being cleaned up, is peak black comedy. But, the last scene where Akash hits the can with his stick, thereby proving he regained his eyesight, is as shocking as it comes. Talk about going down the 'rabbit' hole!

For a children's movie,Makdeeprovided a surprisingly intelligent take on the evils of superstition and a thoroughly terrifying witch.

Unless you had already read the book before, there's no way you guessed the twist.

Patrick Bateman fashions himself to be a serial killer, convincing the audience along the way, only to realize he is a sadist suffering from vivid delusions. What a 'killer' imagination!

The fact that Scabbers is Peter Pettigrew almost trumped this scene. But you can't think of Harry Potter without thinking of Snape 'always' being there for Lily's son, Harry.

Three blind men rob a bank and get the man who hired them convicted -Aankhenisundoubtedly one of Hindi cinema's finest heist movies.

The police can not convict the Salgaonkars because the body of the boy whose murder the family is accused of,is never discovered. However, the bigger reveal was why the murder took place in the first place.Drishyam left the audience pondering how far would parents go for their children.

The horror film that proved, quite literally, that racism kills.

Leaving the melodrama aside,Humraazactually served a fair share of plot twists. But the first twist, where it is revealed that Priya (Ameesha Patel) and Karan (Akshaye Khanna) are partners, and the climax where Priya and Raj (Bobby Deol) outsmart Karan, are especially noteworthy.

One of Manoj Bajpayee and Urmila Matondkar's finest performances,Kaunalso happens to be a brilliant psychological thriller where the woman being hunted is actually the serial killer.

Okay, in hindsight, maybe the clues were all there. But when theGuptfirst released, the plot reveal was shocking, to say the least.

Orphan took the phrase 'there's more to it than meets the eye' quite literally when it revealed that Coleman's adopted child is actually a33-year-old woman suffering from hypopituitarism.

A fine example of DiCaprio's acting prowess, Shutter Island ends with a question most people struggle to answer - is it better 'to live as a monster, or to die as a good man?'

Though the Kim family discover a fair share of secrets when they infiltrate theParks home, the biggest twist for the audience is revealed at the end - when Ki-taek's new living quarters are revealed.

Before Shah Rukh Khan became the industry's favourite romantic hero, he was the villain who pushed his girlfriend off a balcony. And scared the sh*t out of every person in the audience.

Honey Trehan's debut filmleft the audience shocked when it revealed that Vasudha, a victim of child sexual abuse, is the one who kills her uncle after years of abuse. However, equally shocking was the fact that her mother had been complicit in hiding the abuse.

How many of these did you predict when you first watched the film? Let us know in the comments section below.

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20 Of The Most Shocking Plot Twists In Movies That We Never Predicted - ScoopWhoop

Global Alopecia Market 2020 | Analyzing The COVID-19 Impact Followed By Restraints, Opportunities And Projected Developments – Bulletin Line

Trusted Business Insights answers what are the scenarios for growth and recovery and whether there will be any lasting structural impact from the unfolding crisis for the Alopecia market.

Trusted Business Insights presents an updated and Latest Study on Alopecia Market 2019-2029. The report contains market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market.The report further elaborates on the micro and macroeconomic aspects including the socio-political landscape that is anticipated to shape the demand of the Alopecia market during the forecast period (2019-2029).It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary, and SWOT analysis.

Get Sample Copy of this Report @ Alopecia Market by disease (Androgenic Alopecia, Alopecia Areata, Cicatricial Alopecia, Traction Alopecia, Alopecia Totalis, Alopecia Universalis, and Others, by drug type (Corticosteroids, 5 Ar Inhibitors and Others), by gender (Male, Female); by route of administration (Topical, Injectable and Oral) and distribution channel (Retail Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies and Online Pharmacies)-Global Industry Analytics COVID-19 Business Impact, and Trends, 2020-2026

Abstract

The report covers forecast and analysis for the Alopecia market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data from 2016 to 2019 along with a forecast from 2020 to 2026 based on revenue (USD Billion). The study includes drivers and restraints for the Alopecia market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the Alopecia market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the Alopecia market we have included competitive landscape and analysis of Porters Five Forces model for the market. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein disease, drug type, gender, route of administration, distribution channel, and regional segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness.

The word alopecia means hair loss. Alopecia isnt limited to the scalp; its possible on the body anywhere. The hair cycle comprises of three phases: Anagen, which is called as growth phase. Second phase is catagen, also called as rest phase and the fading phase, which is called as telogen phase. Ninety percent of the hair is in the development period (anagen) and the remainder, which corresponds to ten percent in the resting and shedding phases. When the hair falls out, this is the telogen phase and the hair is going to regenerate, and it begins to develop again in the (development) anagen process. Alopecia can be subdivided into two broad categories: scarring and non-scarring. Non-scarring or androgenic alopecia is the most common form. Many men start losing hair in the 20s, while women start losing their hair in their 40s or 50s. As a person grows older they lose hair. The pattern is the disparity between masculine hair loss and female hair loss. Front and temporal zone are the area where men usually lose hair because this area is more sensitive to di-hydrogen testosterone. while women appear to lose hair from the scalps central field. Female hair loss will also not result in complete baldness, while male hair loss can result in complete baldness. Males do not loose hair in the back of the scalp as this area is androgenic hormone resistant.

The study provides a decisive view on the Alopecia market by segmenting the market based on disease, drug type, gender, route of administration, distribution channel, and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2020 to 2026. Based on disease, the market is segmented into androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, cicatricial alopecia, traction alopecia and others. The study projects that the alopecia areata will dominate the Alopecia market owing to the upsurge in the number of patients suffering with the alopecia areata.

Based on drug type, the market is segmented into corticosteroids, 5 ar inhibitors, potassium channel openers and others. Corticosteroids segment is expected to dominate the market due to the more number of patients being treated by Corticosteroids in treatment of alopecia areata. Based on gender, the market is segmented into male and female .Based on distribution channel, the market is segmented into Retail Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies and Online Pharmacies. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Geographically speaking, North America dominated the alopecia market. Large alopecia patient pool, availability of developed infrastructure, growing awareness and presence of key players has led to increased demand for alopecia treatment.

The increase in lifestyle spending as well as growing peoples awareness drives the growth of the market for alopecia treatment. In addition, the rise in the occurrence of chronic diseases, like acute stress disorder, polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, cancer, lupus, and hypopituitarism is accelerating the growth of the demand for alopecia treatment. Increasing aging population and increasing people concerned with improving the hair is expected to boost the market for alopecia treatment. The increasing demand for surgical hair transplants and increased customer awareness of possible treatment, like prp treatment which in turn boosts the growth of the market for alopecia treatment. However, the high cost and adverse effects associated with treatment may hamper the growth of the market for alopecia tretment.

Key players within global Alopecia market include Cipla Inc., Dr. Reddys Laboratories, Johnson and Johnson AG, Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, Transitions Hair Pty Ltd., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Merck & Co., Inc., Transitions Hair Pty Ltd, Cirrus Hair Centers, Lexington International LLC, Vita-Cos-Med Klett-Loch GmbH, Follica, Inc., and Capillus. amongst others.

The report segments global Alopecia market as follows:

Global Alopecia Market: Disease Segment Analysis

Androgenic alopeciaAlopecia areataCicatricial alopeciaTraction alopeciaAlopecia TotalisAlopecia UniversalisOthers

Global Alopecia Market: Drug type Segment Analysis

Corticosteroids5 AR InhibitorsPotassium Channel openersOthers

Global Alopecia Market: By Gender Segment Analysis

MaleFemale

Global Alopecia Market: By Route of Administration Segment Analysis

TopicalOralInjectable

Global Alopecia Market: Distribution channel Segment Analysis

Hospital PharmaciesRetail PharmaciesOnline Pharmacies

Global Alopecia Market: Regional Segment Analysis

North America

The U.S.Canada

Europe

FranceThe UKSpainGermanyItalyRest of Europe

Asia Pacific

ChinaJapanIndiaSouth KoreaSoutheast AsiaRest of Asia Pacific

Latin America

BrazilMexicoRest of Latin America

Middle East & Africa

GCCSouth AfricaRest of Middle East & Africa

Quick Read Table of Contents of this Report @ Alopecia Market by disease (Androgenic Alopecia, Alopecia Areata, Cicatricial Alopecia, Traction Alopecia, Alopecia Totalis, Alopecia Universalis, and Others, by drug type (Corticosteroids, 5 Ar Inhibitors and Others), by gender (Male, Female); by route of administration (Topical, Injectable and Oral) and distribution channel (Retail Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies and Online Pharmacies)-Global Industry Analytics COVID-19 Business Impact, and Trends, 2020-2026

Trusted Business InsightsShelly ArnoldMedia & Marketing ExecutiveEmail Me For Any ClarificationsConnect on LinkedInClick to follow Trusted Business Insights LinkedIn for Market Data and Updates.US: +1 646 568 9797UK: +44 330 808 0580

More here:
Global Alopecia Market 2020 | Analyzing The COVID-19 Impact Followed By Restraints, Opportunities And Projected Developments - Bulletin Line

Diagnosis and Management of Pituitary Incidentaloma – Endocrinology Advisor

Pituitary incidentaloma is defined as a previously unsuspected pituitary lesion that is discovered on imaging study performed for an unrelated reason in a patient with no obvious symptoms to suggest pituitary disease.1,2 The incidence of these lesions is between 10% and 20% of the population and the prevalence can approach 1 in 1000 people.3,4

Pituitary adenoma is the most common incidentally found pituitary lesion, but the differential diagnosis of a pituitary lesion identified on imaging also includes Rathke cleft cyst, craniopharyngioma, meningioma, hypophysitis, or metastasis.2,5

Pituitary adenomas can be either functioning or nonfunctioning, the latter being the most common.2 Although functional tumors can be associated with significant symptoms secondary to the hormone excess, cases of nonfunctional pituitary tumors may present with symptoms related to the mass effect on surrounding structures, such as headache, visual defects, and hypopituitarism.6

The natural history of pituitary incidentalomas is not fully understood, but data suggest that most microincidentalomas (lesions <10 mm) have a benign course, whereas macroincidentalomas (10 mm) require more attention as the risk for hormone abnormalities and mass effects is higher.5

In the largest series of pituitary incidentalomas published in 2016,7 including 328 patients diagnosed with these tumors, researchers reported that most incidentalomas were pituitary adenomas (73%) and that approximately one-quarter (27%) of cases were nonpituitary sellar masses. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of these tumors. Most tumors were macroadenomas at presentation, likely because they were detected on imaging of the brain and not that of the sella, which may have missed smaller lesions.7

The most common indication for imaging in the case series was headache, which relates one of the controversial topics regarding the association between headaches and pituitary incidentalomas: considering the fact that headache may be one of the symptoms of pituitary tumors and that in some patients the headache resolves following removal of the tumor, would it be correct to classify these tumors as incidental?

