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Most Popular – Life Extension Vitamins

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Most Popular – Life Extension Vitamins

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Stem Cells News — ScienceDaily

Jan. 29, 2016 The mechanism used by specialized enzymes to remodel the extremely condensed genetic material in the nucleus of cells in order to control which genes can be used has been discovered. The research … read more Ultrasound-Based Therapy for Cardiac Stem Cells Recovery Jan. 29, 2016 When cardiac stem cells undergo low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment, these cells can perform continuing modifications, tissue remodeling and regeneration of damaged cardiac tissue after a heart … read more Assessing Stem Cells: New Biomarker Developed Jan. 29, 2016 A research team has found a way to assess the viability of ‘manufactured’ stem cells known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The team’s discovery offers a new way to … read more Jan. 29, 2016 Industry 4.0 requires comprehensive data collection in order to control highly automated process sequences in complex production environments. One example is the cultivation of living cells. But … read more Protein Combination Improves Bone Regeneration, Study Shows Jan. 29, 2016 A combination of proteins that could improve clinical bone restoration, and could lead towards the development of therapeutic treatments for skeletal defects, bone loss and osteoporosis, report … read more Cancer’s Surprise Origins, Caught in Action Jan. 28, 2016 For the first time, researchers have visualized the origins of cancer from the first affected cell and watched its spread in a live animal. This work could change the way scientists understand … read more Research Hints at a Nutritional Strategy for Reducing Autism Risk Jan. 28, 2016 Folic acid has long been touted as an important supplement for women of childbearing age for its ability to prevent defects in the baby’s developing brain and spinal cord. In fact, folic acid is … read more CRISPR Used to Repair Blindness-Causing Genetic Defect in Patient-Derived Stem Cells Jan. 28, 2016 Scientists have used a new gene-editing technology called CRISPR, to repair a genetic mutation responsible for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited condition that causes the retina to degrade and … read more Jan. 27, 2016 The Achilles heel of hepatocellular carcinoma, a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, has been discovered by researchers. The key to disrupting chemo-resistant stem cells that become liver … read more Scientists Make an Important Contribution to Decoding the Language of Cells Jan. 27, 2016 There are astonishing similarities between molecular mechanisms in neural stem cells and pancreatic islet cells, new research shows. This may lead to new forms of therapy, particularly for … read more Jan. 25, 2016 A molecule that interrupts biochemical signals essential for the survival of a certain type of cancer stem cell has been discovered by … read more How to Detect and Preserve Human Stem Cells in the Lab Jan. 22, 2016 Human stem cells that are capable of becoming any other kind of cell in the body have previously only been acquired and cultivated with difficulty. Scientists have now presented details of a method … read more Jan. 21, 2016 A research team has now discovered how human macrophages can divide and self-renew almost indefinitely. As the researchers show in their new report, the macrophages achieve this by activating a gene … read more Jan. 20, 2016 In 1917, Florence Sabin, the first female member of the US National Academy of Sciences, discovered hemangioblasts, the common precursor cells for blood cells and blood vessel endothelia. Her … read more Breakthrough in Human Cell Transformation Could Revolutionize Regenerative Medicine Jan. 19, 2016 A breakthrough in the transformation of human cells by an international team of researchers could open the door to a new range of treatments for a variety of medical … read more Jan. 19, 2016 Electrical stimulation of human heart muscle cells engineered from human stem cells aids their development and function, researchers have demonstrated for the first time. They used electrical … read more Broken UV Light Leads to Key Heart Muscle Cell Discovery Jan. 18, 2016 For a team of investigators trying to generate heart muscle cells from stem cells, a piece of broken equipment turned out to be a good thing. The faulty equipment pushed the researchers to try a … read more Jan. 14, 2016 Where and when do stem cells first appear during development? Researchers investigated this question by examining how cells organize as the hair follicle first appears in mouse embryos. They … read more Donor’s Genotype Controls Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Jan. 14, 2016 Pluripotent stem cells derived from different cell types are equally susceptible to reprogramming, indicates a recent study. However, the genotype of the donor strongly influences the differentiation … read more Mechanism That Controls Neuron Production from Stem Cells Revealed Jan. 13, 2016 The discovery of a mechanism enabling the production of cellular diversity in the developing nervous system has been announced by scientists. This discovery could improve the protocols to … read more

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Stem Cells News — ScienceDaily

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

citrus-derived stem cells – Annmarie Gianni Skin Care

Have you noticed signs of aging in your skin? Do you have more dullness, dryness, wrinkles, or sagging than you did five, ten, or fifteen years ago?

If so, youre not alone. All of us experience the aging process, which includes thinning, age spots, loss of strength and elasticity, and increased dryness because of reduced oil production. Most of us dont like the idea of showing our age soweseek solutions to help slow down and conceal the signs of aging on the skin. Though we already have some key tools to use in our fight against the aging process, including natural oils that deeply moisturize, essential fatty acids that plump and firm, and nutrients that help protect from outside elements, science has zoomed in on another powerful anti-aging ally: the stem cell.

At Annmarie Gianni Skin Care, were excited to talk about stem cells because weve found the perfect source to add to our Repair Serum. They come from a clean, natural, and environmentally friendly source and have been shown to help stimulate regeneration and repair on a cellular level for a smoother, tighter, more youthful complexion.

Plant stem cells can help stimulate skin to regenerate and repair itself.

Youve probably heard about stem cells in the news. Most of the media coverage has been about embryonic stem cells because of the controversial sources for these cells the truly amazing scientific discoveries using stem cells are totally overshadowed. Embryonic stem cells have the capacity to form any type of tissue in the body and because of that, they can regenerate failing organs and they are instrumental in working with degenerative diseases.

The adult body has stem cells too but they are a lot more limited than the embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells are specific to the type of organ that theyre helping to repair and they are limited in what theyre able to restructure in the body. That means that if you have a deep scratch on your skin, the stem cells in your skin would work to repair it but the stem cells in your brain wouldnt be able to migrate to the skin. Adult stem cells are used to regenerate and repair the tissues in the body but they dont have the capacity to regenerate organs the way that embryonic stem cells do (if you lose an arm you cant grow it back, right?).

That being said, the skin is one of the primary locations where we see stem cells at work because the skin is constantly regenerating itself to protect the body from foreign substances. There are a few different types of stems cells that are specific to the integumentary system but the primary stem cell is the epidermal stem cells that are found in the deepest part of the epidermis layer of the skin.

Skin cells have a huge job to do. According to a study published in 2003, the outer layer of skin is always renewing and repairing itself by constant proliferation of a single inner layer of rapidly dividing progeny of stem cells. A more recent study published in 2012 found the existence of a new population of stem cells that give rise to progenitor cells that ensure the daily maintenance of the epidermis [outer layer] and demonstrate the major contribution of epidermal stem cells during wound healing.

Have you noticed that a babys skin can heal really quickly from even the deepest gashes without scarring? Thats a sign of new stem cells that are capable of complete repair. Contrast that with the last time your furry friend loved you a little too much and scratched your leg, how long did that take you heal? Did you scar?

As we age, we encounter the elements and things like sun damage, environmental pollutants, physical damage, and just general decrease in regeneration can weaken and reduce the skins supply of key stem cells. That means skin renewal slows down so if you have noticed that your skin doesnt appear as dewy or young-looking and youre not healing quite as quickly as you used to dont worry, its normal.

Finding help from the plant world is not new for us. All of our products already use the power of plants to help protect and restore the skin but were always looking for ways to make it more effective. We went looking for safe ways to encourage skin repair and regeneration and we werent surprised to find plant stem cells and learn about the amazing effects they can have on the skin.

A plants extra store of stem cells is why they are able to grow new leaves in the spring and how they continue to sprout new life and be a mature entity at the same time. Because plants cannot escape the danger around them, it has been argued that their stem cells may be even stronger than our own, capable of withstanding all types of environmental stress to continue to regenerate and restore the plants various systems throughout its lifetime.

But can plant stem cells really help our human stem cells? Research shows they can. It isnt that the stem cells from plants can regenerate our own stem cells, what the plant stem cells can do however, is protect our own skin cells so they live longer and they stimulate the renerative activity in our own stem cells.

What does that mean to you? Younger looking and acting skin!

In seeking out a source of stem cells for our Repair Serum, we wanted something that wouldnt be irritated for the skin. Thats why when we saw the tests behind citrus stem cells, we were convinced they were the right ones for our customers. Not only are they from a non-human and non-animal source, but they have solid studies behind them.

Here are some of the results that citrus-based stem cells were able to create on the skin:

Do you suffer from skin damage? Please share your story.

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citrus-derived stem cells – Annmarie Gianni Skin Care

Recommendation and review posted by simmons

Androgenetic alopecia – Genetics Home Reference

Androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss in both men and women. In men, this condition is also known as male-pattern baldness. Hair is lost in a well-defined pattern, beginning above both temples. Over time, the hairline recedes to form a characteristic “M” shape. Hair also thins at the crown (near the top of the head), often progressing to partial or complete baldness.