Interestingly, pituitary incidentalomas in children have different patterns than those detected in the adulthood with a high prevalence of physiologic pituitary hypertrophy.8 As most incidentalomas in pediatric patients are not associated with hormonal hypersecretion or hypopiuitarism and structural progression is not common, it is believed that the extensive follow-up assessment recommended for adults might not be necessary for children.8

The Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines for management of pituitary incidentaloma recommend completing a thorough history and physical examination, as well as laboratory evaluation for pituitary hormone excess or deficiency.1 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be completed in all cases that were initially diagnosed by computed tomography and visual field assessment is recommended in the presence of a tumor abutting the optic nerves or chiasm on MRI.1

There are different opinions on how to screen for pituitary hormone deficiencies, but as a general rule, the investigation should include measurements of total or free thyroxine, thyrotropin, cortisol, insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1), luteinizing hormone and follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) in men and postmenopausal women, and total testosterone in men.5 Stimulation tests should be performed for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone (GH) deficiency when baseline test results are not confirmatory.1,5 The most common deficits are GH deficiency and hypogonadism, followed by central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency.6

Significant hypopituitarism is not commonly seen with microincidentaloms.2 The Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines strongly favor routine testing for hypopituitarism in macroincidentalomas and larger microincidentalomas measuring 6 to 9 mm, as asymptomatic pituitary hormone deficits are more likely to occur with larger lesions.1

As for hormone hypersecretion, it is recommended to include an assessment for prolactin, GH, and possibly ACTH hypersecretion.1 Although approximately half of pituitary incidentalomas are nonfunctional, prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors are the most common functional type.7 Elevated prolactin can indicate either direct tumor secretion or disconnection of the hypothalamus and normal pituitary gland by a large nonfunctioning pituitary mass.2 Silent somatotroph-secreting tumors are rare, but evaluation for GH excess is recommended by measurement of IGF-1 level, as treatment could reduce long-term morbidity. When clinically suspected, laboratory screening for glucocorticoid excess and Cushing syndrome is suggested.1

The available natural history data on pituitary incidentalomas are mostly derived from small-scale studies with relatively limited follow-up and the risk of developing hormonal dysfunction over longer follow-up is unknown.7 A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the natural history of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas revealed that tumor growth was more common in macroadenomas (12.5 per 100 person-years) and solid lesions (5.7 per 100 person-years) compared with the incidence of tumor growth in microadenomas (3.3 per 100 person-years) and cystic lesions (0.05 per 100 person-years).9

The follow-up testing of a pituitary incidentaloma is different for microincidentaloma and macroincidentaloma. For macroincidentaloma, pituitary MRI with clinical and biochemical testing for hypopituitarism should be completed at 6 months after the initial diagnosis and then yearly for several years, with visual field assessment if the tumor enlarges to abut or compress the optic nerves or chiasm. For microincidentaloma, MRI should be performed at 12 months after the initial diagnosis, but there is no need to test for hypopituitarism if there was no change in the clinical and radiographic features.1

Surgical intervention should be recommended for cases of hypersecreting tumors other than prolactinomas, pituitary apoplexy with visual disturbances, lesions abutting or compressing the optic nerves or chiasm on MRI, or in the presence of visual field deficit or other visual abnormalities due to the lesion.1 Surgical resection of nonfunctioning microadenomas is not indicated as tumor growth is rare, with less than 5% growing significantly during long-term follow-up.6

Medical treatment for pituitary incidentaloma may include dopamine agonist therapy for patients with prolactinoma. In some cases of pituitary incidentaloma, somatostatin analogues may be used, but there are limited data on the use of medical therapy for these tumors.1

References

1. Freda PU, Beckers AM, Katznelson L, et al. Pituitary incidentaloma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(4):894-904.

2. Bevan JS. Pituitary incidentaloma. Clin Med J R Coll Physicians London. 2013;13(3):296-298.

3. Ezzat S, Asa SL, Couldwell WT, et al. The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review. Cancer. 2004;101(3):613-619.

4. Scangas GA, Laws ER. Pituitary incidentalomas. Pituitary. 2014;17(5):486-491.

5. Boguszewski CL, de Castro Musolino NR, Kasuki L. Management of pituitary incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019;33(2):101268.

6. Esposito D, Olsson DS, Ragnarsson O, Buchfelder M, Skoglund T, Johannsson G. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas: indications for pituitary surgery and post-surgical management. Pituitary. 2019;22(4):422-434.

7. Imran SA, Yip C-E, Papneja N, et al. Analysis and natural history of pituitary incidentalomas. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016;175(1):1-9.

8. Souteiro P, Maia R, Santos-Silva R, et al. Pituitary incidentalomas in paediatric age are different from those described in adulthood. Pituitary. 2019;22(2):124-128.

9. Fernndez-Balsells MM, Murad MH, Barwise A, et al. Natural history of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and incidentalomas: a systematic review and metaanalysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(4):905-912.

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Diagnosis and Management of Pituitary Incidentaloma - Endocrinology Advisor

Male Hypogonadism Market Future Aspect Analysis and Current Trends by 2017 to 2025 – 3rd Watch News

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Snapshot

Hypogonadism in males refers to a condition in the male body where the testes show a significantly reduced level of functioning than normal. The overall result of male hypogonadism is a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of male sex hormones. This state is more commonly known as interrupted stage 1 puberty. Hypoandrogenism, or the low androgen or testosterone level in a male can vary in severity from person to person. It is often the cause of partial or complete infertility. There are multiple forms of male hypogonadism and even more ways to classify them. Most endocrinologists commonly classify male hypogonadism on the basis of the level of defectiveness of the male reproductive system.

In many cases, doctors also measure the level of gonadotropins to classify a patient between primary and secondary male hypogonadism. Primary male hypogonadism refers to the cause of the condition being due to defective gonads. There are different types of primary male hypogonadism, including Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. Secondary male hypogonadism is caused by defects in pituitary or hypothalamic glands. They include Kallmann syndrome and hypopituitarism.

Get Sample Copy of the Report @https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=1127

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Overview

Male Hypogonadism refers to a clinical condition, wherein the testes fail to produce enough testosterone leading to delayed puberty or incomplete development. The condition is related to impaired development of muscle mass, development of breast tissues, impaired body hair growth, and lack of deepening of the voice.

The male Hypogonadism market can be segmented by therapy, type, drug delivery, and geography.

The report presents an in-depth analysis of the global male hypogonadism market with current trends and future estimates to explain the imminent investment pockets. The quantitative analysis of the market for the forecast period from 2017 to 2025 will enable stakeholders to capitalize on the prevailing growth opportunities.

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Trends and Opportunities

The top driver of the male hypogonadism market includes rising prevalence of testosterone deficiency among men, increasing infertility rates, and increasing awareness among individuals about hypogonadism treatment due to awareness drives organized by several governments across the world. Moreover, high risk of hypogonadism among the geriatric population with obesity and diabetes, and increasing prevalence of chronic disorders among the geriatrics are further expected to boost the markets growth.

However, factors such as high side effects of testosterone products are challenging the growth of testosterone replacement therapy market. Top players in the market are focused on research and development to introduce newer products with fewer or negligible side effects and improved results. For example, LPCN 1111, a product which is under development from Lipocine Inc., is a newer testosterone prodrug that utilizes Lipral technology for enhanced systemic absorption and for enhanced solubility of testosterone. Nevertheless, technological advancements are anticipated to extend new opportunities to the markets growth.

Global Male Hypogonadism Market: Regional Overview

The global male Hypogonadism market can be analyzed with respect to the regional segments of North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. North America held the majority share of the global market in the recent past and is expected to retain its dominant position in the near future. This is mainly due to the rise in the number of individuals suffering from primary and secondary conditions of hypogonadism, and rising awareness among individuals about treatment options for the condition. Moreover, the presence of ultra-modern healthcare infrastructure and increasing popularity of technologically advanced products are expected to offer new opportunities for top players in this market. The region is closely followed by Europe.

Asia Pacific is expected to offer lucrative opportunities to this market due to the modernization of the healthcare infrastructure in the emerging economies of India and China and the increasing awareness about the treatment for the condition. In Asia Pacific, the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and infertility rates along with the rising geriatric population base with diabetes and obesity are propelling the growth of this market. China, Taiwan, and Malaysia are some of the countries that display the highest rate of male hypogonadism.

Major Companies Mentioned in Report

Some of the key players in the male Hypogonadism market include AbbVie Inc., Astrazeneca plc, Eli Lilly and Company Ltd., Merck & Co. Inc., SA, Finox Biotech, Laboratories Genevrier, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Allergan plc, Bayer AG, Endo International plc, IBSA Institut Biochimque, and Ferring.

Key players are focused on product approval for growth considerations and to cater to the changing demand of the industry. The introduction of innovative and technologically advanced products is also the focus of key players to increase their market share and for serving patients in a better manner.

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Male Hypogonadism Market Future Aspect Analysis and Current Trends by 2017 to 2025 - 3rd Watch News

Breakthrough Innovation in Cancer Care From EMD Serono Pipeline to Be Presented at ASCO 2020 – PRNewswire

Not intended for UK-based media

- Results from two studies of BAVENCIOto be featured in ASCO press briefing

- Primary efficacy, biomarker and HRQoL analyses for tepotinib, the first MET inhibitor to have received a regulatory approval for NSCLC with METgene alterations

- Two-year follow-up for first-in-class bifunctional immunotherapy bintrafusp alfatargeting TGF-/PD-L1, in second-line NSCLC

ROCKLAND,Massachusetts, May 13, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --EMD Serono, the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany in the US and Canada,today announced data for its innovative investigational agents and investigational uses of marketed medicines to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program, to be held virtually from May 29-31.

This year, ASCO will be highlightingduring its embargoed presscast on Tuesday, May 26 and at the plenary session on Sunday, May 31the Phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 study (Abstract# LBA1) of BAVENCIO (avelumab) in the first-line maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC)*. Additional data will be presented for early- to late-stage molecules discovered and developed in-house that demonstrate the Company's commitment and relentless drive to discover, develop and deliver innovative treatment options in its hope to turn cancer patients into cancer survivors. Research from several investigator-sponsored and collaborative research studies also will be shared. This includes a late-breaking oral presentation of results of the investigator-sponsored, multicenter Phase II TROPHIMMUN study of avelumab for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumors (Cohort A), which also will be featured in the ASCO press program (Abstract# LBA6008).

"Despite the many advances in cancer treatment, we have an urgency to continue to discover and develop innovative treatment options that will have a major impact on the lives of people living with cancer,"said Luciano Rossetti, Global Head of Research & Development for EMD Serono. "Taking on this challenge, we've applied our deep knowledge of cancer biology to highly focused areas to develop the first-in-class oral MET inhibitor, tepotinib, which received the first approval anywhere in the world for the treatment of NSCLC with MET gene alterations, and our first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein immunotherapy, bintrafusp alfa, both of which have promising outcomes featured at this year's ASCO meeting."

For tepotinib, approved in Japan for the treatment of patients withunresectable, advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with METexon 14 (METex14)skipping alterationsand the first oral MET inhibitor indicated for the treatment of advanced NSCLC harboring MET gene alterations to receive a regulatory approval, data will be presented from the primary analysis of the VISION study with promising activity in patients with advanced EGFR/ALK wild-type, METex14 skipping NSCLC who were prospectively enrolled using liquid biopsy or tissue biopsy. Results (Abstract #9556) include6-month follow-updata for the primary endpoint of objective response rate (ORR) as determined by independent review committee. Secondary endpoints include ORR as assessed by investigators, duration of response, disease control rate, progression-free survival, molecular responses, and safety data. Additionally, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for the VISION study will be presented at the meeting (Abstract# 9575). These outcomes are the first time HRQoL have been reported for patients with METex14skipping NSCLC.

For bintrafusp alfa, a novel bifunctional fusion protein targeting TGF- and PD-L1, two-year follow-up data from a global Phase I study in second-line NSCLC will be presented (Abstract# 9558). These data continue to show manageable safety with durable responses and encouraging long-term survival, especially in patients with high PD-L1 expression (80%). The overall safety profile has remained consistent since the interim analysis, with no new safety signals or deaths and one additional treatment-related discontinuation (blood alkaline phosphatase increased). Studies in the bintrafusp alfa lung cancer program include:

The Company's broad portfolio of investigational DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors represents multiple development paths, including combinations with other agents and modalities. A trial-in-progress poster (Abstract #TPS4117) will review a multicenter Phase Ib/II study evaluating the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of the DNA-PK inhibitor peposertib (formerly M3814) in combination with capecitabine and radiotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

*BAVENCIO is under clinical investigation for the first-line maintenance treatment of advanced UC. There is no guarantee that BAVENCIO will be approved for first-line maintenance treatment of advanced UC by any health authority worldwide.

Tepotinib is currently under clinical investigation in NSCLC and not yet approved in any markets outside of Japan.

Bintrafusp alfa is currently under clinical investigation and not approved for any use anywhere in the world.

About BAVENCIO (avelumab)

BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.10-12 In November 2014, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.

BAVENCIO Approved Indications

BAVENCIO (avelumab) in combination with axitinib is indicated in the US for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Avelumab is currently approved for patients with MCC in 50 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.

BAVENCIO Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved Label

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis, and evaluate suspected cases with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3), life-threatening (Grade 4), or recurrent moderate (Grade 2) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis occurred in 1.2% of patients, including one (0.1%) patient with Grade 5, one (0.1%) with Grade 4, and five (0.3%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause hepatotoxicity and immune-mediated hepatitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for abnormal liver tests prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hepatitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) immune-mediated hepatitis until resolution and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred with BAVENCIO as a single agent in 0.9% of patients, including two (0.1%) patients with Grade 5, and 11 (0.6%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are used as monotherapy. Withhold BAVENCIO and axitinib for moderate (Grade 2) hepatotoxicity and permanently discontinue the combination for severe or life-threatening (Grade 3 or 4) hepatotoxicity. Administer corticosteroids as needed. In patients treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT and AST occurred in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively, and immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 7% of patients, including 4.9% with Grade 3 or 4.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated colitis. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis. Withhold BAVENCIO until resolution for moderate or severe (Grade 2 or 3) colitis until resolution. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening (Grade 4) or recurrent (Grade 3) colitis upon reinitiation of BAVENCIO. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.5% of patients, including seven (0.4%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency during and after treatment, and administer corticosteroids as appropriate. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency was reported in 0.5% of patients, including one (0.1%) with Grade 3.

Thyroid disorders can occur at any time during treatment. Monitor patients for changes in thyroid function at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation. Manage hypothyroidism with hormone replacement therapy and hyperthyroidism with medical management. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis, were reported in 6% of patients, including three (0.2%) with Grade 3.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus including diabetic ketoacidosis: Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Withhold BAVENCIO and administer antihyperglycemics or insulin in patients with severe or life-threatening (Grade 3) hyperglycemia, and resume treatment when metabolic control is achieved. Type 1 diabetes mellitus without an alternative etiology occurred in 0.1% of patients, including two cases of Grade 3 hyperglycemia.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction. Monitor patients for elevated serum creatinine prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater nephritis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) or severe (Grade 3) nephritis until resolution to Grade 1 or lower. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for life-threatening (Grade 4) nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.1% of patients.

BAVENCIO can result in other severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions involving any organ system during treatment or after treatment discontinuation. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, evaluate to confirm or rule out an immune-mediated adverse reaction and to exclude other causes. Depending on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue BAVENCIO, administer high-dose corticosteroids, and initiate hormone replacement therapy, if appropriate. Resume BAVENCIO when the immune-mediated adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or lower following a corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for any severe (Grade 3) immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated adverse reaction. The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% of 1738 patients treated with BAVENCIO as a single agent or in 489 patients who received BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib: myocarditis including fatal cases, pancreatitis including fatal cases, myositis, psoriasis, arthritis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pemphigoid, hypopituitarism, uveitis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, and systemic inflammatory response.

BAVENCIO can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Premedicate patients with an antihistamine and acetaminophen prior to the first 4 infusions and for subsequent infusions based upon clinical judgment and presence/severity of prior infusion reactions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions, including pyrexia, chills, flushing, hypotension, dyspnea, wheezing, back pain, abdominal pain, and urticaria. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for mild (Grade 1) or moderate (Grade 2) infusion-related reactions. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) infusion-related reactions. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% of patients, including three (0.2%) patients with Grade 4 and nine (0.5%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including severe and fatal events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue BAVENCIO and axitinib for Grade 3-4 cardiovascular events. MACEoccurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3-4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3-4 congestive heart failure (1.8%).

BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise patients of the potential risk to a fetus including the risk of fetal death. Advise females of childbearing potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BAVENCIO and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO. It is not known whether BAVENCIO is excreted in human milk. Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants.

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) were fatigue (50%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (23%), nausea (22%), infusion-related reaction (22%), rash (22%), decreased appetite (20%), and peripheral edema (20%).

Selected treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic MCC were lymphopenia (49%), anemia (35%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (34%), thrombocytopenia (27%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (20%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) were fatigue (41%), infusion-related reaction (30%), musculoskeletal pain (25%), nausea (24%), decreased appetite/hypophagia (21%), and urinary tract infection (21%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (Grades 3-4, 3%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC were hyponatremia (16%), increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (12%), lymphopenia (11%), hyperglycemia (9%), increased alkaline phosphatase (7%), anemia (6%), increased lipase (6%), hyperkalemia (3%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (3%).

Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.8% of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. These included sudden cardiac death (1.2%), stroke (0.2%), myocarditis (0.2%), and necrotizing pancreatitis (0.2%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were diarrhea (62% vs 48%), fatigue (53% vs 54%), hypertension (50% vs 36%), musculoskeletal pain (40% vs 33%), nausea (34% vs 39%), mucositis (34% vs 35%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (33% vs 34%), dysphonia (31% vs 3.2%), decreased appetite (26% vs 29%), hypothyroidism (25% vs 14%), rash (25% vs 16%), hepatotoxicity (24% vs 18%), cough (23% vs 19%), dyspnea (23% vs 16%), abdominal pain (22% vs 19%), and headache (21% vs 16%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) worsening from baseline in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were blood triglycerides increased (71% vs 48%), blood creatinine increased (62% vs 68%), blood cholesterol increased (57% vs 22%), alanine aminotransferase increased (ALT) (50% vs 46%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (AST) (47% vs 57%), blood sodium decreased (38% vs 37%), lipase increased (37% vs 25%), blood potassium increased (35% vs 28%), platelet count decreased (27% vs 80%), blood bilirubin increased (21% vs 23%), and hemoglobin decreased (21% vs 65%).

Please see full US Prescribing Information and Medication Guide available at http://www.BAVENCIO.com.

About tepotinib

Tepotinib is an oral MET inhibitor that is designed to inhibit the oncogenic MET receptor signaling caused by MET (gene) alterations, including both METex14 skipping alterations and MET amplifications, or MET protein overexpression. Discovered in-house at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, it has been designed to have a highly selective mechanism of action,7 with the potential to improve outcomes in aggressive tumors that have a poor prognosis and harbor these specific alterations.Tepotinibis currently under clinical investigation in NSCLC and not yet approved in any markets outside of Japan.Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany is actively assessing the potential of investigating tepotinib in combination with novel therapies and in other tumor indications. Tepotinib is approved under the brand name TEPMETKO in Japan for the treatment of unresectable, advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping alterations. The brand name TEPMETKO is not approved for use outside of Japan.

About bintrafusp alfa

Bintrafusp alfa (M7824), discovered in-house at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, is a potential first-in-class investigational bifunctional fusion protein designed to simultaneously block two immunosuppressive pathways, TGF- and PD-L1, within the tumor microenvironment. This bifunctional approach is thought to control tumor growth by potentially restoring and enhancing anti-tumor responses.In preclinical studies, bintrafusp alfa has demonstrated antitumor activity both as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. Based on its mechanism of action, bintrafusp alfa offers a potential targeted approach to addressing the underlying pathophysiology of difficult-to-treat cancers.

[emailprotected] is the global clinical trial program investigating the potential co-localized, dual inhibition of TGF- and PD-L1 with bintrafusp alfa (M7824) in multiple tumor types. Current clinical trial information can be found on the [emailprotected] website at http://www.intrapidclinicaltrials.com. To date, more than 850 patients with various types of solid tumors have been treated globally in the bintrafusp alfa [emailprotected] clinical development program.

All Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, press releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the EMD Group Website. In case you are a resident of the USA or Canada please go to http://www.emdgroup.com/subscribeto register for your online subscription of this service as our geo-targeting requires new links in the email. You may later change your selection or discontinue this service.

About EMD Serono, Inc.

EMD Serono - the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt,Germany in the U.S. andCanada- is engaged in the discovery, research and development of medicines for patients with difficult to treat diseases. The business is committed to transforming lives by developing and delivering meaningful solutions that help address the therapeutic and support needs of individual patients. Building on a proven legacy and deep expertise in neurology, fertility and endocrinology, EMD Serono is developing potential new oncology and immuno-oncology medicines while continuing to explore potential therapeutic options for diseases such as psoriasis, lupus and MS. Today, the business has approximately 1,500 employees around the country with commercial, clinical and research operations based in the company's home state ofMassachusetts.www.emdserono.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, a leading science and technology company, operates across healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 57,000 employees work to make a positive difference to millions of people's lives every day by creating more joyful and sustainable ways to live. From advancing gene editing technologies and discovering unique ways to treat the most challenging diseases to enabling the intelligence of devices the company is everywhere. In 2019, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany generated sales of 16.2 billion in 66 countries.

The company holds the global rights to the name and trademark "Merck" internationally. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the business sectors of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany operate as EMD Serono in healthcare, MilliporeSigma in life science, and EMD Performance Materials. Since its founding in 1668, scientific exploration and responsible entrepreneurship have been key to the company's technological and scientific advances. To this day, the founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed company.

Contacts:

Media: Julissa Viana 781 206 5795

Investor Relations +49 6151 72-3321

SOURCE EMD Serono

See the rest here:
Breakthrough Innovation in Cancer Care From EMD Serono Pipeline to Be Presented at ASCO 2020 - PRNewswire

Breakthrough Innovation in Cancer Care From EMD Serono Pipeline to Be Presented at ASCO 2020 – WFMZ Allentown

Not intended for UK-based media

- Results from two studies of BAVENCIOto be featured in ASCO press briefing

- Primary efficacy, biomarker and HRQoL analyses for tepotinib, the first MET inhibitor to have received a regulatory approval for NSCLC with METgene alterations

- Two-year follow-up for first-in-class bifunctional immunotherapy bintrafusp alfatargeting TGF-/PD-L1, in second-line NSCLC

ROCKLAND,Massachusetts, May 13, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --EMD Serono, the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany in the US and Canada,today announced data for its innovative investigational agents and investigational uses of marketed medicines to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program, to be held virtually from May 29-31.

This year, ASCO will be highlightingduring its embargoed presscast on Tuesday, May 26 and at the plenary session on Sunday, May 31the Phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 study (Abstract# LBA1) of BAVENCIO (avelumab) in the first-line maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC)*. Additional data will be presented for early- to late-stage molecules discovered and developed in-house that demonstrate the Company's commitment and relentless drive to discover, develop and deliver innovative treatment options in its hope to turn cancer patients into cancer survivors. Research from several investigator-sponsored and collaborative research studies also will be shared. This includes a late-breaking oral presentation of results of the investigator-sponsored, multicenter Phase II TROPHIMMUN study of avelumab for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumors (Cohort A), which also will be featured in the ASCO press program (Abstract# LBA6008).

"Despite the many advances in cancer treatment, we have an urgency to continue to discover and develop innovative treatment options that will have a major impact on the lives of people living with cancer,"said Luciano Rossetti, Global Head of Research & Development for EMD Serono. "Taking on this challenge, we've applied our deep knowledge of cancer biology to highly focused areas to develop the first-in-class oral MET inhibitor, tepotinib, which received the first approval anywhere in the world for the treatment of NSCLC with MET gene alterations, and our first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein immunotherapy, bintrafusp alfa, both of which have promising outcomes featured at this year's ASCO meeting."

For tepotinib, approved in Japan for the treatment of patients withunresectable, advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with METexon 14 (METex14)skipping alterationsand the first oral MET inhibitor indicated for the treatment of advanced NSCLC harboring MET gene alterations to receive a regulatory approval, data will be presented from the primary analysis of the VISION study with promising activity in patients with advanced EGFR/ALK wild-type, METex14 skipping NSCLC who were prospectively enrolled using liquid biopsy or tissue biopsy. Results (Abstract #9556) include6-month follow-updata for the primary endpoint of objective response rate (ORR) as determined by independent review committee. Secondary endpoints include ORR as assessed by investigators, duration of response, disease control rate, progression-free survival, molecular responses, and safety data. Additionally, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for the VISION study will be presented at the meeting (Abstract# 9575). These outcomes are the first time HRQoL have been reported for patients with METex14skipping NSCLC.