The pattern of hair loss in women differs from male-pattern baldness. In women, the hair becomes thinner all over the head, and the hairline does not recede. Androgenetic alopecia in women rarely leads to total baldness.

Androgenetic alopecia in men has been associated with several other medical conditions including coronary heart disease and enlargement of the prostate. Additionally, prostate cancer, disorders of insulin resistance (such as diabetes and obesity), and high blood pressure (hypertension) have been related to androgenetic alopecia. In women, this form of hair loss is associated with an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is characterized by a hormonal imbalance that can lead to irregular menstruation, acne, excess hair elsewhere on the body (hirsutism), and weight gain.

Androgenetic alopecia is a frequent cause of hair loss in both men and women. This form of hair loss affects an estimated 50 million men and 30 million women in the United States. Androgenetic alopecia can start as early as a person’s teens and risk increases with age; more than 50 percent of men over age 50 have some degree of hair loss. In women, hair loss is most likely after menopause.

A variety of genetic and environmental factors likely play a role in causing androgenetic alopecia. Although researchers are studying risk factors that may contribute to this condition, most of these factors remain unknown. Researchers have determined that this form of hair loss is related to hormones called androgens, particularly an androgen called dihydrotestosterone. Androgens are important for normal male sexual development before birth and during puberty. Androgens also have other important functions in both males and females, such as regulating hair growth and sex drive.

Hair growth begins under the skin in structures called follicles. Each strand of hair normally grows for 2 to 6 years, goes into a resting phase for several months, and then falls out. The cycle starts over when the follicle begins growing a new hair. Increased levels of androgens in hair follicles can lead to a shorter cycle of hair growth and the growth of shorter and thinner strands of hair. Additionally, there is a delay in the growth of new hair to replace strands that are shed.

Although researchers suspect that several genes play a role in androgenetic alopecia, variations in only one gene, AR, have been confirmed in scientific studies. The AR gene provides instructions for making a protein called an androgen receptor. Androgen receptors allow the body to respond appropriately to dihydrotestosterone and other androgens. Studies suggest that variations in the AR gene lead to increased activity of androgen receptors in hair follicles. It remains unclear, however, how these genetic changes increase the risk of hair loss in men and women with androgenetic alopecia.

Researchers continue to investigate the connection between androgenetic alopecia and other medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease and prostate cancer in men and polycystic ovary syndrome in women. They believe that some of these disorders may be associated with elevated androgen levels, which may help explain why they tend to occur with androgen-related hair loss. Other hormonal, environmental, and genetic factors that have not been identified also may be involved.

Read more about the AR gene.

The inheritance pattern of androgenetic alopecia is unclear because many genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved. This condition tends to cluster in families, however, and having a close relative with patterned hair loss appears to be a risk factor for developing the condition.

You may find the following resources about androgenetic alopecia helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.

See the article here:
Androgenetic alopecia – Genetics Home Reference

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Human Genetics – Mendelian Inheritance 5


hen the locus for a gene for a particular trait or disease lies on the X chromosome, the disease is said to be X-linked. The inheritance pattern for X-linked inheritance differs from autosomal inheritance only because the X chromosome has no homologous chromosome in the male, the male has an X and a Y chromosome. Very few genes have been discovered on the Y chromosome.

The inheritance pattern follows the pattern of segregation of the X and Y chromosomes in meiosis and fertilization. A male child always gets his X from one of his mother’s two X’s and his Y chromosome from his father. X-linked genes are never passed from father to son. A female child always gets the father’s X chromosome and one of the two X’s of the mother. An affected female must have an affected father. Males are always hemizygous for X linked traits, that is, they can never be heterozygoses or homozygotes. They are never carriers. A single dose of a mutant allele will produce a mutant phenotype in the male, whether the mutation is dominant or recessive. On the other hand, females must be either homozygous for the normal allele, heterozygous, or homozygous for the mutant allele, just as they are for autosomal loci.

When an X-linked gene is said to express dominant inheritance, it means that a single dose of the mutant allele will affect the phenotype of the female. A recessive X-linked gene requires two doses of the mutant allele to affect the female phenotype. The following are the hallmarks of X-linked dominant inheritance:

The following Punnett Squares explain the first three hallmarks of X-linked dominant inheritance. X represents the X chromosome with the normal allele, XA represents the X chromosome with the mutant dominant allele, and Y represents the Y chromosome. Note that the affected father never passes the trait to his sons but passes it to all of his daughters, since the heterozygote is affected for dominant traits. On the other hand, an affected female passes the disease to half of her daughters and half of her sons.

Males are usually more severely affected than females because in each affected female there is one normal allele producing a normal gene product and one mutant allele producing the non-functioning product, while in each affected male there is only the mutant allele with its non-functioning product and the Y chromosome, no normal gene product at all. Affected females are more prevalent in the general population because the female has two X chromosomes, either of which could carry the mutant allele, while the male only has one X chromosome as a target for the mutant allele. When the disease is no more deleterious in males than it is in females, females are about twice as likely to be affected as males. As shown in Pedigree 5 below, X-linked dominant inheritance has a unique heritability pattern.

The key for determining if a dominant trait is X-linked or autosomal is to look at the offspring of the mating of an affected male and a normal female. If the affected male has an affected son, then the disease is not X-linked. All of his daughters must also be affected if the disease is X-linked. In Pedigree 5, both of these conditions are met.

What happens when males are so severely affected that they can’t reproduce? Suppose they are so severely affected they never survive to term, then what happens? This is not uncommon in X-linked dominant diseases. There are no affected males to test for X-linked dominant inheritance to see if the produce all affected daughters and no affected sons. Pedigree 6 shows the effects of such a disease in a family. There are no affected males, only affected females, in the population. Living females outnumber living males two to one when the mother is affected. The ratio in the offspring of affected females is: 1 affected female: 1 normal female: 1 normal male.

You will note that in Pedigree 6 there have also been several spontaneous abortions in the offspring of affected females. Normally, in the general population of us normal couples, one in six recognized pregnancies results in a spontaneous abortion. Here the ratio is much higher. Presumably many of the spontaneous abortions shown in Pedigree 6 are males that would have been affected had they survived to term.

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Human Genetics – Mendelian Inheritance 5

Recommendation and review posted by simmons

Hypothyroidism Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatment

A recent study showed that nearly 13 million Americans may be unaware of and undiagnosed for their thyroid conditions. Are you one of them? Another study showed that if you are a pregnant woman and you have a low thyroid your child’s IQ will be affected. Yet another recent study showed that if you an elderly woman with thyroid problems you will have an increased risk of heart disease

The big myth that persists regarding thyroid diagnosis is that an elevated TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) level is always required before a diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be made. Normally, the pituitary gland will secrete TSH in response to a low thyroid hormone level. Thus an elevated TSH level would typically suggest an underactive thyroid.

If you find this information helpful click here to subscribe to the FREE weekly newsletter so you will get all the updates.

Click here to read my interview with Mary Shomon, the Thyroid guide from

Your Doctor Does Not Likely Understand How To Interpret Your Tests Properly

Thyroid function tests have always presented doctors with difficulties in their interpretation. Laboratory testing is often misleading due to the complexity and inherent shortcomings of the tests themselves. Many doctors not having an adequate understanding of what the test results mean, will often make incorrect assumptions based on them or interpret them too strictly. A narrow interpretation of thyroid function testing leads to many people not being treated for subclinical hypothyroidism.

Old Laboratory Tests Unreliable

Most all older thyroid function panels include the following:

These tests should be abandoned because they are unreliable as gauges of thyroid function. The most common traditional way to diagnose hypothyroidism is with a TSH that is elevated beyond the normal reference range. For most labs, this is about 4.0 to 4.5. This is thought to reflect the pituitary’s sensing of inadequate thyroid hormone levels in the blood which would be consistent with hypothyroidism. There is no question that this will diagnose hypothyroidism, but it is far too insensitive a measure, and the vast majority of patients who have hypothyroidism will be missed.

Basal Body Temperature

Basal body temperature popularized by the late Broda Barnes, M.D. He found the clinical symptoms and the body temperature to be more reliable than the standard laboratory tests was provided. This is clearly better than using the standard tests. However there are problems with using body temperature.

New and More Accurate Way To Check for Hypothyroidism

This revised method of diagnosing and treating hypothyroidism seems superior to the temperature regulation method promoted by Broda Barnes and many natural medicine physicians. Most patients continue to have classic hypothyroid symptoms because excessive reliance is placed on the TSH. This test is a highly-accurate measure of TSH but not of the height of thyroid hormone levels.

New Range for TSH to Diagnose Hypothyroidism

The basic problem that traditional medicine has with diagnosing hypothyroidism is the so-called “normal range” of TSH is far too high: Many patients with TSH’s of greater than 2.0 (not 4.5) have classic symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism (see below).

Free Thyroid Hormone Levels

One can also use the Free T3 and Free T4 and TSH levels to help one identify how well the thyroid gland is working. Free T3 and Free T4 levels are the only accurate measure of the actual active thyroid hormone levels in the blood.

When one uses free hormone levels one will find that it is relatively common to find the Free T4 and Free T3 hormone levels below normal when TSH is in its normal range, even in the low end of its normal range. When patients with these lab values are treated, one typically finds tremendous improvement in the patient, and a reduction of the classic hypothyroid symptoms.

Secondary or Tertiary Hypothyroidism

There are a significant number of individuals who have a TSH even below the new 1.5 reference range mentioned above, but their Free T3 (and possibly the Free T4 as well) will be below normal. These are cases of secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism, so, TSH alone is not an accurate test of all forms of hypothyroidism, only primary hypothyroidism.

Symptoms of Low Thyroid

Treatment of Hypothyroidism

You can click here for an article on how you can treat your thyroid problem with natural hormone therapy.

If you find this information helpful click here to subscribe to the FREE weekly newsletter so you will get all the updates.

If you are interested in a more comprehensive articles directed towards health care professionals click here. Also available is an excellent text book article on thyroid testing for those with more technical interests.

Mary Shomon is the thyroid expert. Her $11 352 page book published in March of 2000 is one of the most cost effective and valuable resources that you could own on this subject. If you have thyroid disease this book should be in your library.

Click here to Purchase: Living Well With Hypothyroidism

The Los Angeles Times wrote: March 27, 2000 “Hypothyroidism is a common, very treatable disorder that is also poorly managed by doctors. In this first-rate book by Mary Shomon…the disorder, its myths, and medicine’s successes and failures at dealing with it are thoroughly examined. This is not a book that rehashes old facts on thyroid disease. Shomon instead challenges patients and their doctors to look deeper and try harder to resolve the complicated symptoms of hypothyroidism…In a fascinating chapter, Shomon, who also has a Web site and an online newsletter about the disease, explores recent evidence that the addition of the thyroid hormone T3 to the standard T4 (levothyroxine) may help some people feel better. In addition, the section on babies born with hypothyroidism, although brief, has the best advice on how to give medication to an infant that I’ve seen. As Shomon writes: ‘or years, thyroid problems have been downplayed, misunderstood and portrayed as unimportant.’ With her advocacy, perhaps no more.” — Shari Roan

Dr. John Lowe, author of “Speeding Up to Normal” wrote:

Mary Shomon is the harbinger of the latest scientifically-sound information on hypothyroidism. With keen intellect, loyalty to truth, and plain language, she sweeps away the medical dogma that bars millions of patients from rational thyroid hormone therapies. In this book, she describes practical thyroid therapies that can improve patients’ health and extend their lives. The book is vital for hypothyroid patients who want to get well, and for physicians who want to help them do so.

Originally posted here:
Hypothyroidism Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatment

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Clinically Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas | UCLA …

Pituitary tumors (adenomas) that do not secrete active hormones are called clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Most are large (macroadenomas), measuring more than one centimeter in size at the time of diagnosis. Patients start experiencing symptoms when the large tumor compresses the optic nerves, leading to vision loss, or the loss of normal pituitary function.

The UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program offers comprehensive management of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Our physicians have years of experience in diagnosing, treating and managing pituitary conditions.

Use these links to explore more about clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas:

Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas make up about half of pituitary adenomas. The vast majority of them are benign.

There are several possible reasons why nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas could occur:

The most common symptoms are due to the large tumor compressing nearby structures, leading to:

Increased compression of the normal gland can cause hormone insufficiency, called hypopituitarism. The symptoms depend upon which hormone is involved.

More severe hypopituitarism can lead to hypothyroidism or abnormally low cortisol levels, which may be life threatening. Symptoms of severe hypopituitarism include:

Changes in hormonal function can cause electrolyte imbalance in the blood, typically low sodium levels (hyponatremia). Symptoms could include:

Imaging scans are one method doctors use to diagnose clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. We will also order hormone tests to evaluate the levels of pituitary hormone, confirming that there is no evidence of hormone production by the tumor.

Your doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination and ask you about your symptoms and medical history. He or she will then order tests as necessary, including:

MRI imaging allows us to detect whether there are tumors present. Your doctor will use a special MRI pituitary protocol to best visualize the tumor.

There are other tumors that produce symptoms similar to that of a pituitary adenoma. Your doctor will want to rule out these other tumors before confirming a diagnosis. Tumors that mimic the symptoms of a pituitary adenoma include:

If your symptoms suggest pituitary failure (hypopituitarism), your doctor may order a complete evaluation of the endocrine system. Based on results of these blood tests, you may undergo additional hormonal studies.

Learn more about hormone testing at the UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program.

If you are experiencing vision problems, your doctor will recommend that an experienced ophthalmologist evaluate you. The evaluation should include:

This will determine if you have a loss of peripheral vision.

The UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program offers comprehensive management of all types of pituitary tumors. Treatment options for pituitary adenomas include:

For most patients with nonfunctional adenomas, surgically removing the adenoma is the most effective treatment.

Whether this will lead to a long-term cure depends on the extent of surgical removal, which is related to:

If the surgeon was able to remove the entire tumor, the cure rate is 70 percent to 80 percent. Overall, surgery improves:

If the pituitary adenomas require surgery,typicallythe bestprocedureis througha nasal approach. Our neurosurgeons who specialize in pituitary tumor surgery are experts in the minimally invasive endoscopic endonasaltechnique. This procedure removes the tumor while minimizing complications, hospital time and discomfort. This advanced technique requires specialized training and equipment.

Very large tumors that extend into the brain cavity may require opening the skull (craniotomy) to access the tumor. Our surgeons are also experts in the minimally invasive “key-hole” craniotomy, utilizing a small incision hidden in the eyebrow.

If, after your surgery, some tumor cells remained or regrew, you may be a candidate for radiation therapy or a repeat surgery.

Hormone replacement may be necessary if you have pituitary insufficiency.

Doctors may recommend radiation therapy as a second-line therapy for endocrine-inactive tumors. Focused-beam radiation, named stereotactic radiosurgery, can be effective in controlling tumor growth. In some cases, radiation therapy may cause a loss of pituitary function.

To schedule an appointment with one of our physicians at the Pituitary Tumor Program, please call (310) 825 5111.

You can also email us at

See more here:
Clinically Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas | UCLA …

Recommendation and review posted by simmons

Cardiac muscle cell – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes[1] or cardiac myocytes[2]) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle. Each myocardial cell contains myofibrils, which are specialized organelles consisting of long chains of sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units of muscle cells. Cardiomyocytes show striations similar to those on skeletal muscle cells. Unlike multinucleated skeletal cells, the majority of cardiomyocytes contain only one nucleus, although they may have as many as four.[3] Cardiomyocytes have a high mitochondrial density, which allows them to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) quickly, making them highly resistant to fatigue.

There are two types of cells within the heart: the cardiomyocytes and the cardiac pacemaker cells. Cardiomyocytes make up the atria (the chambers in which blood enters the heart) and the ventricles (the chambers where blood is collected and pumped out of the heart). These cells must be able to shorten and lengthen their fibers and the fibers must be flexible enough to stretch. These functions are critical to the proper form during the beating of the heart.[4]

Cardiac pacemaker cells carry the impulses that are responsible for the beating of the heart. They are distributed throughout the heart and are responsible for several functions. First, they are responsible for being able to spontaneously generate and send out electrical impulses. They also must be able to receive and respond to electrical impulses from the brain. Lastly, they must be able to transfer electrical impulses from cell to cell.[5]

All of these cells are connected by cellular bridges. Porous junctions called intercalated discs form junctions between the cells. They permit sodium, potassium and calcium to easily diffuse from cell to cell. This makes it easier for depolarization and repolarization in the myocardium. Because of these junctions and bridges the heart muscle is able to act as a single coordinated unit.[6][7]

Cardiac action potential consists of two cycles, a rest phase and an active phase. These two phases are commonly understood as systole and diastole. The rest phase is considered polarized. The resting potential during this phase of the beat separates the ions such as sodium, potassium and calcium. Myocardial cells possess the property of automaticity or spontaneous depolarization. This is the direct result of a membrane which allows sodium ions to slowly enter the cell until the threshold is reached for depolarization. Calcium ions follow and extend the depolarization even further. Once calcium stops moving inward, potassium ions move out slowly to produce repolarization. The very slow repolarization of the CMC membrane is responsible for the long refractory period.[8][9]

Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when the heart’s supplementary blood vessels are obstructed by an unstable build-up of white blood cells, cholesterol, and fat. With no blood flow, the cells die, causing whole portions of cardiac tissue to die. Once these tissues are lost, they cannot be replaced, thus causing permanent damage. Current research indicates, however, that it may be possible to repair damaged cardiac tissue with stem cells,[10] as human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into cardiomyocytes under appropriate conditions.[11]

Humans are born with a set number of heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, which increase in size as our heart grows larger during childhood development. Recent evidence suggests that cardiomyocytes are actually slowly turned over as we age, but that less than 50% of the cardiomyocytes we are born with are replaced during a normal life span.[12] The growth of individual cardiomyocytes not only occurs during normal heart development, it also occurs in response to extensive exercise (athletic heart syndrome), heart disease, or heart muscle injury such as after a myocardial infarction. A healthy adult cardiomyocyte has a cylindrical shape that is approximately 100m long and 10-25m in diameter. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy occurs through sarcomerogenesis, the creation of new sarcomere units in the cell. During heart volume overload, cardiomyocytes grow through eccentric hypertrophy.[13] The cardiomyocytes extend lengthwise but have the same diameter, resulting in ventricular dilation. During heart pressure overload, cardiomyocytes grow through concentric hypertrophy.[13] The cardiomyocytes grow larger in diameter but have the same length, resulting in heart wall thickening.