For bintrafusp alfa, a novel bifunctional fusion protein targeting TGF- and PD-L1, two-year follow-up data from a global Phase I study in second-line NSCLC will be presented (Abstract# 9558). These data continue to show manageable safety with durable responses and encouraging long-term survival, especially in patients with high PD-L1 expression (80%). The overall safety profile has remained consistent since the interim analysis, with no new safety signals or deaths and one additional treatment-related discontinuation (blood alkaline phosphatase increased). Studies in the bintrafusp alfa lung cancer program include:

The Company's broad portfolio of investigational DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors represents multiple development paths, including combinations with other agents and modalities. A trial-in-progress poster (Abstract #TPS4117) will review a multicenter Phase Ib/II study evaluating the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of the DNA-PK inhibitor peposertib (formerly M3814) in combination with capecitabine and radiotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

*BAVENCIO is under clinical investigation for the first-line maintenance treatment of advanced UC. There is no guarantee that BAVENCIO will be approved for first-line maintenance treatment of advanced UC by any health authority worldwide.

Tepotinib is currently under clinical investigation in NSCLC and not yet approved in any markets outside of Japan.

Bintrafusp alfa is currently under clinical investigation and not approved for any use anywhere in the world.

About BAVENCIO (avelumab)

BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.10-12 In November 2014, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.

BAVENCIO Approved Indications

BAVENCIO (avelumab) in combination with axitinib is indicated in the US for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Avelumab is currently approved for patients with MCC in 50 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.

BAVENCIO Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved Label

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis, and evaluate suspected cases with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3), life-threatening (Grade 4), or recurrent moderate (Grade 2) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis occurred in 1.2% of patients, including one (0.1%) patient with Grade 5, one (0.1%) with Grade 4, and five (0.3%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause hepatotoxicity and immune-mediated hepatitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for abnormal liver tests prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hepatitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) immune-mediated hepatitis until resolution and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred with BAVENCIO as a single agent in 0.9% of patients, including two (0.1%) patients with Grade 5, and 11 (0.6%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are used as monotherapy. Withhold BAVENCIO and axitinib for moderate (Grade 2) hepatotoxicity and permanently discontinue the combination for severe or life-threatening (Grade 3 or 4) hepatotoxicity. Administer corticosteroids as needed. In patients treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT and AST occurred in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively, and immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 7% of patients, including 4.9% with Grade 3 or 4.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated colitis. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis. Withhold BAVENCIO until resolution for moderate or severe (Grade 2 or 3) colitis until resolution. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening (Grade 4) or recurrent (Grade 3) colitis upon reinitiation of BAVENCIO. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.5% of patients, including seven (0.4%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency during and after treatment, and administer corticosteroids as appropriate. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency was reported in 0.5% of patients, including one (0.1%) with Grade 3.

Thyroid disorders can occur at any time during treatment. Monitor patients for changes in thyroid function at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation. Manage hypothyroidism with hormone replacement therapy and hyperthyroidism with medical management. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis, were reported in 6% of patients, including three (0.2%) with Grade 3.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus including diabetic ketoacidosis: Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Withhold BAVENCIO and administer antihyperglycemics or insulin in patients with severe or life-threatening (Grade 3) hyperglycemia, and resume treatment when metabolic control is achieved. Type 1 diabetes mellitus without an alternative etiology occurred in 0.1% of patients, including two cases of Grade 3 hyperglycemia.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction. Monitor patients for elevated serum creatinine prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater nephritis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) or severe (Grade 3) nephritis until resolution to Grade 1 or lower. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for life-threatening (Grade 4) nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.1% of patients.

BAVENCIO can result in other severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions involving any organ system during treatment or after treatment discontinuation. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, evaluate to confirm or rule out an immune-mediated adverse reaction and to exclude other causes. Depending on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue BAVENCIO, administer high-dose corticosteroids, and initiate hormone replacement therapy, if appropriate. Resume BAVENCIO when the immune-mediated adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or lower following a corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for any severe (Grade 3) immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated adverse reaction. The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% of 1738 patients treated with BAVENCIO as a single agent or in 489 patients who received BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib: myocarditis including fatal cases, pancreatitis including fatal cases, myositis, psoriasis, arthritis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pemphigoid, hypopituitarism, uveitis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, and systemic inflammatory response.

BAVENCIO can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Premedicate patients with an antihistamine and acetaminophen prior to the first 4 infusions and for subsequent infusions based upon clinical judgment and presence/severity of prior infusion reactions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions, including pyrexia, chills, flushing, hypotension, dyspnea, wheezing, back pain, abdominal pain, and urticaria. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for mild (Grade 1) or moderate (Grade 2) infusion-related reactions. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) infusion-related reactions. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% of patients, including three (0.2%) patients with Grade 4 and nine (0.5%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including severe and fatal events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue BAVENCIO and axitinib for Grade 3-4 cardiovascular events. MACEoccurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3-4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3-4 congestive heart failure (1.8%).

BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise patients of the potential risk to a fetus including the risk of fetal death. Advise females of childbearing potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BAVENCIO and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO. It is not known whether BAVENCIO is excreted in human milk. Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants.

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) were fatigue (50%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (23%), nausea (22%), infusion-related reaction (22%), rash (22%), decreased appetite (20%), and peripheral edema (20%).

Selected treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic MCC were lymphopenia (49%), anemia (35%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (34%), thrombocytopenia (27%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (20%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) were fatigue (41%), infusion-related reaction (30%), musculoskeletal pain (25%), nausea (24%), decreased appetite/hypophagia (21%), and urinary tract infection (21%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (Grades 3-4, 3%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC were hyponatremia (16%), increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (12%), lymphopenia (11%), hyperglycemia (9%), increased alkaline phosphatase (7%), anemia (6%), increased lipase (6%), hyperkalemia (3%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (3%).

Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.8% of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. These included sudden cardiac death (1.2%), stroke (0.2%), myocarditis (0.2%), and necrotizing pancreatitis (0.2%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were diarrhea (62% vs 48%), fatigue (53% vs 54%), hypertension (50% vs 36%), musculoskeletal pain (40% vs 33%), nausea (34% vs 39%), mucositis (34% vs 35%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (33% vs 34%), dysphonia (31% vs 3.2%), decreased appetite (26% vs 29%), hypothyroidism (25% vs 14%), rash (25% vs 16%), hepatotoxicity (24% vs 18%), cough (23% vs 19%), dyspnea (23% vs 16%), abdominal pain (22% vs 19%), and headache (21% vs 16%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) worsening from baseline in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were blood triglycerides increased (71% vs 48%), blood creatinine increased (62% vs 68%), blood cholesterol increased (57% vs 22%), alanine aminotransferase increased (ALT) (50% vs 46%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (AST) (47% vs 57%), blood sodium decreased (38% vs 37%), lipase increased (37% vs 25%), blood potassium increased (35% vs 28%), platelet count decreased (27% vs 80%), blood bilirubin increased (21% vs 23%), and hemoglobin decreased (21% vs 65%).

Please see full US Prescribing Information and Medication Guide available at http://www.BAVENCIO.com.

About tepotinib

Tepotinib is an oral MET inhibitor that is designed to inhibit the oncogenic MET receptor signaling caused by MET (gene) alterations, including both METex14 skipping alterations and MET amplifications, or MET protein overexpression. Discovered in-house at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, it has been designed to have a highly selective mechanism of action,7 with the potential to improve outcomes in aggressive tumors that have a poor prognosis and harbor these specific alterations.Tepotinibis currently under clinical investigation in NSCLC and not yet approved in any markets outside of Japan.Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany is actively assessing the potential of investigating tepotinib in combination with novel therapies and in other tumor indications. Tepotinib is approved under the brand name TEPMETKO in Japan for the treatment of unresectable, advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping alterations. The brand name TEPMETKO is not approved for use outside of Japan.

About bintrafusp alfa

Bintrafusp alfa (M7824), discovered in-house at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, is a potential first-in-class investigational bifunctional fusion protein designed to simultaneously block two immunosuppressive pathways, TGF- and PD-L1, within the tumor microenvironment. This bifunctional approach is thought to control tumor growth by potentially restoring and enhancing anti-tumor responses.In preclinical studies, bintrafusp alfa has demonstrated antitumor activity both as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. Based on its mechanism of action, bintrafusp alfa offers a potential targeted approach to addressing the underlying pathophysiology of difficult-to-treat cancers.

INTR@PID is the global clinical trial program investigating the potential co-localized, dual inhibition of TGF- and PD-L1 with bintrafusp alfa (M7824) in multiple tumor types. Current clinical trial information can be found on the INTR@PID website at http://www.intrapidclinicaltrials.com. To date, more than 850 patients with various types of solid tumors have been treated globally in the bintrafusp alfa INTR@PID clinical development program.

All Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, press releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the EMD Group Website. In case you are a resident of the USA or Canada please go to http://www.emdgroup.com/subscribeto register for your online subscription of this service as our geo-targeting requires new links in the email. You may later change your selection or discontinue this service.

About EMD Serono, Inc.

EMD Serono - the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt,Germany in the U.S. andCanada- is engaged in the discovery, research and development of medicines for patients with difficult to treat diseases. The business is committed to transforming lives by developing and delivering meaningful solutions that help address the therapeutic and support needs of individual patients. Building on a proven legacy and deep expertise in neurology, fertility and endocrinology, EMD Serono is developing potential new oncology and immuno-oncology medicines while continuing to explore potential therapeutic options for diseases such as psoriasis, lupus and MS. Today, the business has approximately 1,500 employees around the country with commercial, clinical and research operations based in the company's home state ofMassachusetts.www.emdserono.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, a leading science and technology company, operates across healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 57,000 employees work to make a positive difference to millions of people's lives every day by creating more joyful and sustainable ways to live. From advancing gene editing technologies and discovering unique ways to treat the most challenging diseases to enabling the intelligence of devices the company is everywhere. In 2019, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany generated sales of 16.2 billion in 66 countries.

The company holds the global rights to the name and trademark "Merck" internationally. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the business sectors of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany operate as EMD Serono in healthcare, MilliporeSigma in life science, and EMD Performance Materials. Since its founding in 1668, scientific exploration and responsible entrepreneurship have been key to the company's technological and scientific advances. To this day, the founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed company.

Contacts:

Media:Julissa Viana781 206 5795

Investor Relations+49 6151 72-3321

Originally posted here:
Breakthrough Innovation in Cancer Care From EMD Serono Pipeline to Be Presented at ASCO 2020 - WFMZ Allentown

Hypopituitarism | Endocrine Society

What is hypopituitarism?

Hypopituitarism (also called pituitary insufficiency) is a rare condition in which your pituitary gland doesn't make enough of certain hormones. Your body can't work properly when important glands, such as your thyroid glandand adrenal gland, don't get the hormones they need from your pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism can develop very slowly, over several months or even over several years.

Hypopituitarism can be caused by:

Sometimes, the cause is unknown.

Symptoms can include one or more of the following:

Your doctor will check your hormone levels with blood tests. You may have other tests, such as an MRI of your pituitary gland, to help find the cause of your hypopituitarism.

Treatment usually includes taking the hormones you're missing, sometimes for life. Your doctor also will teach you how to take extra cortisone (a hormone) when you are sick or under stress. If a tumor is causing your hypopituitarism, you might need surgery to remove it and/or possibly radiation treatment. If needed, you can take medicine for infertility.

You will need to get regular check-ups. It's wise to wear medical identification, such as a bracelet or pendant, which provides information about your condition in case of an emergency.

You can expect a normal life span, as long as you regularly take the medications recommended by your doctor.