Cardiac muscle cell – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Skin cell gun – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The skin cell gun, also known as the skin gun or SkinGun, is a medical device that sprays a patient’s own self-donated (autologous) stem cells to treat burns and other wounds. The skin gun is used in conjunction with a technique that isolates adult stem cells from a postage stamp-sized sample of the patient’s own skin for application to the wound site, where they differentiate into normal skin. This treatment can replace conventional methods of treating severe wounds, such as skin grafting. Studies demonstrate that damaged skin tissue regenerates after skin gun treatment significantly more quickly than after traditional treatment methods. [1][2][3]

The skin gun, along with related cell isolation methodologies, were acquired by RenovaCare, Inc. in 2013.[4] The company continues to develop the technology and treatment protocol for commercial distribution, under the brand names SkinGun and CellMist System respectively. RenovaCare is also exploring opportunities to apply its SkinGun treatments to additional indications, including chronic wounds, pigmentation disorders, and cosmetic applications. [5]

Stem cells from a postage stamp-sized sample of the patient’s healthy skin are isolated using a enzymatic tissue processing protocol. The resulting cell suspension is then transferred to a sterile syringe, which is then inserted into the skin gun. Using its unique spray mechanism, the gun uniformly distributes cells directly into the wound. The newly introduced stem cells begin to migrate, multiply, and differentiate, creating new skin tissue in a matter of days.

The entire process from collecting the skin sample, processing it into a cell suspension, and using the skin gun to spray the stem cells takes approximately 1.52 hours from start to finish. Full re-epithelialization can occur in as little as four days, and after a few months the skin will regain its color and texture.[6][7]

Early experimental versions of the device were developed by Dr. Jrg Gerlach and StemCell Systems GmbH in Berlin, Germany. Dr. Gerlach and SCS had already developed cell culture bioreactors for culturing usable liver and other solid organ tissues from stem cells, and were seeking a similar platform to culture living skin. They soon discovered that, compared to other organs, the skin is a special case. A skin wound is itself an accessible environment that provides excellent conditions to culture new skin tissue in vivo. This solves the problems of wait times and special challenges in transplanting delicate, cultured tissue inherent to in vitro skin culture technologies.[8]

Researchers developed novel stem cell isolation techniques that maximize stem cell availability for transplantation.[9] To ensure minimal loss in transplanting the isolated cells, engineers at StemCell Systems designed a deposition device, the skin gun, to gently deliver the cell suspension without exposing cells to harsh forces in conventional spray devices.[9]

The skin gun method was first used experimentally at Charit Universittsmedizin Berlin on a group of nineteen patients. The clinician in that study determined that the results from the skin gun treatment was so significantly better than traditional grafting that he discontinued performing skin grafts on a control group on the basis of medical ethics.[1]

Subsequently several skin gun procedures have been performed at UPMC Mercy Hospital in Pittsburgh, including patients who have been able to leave hospital within four days of treatment.[3]

After an abrasion, cut, burn, or other injury, the body uses several different of biological processes to repair the skin.[10] Wound healing generally has three different stages: the inflammatory stage, the proliferative stage and the remodeling stage.[11]

Once the skin is damaged, a series of interrelated events take place in close succession in order to repair the skin.[12] Within minutes after an injury occurs, blood platelets collect at the site of injury to form a clot. This clot limits bleeding at the injury site.

The inflammatory phase involves increased white blood cell activity, removing bacteria and debris from the wound. Biochemical signals instruct regenerative cells to begin dividing, to create new skin tissues much more rapidly than normal.

The proliferative phase is marked by the formation of new skin tissue at the injury site and the general shrinking and eventual disappearance of the wound.[13] New blood vessels are also established during the healing process. The wound is made smaller by myofibroblasts, which hold on to the edges of the wound and slowly get smaller by a system similar to the contraction of muscle cells.

During the remodeling phase, the skin acquires its permanent texture and unneeded cells are disposed of through apoptosis.

To date skin gun treatment has been used exclusively with second degree burns, though there is strong evidence that the treatment will be successful in treating a variety of skin wounds and skin disorders. Patients with infected wounds or with delay in wound healing are suitable for cell grafting treatment.[3] Third-degree burns, however, completely deprive victims of both their epidermis and dermis skin levels, which exposes the tissue surrounding the muscles. The skin gun has not progressed to the point where it can be used for such advanced wounds, and these patients must seek more traditional treatment methods. The skin gun is generally not used for burn victims with anything less than a second-degree burn either. First degree-burns still maintain portions of the epidermis and can readily heal on their own, thus they do not need this expensive technology.

Currently, the skin gun’s applications have not been extended to include the regeneration of skin lost due to other injuries or skin diseases. It is also limited in that it is only effective immediately following the burn incident.[14]

The average healing time for patients with second degree burns is three to four weeks.[15] This is reduced to a matter of days with skin gun treatment.[1][2][3]

Traditional skin grafting can be risky, in that chances for infection are relatively high. The skin gun alleviates this concern because the increased speed in which the wound heals directly correlates to the decreased time the wound can be vulnerable to infection. Because of the rapid re-epithelialization associated with skin gun treatment, harmful side effects that can result from an open wound are significantly reduced.[16] Applying the skin cells is quick and doesn’t harm the patient because only a thin layer of the patients healthy skin is extracted from the body into the aqueous spray. The electronic spray distributes the skin cells uniformly without damaging the skin cells, and patients feel as if they are sprayed with salt water.[16]

Because the skin cells are actually the patients own cells, the skin that is regenerated looks more natural than skin grown from traditional methods. During recovery, the skin cells grow into fully functional layers of the skin, including the dermis, epidermis, and blood vessels.[17] The regenerated skin leaves little scarring. The basic idea of optimizing regenerative healing techniques to damaged biological structures demonstrated by the skin gun in the future may also be applied to engineering reconstruction of vital organs, such as the heart and kidneys.[17]

There are major limitations: the method will not work on deep burns that go through bone and muscle, specifically below the dermis. As of 2011, only several dozen patients have been treated; it remains an experimental, not a proven, method. As of 2011, the skin gun was still in its prototyping stage, since it has only treated a dozen patients in Germany and the US, compared to over 50,000 treated with Dermagraft bioengineered skin substitute. There is thus a lack of published peer reviewed clinical evidence, and no knowledge of long-term stability of the newly generated skin.

The skin gun has been featured in numerous books and television shows, including the following examples.

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Skin cell gun – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Regenocyte, Stem Cells Used To Treat Cardiovascular Disease

About 128 million people suffer from diseases that might be cured or treated through stem cell therapy. About 58 million of these people suffer from cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovascular disease can manifest itself in many different ways because the blood vessels transport blood to every single part of the body. The heart is the organ that pumps the blood around the body, and it also receives nutrients from the blood vessels (via the coronary vessels). Any interruption of the supply of blood containing nutrients and oxygen to one of the bodys organs leads to functional impairment and, in the worst case scenario, the death of the tissue. One typical example is cardiac arrest, which occurs when the blood supply to the heart muscle is restricted.

Cardiovascular disease can have any number of causes. Some people are born with a susceptibility to vascular disease (e.g. varicose veins), which can be alleviated by taking medication. Other peoples heart and blood vessels can be damaged by external factors. The majority of vascular diseases these days, however, are caused by our modern-day lifestyles. The walls of the blood vessel are always in contact with the blood which flows through them, so they are most commonly affected by unhealthy lifestyles. If someone has an unfavorable haemogram, i.e. if their blood contains too much glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides (fats) or nicotine, this can put the blood vessels under an enormous amount of stress. Glucose adheres to the walls of the blood vessels and the blood constituents, and cholesterol and triglycerides also accumulate on the blood vessel walls. As a result, the blood clumps, the blood vessel walls calcify, turning porous and can no longer perform their biological function properly. Nicotine also constricts the blood vessels, so they narrow and the amount of blood circulating the body is reduced.

If the condition is aggravated by a lack of vessel-protecting substances, the damaged vessels lose their ability to regenerate. The consequences include arteriosclerosis, leg ulceration, dilation of the abdominal artery (aneurysm), cardiac insufficiency, cardiac arrest and stroke. Cardiovascular disease is still the number one cause of death in many other western industrial nations.