Editor(s): Craig Alter, M.D., Anne Klibanski, M.D., Janet Schlechte, M.D.

Last Updated: November 2017

More:
Hypopituitarism | Endocrine Society

Certain Types of Steroids Could Increase the Risk of Coronavirus – Myhealthyclick

A new study, published online last week in the Journal ofClinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, has found that certain steroids usedfor the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as allergies, asthma, andarthritis could increase the risk of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novelcoronavirus.

Certain types of steroids, such as glucocorticoids, suppressthe immune system, making people vulnerable to catch the virus.

Researchers explained that people who take glucocorticoidsmay also have severe illnesses if they are infected by the new coronavirusbecause the drugs suppress the bodys steroid response to the infection.

The journals editor-in-chief Dr. Paul Stewart of theUniversity of Leeds, England, and deputy editors Dr. Ursula Kaiser of Brighamand Womens Hospital in Boston and Dr. Raghavendra Mirmira of the University ofChicago conducted the study.

The researchers said, People with primary adrenalinsufficiency (Addisons disease) and secondary adrenal insufficiency occurringin hypopituitarism should also take extra precautions.

Patients should increase their oral glucocorticoid dose bytwice if they experience symptoms such as fever and persistent dry cough. Theyshould continue doing so until the fever subsides. If their condition worsens,they will require injectable glucocorticoids.

The authors wrote, People with diabetes who contractCOVID-19 also appear to be at risk of more severe illness than those withoutdiabetes.

Studies from Wuhan, China, the epicenter of the coronavirusoutbreak, found that COVID-19 patients with hypertension and diabetes were atincreased risk of severe illness and death.

Dr. Stewart and his team wrote, In our professional lives,we have not witnessed a health care crisis of this magnitude and severity.

They also noted that scientists have learned how the novelcoronavirus enters the cells and how it spreads from person to person.

Some researchers have even found how the virus interactswith the endocrine system. The authors wrote, Endocrine-related targets are at theforefront of discovery science as we collectively tackle this pandemic.

Continued here:
Certain Types of Steroids Could Increase the Risk of Coronavirus - Myhealthyclick

EMD Serono and Pfizer Receive US FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation and Submit Application for BAVENCIO for First-Line Maintenance Treatment of…

Not intended for UK-based media

ROCKLAND, Mass. and NEW YORK, April 9, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- EMD Serono, the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany in the US and Canada, and Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) today announced completion of the submission of a supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for BAVENCIO (avelumab)* for first-line maintenance treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to BAVENCIO for this indication, and the sBLA is being reviewed by the FDA under its Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program.

The application is based on positive results from an interim analysis of the Phase III JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial, which met its primary endpoint of overall survival (OS). In this study, BAVENCIO plus best supportive care (BSC) as first-line maintenance therapy significantly extended the survival of patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic UC whose disease did not progress on induction chemotherapy, compared with BSC only. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in both co-primary populations: all randomized patients and patients with PD-L1positive tumors. The safety profile for BAVENCIO in the trial was consistent with that in the JAVELIN monotherapy clinical development program. Detailed results from the JAVELIN Bladder 100 study will be presented at an upcoming medical congress.

"BAVENCIO is the first immunotherapy to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in overall survival in a Phase III clinical trial in the first-line setting for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma," said Chris Boshoff, M.D., Ph.D., Chief Development Officer, Oncology, Pfizer Global Product Development. "Participation in the Real-Time Oncology Review program, coupled with the Breakthrough Therapy Designation, reflect the potential impact of BAVENCIO in this patient setting and provide the opportunity to work towards bringing this treatment option to patients as quickly as possible."

The RTOR program is intended to create a more efficient review process to bring safe and effective treatments to patients earlier, including drugs that are likely to demonstrate substantial improvements over currently available therapy. It allows the FDA to review clinical trial data from certain applications before the complete application is formally submitted. Review under the program does not guarantee or influence the approvability of the application.1

Breakthrough Therapy Designation is a program created by the FDA to accelerate the development and review of medicines intended to treat serious or life-threatening diseases where the new treatment may be a substantial improvement over available therapy. In order to receive Breakthrough Therapy Designation, preliminary clinical evidence must indicate that the drug may demonstrate a significant improvement over available therapy on a clinically significant endpoint.2

"Given the poor prognosis for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma, there is an urgent need for additional treatment options that improve overall survival," said Luciano Rossetti, Head of Global R&D for EMD Serono. "Our data highlight the potential for a first-line maintenance treatment approach with BAVENCIO to advance the current standard of care for previously untreated patients, and we are working with urgency toward our goal of bringing this regimen to patients."

"For the past 30 years, chemotherapy has been the first-line standard of care for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. While this is an effective short-term option for many patients, most will ultimately experience disease progression, underscoring a need for additional treatment options," said Petros Grivas, M.D., Ph.D., one of the principal investigators in the JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial. "Based on the positive overall survival results from JAVELIN Bladder 100, I believe avelumab has the potential to be practice-changing."

In 2017, the FDA approved BAVENCIO for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or who have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response and duration of response. JAVELIN Bladder 100 is the confirmatory study for the conversion to full approval.

*BAVENCIO is under clinical investigation for the first-line maintenance treatment of advanced UC. There is no guarantee that BAVENCIO will be approved for first-line maintenance treatment of advanced UC by any health authority worldwide.

About JAVELIN Bladder 100JAVELIN Bladder 100 (NCT02603432) is a Phase III, multicenter, multinational, randomized, open-label, parallel-arm study investigating first-line maintenance treatment with BAVENCIO plus BSC versus BSC alone in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC. A total of 700 patients whose disease had not progressed after platinum-based induction chemotherapy as per RECIST v1.1 were randomized to receive either BAVENCIO plus BSC or BSC alone. The study achieved its primary endpoint of OS in each of the co-primary populations of all randomized patients and patients with PD-L1-positive tumors. Secondary endpoints include progression-free survival, anti-tumor activity, safety, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, predictive biomarkers and patient-reported outcomes in the co-primary populations. The safety profile for BAVENCIO in the trial was consistent with that in the JAVELIN monotherapy clinical development program.

About Urothelial Carcinoma Bladder cancer is the tenth most common cancer worldwide.3 In 2018, there were over half a million new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed, with around 200,000 deaths from the disease globally.3 UC accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers.4 This subtype becomes harder to treat as it advances, spreading through the layers of the bladder wall.5 For patients with metastatic UC, the five-year relative survival rate is 5%.6 Combination chemotherapy is currently the first-line standard of care for patients with advanced disease, and while a majority of patients experience high initial response rates, most patients will ultimately experience disease progression within nine months after initiation of treatment.7,8 Given the poor prognosis for patients with advanced bladder cancer whose disease progresses after first-line chemotherapy, there is an urgent need for additional treatment options that improve overall survival.9

About BAVENCIO (avelumab)BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.10-12 In November 2014, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.

BAVENCIO Approved Indications BAVENCIO (avelumab) in combination with axitinib is indicated in the US for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Avelumab is currently approved for patients with MCC in 50 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.

BAVENCIO Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved LabelBAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis, and evaluate suspected cases with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3), life-threatening (Grade 4), or recurrent moderate (Grade 2) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis occurred in 1.2% of patients, including one (0.1%) patient with Grade 5, one (0.1%) with Grade 4, and five (0.3%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause hepatotoxicity and immune-mediated hepatitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for abnormal liver tests prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hepatitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) immune-mediated hepatitis until resolution and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred with BAVENCIO as a single agent in 0.9% of patients, including two (0.1%) patients with Grade 5, and 11 (0.6%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are used as monotherapy. Withhold BAVENCIO and axitinib for moderate (Grade 2) hepatotoxicity and permanently discontinue the combination for severe or life-threatening (Grade 3 or 4) hepatotoxicity. Administer corticosteroids as needed. In patients treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT and AST occurred in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively, and immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 7% of patients, including 4.9% with Grade 3 or 4.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated colitis. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis. Withhold BAVENCIO until resolution for moderate or severe (Grade 2 or 3) colitis until resolution. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening (Grade 4) or recurrent (Grade 3) colitis upon reinitiation of BAVENCIO. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.5% of patients, including seven (0.4%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency during and after treatment, and administer corticosteroids as appropriate. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency was reported in 0.5% of patients, including one (0.1%) with Grade 3.

Thyroid disorders can occur at any time during treatment. Monitor patients for changes in thyroid function at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation. Manage hypothyroidism with hormone replacement therapy and hyperthyroidism with medical management. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis, were reported in 6% of patients, including three (0.2%) with Grade 3.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus including diabetic ketoacidosis: Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Withhold BAVENCIO and administer antihyperglycemics or insulin in patients with severe or life-threatening (Grade 3) hyperglycemia, and resume treatment when metabolic control is achieved. Type 1 diabetes mellitus without an alternative etiology occurred in 0.1% of patients, including two cases of Grade 3 hyperglycemia.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction. Monitor patients for elevated serum creatinine prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater nephritis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) or severe (Grade 3) nephritis until resolution to Grade 1 or lower. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for life-threatening (Grade 4) nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.1% of patients.

BAVENCIO can result in other severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions involving any organ system during treatment or after treatment discontinuation. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, evaluate to confirm or rule out an immune-mediated adverse reaction and to exclude other causes. Depending on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue BAVENCIO, administer high-dose corticosteroids, and initiate hormone replacement therapy, if appropriate. Resume BAVENCIO when the immune-mediated adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or lower following a corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for any severe (Grade 3) immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated adverse reaction. The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% of 1738 patients treated with BAVENCIO as a single agent or in 489 patients who received BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib: myocarditis including fatal cases, pancreatitis including fatal cases, myositis, psoriasis, arthritis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pemphigoid, hypopituitarism, uveitis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, and systemic inflammatory response.

BAVENCIO can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Premedicate patients with an antihistamine and acetaminophen prior to the first 4 infusions and for subsequent infusions based upon clinical judgment and presence/severity of prior infusion reactions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions, including pyrexia, chills, flushing, hypotension, dyspnea, wheezing, back pain, abdominal pain, and urticaria. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for mild (Grade 1) or moderate (Grade 2) infusion-related reactions. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) infusion-related reactions. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% of patients, including three (0.2%) patients with Grade 4 and nine (0.5%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including severe and fatal events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue BAVENCIO and axitinib for Grade 3-4 cardiovascular events. MACE occurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3-4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3-4 congestive heart failure (1.8%).

BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise patients of the potential risk to a fetus including the risk of fetal death. Advise females of childbearing potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BAVENCIO and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO. It is not known whether BAVENCIO is excreted in human milk. Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants.

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) were fatigue (50%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (23%), nausea (22%), infusion-related reaction (22%), rash (22%), decreased appetite (20%), and peripheral edema (20%).

Selected treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic MCC were lymphopenia (49%), anemia (35%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (34%), thrombocytopenia (27%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (20%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) were fatigue (41%), infusion-related reaction (30%), musculoskeletal pain (25%), nausea (24%), decreased appetite/hypophagia (21%), and urinary tract infection (21%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (Grades 3-4, 3%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC were hyponatremia (16%), increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (12%), lymphopenia (11%), hyperglycemia (9%), increased alkaline phosphatase (7%), anemia (6%), increased lipase (6%), hyperkalemia (3%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (3%).

Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.8% of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. These included sudden cardiac death (1.2%), stroke (0.2%), myocarditis (0.2%), and necrotizing pancreatitis (0.2%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were diarrhea (62% vs 48%), fatigue (53% vs 54%), hypertension (50% vs 36%), musculoskeletal pain (40% vs 33%), nausea (34% vs 39%), mucositis (34% vs 35%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (33% vs 34%), dysphonia (31% vs 3.2%), decreased appetite (26% vs 29%), hypothyroidism (25% vs 14%), rash (25% vs 16%), hepatotoxicity (24% vs 18%), cough (23% vs 19%), dyspnea (23% vs 16%), abdominal pain (22% vs 19%), and headache (21% vs 16%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) worsening from baseline in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were blood triglycerides increased (71% vs 48%), blood creatinine increased (62% vs 68%), blood cholesterol increased (57% vs 22%), alanine aminotransferase increased (ALT) (50% vs 46%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (AST) (47% vs 57%), blood sodium decreased (38% vs 37%), lipase increased (37% vs 25%), blood potassium increased (35% vs 28%), platelet count decreased (27% vs 80%), blood bilirubin increased (21% vs 23%), and hemoglobin decreased (21% vs 65%).