Adult Stem Cells derived from the patients own blood are potent and effective to treat heart disease.Patients who have severe cardiac disease with a history of coronary infarction, congestive heart failure, those with previous bypass surgery and stents, cardiomyopathy, and individuals with low ejection fraction (the rate at which the heart pumps) are candidates for this procedure. Patients that survive myocardial infarction have diminished cardiac reserve putting them at risk for subsequent heart failure. Doctors and scientists throughout the world now understand that myocardial repair and regeneration are possible and attainable.

Watch this informative video that highlights one of our patients and how their heart was treated with Stem Cell Therapy. Stem Cell Treatment for the heart saved this patients life.

Regenocyte generates healthy heart muscle cells in the laboratory and then transplants those cells into patients with chronic heart disease. Stem cells cultivated from the patients own blood and transplanted into a damaged heart, can generate new collateral vessels.

Treatment is non-invasive consisting of an intravenous infusion of precursor cardiomyocyte stem cells derived from a patients own blood through a specially designed catheter. This approach increases the engraftment, survival and proliferation of the stem cells to the heart muscle.

To find out more about how stem cells can treat the heart,click hereor call us at (866) 216-5710

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Regenocyte, Stem Cells Used To Treat Cardiovascular Disease

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About Us – Life Extension

Supplement your knowledge on anti-aging and optimal health

The Life Extension Foundation Buyers Club is an organization whose long-range goal is the extension of the healthy human life span. In seeking to control aging, our objective is to develop methods to enable us to live in vigor, health and wellness for an unlimited period of time. Life Extension was established in the early 1980s, but its founders have been involved in the anti-aging field since the 1960s. Life Extension publishes the very latest information on anti-aging and wellness in its monthly publication, Life Extension Magazine, the Disease Prevention and Treatment book of integrative health protocols, the Life Extension Update e-mail newsletter and the Daily Health Bulletin, and at this website. All to support more informed health choices.

With more potent, more complete vitamin and supplement formations

In addition to a wealth of information, Life Extension offers 300+ premium-quality vitamins, minerals, hormones, diet and nutritional supplements, and even skin care products, which are often the fruits of research reported on or funded by the Life Extension.

The Life Extension Foundation is one of the worlds largest membership organizations dedicated to investigating every method of extending the healthy human life span and funding anti-aging research. When seeking methods to slow aging, the non-profit Life Extension Foundation often uncovers potential therapies to fight the conditions associated with aging.

Based on current scientific research, Life Extension is continually formulating and upgrading its science-based multivitamin, vitamin, and nutritional supplement formulas to include the latest novel ingredients that are years ahead of mainstream offerings. As such, Life Extension has originated such innovative supplements as Life Extension Mix, a multivitamin that incorporates many recent research findings in health and nutrition.

Life Extensions stringent approach to quality assurance and 100% Satisfaction Guarantee make its supplements the gold standard of the industry.

As part of a total health and nutrition program

What began as a newsletter over 30 years ago has evolved into a total health offering, including:

Learn how you can access all of the above services, as well as receive discounts on dietary supplements and blood testing, by joining the Life Extension Foundation.

About Us – Life Extension

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Neal Rouzier, MD The Hormone Doctor

Why accept aging and all its potential problems? You have an option to forestall physical and mental deterioration through Bioidentical Hormone Replacement! Natural Hormone Therapy is a safe, effective and reliable medical therapy that combats the biological effects of aging.

Neal Rouzier MD is Medical Director of The Preventive Medicine Clinics in Palm Springs, California. Rouzier has been specializing in in Bioidentical Hormone Replacement since 1997. He can prescribe a therapy that is tailored to your unique needs.

Our focus is on PREVENTION of the diseases associated with aging. Of course, a healthy lifestyle is important, including diet and exercise. Along with the appropriate vitamins and supplements, bio-identical hormones are a key ingredient in our recipe for healthy aging.

The Preventive Medicine Clinic is located in the resort area of Palm Springs in Southern California. Rouzier sees new patients in California and Utah. Only one visit is necessary to perform a comprehensive history, interview, and education. Follow up evaluations, adjustments and balancing are done by phone or written communications a return visit to Dr. Rouzier is not necessary. But ongoing testing and adjustment is mandatory and performed through a laboratory convenient to your home.

In addition to the Palm Springs office, Rouziersees new patients in Pasadena, California, and Salt Lake City, Utah. Pasadena appointments will be held in the offices of the New Body Cosmetic Surgery Center. Please call Carolyn Rouzier on 760 320 4292for information and appointments.

Preventive Medicine Clinic 3001 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way Suite 108 Palm Springs, CA 92262

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Neal Rouzier, MD The Hormone Doctor

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Life Extension Supplements/Products: Antioxidants, Anti …

Welcome to My Health Online!

We are dedicated to providing you with the best and most useful anti-aging products and information for helping you to live longer and improve your life.

We feature great products from the Life Extension Foundation but at great discounts. These products are designed to provide you with the best formulations. Many other products do not take into account such key factors as co-factors that are necessary for the body to really get the full effect of the nutrient. Each product, from anti-aging and antioxidant supplements to skin care and weight loss supplements is manufactured under the most rigorous conditions to ensure that you get the safest and most potent formulations around. You will find supplements and other items conveniently categorized for you.

Simple click here and put “green tea” in the subject or body. This fascinating report shows you how green tea can help with weight loss, cardiovascular health, cancer, and many other conditions. You can’t afford to not read this report.

We want to help you live better and longer. We are fanatics for health. We don’t want to read a bunch of blah blah. We know you want information that you can use. We write articles that are centered on being useful to YOU NOW.

Our articles section is growing all the time as we add new articles each week so be sure to check our life extension articles section regularly.

Click on the categories below to learn about different types of Life Extension products we supply:

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Genetic Counseling | Woman’s Hospital | Baton Rouge, LA

Woman’s genetic counselors can help you understand your genetic risks for certain diseases, such as cancer, or for passing an existing disease on to a child. Genetic counseling can lead to the earliest detection of diseases you or your baby may be at-risk of developing.

If you are concerned about diseases that run in your family, talk to you doctor about genetic counseling.

Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in which parents pass certaingenesonto their children. A person’s physical appearance height, hair color, skin color and eye color are determined by genes. Other characteristics affected by heredity include:

Humans have an estimated 100,000 different genes that contain specific genetic information, and these genes are located on stick-like structures in the nucleus of cells called chromosomes.

When a gene is abnormal, or when entire chromosomes are left off or duplicated, defects in the structure or function of the body’s organs or systems can occur. These mutations or abnormalities can result in disorders such as cystic fibrosis, a recessive genetic disease, or Down syndrome, an abnormality that occurs when a baby receives three No. 21 chromosomes.

Each person has more than 100,000 genes that direct the growth and development of every part of the body. These genes carry instructions for dominant or recessive traits that can be passed on to a child.

People who might be especially interested in genetic counseling for pregnancy include:

Women who might be especially interested in genetic testing regarding disease specific genes include:

Should it be necessary, Woman’s genetics team,which includes geneticist,Dr. Duane Superneau,can work with your oncologists and breast surgeons in determining a need forgenetic testing and your course of treatment.

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Genetic Counseling | Woman’s Hospital | Baton Rouge, LA

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Back pain – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Back pain is pain felt in the back. Episodes of back pain may be acute, sub-acute, or chronic depending on the duration. The pain may be characterized as a dull ache, shooting or piercing pain, or a burning sensation. The pain may radiate into the arms and hands as well as the legs or feet, and may include tingling, weakness or numbness in the legs and arms. The most common area of pain is the lower back, or lumbar area.

The pain may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Internal structures such as the gallbladder and pancreas may also refer pain to the back.

Although back pain is common, it is rare for it to be permanently disabling. In most cases of disc herniations and stenosis, rest, injections or surgery have similar outcomes of general pain resolution after one year. In the United States, acute low back pain (also called lumbago) is the fifth most common reason for physician visits. About nine out of ten adults experience back pain at some point in their life, and five out of ten working adults have back pain every year.[1] Low back pain causes 40% of missed days of work in the United States.[2] Additionally, it is the single leading cause of disability worldwide.[3]

Back pain may be classified by various methods to aid its diagnosis and management. The anatomic classification of back pain follows the segments of the spine: cervical, thoracic, lumbar or sacral.

The duration of back pain is considered in three categories, following the expected pattern of healing of connective tissue. Acute pain lasts up to 12 weeks, subacute pain refers to the second half of the acute period (6 to 12 weeks), and chronic pain is pain which persists beyond 12 weeks.[4]

The character of back pain indicates its likely tissue of origin. Nonspecific back pain is believed to be due from the soft tissues such as muscles, fascia, and ligaments.[5]Radicular pain with or without spinal stenosis indicates involvement of nervous tissue. Secondary back pain results from a known medical diagnosis such as infection or cancer.[6] Non specific pain indicates that the cause is not known precisely but is believed to be due from the soft tissues such as muscles, fascia, and ligaments.[5]

Back pain has several causes. Approximately 98 percent of back pain patients are diagnosed with nonspecific acute back pain in which no serious underlying pathology is identified.[7] Nearly 2 percent are comprised by metastatic cancers, while serious infections such as spinal osteomyelitis and epidural abscesses account for fewer than 1 percent. The most common cause of neurologic impairment including weakness or numbness results from a herniated disc. Nearly 95 percent of disc herniations occur at the lowest two lumbar intervertebral levels.[8]

Back pain does not usually require immediate medical intervention. The vast majority of episodes of back pain are self-limiting and non-progressive. Most back pain syndromes are due to inflammation, especially in the acute phase, which typically lasts from two weeks to three months.

Back pain can be a sign of a serious medical problem, although this is not most frequently the underlying cause:

A few observational studies suggest that two conditions to which back pain is often attributed, lumbar disc herniation and degenerative disc disease, may not be more prevalent among those in pain than among the general population, and that the mechanisms by which these conditions might cause pain are not known.[9][10][11][12] Other studies suggest that for as many as 85% of cases, no physiological cause can be shown.[13][14]

A few studies suggest that psychosocial factors such as on-the-job stress and dysfunctional family relationships may correlate more closely with back pain than structural abnormalities revealed in X-rays and other medical imaging scans.[15][16][17][18]

There are several potential sources and causes of back pain.[19] However, the diagnosis of specific tissues of the spine as the cause of pain presents problems. This is because symptoms arising from different spinal tissues can feel very similar and it is difficult to differentiate without the use of invasive diagnostic intervention procedures, such as local anesthetic blocks.

One potential source of back pain is skeletal muscle of the back. Potential causes of pain in muscle tissue include muscle strains (pulled muscles), muscle spasm, and muscle imbalances. However, imaging studies do not support the notion of muscle tissue damage in many back pain cases, and the neurophysiology of muscle spasm and muscle imbalances is not well understood.

Another potential source of lower back pain is the synovial joints of the spine (e.g. zygapophysial joints/facet joints). These have been identified as the primary source of the pain in approximately one third of people with chronic low back pain, and in most people with neck pain following whiplash.[19] However, the cause of zygapophysial joint pain is not fully understood. Capsule tissue damage has been proposed in people with neck pain following whiplash. In people with spinal pain stemming from zygapophysial joints, one theory is that intra-articular tissue such as invaginations of their synovial membranes and fibro-adipose meniscoids (that usually act as a cushion to help the bones move over each other smoothly) may become displaced, pinched or trapped, and consequently give rise to nociception (pain).

There are several common other potential sources and causes of back pain; these include spinal disc herniation and degenerative disc disease or isthmic spondylolisthesis, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and lumbar spinal stenosis, trauma, cancer, infection, fractures, and inflammatory disease.[20] The anterior ligaments of the intervertebral disc are extremely sensitive, and even the slightest injury can cause significant pain.[21]

Radicular pain (sciatica) is distinguished from ‘non-specific’ back pain, and may be diagnosed without invasive diagnostic tests.

New attention has been focused on non-discogenic back pain, where patients have normal or near-normal MRI and CT scans. One of the newer investigations looks into the role of the dorsal ramus in patients that have no radiographic abnormalities. See Posterior Rami Syndrome.

In most cases of low back pain medical consensus advises not seeking an exact diagnosis but instead beginning to treat the pain.[22] This assumes that there is no reason to expect that the person has an underlying problem.[22] In most cases, the pain goes away naturally after a few weeks.[22] Typically, people who do seek diagnosis through imaging are not likely to have a better outcome than those who wait for the condition to resolve.[22]

In cases in which the back pain has a persistent underlying cause, such as a specific disease or spinal abnormality, then it is necessary for the physician to differentiate the source of the pain and advise specific courses of treatment.

The management goals when treating back pain are to achieve maximal reduction in pain intensity as rapidly as possible, to restore the individual’s ability to function in everyday activities, to help the patient cope with residual pain, to assess for side-effects of therapy, and to facilitate the patient’s passage through the legal and socioeconomic impediments to recovery. For many, the goal is to keep the pain to a manageable level to progress with rehabilitation, which then can lead to long-term pain relief. Also, for some people the goal is to use non-surgical therapies to manage the pain and avoid major surgery, while for others surgery may be the quickest way to feel better.

Not all treatments work for all conditions or for all individuals with the same condition, and many find that they need to try several treatment options to determine what works best for them. The present stage of the condition (acute or chronic) is also a determining factor in the choice of treatment. Only a minority of back pain patients (most estimates are 1% – 10%) require surgery.

For back pain with sciatica, injecting the spine with steroids into the epidural space under X-ray guidance may improve pain and reduce the need for surgery.[34]

For sacroiliac joints radiofrequency neurotomy is of unclear benefit.[35]

Surgery may sometimes be appropriate for people with:

Surgery is usually the last resort in the treatment of back pain. It is usually only recommended if all other treatment options have been tried or in an emergency situation. A 2009 systematic review of back surgery studies found that, for certain diagnoses, surgery is moderately better than other common treatments, but the benefits of surgery often decline in the long term.[36]

The main procedures used in back pain surgery are discetomies, spinal fusions, laminectomies, removal of tumors, and vertebroplasties.

There are different types of surgical procedures that are used in treating various conditions causing back pain. Nerve decompression, fusion of body segments and deformity correction surgeries are examples. The first type of surgery is primarily performed in older patients who suffer from conditions causing nerve irritation or nerve damage. Fusion of bony segments is also referred to as a spinal fusion, and it is a procedure used to fuse together two or more bony fragments with the help of metalwork. The latter type of surgery is normally performed to correct congenital deformities or those that were caused by a traumatic fracture. In some cases, correction of deformities involves removing bony fragments or providing stability provision for the spine. Another procedure to repair common intervertebral disc lesions which may offer rapid recovery (just a few days) involves the simple removal of the fibrous nucleus of the affected intervertebral disc.[37] Various techniques, such as in the following paragraph, are described in the literature.

A discectomy is performed when the intervertebral disc have herniated or torn. It involves removing the protruding disc, either a portion of it or all of it, that is placing pressure on the nerve root.[38] The disc material which is putting pressure on the nerve is removed through a small incision that is made over that particular disc. The recovery period after this procedure does not last longer than 6 weeks. The type of procedure in which the bony fragments are removed through an endoscope is called percutaneous disc removal.

Microdiscetomies may be performed as a variation of standard discetomies in which a magnifier is used to provide the advantage of a smaller incision, thus a shorter recovery process.

Spinal fusions are performed in cases in which the patient has had the entire disc removed or when another condition has caused the vertebrae to become unstable. The procedure consists in uniting two or more vertebrae by using bone grafts and metalwork to provide more strength for the healing bone. Recovery after spinal fusion may take up to one year, depending greatly on the age of the patient, the reason why surgery has been performed and how many bony segments needed to be fused.

In cases of spinal stenosis or disc herniation, laminectomies can be performed to relieve the pressure on the nerves. During such a procedure, the surgeon enlarges the spinal canal by removing or trimming away the lamina which will provide more space for the nerves. The severity of the condition as well as the general health status of the patient are key factors in establishing the recovery time, which may be range from 8 weeks to 6 months.

Back surgery can be performed to prevent the growth of benign and malignant tumors. In the first case, surgery has the goal of relieving the pressure from the nerves which is caused by a benign growth, whereas in the latter the procedure is aimed to prevent the spread of cancer to other areas of the body. Recovery depends on the type of tumor that is being removed, the health status of the patient and the size of the tumor.

People with back pain lasting for 3 months or more are at risk of physical, psychological and social dysfunctions. Such individuals are likely to experience less pain and disability if they receive a multidisciplinary intervention. This typically involves a combination of physical, psychological and educational interventions delivered by a team of specialists with different skills. Such multidisciplinary treatment programs are often quite intensive and expensive. They are more appropriate for people with severe or complex problems.[43]

People who have chronic back pain may have limited range of motion and/or tenderness upon touch. If the pain continues to worsen, or certain red flags that might indicate a variety of serious conditions are present further testing may be recommended. These red flags include weakness, numbness or tingling, fever, weight loss or problems with bowel and/or bladder control.

About 50% of women experience low back pain during pregnancy.[52] Back pain in pregnancy may be severe enough to cause significant pain and disability and pre-dispose patients to back pain in a following pregnancy. No significant increased risk of back pain with pregnancy has been found with respect to maternal weight gain, exercise, work satisfaction, or pregnancy outcome factors such as birth weight, birth length, and Apgar scores.

Biomechanical factors of pregnancy that are shown to be associated with low back pain of pregnancy include abdominal sagittal and transverse diameter and the depth of lumbar lordosis. Typical factors aggravating the back pain of pregnancy include standing, sitting, forward bending, lifting, and walking. Back pain in pregnancy may also be characterized by pain radiating into the thigh and buttocks, night-time pain severe enough to wake the patient, pain that is increased during the night-time, or pain that is increased during the day-time.