Please see full US Prescribing Information and Medication Guide available at http://www.BAVENCIO.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany-Pfizer AllianceImmuno-oncology is a top priority for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer. The global strategic alliance between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer enables the companies to benefit from each other's strengths and capabilities and further explore the therapeutic potential of BAVENCIO, an anti-PD-L1 antibody initially discovered and developed by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. The immuno-oncology alliance is jointly developing and commercializing BAVENCIO. The alliance is focused on developing high-priority international clinical programs to investigate BAVENCIO as a monotherapy as well as combination regimens, and is striving to find new ways to treat cancer.

All Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, press releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the EMD Group Website. In case you are a resident of the USA or Canada please go to http://www.emdgroup.com/subscribe to register again for your online subscription of this service as our newly introduced geo-targeting requires new links in the email. You may later change your selection or discontinue this service.

About EMD Serono, Inc.EMD Serono - the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, in the U.S. and Canada - is engaged in the discovery, research and development of medicines for patients with difficult to treat diseases. The business is committed to transforming lives by developing and delivering meaningful solutions that help address the therapeutic and support needs of individual patients. Building on a proven legacy and deep expertise in neurology, fertility and endocrinology, EMD Serono is developing potential new oncology and immuno-oncology medicines while continuing to explore potential therapeutic options for diseases such as psoriasis, lupus and MS. Today, the business has approximately 1,500 employees around the country with commercial, clinical and research operations based in the company's home state of Massachusetts. http://www.emdserono.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GermanyMerck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, a leading science and technology company, operates across healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 57,000 employees work to make a positive difference to millions of people's lives every day by creating more joyful and sustainable ways to live. From advancing gene editing technologies and discovering unique ways to treat the most challenging diseases to enabling the intelligence of devices the company is everywhere. In 2019, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, generated sales of 16.2 billion in 66 countries.

The company holds the global rights to the name and trademark "Merck" internationally. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the business sectors of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany operate as EMD Serono in healthcare, MilliporeSigma in life science, and EMD Performance Materials. Since its founding 1668, scientific exploration and responsible entrepreneurship have been key to the company's technological and scientific advances. To this day, the founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed company.

Pfizer Inc.: Breakthroughs that change patients' livesAt Pfizer, we apply science and our global resources to bring therapies to people that extend and significantly improve their lives. We strive to set the standard for quality, safety and value in the discovery, development and manufacture of health care products, including innovative medicines and vaccines. Every day, Pfizer colleagues work across developed and emerging markets to advance wellness, prevention, treatments and cures that challenge the most feared diseases of our time. Consistent with our responsibility as one of the world's premier innovative biopharmaceutical companies, we collaborate with health care providers, governments and local communities to support and expand access to reliable, affordable health care around the world. For more than 150 years, we have worked to make a difference for all who rely on us. We routinely post information that may be important to investors on our website at http://www.pfizer.com. In addition, to learn more, please visit us on http://www.pfizer.com and follow us on Twitter at @Pfizer and @Pfizer_News, LinkedIn, YouTube and like us on Facebook at Facebook.com/Pfizer.

Pfizer Disclosure NoticeThe information contained in this release is as of April 9, 2020. Pfizer assumes no obligation to update forward-looking statements contained in this release as the result of new information or future events or developments.

This release contains forward-looking information about BAVENCIO (avelumab), including a potential indication for first-line maintenance therapy for BAVENCIO for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, the alliance between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and Pfizer involving BAVENCIO and clinical development plans, including their potential benefits, that involves substantial risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. Risks and uncertainties include, among other things, uncertainties regarding the commercial success of BAVENCIO; the uncertainties inherent in research and development, including the ability to meet anticipated clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for our clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, regulatory approval dates and/or launch dates, as well as the possibility of unfavorable new clinical data and further analyses of existing clinical data; risks associated with interim data; the risk that clinical trial data are subject to differing interpretations and assessments by regulatory authorities; whether regulatory authorities will be satisfied with the design of and results from our clinical studies; whether and when any drug applications may be filed for BAVENCIO for first-line maintenance therapy for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma in any jurisdictions outside the U.S. or in any jurisdictions for any other potential indications for BAVENCIO or combination therapies; whether and when regulatory authorities in any jurisdictions where any applications are pending or may be submitted for BAVENCIO or combination therapies, including BAVENCIO for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma may approve any such applications, which will depend on myriad factors, including making a determination as to whether the product's benefits outweigh its known risks and determination of the product's efficacy, and, if approved, whether they will be commercially successful; decisions by regulatory authorities impacting labeling, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters that could affect the availability or commercial potential of BAVENCIO, including BAVENCIO for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma; and competitive developments.

A further description of risks and uncertainties can be found in Pfizer's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, and in its subsequent reports on Form 10-Q, including in the sections thereof captioned "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Information and Factors That May Affect Future Results", as well as in its subsequent reports on Form 8-K, all of which are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and available at http://www.sec.gov and http://www.pfizer.com.

References

Your Contacts

EMD Serono Inc.

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Noelle Piscitelli

+1 781 427 4351

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+49 6151 72-3321

Pfizer Inc., New York, USA

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Jessica Smith

+1 212 733 6213

Investor Relations

Ryan Crowe

+1 212 733 8160

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EMD Serono and Pfizer Receive US FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation and Submit Application for BAVENCIO for First-Line Maintenance Treatment of...

Corticosteroids With COVID-19 in Asthma, Allergies, and Arthritis Patients – MedicineNet

APRIL 07, 2020 --Endocrinologists have underlined the importance that physicians consider "a stress dose" of glucocorticoids in the event of severe COVID-19 infection in endocrine, and other, patients on long-term steroids.

People taking corticosteroids on a routine basis for a variety of underlying inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, allergies, and arthritis, are at elevated risk of being infected with, and adversely affected by, COVID-19.

This also applies to a rarer group of patients with adrenal insufficiency and uncontrolled Cushing syndrome, as well as secondary adrenal insufficiency occurring in hypopituitarism, who also rely on glucocorticoids for day-to-day living.

As such, it is vitally important to recognize that "Injectable supplemental glucocorticoid therapy in this setting can reverse the risk of potentially fatal adrenal failure and should be considered in every case," Stewart and colleagues emphasize in a newly published editorial in JCEM.

They note this advice must be considered alongside World Health Organization (WHO) guidance against prescribing therapeutic glucocorticoids to treat complications of COVID-19, based on prior experience in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as those affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

The key difference here is not to use pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids as treatment for COVID-19 (where they have no effect), but rather to prevent death from adrenal failure by using "stress" doses of replacement glucocorticoid, Stewart explained to Medscape Medical News.

"The intent here is to ensure that no patient with a history of prior exposure to chronic glucocorticoid therapy (> 3 months) by whatever route should die without consideration for parenteral glucocorticoid therapy," the editorialists write.

He advises using physiological stress doses of hydrocortisone (50-100 mg intravenously tid).

Specific Advice for Adrenal Insufficiency: Follow Sick Day Rules

A separate statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) also emphasizes that it is particularly important for patients with adrenal insufficiency to follow advice from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or similar guidance on preventing COVID-19 infection, including social distancing and frequent hand washing.

Such patients should continue to take medications as prescribed and ensure they have appropriate supplies of oral and injectable steroids, ideally for 90 days, AACE advises.

And if there is a shortage of hydrocortisone, the statement advises patients ask a pharmacist or physician about replacement hydrocortisone with different doses that might be available.

Stewart agrees that patients with adrenal insufficiency need to be hypervigilant, but says that "if they do become ill, for the most part they are well counseled to respond appropriately to intercurrent infections."

Nevertheless, it is "invaluable to reiterate 'sick day rules'" for suspected COVID-19 infection.

"Any patient who develops a dry continuous cough and fever should immediately double their daily oral glucocorticoid dose and continue on this regimen until the fever has subsided."

If a patient still deteriorates on this regimen, develops diarrhea or vomiting, or is unable to take oral glucocorticoids for other reasons, they should contact their physicians or seek urgent medical care to receive parenteral treatment with a glucocorticoid.

References

2020 WebMD, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

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Corticosteroids With COVID-19 in Asthma, Allergies, and Arthritis Patients - MedicineNet

How the Sunflowers Children’s Action Group has brought joy to poorly youngsters in lockdown – Grimsby Live

Children with life-limiting illnesses have been receiving parcels of joy to help put smiles on their faces during the coronavirus lockdown, thanks to the Sunflowers Children's Action Group.

Joanne Wright set up the charity in July last year after spotting a gap in the provision of support across the northern Lincolnshire area for children with life limiting illnesses or life threatening conditions.

The handful of unpaid volunteers who work with Joanne, simply wanted to make a difference in the community and the gift parcels have been the charity's way of putting a smile on a child's face during the ockdown.

Joanne said: "Even before the national lockdown, many parents were advised to keep their children at home because of their childrens vulnerability owing to medical problems.

"I was talking to one parent and so wanted to do a little something to show we cared and would help to give a poorly child a surprise.

"We realised that it would be some time before we could do a group event, so the closest thing we could get to that was to do this."

Items in the parcels include sweets and chocolate left over from a Santa's sweet stall - all individually wrapped, still in date and properly stored - along with bags of mini eggs Deebees had previously donated and previously received toys and books.

Each parcel is carefully tailored to the age of the recipient, which currently ranges from three to 16.

Sunflowers has sent out around 60 of these cheery parcels and Joanne said the feedback she has received had been wonderful.

She said: "The children have been thrilled, judging by the reactions that have been posted on our Facebook page.

"I think it really means something to the parents too, that people out there are thinking of them.

"What we have to remember is that although isolation and the current situation brings us all problems. These are families who are largely isolated, struggling and battling to try and keep their children healthy every day of their lives."

Among those to benefit from the initiative is nine-year-old Ethan Meadows, from Keadby, near Scunthorpe.

He has a range of conditions including septo optic dysplasia,diabetes insipidus, pan hypopituitarism and microphaly. He is gastrostomy-fed, registered blind, is non-mobile and non verbal.

His mum Tina said: "Ethan is blind so we opened the box for him, he was really happy with it. It was a lovely thing to send.

"It's nice to know you've got that support - everything is up in the air.

"It's trying to keep the kids entertained as we are out of routine."

Six year old Nathaniel Hodges from Market Rasen, who has Type I diabetes, gave a huge thumbs up to his parcel.

His mum Caroline Hodges said: "He was absolutely over the moon. We didn't tell him, it was a surprise when it came.

"It made his day because we are stuck inside. He liked the car, he wants to build it and said, 'I love it, I can't believe it!'

"They are like angels, they're so thoughtful. We're not in a normal routine so it's tough on him.

"It just brings a bit of sunshine into his day - they're an amazing group.

"We tell him how proud we are but for someone to send something through the post, it's really special. We are very grateful."

Ava Eastwood-Morgan, 4, from Grimsby has AVSD (Atrioventricular Septal Defect) and leaking heart valves, which she had successful open heart surgery for in January 2017.

The people of northern Lincolnshire have been warming hearts with their selfless gestures.

They say challenging times often bring out the best in people and thats what were seeing here inGrimsby,CleethorpesandScunthorpe.

We want to celebrate anybody and everybody who is helping others through the coronavirus outbreak and have set up a special area dedicated to them on our website.

This includes but is not limited to our heroes in the NHS, policing teams, supermarket workers, delivery drivers and cleaners.