The avoidance of high impact, weight-bearing activities and especially those that asymmetrically load the involved structures such as: extensive twisting with lifting, single-leg stance postures, stair climbing, and repetitive motions at or near the end-ranges of back or hip motion can ease the pain. Direct bending to the ground without bending the knee causes severe impact on the lower back in pregnancy and in normal individuals, which leads to strain, especially in the lumbo-sacral region that in turn strains the multifidus.

Back pain is regularly cited by national governments as having a major impact on productivity, through loss of workers on sick leave. Some national governments, notably Australia and the United Kingdom, have launched campaigns of public health awareness to help combat the problem, for example the Health and Safety Executive’s Better Backs campaign. In the United States lower back pain’s economic impact reveals that it is the number one reason for individuals under the age of 45 to limit their activity, second highest complaint seen in physician’s offices, fifth most common requirement for hospitalization, and the third leading cause for surgery.

An evolutionary perspective has been used to try to explain why humans have back pain. Selective pressures often resulted in our evolution as a species. At times we are able to postulate the reason for these changes, and other times we cannot seem to arrive at a logical conclusion about the possible benefits of the tradeoff. In the case of back pain, researcher Aaron G. Filler believes the evolutionary changes seen in the human skeleton occurred to ensure the survival of the species. Of special mention here is our ability to walk upright. Walking upright meant that our hands were now free to carry heavy objects and the young across great distances.[53]

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Back pain – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Dr George Cotsarelis: Hair Follicle Stem Cells & Skin …

Presented at the 8th World Congress for Hair Research (2014) Jeju Island, South Korea.

Understanding molecular mechanisms for regeneration of hair follicles during wound healing provides new opportunities for developing treatments for hair loss and other skin disorders. We show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (fgf9) modulates hair follicle regeneration following wounding of adult mice. Inhibition of fgf9 during wound healing severely impedes this wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN). Conversely, overexpression of fgf9 results in a 2-3 fold increase in the number of neogenic hair follicles. Remarkably, gamma-delta T cells in the wound dermis are the initial source of fgf9. Deletion of fgf9 gene in T cells in Lck-Cre;floxed fgf9 results in a marked reduction in WIHN. Similarly, mice lacking gamma-delta T cells demonstrate impaired follicular neogenesis.

We found that fgf9, secreted by gamma-delta T cells, initiates a regenerative response by triggering Wnt expression and subsequent Wnt activation in wound fibroblasts. Employing a unique feedback mechanism, activated fibroblasts then express fgf9, thus amplifying Wnt activity throughout the wound dermis during a critical phase of skin regeneration. Strikingly, humans lack a robust population of resident dermal gamma-delta T cells, potentially explaining their inability to regenerate hair.

These findings which highlight the essential relationship between the immune system and tissue regeneration, establish the importance of fgf9 in hair follicle regeneration and suggests its applicability for therapeutic use in humans.

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Dr George Cotsarelis: Hair Follicle Stem Cells & Skin …

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The Niche – Knoepfler lab stem cell blog

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An Introduction to What Arthritis Is All About

Arthritis is a broad term that covers a group of over 100 diseases. It has everything to do with your joints — the places where your bones connect — such as your wrists, knees, hips, or fingers. But some types of arthritis can also affect other connective tissues and organs, including your skin.

About 1 out of 5 adults have some form of the condition. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common as you age.

With many forms of arthritis, the cause is unknown. But some things can raise your chances of getting it.

Arthritis mainly causes pain around your joints. You might also have:

The symptoms can be constant, or they may come and go. They can range from mild to severe.

More-severe cases may lead to permanent joint damage.

Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most common kinds.

In osteoarthritis,the cushions on the ends of your bones, called cartilage, wear away. That makes the bones rub against each other. You might feel pain in your fingers, knees, or hips.

It usually happens as you age. But if underlying causes are to blame, it can begin much sooner. For example, an athletic injury like a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or a fracture near a joint can lead to arthritis.

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An Introduction to What Arthritis Is All About

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Genetics – NHS Choices


Genetics is the branch of science that deals with how you inherit physical and behavioural characteristics including medical conditions.

Your genes are a set of instructions for the growth and development of every cell in your body. For example, they determine characteristics such as your blood group and the colour of your eyes and hair.

However, many characteristics aren’t due to genes alone environment also plays an important role. For example, children may inherit ‘tall genes’ from their parents, but if their diet doesn’t provide them with the necessary nutrients, they may not grow very tall.

Genes are packaged in bundles called chromosomes. In humans, each cell in the body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 in total.

You inherit one of each pair of chromosomes from your mother and one from your father. This means there are two copies of every gene in each cell, with the exception of the sex chromosomes, X and Y.

The X and Y chromosomes determine the biological sex of a baby. Babies with a Y chromosome (XY) will be male, whereas those without a Y chromosome will be female (XX). This means that males only have one copy of each X chromosome gene, rather than two, and they have a few genes found only on the Y chromosome and play an important role in male development.

Occasionally, individuals inherit more than one sex chromosome. Females with three X chromosomes (XXX) and males with an extra Y (XYY) are normal, and most never know they have an extra chromosome. However, females with one X have a condition known as Turner syndrome, and males with an extra X have Klinefelter syndrome.

The whole set of genes is known as the genome. Humans have about 21,000 genes on their 23 chromosomes, so the human genome contains two copies of those 21,000 (except for those on X and Y in males).

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the long molecule found inside chromosomes that stores genetic information. It is tightly coiled into a double helix shape, which looks like a twisted ladder.

Each ‘rung’ of the ladder is made up of a combination of four chemicals adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine which are represented as the letters A, T, C and G.

These ‘letters’ are ordered in particular sequences within your genes and they contain the instructions to make a particular protein, in a particular cell, at a particular time. Proteins are complex chemicals that are the building blocks of the body. For example, keratin is the protein in hair and nails, while haemoglobin is the red protein in blood.

There arearound six billion letters of DNA code within each cell.

As well as determining characteristics such as eye and hair colour, your genes can also directly cause or increase your risk of a wide range of medical conditions.

Although not always the case, many of these conditions occur when a child inherits a specific altered (mutated) version of a particular gene from one or both of their parents.

Examples of conditions directly caused by genetic mutations include:

There are also many conditions that are not directly caused by genetic mutations, but can occur as the result of a combination of an inherited genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, such as a poor diet, smoking and a lack of exercise.

Read more about how genes are inherited.

Genetic testing can be used to find out whether you are carrying a particular genetic mutation that causes a medical condition.

This can be useful for a number of purposes, including diagnosing certain genetic conditions, predicting your likelihood of developing a certain condition and determining if any children you have are at risk of developing an inherited condition.

Testing usually involves taking a blood or tissue sample and analysing the DNA in your cells.

Genetic testing can also be carried to find out if a foetus is likely to be born with a certain genetic condition by extracting and testing a sample of cells from the womb.

Read more about genetic testing and counselling.

The Human Genome Project is an international scientific project that involves thousands of scientists around the world.

The initial project ran from 1990 to 2003. Its objective was to map the immense amount of genetic information found in every human cell.

As well as identifying specific human genes, the Human Genome Project has enabled scientists to gain a better understanding of how certain traits and characteristics are passed on from parents to children.

It has also led to a better understanding of the role of genetics in a number of genetic and inherited conditions.

Page last reviewed: 08/08/2014

Next review due: 08/08/2016

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Genetics – NHS Choices

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How to Find a Bioidentical Hormone Doctor

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Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and …

Welcome to the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF, one of the largest and most comprehensive programs of its kind in the United States.

In some 125 labs, scientists are carrying out studies, in cell culture and animals, aimed at understanding and developing treatment strategies for such conditions as heart disease, diabetes, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, Lou Gehrigs disease, spinal cord injury and cancer.

While the scientific foundation for the field is still being laid, UCSF scientists are beginning to move their work toward human clinical trials. A team of pediatric specialists and neurosurgeons is carrying out the second brain stem cell clinical trial ever conducted in the United States, focusing on a rare disease, inherited in boys, known as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.

Others are working to develop strategies for treating diabetes, brain tumors, liver disease and epilepsy. The approach for treating epilepsy potentially also could be used to treat Parkinsons disease, as well as the pain and spasticity that follow brain and spinal cord injury.

The center is structured along seven research pipelines aimed at driving discoveries from the lab bench to the patient. Each pipeline focuses on a different organ system, including the blood, pancreas, liver, heart, reproductive organs, nervous system, musculoskeletal tissues and skin. And each of these pipelines is overseen by two leaders of international standing one representing the basic sciences and one representing clinical research. This approach has proven successful in the private sector for driving the development of new therapies.

The center, like all of UCSF, fosters a highly collaborative culture, encouraging a cross-pollination of ideas among scientists of different disciplines and years of experience. Researchers studying pancreatic beta cells damaged in diabetes collaborate with those who study nervous system diseases because stem cells undergo similar molecular signaling on the way to becoming both cell types. The opportunity to work in this culture has drawn some of the countrys premier young scientists to the center.

While the focus of the science is the future, UCSFs history in the field dates back to 1981, when Gail Martin, PhD, co-discovered embryonic stem cells in mice and coined the term embryonic stem cell. Two decades later, UCSFs Roger Pedersen, PhD, developed two of the first human embryonic stem cell lines, following the groundbreaking discovery by University of Wisconsins James Thomson, PhD, of a way to derive the cells.

Today, the Universitys faculty includes Shinya Yamanaka, MD, PhD, of the UCSF-affiliated J. David Gladstone Institutes and Kyoto University. His discovery in 2006 of a way to reprogram ordinary skin cells back to an embryonic-like state has given hope that someday these cells might be used in regenerative medicine.

Yamanakas seminal finding highlights the unexpected and dramatic discoveries that can characterize scientific research. In labs throughout UCSF and beyond, the goal is to move such findings into patients.

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Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and …

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Molecular & Cellular Medicine

Home Molecular & Cellular Medicine Menu

Research in the Molecular and Cellular Medicine department spans a wide range of biological processes, from structure and function of biomolecules to cell physiology. Emphasis is placed on understanding normal and abnormal biological function at the molecular and cellular levels. Using state-of-the-art biophysical technologies, research programs at the molecular level focus on understanding how proteins are synthesized, folded, assembled into functional macromolecules and trafficked throughout the cell. Reverse genetic approaches are used to elucidate the roles of newly discovered proteins and define functional protein domains. Research programs that bridge molecular and cellular levels focus on understanding mechanisms of basic cellular physiology (DNA replication, transcription, translation and protein sorting), molecules that control complex regulatory pathways (signal transduction, gene regulation, epigenetics, development and differentiation) and the molecular basis for cancer. Many faculty members have strong collaborative ties with Texas A&M University research groups in the Chemistry and Biochemistry/Biophysics departments or belong to multi-disciplinary research groups affiliated with Texas A&M University, including programs in Genetics, Neurosciences and Virology.

440 Reynolds Medical Building College Station, TX 77843-1114 Phone: (979) 436-0856 Fax: (979) 847-9481 Toll Free: (800) 298-2260 (U.S. only)

Last edited by: chauhan 09/22/2015

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Molecular & Cellular Medicine

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How are stem cells used in medicine today? – HowStuffWorks

From the United States Senate to houses of worship, and even to the satirical television show “South Park,” stem cells have been in the spotlight — though not always in the kindest light. Since early research has focused on the use of embryonic stem cells (cells less than a week old), the very act of extracting these cells has raised a raft of ethical questions for researchers and the medical community at large, with federal funding often hanging in the balance.

However, the advances in stem cell research and the subsequent applications to modern medicine can’t be ignored. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are being considered for a wide variety of medical procedures, ranging from cancer treatment to heart disease and cell-based therapies for tissue replacement.

Why? To answer that question, you have to understand what stem cells are. Called “master” cells or “a sort of internal repair system,” these remarkable-yet-unspecialized cells are able to divide, seemingly without limits, to help mend or replenish other living cells [sources: Mayo Clinic; NIH]. In short, these cells are the cellular foundation of the entire human body, or literally the body’s building blocks.

By studying these cells and how they develop, researchers are closing in on a better understanding of how our bodies grow and mature, and how diseases and other abnormalities take root. The research work that began with mouse embryos in the early 1980s eventually helped scientists devise a way to isolate stem cells from human embryos by the late 1990s.

Embryonic, or pluripotent, stem cells are taken from human embryos that are less than a week old. These cells are wildly versatile, capable of dividing into more stem cells or becoming any type of cell in the human body (roughly 220 types, including muscle, nerve, blood, bone and skin). Researchers have also recently found stem cells in amniotic fluid taken from pregnant women during amniocentesis, a fairly routine procedure used to determine potential complications, such as Down syndrome.

However, recent research has indicated that adult stem cells, once thought to be more limited in their capabilities, are actually much more versatile than originally believed. Though not as “pure” as embryonic stem cells, due to environmental conditions that exist in the real world — ranging from air pollution to food impurities — adult stem cells are nonetheless garnering attention, if only because they don’t incite the same ethical debate as embryonic stem cells.

So, what are the cutting-edge uses for stem cells?

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How are stem cells used in medicine today? – HowStuffWorks

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Sickle cell anemia Treatments and drugs – Mayo Clinic

Bone marrow transplant offers the only potential cure for sickle cell anemia. But finding a donor is difficult and the procedure has serious risks associated with it, including death.

As a result, treatment for sickle cell anemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complications. If you have sickle cell anemia, you’ll need to make regular visits to your doctor to check your red blood cell count and monitor your health. Treatments may include medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen, as well as a bone marrow transplant.

Medications used to treat sickle cell anemia include:

Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea). When taken daily, hydroxyurea reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions. Hydroxyurea seems to work by stimulating production of fetal hemoglobin a type of hemoglobin found in newborns that helps prevent the formation of sickle cells. Hydroxyurea increases your risk of infections, and there is some concern that long-term use of this drug may cause tumors or leukemia in certain people. However, this hasn’t yet been seen in studies of the drug.

Hydroxyurea was initially used just for adults with severe sickle cell anemia. Studies on children have shown that the drug may prevent some of the serious complications associated with sickle cell anemia. But the long-term effects of the drug on children are still unknown. Your doctor can help you determine if this drug may be beneficial for you or your child.

Using a special ultrasound machine (transcranial), doctors can learn which children have a higher risk of stroke. This test can be used on children as young as 2 years, and those who are found to have a high risk of stroke are then treated with regular blood transfusions.

Childhood vaccinations are important for preventing disease in all children. But, these vaccinations are even more important for children with sickle cell anemia, because infections can be severe in children with sickle cell anemia. Your doctor will make sure your child receives all of the recommended childhood vaccinations. Vaccinations, such as the pneumococcal vaccine and the annual flu shot, are also important for adults with sickle cell anemia.

In a red blood cell transfusion, red blood cells are removed from a supply of donated blood. These donated cells are then given intravenously to a person with sickle cell anemia.

Blood transfusions increase the number of normal red blood cells in circulation, helping to relieve anemia. In children with sickle cell anemia at high risk of stroke, regular blood transfusions can decrease their risk of stroke.

Blood transfusions carry some risk. Blood contains iron. Regular blood transfusions cause an excess amount of iron to build up in your body. Because excess iron can damage your heart, liver and other organs, people who undergo regular transfusions may need treatment to reduce iron levels. Deferasirox (Exjade) is an oral medication that can reduce excess iron levels.

Breathing supplemental oxygen through a breathing mask adds oxygen to your blood and helps you breathe easier. It may be helpful if you have acute chest syndrome or a sickle cell crisis.

A stem cell transplant, also called a bone marrow transplant, involves replacing bone marrow affected by sickle cell anemia with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Because of the risks associated with a stem cell transplant, the procedure is recommended only for people who have significant symptoms and problems from sickle cell anemia.

If a donor is found, the diseased bone marrow in the person with sickle cell anemia is first depleted with radiation or chemotherapy. Healthy stem cells from the donor are filtered from the blood. The healthy stem cells are injected intravenously into the bloodstream of the person with sickle cell anemia, where they migrate to the bone marrow cavities and begin generating new blood cells. The procedure requires a lengthy hospital stay. After the transplant, you’ll receive drugs to help prevent rejection of the donated stem cells.

A stem cell transplant carries risks. There’s a chance that your body may reject the transplant, leading to life-threatening complications. In addition, not everyone is a candidate for transplantation or can find a suitable donor.

Doctors treat most complications of sickle cell anemia as they occur. Treatment may include antibiotics, vitamins, blood transfusions, pain-relieving medicines, other medications and possibly surgery, such as to correct vision problems or to remove a damaged spleen.

Scientists are studying new treatments for sickle cell anemia, including:


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Sickle cell anemia Treatments and drugs – Mayo Clinic

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Sickle Cell Anemia: MedlinePlus – National Library of Medicine

Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They don’t last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood flow. This can cause pain and organ damage.

A genetic problem causes sickle cell anemia. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. If you only have one sickle cell gene, it’s called sickle cell trait. About 1 in 12 African Americans has sickle cell trait.

The most common symptoms are pain and problems from anemia. Anemia can make you feel tired or weak. In addition, you might have shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, or coldness in the hands and feet.

A blood test can show if you have the trait or anemia. Most states test newborn babies as part of their newborn screening programs.

Sickle cell anemia has no widely available cure. Treatments can help relieve symptoms and lessen complications. Researchers are investigating new treatments such as blood and marrow stem cell transplants, gene therapy, and new medicines.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Sickle Cell Anemia: MedlinePlus – National Library of Medicine

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