Not to forget our wonderful community members who have been helping others out in any way they can! Its a huge thank you to you ALL.

So, click here to view our live blog and if you have something you want to share email paige.freshwater@reachplc.com

However her last heart check up revealed the valve leakage had worsened.

Mum Lottie Eastwood said: "Ava's reaction was absolutely priceless, she was so, so delighted!

"Her face lit up, she was all excitable, giggly and absolutely smitten with her gifts. She received books, teddys, sweeties, a doll and a magnetic drawing board.

" I think the gift parcel idea is brilliant. Families that are going through tough times, or children that have been through lengthy procedures or are awaiting to receive treatment deserve to feel special.

"To know that somebody is thinking about them, taking time out of their day to make sure children receive gift packages is so uplifting.

"One simple act of kindness goes a very long way and I think its important that we all look after each other through the hard times, so a big thank you to all the lovely volunteers at Sunflowers Childrens Action Group for your time and generosity."

For more top stories, breaking news and sport see GrimsbyLive

Email the reporter who wrote this story

Follow GrimsbyLive on Facebook - Like our Facebook page to get the latest news in your feed and join in the lively discussions in the comments.

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Follow us on Instagram - On the GrimsbyLive Instagram page we like to feature great pictures from our area - and if you tag us in your posts, we could repost your picture on our page!

To help Joanne and her team continue their work throughout the year and beyond the pandemic, donations can be made via http://www.justgiving.com/sunflowers-cag

Joanne added: "I think with the current situation we cant set anything in stone, so we are just trying to support our families in our own little way in the meantime."

To get in touch with the registered charity, email hello@sunflowers.org.uk or phone 07597 988809. Alternatively, see http://www.sunflowers.charity or follow @sunflowerslocal on Twitter or Facebook.

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How the Sunflowers Children's Action Group has brought joy to poorly youngsters in lockdown - Grimsby Live

Patients on Steroids With COVID-19 Might Need Rescue Steroids – Medscape

Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center.

Endocrinologists have underlinedthe importance that physicians consider "a stress dose" of glucocorticoids in the event of severe COVID-19 infection in endocrine, and other, patients on long-term steroids.

People taking corticosteroids on a routine basis for a variety of underlying inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, allergies, and arthritis, are at elevated risk of being infected with, and adversely affectedby, COVID-19.

This also applies to a rarer group of patients with adrenal insufficiency and uncontrolled Cushingsyndrome, as well as secondary adrenal insufficiency occurring in hypopituitarism, who also rely on glucocorticoids for day-to-day living.

In the event of COVID-19, all of these individuals may be unable to mount a normal stress response, and "in the case of adrenal suppression...such patients may run into severe difficulties, particularly if on intensive care units," warns Paul Stewart, MD, University of Leeds, UK, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).

As such, it is vitally important to recognize that "Injectable supplemental glucocorticoid therapy in this setting can reverse the risk of potentially fatal adrenal failure and should be considered in every case," Stewart and colleagues emphasize in a newly published editorial in JCEM.

They note this advice must be considered alongside World Health Organization (WHO) guidance against prescribing therapeutic glucocorticoids to treat complications of COVID-19, based on prior experience in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as those affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

The key difference here is not to use pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids as treatment for COVID-19 (where they have no effect), but rather to prevent death from adrenal failure by using "stress" doses of replacement glucocorticoid, Stewart explained to Medscape Medical News.

"No patient with a history of prior exposure to chronic glucocorticoid therapy (> 3 months)...should die without consideration" for a stress dose of replacement glucocorticoid therapy.

"The intent here is to ensure that no patient with a history of prior exposure to chronic glucocorticoid therapy (> 3 months) by whatever route should die without consideration for parenteral glucocorticoid therapy," the editorialists write.

He advises using physiological stress doses of hydrocortisone (50-100 mg intravenously tid).

A separate statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) also emphasizes that it is particularly important for patients with adrenal insufficiency to follow advice from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or similar guidance on preventing COVID-19 infection, including social distancing and frequent hand washing.

Such patients should continue to take medications as prescribed and ensure they have appropriate supplies of oral and injectable steroids, ideally for 90 days, AACE advises.

And if there is a shortage of hydrocortisone, the statement advises patients ask a pharmacist or physician about replacement hydrocortisone with different doses that might be available.

Stewart agrees that patients with adrenal insufficiency need to be hypervigilant, but says that "if they do become ill, for the most part they are well counseled to respond appropriately to intercurrent infections."

Nevertheless, it is "invaluable to reiterate 'sick day rules'" for suspected COVID-19 infection.

"Any patient who develops a dry continuous cough and fever should immediately double their daily oral glucocorticoid dose and continue on this regimen until the fever has subsided."

If a patient still deteriorates on this regimen, develops diarrhea or vomiting, or is unable to take oral glucocorticoids for other reasons, they should contact their physicians or seek urgent medical care to receive parenteral treatment with a glucocorticoid.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Published online March 31, 2020. Position statement

For more diabetes and endocrinology news, follow us on Twitter and Facebook.

Continued here:
Patients on Steroids With COVID-19 Might Need Rescue Steroids - Medscape

Patients taking steroids with COVID-19 may need rescue steroids. – NewsDio

What your doctor is reading on Medscape.com:

April 3, 2020 Endocrinologists have underscored the importance of physicians considering a "stress dose" of glucocorticoids for severe COVID-19 infection in endocrine and other long-term steroid patients.People who routinely take corticosteroids for a variety of underlying inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, allergies, and arthritis, are at high risk of becoming infected with COVID-19 and being negatively affected.This also applies to a rarer group of patients with adrenal insufficiency and uncontrolled Cushing's syndrome, as well as the secondary adrenal insufficiency that occurs in hypopituitarism, who also depend on glucocorticoids for everyday life.

In the case of COVID-19, all these individuals may be unable to generate a normal response to stress and "in the case of adrenal suppression such patients may have serious difficulties, particularly if they are in intensive care units", warns Paul Stewart, MD, University of Leeds, UK, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).As such, it is vitally important to recognize that "injectable supplemental glucocorticoid therapy in this setting can reverse the risk of life-threatening adrenal insufficiency and should be considered in all cases," Stewart and colleagues emphasize in a recently published editorial in JCEM.They point out that this advice should be considered together with the guidance of the World Health Organization (WHO) against the prescription of therapeutic glucocorticoids to treat complications of COVID-19, based on previous experience in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as those affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).The key difference here is not using pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids as treatment for COVID-19 (where they have no effect), but rather preventing death from adrenal insufficiency by using replacement glucocorticoid stress doses, Stewart explained to Medscape Medical News."The intention here is to ensure that no patient with a history of prior exposure to chronic glucocorticoid therapy (> 3 months) by any route dies without taking parenteral glucocorticoid therapy into account," the editorialists write.He advises using physiological stress doses of hydrocortisone (50-100 mg intravenously).. (tagsToTranslate) steroids (t) Coronavirus (t) 2019 New coronavirus (t) 2019-nCoV (t) Wuhan coronavirus (t) Human coronavirus HKU1 (t) Human coronavirus OC43 (t) HCoV-OC43 (t) Human coronavirus 229E ( t) HCoV-229E (t) glucocorticosteroids (t) adrenal insufficiency (t) adrenal disease (t) crush

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Patients taking steroids with COVID-19 may need rescue steroids. - NewsDio

EMD Serono and Pfizer Provide Update on Phase III JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 Study – P&T Community

ROCKLAND, Mass. and NEW YORK, March 13, 2020 /PRNewswire/ --EMD Serono, the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany in the US and Canada, and Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE)today announced an update from the Phase III JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 study evaluating avelumab in addition to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus standard-of-care CRT in patients with untreated locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA SCCHN).The alliance has accepted the recommendation of the independent Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) to terminate the JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 trial, as the study is unlikely to show a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) based on a preplanned interim analysis. A detailed analysis of the Phase III JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 study is being conducted and study findings will be shared with the scientific community.

There has been limited innovation for patients with locally advanced SCCHN over the past 10 years.1 Despite aggressive standard-of-care treatment with high-dose chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy, LA SCCHN will ultimately recur in a large proportion of patients.2 In recognition of the unmet need for additional treatment options that can prevent recurrence or metastatic disease,3 the alliance initiated the JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 trial, which is the first Phase III study to report topline results for an immune checkpoint inhibitor in combination with CRT in LA SCCHN.

About JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 JAVELIN Headand Neck 100 (NCT02952586) is a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study investigating treatment with avelumab plus standard-of-care CRT followed by avelumab maintenance versus CRT alone in patients with previously untreated LA SCCHN. A total of 697 patients who had not received prior therapy for locally advanced SCCHN and were eligible for CRT with curative intent were randomly assigned to receive avelumab plus CRT or CRT alone. The primary endpoint was PFS per modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), time to locoregional failure, time to distant metastatic failure, overall response, duration of response and pathologic complete response.

About Head and Neck CancerHead and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide.4 In 2016, there were nearly 150,000 newly diagnosed cases in the United States, Japan and Europe.4Approximately 60% of people are diagnosed with head and neck cancer when their disease has already progressed to the locally advanced stage (Stage III-IVB).5 At this stage, the cancer has spread from its site of origin to local lymph nodes, but not another part of the body.6 Standard of care for these patients includes high-dose chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy.7

About BAVENCIO (avelumab)BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.8-10 In November 2014, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.

BAVENCIO Approved Indications BAVENCIO (avelumab) in combination with axitinib is indicated in the US for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Avelumab is currently approved for patients with MCC in 50 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.

BAVENCIO Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved LabelBAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis, and evaluate suspected cases with radiographic imaging. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3), life-threatening (Grade 4), or recurrent moderate (Grade 2) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis occurred in 1.2% of patients, including one (0.1%) patient with Grade 5, one (0.1%) with Grade 4, and five (0.3%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause hepatotoxicity and immune-mediated hepatitis, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for abnormal liver tests prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater hepatitis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) immune-mediated hepatitis until resolution and permanently discontinue for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred with BAVENCIO as a single agent in 0.9% of patients, including two (0.1%) patients with Grade 5, and 11 (0.6%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are used as monotherapy. Withhold BAVENCIO and axitinib for moderate (Grade 2) hepatotoxicity and permanently discontinue the combination for severe or life-threatening (Grade 3 or 4) hepatotoxicity. Administer corticosteroids as needed. In patients treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib, Grades3 and 4 increased ALT and AST occurred in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively, and immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 7% of patients, including 4.9% with Grade3 or 4.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated colitis. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of colitis. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis. Withhold BAVENCIO until resolution for moderate or severe (Grade 2 or 3) colitis until resolution. Permanently discontinue for life-threatening (Grade 4) or recurrent (Grade 3) colitis upon reinitiation of BAVENCIO. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.5% of patients, including seven (0.4%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency during and after treatment, and administer corticosteroids as appropriate. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency was reported in 0.5% of patients, including one (0.1%) with Grade 3.

Thyroid disorders can occur at any time during treatment. Monitor patients for changes in thyroid function at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation. Manage hypothyroidism with hormone replacement therapy and hyperthyroidism with medical management. Withhold BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis, were reported in 6% of patients, including three (0.2%) with Grade 3.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus including diabetic ketoacidosis: Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Withhold BAVENCIO and administer antihyperglycemics or insulin in patients with severe or life-threatening (Grade 3) hyperglycemia, and resume treatment when metabolic control is achieved. Type 1 diabetes mellitus without an alternative etiology occurred in 0.1% of patients, including two cases of Grade 3 hyperglycemia.

BAVENCIO can cause immune-mediated nephritis and renal dysfunction. Monitor patients for elevated serum creatinine prior to and periodically during treatment. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater nephritis. Withhold BAVENCIO for moderate (Grade 2) or severe (Grade 3) nephritis until resolution to Grade 1 or lower. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for life-threatening (Grade 4) nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.1% of patients.

BAVENCIO can result in other severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions involving any organ system during treatment or after treatment discontinuation. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, evaluate to confirm or rule out an immune-mediated adverse reaction and to exclude other causes. Depending on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold or permanently discontinue BAVENCIO, administer high-dose corticosteroids, and initiate hormone replacement therapy, if appropriate. Resume BAVENCIO when the immune-mediated adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or lower following a corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for any severe (Grade 3) immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening (Grade 4) immune-mediated adverse reaction. The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% of 1738 patients treated with BAVENCIO as a single agent or in 489 patients who received BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib: myocarditis including fatal cases, pancreatitis including fatal cases, myositis, psoriasis, arthritis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pemphigoid, hypopituitarism, uveitis, Guillain-Barr syndrome, and systemic inflammatory response.

BAVENCIO can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Premedicate patients with an antihistamine and acetaminophen prior to the first 4 infusions and for subsequent infusions based upon clinical judgment and presence/severity of prior infusion reactions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions, including pyrexia, chills, flushing, hypotension, dyspnea, wheezing, back pain, abdominal pain, and urticaria. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for mild (Grade 1) or moderate (Grade 2) infusion-related reactions. Permanently discontinue BAVENCIO for severe (Grade 3) or life-threatening (Grade 4) infusion-related reactions. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 25% of patients, including three (0.2%) patients with Grade 4 and nine (0.5%) with Grade 3.

BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib can cause major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including severe and fatal events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue BAVENCIO and axitinib for Grade 3-4 cardiovascular events. MACEoccurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3-4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3-4 congestive heart failure (1.8%).

BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise patients of the potential risk to a fetus including the risk of fetal death. Advise females of childbearing potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BAVENCIO and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO. It is not known whether BAVENCIO is excreted in human milk. Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants.

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) were fatigue (50%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (23%), nausea (22%), infusion-related reaction (22%), rash (22%), decreased appetite (20%), and peripheral edema (20%).

Selected treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) in patients with metastatic MCC were lymphopenia (49%), anemia (35%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (34%), thrombocytopenia (27%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (20%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) were fatigue (41%), infusion-related reaction (30%), musculoskeletal pain (25%), nausea (24%), decreased appetite/hypophagia (21%), and urinary tract infection (21%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (Grades 3-4, 3%) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC were hyponatremia (16%), increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (12%), lymphopenia (11%), hyperglycemia (9%), increased alkaline phosphatase (7%), anemia (6%), increased lipase (6%), hyperkalemia (3%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (3%).

Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.8% of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. These included sudden cardiac death (1.2%), stroke (0.2%), myocarditis (0.2%), and necrotizing pancreatitis (0.2%).

The most common adverse reactions (all grades, 20%) in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were diarrhea (62% vs 48%), fatigue (53% vs 54%), hypertension (50% vs 36%), musculoskeletal pain (40% vs 33%), nausea (34% vs 39%), mucositis (34% vs 35%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (33% vs 34%), dysphonia (31% vs 3.2%), decreased appetite (26% vs 29%), hypothyroidism (25% vs 14%), rash (25% vs 16%), hepatotoxicity (24% vs 18%), cough (23% vs 19%), dyspnea (23% vs 16%), abdominal pain (22% vs 19%), and headache (21% vs 16%).

Selected laboratory abnormalities (all grades, 20%) worsening from baseline in patients with advanced RCC receiving BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib (vs sunitinib) were blood triglycerides increased (71% vs 48%), blood creatinine increased (62% vs 68%), blood cholesterol increased (57% vs 22%), alanine aminotransferase increased (ALT) (50% vs 46%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (AST) (47% vs 57%), blood sodium decreased (38% vs 37%), lipase increased (37% vs 25%), blood potassium increased (35% vs 28%), platelet count decreased (27% vs 80%), blood bilirubin increased (21% vs 23%), and hemoglobin decreased (21% vs 65%).

Please see full US Prescribing Information and Medication Guide available at http://www.BAVENCIO.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany-Pfizer AllianceImmuno-oncology is a top priority for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer. The global strategic alliance between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer enables the companies to benefit from each other's strengths and capabilities and further explore the therapeutic potential of BAVENCIO, an anti-PD-L1 antibody initially discovered and developed by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. The immuno-oncology alliance is jointly developing and commercializing BAVENCIO. The alliance is focused on developing high-priority international clinical programs to investigate BAVENCIO as a monotherapy as well as combination regimens, and is striving to find new ways to treat cancer.

All Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, press releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the EMD Group Website. In case you are a resident of the USA or Canada please go to http://www.emdgroup.com/subscribe to register again for your online subscription of this service as our newly introduced geo-targeting requires new links in the email. You may later change your selection or discontinue this service.

About EMD Serono, Inc.EMD Serono - the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt,Germany, in the U.S. andCanada- is engaged in the discovery, research and development of medicines for patients with difficult to treat diseases. The business is committed to transforming lives by developing and delivering meaningful solutions that help address the therapeutic and support needs of individual patients. Building on a proven legacy and deep expertise in neurology, fertility and endocrinology, EMD Serono is developing potential new oncology and immuno-oncology medicines while continuing to explore potential therapeutic options for diseases such as psoriasis, lupus and MS. Today, the business has approximately 1,500 employees around the country with commercial, clinical and research operations based in the company's home state ofMassachusetts.www.emdserono.com.

About Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GermanyMerck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, a leading science and technology company, operates across healthcare, life science and performance materials. Around 57,000 employees work to make a positive difference to millions of people's lives every day by creating more joyful and sustainable ways to live. From advancing gene editing technologies and discovering unique ways to treat the most challenging diseases to enabling the intelligence of devices the company is everywhere. In 2019, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, generated sales of 16.2 billion in 66 countries.

The company holds the global rights to the name and trademark "Merck" internationally. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the business sectors of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany operate as EMD Serono in healthcare, MilliporeSigma in life science, and EMD Performance Materials. Since its founding 1668, scientific exploration and responsible entrepreneurship have been key to the company's technological and scientific advances. To this day, the founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed company.

Pfizer Inc.: Breakthroughs that change patients' livesAt Pfizer, we apply science and our global resources to bring therapies to people that extend and significantly improve their lives. We strive to set the standard for quality, safety and value in the discovery, development and manufacture of health care products, including innovative medicines and vaccines. Every day, Pfizer colleagues work across developed and emerging markets to advance wellness, prevention, treatments and cures that challenge the most feared diseases of our time. Consistent with our responsibility as one of the world's premier innovative biopharmaceutical companies, we collaborate with health care providers, governments and local communities to support and expand access to reliable, affordable health care around the world. For more than 150 years, we have worked to make a difference for all who rely on us. We routinely post information that may be important to investors on our website at http://www.pfizer.com.In addition, to learn more, please visit us on http://www.pfizer.com and follow us on Twitter at @Pfizer and @Pfizer_News, LinkedIn, YouTube and like us on Facebook at Facebook.com/Pfizer.

Pfizer Disclosure NoticeThe information contained in this release is as of March 13, 2020. Pfizer assumes no obligation to update forward-looking statementscontained in this release as the result of new information or future events or developments.

This release contains forward-looking information about BAVENCIO (avelumab), the alliance between Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany,and Pfizer involving BAVENCIO and clinical development plans, including their potential benefits, that involves substantial risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. Risks and uncertainties include, among other things, uncertainties regarding the commercial success of BAVENCIO; the uncertainties inherent in research and development, including the ability to meet anticipated clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for our clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, regulatory approval dates and/or launch dates, as well as the possibility of unfavorable new clinical data and further analyses of existing clinical data; risks associated with interim data; the risk that clinical trial data are subject to differing interpretations and assessments by regulatory authorities; whether regulatory authorities will be satisfied with the design of and results from our clinical studies; whether and whenany drug applications may be filed in any jurisdictions for any potential indications for BAVENCIO or combination therapies; whether and when regulatory authorities in any jurisdictions where any applications are pending or may be submitted for BAVENCIO or combination therapies may approve any such applications, which will depend on myriad factors, including making a determination as to whether the product's benefits outweigh its known risks and determination of the product's efficacy, and, if approved, whether they will be commercially successful; decisions by regulatory authorities impacting labeling, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters that could affect the availability or commercial potential of BAVENCIO; and competitive developments.

A further description of risks and uncertainties can be found in Pfizer's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, and in its subsequent reports on Form 10-Q, including in the sections thereof captioned "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Information and Factors That May Affect Future Results", as well as in its subsequent reports on Form 8-K, all of which are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and available at http://www.sec.gov and http://www.pfizer.com.

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EMD Serono and Pfizer Provide Update on Phase III JAVELIN Head and Neck 100 Study - P&T Community

Is dwarf boy Quaden Bayles 18-year-old or just 9? Internet is divided and debate continues – International Business Times, Singapore Edition

A kind gesture towards the victims in china

If anyone is familiar with the 2009 thriller Orphan, they know that it was just a story. But people are rushing to correlate dwarfism depicted in the movie with several other cases of dwarfism in real life.

The movie Orphan follows a 33-year-old woman with hypopituitarism who disguises herself as a young child so that she is adopted by a family. The adoption is followed by several events that point out that she is a woman and the family was in trouble. The current case of a young boy with dwarfism is trending on Twitter with people rushing to prove that he is, in fact, an 18-year-old posing as a 9-year-old.

The internet can be a beautiful place where people are supportive and understanding, but sometimes the support goes to the wrong person and everyone feels scammed. This has made people question everything that is being posted on the internet. Unfortunately, this has also led to people having mixed thoughts about the Quaden Bayles, the young boy from Australia who is allegedly going through bullying in his school because of dwarfism.

A heartbreaking video showed Quaden crying and saying that he wants to kill himself because of the bullying. So the internet did its job and made it go viral, and now the internet sea has split.

Quaden recently received a GoFundMe page donation to go to Disney land after several Hollywood and other stars came forward supporting the young boy and asking him not to worry. Brad Williams, the comedian set up a GoFundMe page for the young boy to bring him to the US for a vacation.

But several believe that this is a scam set up by the Bayles to make money. People went into Quaden's Instagram handle. According to the Twitterati, it showed Quade celebrating his 18th birthday and had pictures of him wearing expensive clothes.

People are continuously arguing on various platforms that Bayles is lying about his age. According to the investigative work done by several people on the internet, they believe that the videos posted by Quaden on his Instagram handle looked like those of an adult. The Instagram account @quadosss that had the videos has since disappeared from the internet.

Quade Bayles is said to have been born with achondroplasia dwarfism. He was diagnosed with it just days after he was born. Quade's mother Yarraka is his supporting pillar. Under her son's name, the mother has worked towards creating awareness about dwarfism.

There have been three videos where the boy was in front of the camera before this incident. One was associated with his first case of bullying and unwanted attention. Yarraka posted a video in 2015 when a group of girls started pointing towards the boy and following them around while they were out shopping. The video was trending in Australia which led to Yarraka and Quade coming in front of the screen during a Studio 10 interview.

There is another video from 2015 which sets the records straight. It is a feature where Yarraka explains what Quade's condition is when he was around 4-years old in an SBS program called Living Black.

Apart from this, there is another evidence that says that he is actually 9-years-old. According to the family, the child was posing with a friend who turned 18 on his Instagram picture. Two years ago his mother posted a picture that showed them celebrating Quaden's 8th birthday.

Several of the pictures and videos have since been removed because of the extreme levels of negative attention that the family is receiving.

Similar to Quaden there is someone else who has gone through extreme trauma and that is Natalia Grace. The young girl was abandoned by her family who adopted her at a very young age. She was the Ukranian orphan who was called rude names by the internet including comparing her with Esther from the Orphan.

Natalia is said to be a teenager and her adoptive family said that she is actually in her 30s. Her adoptive parents Kristine Barnett, 46, and her ex-husband Michael Barnett, 43, were charged with neglect of a dependent, to which they pleaded not guilty.

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Is dwarf boy Quaden Bayles 18-year-old or just 9? Internet is divided and debate continues - International Business Times, Singapore Edition

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