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Proper stem cell function requires hydrogen sulfide

Stem cells in bone marrow need to produce hydrogen sulfide in order to properly multiply and form bone tissue, according to a new study from the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology at the Ostrow School of Dentistry.

Professor Songtao Shi, principal investigator on the project, said the presence of hydrogen sulfide produced by the cells governs the flow of calcium ions. The essential ions activate a chain of cellular signals that results in osteogenesis, or the creation of new bone tissue, and keeps the breakdown of old bone tissue at a proper level.

Conversely, having a hydrogen sulfide deficiency disrupted bone homeostasis and resulted in a condition similar to osteoporosis — weakened, brittle bones — in experimental mice. In humans, osteoporosis can cause serious problems such as bone fractures, mobility limitations and spinal problems; more than 52 million Americans have or are at risk for the disease.

However, Shi and his team demonstrated that the mice’s condition could be rescued by administering small molecules that release hydrogen sulfide inside the body. The results indicate that a similar treatment may have potential to help human patients, Shi said.

“These results demonstrate hydrogen sulfide regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and restoring hydrogen sulfide levels via non-toxic donors may provide treatments for diseases such as osteoporosis, which can arise from hydrogen sulfide deficiencies,” Shi said.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Southern California. The original article was written by Beth Newcomb. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Proper stem cell function requires hydrogen sulfide

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Hydrogen sulfide regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, shows study

Published on April 18, 2014 at 1:20 AM

Stem cells in bone marrow need to produce hydrogen sulfide in order to properly multiply and form bone tissue, according to a new study from the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC.

Professor Songtao Shi, principal investigator on the project, said the presence of hydrogen sulfide produced by the cells governs the flow of calcium ions. The essential ions activate a chain of cellular signals that results in osteogenesis, or the creation of new bone tissue, and keeps the breakdown of old bone tissue at a proper level.

Conversely, having a hydrogen sulfide deficiency disrupted bone homeostasis and resulted in a condition similar to osteoporosis-weakened, brittle bones-in experimental mice. In humans, osteoporosis can cause serious problems such as bone fractures, mobility limitations and spinal problems; more than 52 million Americans have or are at risk for the disease.

However, Shi and his team demonstrated that the mice’s condition could be rescued by administering small molecules that release hydrogen sulfide inside the body. The results indicate that a similar treatment may have potential to help human patients, Shi said.

“These results demonstrate hydrogen sulfide regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and restoring hydrogen sulfide levels via non-toxic donors may provide treatments for diseases such as osteoporosis, which can arise from hydrogen sulfide deficiencies,” Shi said.

Source: University of Southern California

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Hydrogen sulfide regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, shows study

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Dr. Taylor assists international team of researchers achieve milestone by tissue engineering construction of esophagus

Researchers announced today that tissue engineering has been used to construct natural esophagi which in combination with bone marrow stem cells have been safely and effectively transplanted in rats, according to a study published in the prestigious online journal, Nature Communications. The study shows that the transplanted organs remain patent and display regeneration of nerves, muscles, epithelial cells and blood vessels.

The new method was developed by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, within an international collaboration lead by Professor Paolo Macchiarini, and including Doris Taylor, MD, Director of Regenerative Medicine Research at the Texas Heart Institute (THI).

We are very excited and honored to be a part of the team taking such heroic steps, that will ultimately benefit so many patients throughout the world, said Dr. Taylor, who is leading ground-breaking organ-building work at THI that may ultimately lead to the ability to grow new hearts and other organs using a patients own stem cells.

Dr. Taylor has collaborated with Professor Macchiarini for several years, and they have jointly published previous papers on tissue engineering. THI and Dr. Taylor are in the midst of multiple international collaborations in this field, and she also serves on a committee named by Texas Medical Center (TMC) President Robert Robbins, MD, to help guide regenerative medicine research throughout TMC.

The joint goal is to discover, develop, and take first steps toward delivering a more complex tissue, such as a heart, added Dr. Taylor. We see this as another important milestone along that path, which we expect will ultimately help many millions of patients.

James T. Willerson, MD, President, THI added This is a very important step forward toward the goal of regenerating tissues using Dr. Taylors methods. The ability to regenerate a patients esophagus after it has been injured, will help many people. The same is true for an injured heart.

The technique to grow human tissues and organs so called tissue engineering has been employed so far to produce urinary bladder, trachea and blood vessels, which have also been used clinically. However, despite several attempts, it has been proven difficult to grow tissue to replace a damaged esophagus.

In this new study, the researchers created the bioengineered organs by soaking esophagi from rats to remove all the cells. With the cells gone, a scaffold remains in which the structure as well as mechanical and chemical properties of the organ are preserved. The produced scaffolds were then reseeded with cells from the bone marrow of the recipient. The adhering cells have low immunogenicity, which minimizes the risk of immune reaction and graft rejection and also eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs. The cells adhered to the biological scaffold and started to show organ-specific characteristics within three weeks.

The cultured tissues were used to replace segments of the esophagus in rats. All rats survived and after two weeks the researchers found indications of the major components in the regenerated graft: epithelium, muscle cells, blood vessels and nerves.

We believe that these very promising findings represent major advances towards the clinical translation of tissue engineered esophagi, said Paolo Macchiarini, Director of Advanced Center for Translational Regenerative Medicine (ACTREM) at Karolinska Institutet.

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Dr. Taylor assists international team of researchers achieve milestone by tissue engineering construction of esophagus

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International team of researchers engineer construction of esophagus

Researchers announced today that tissue engineering has been used to construct natural esophagi which in combination with bone marrow stem cells have been safely and effectively transplanted in rats, according to a study published in the prestigious online journal, Nature Communications. The study shows that the transplanted organs remain patent and display regeneration of nerves, muscles, epithelial cells and blood vessels.

The new method was developed by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, within an international collaboration lead by Professor Paolo Macchiarini, and including Doris Taylor, MD, Director of Regenerative Medicine Research at the Texas Heart Institute (THI).

We are very excited and honored to be a part of the team taking such heroic steps, that will ultimately benefit so many patients throughout the world, said Dr. Taylor, who is leading ground-breaking organ-building work at THI that may ultimately lead to the ability to grow new hearts and other organs using a patients own stem cells.

Dr. Taylor has collaborated with Professor Macchiarini for several years, and they have jointly published previous papers on tissue engineering. THI and Dr. Taylor are in the midst of multiple international collaborations in this field, and she also serves on a committee named by Texas Medical Center (TMC) President Robert Robbins, MD, to help guide regenerative medicine research throughout TMC.

The joint goal is to discover, develop, and take first steps toward delivering a more complex tissue, such as a heart, added Dr. Taylor. We see this as another important milestone along that path, which we expect will ultimately help many millions of patients.

James T. Willerson, MD, President, THI added This is a very important step forward toward the goal of regenerating tissues using Dr. Taylors methods. The ability to regenerate a patients esophagus after it has been injured, will help many people. The same is true for an injured heart.

The technique to grow human tissues and organs so called tissue engineering has been employed so far to produce urinary bladder, trachea and blood vessels, which have also been used clinically. However, despite several attempts, it has been proven difficult to grow tissue to replace a damaged esophagus.

In this new study, the researchers created the bioengineered organs by soaking esophagi from rats to remove all the cells. With the cells gone, a scaffold remains in which the structure as well as mechanical and chemical properties of the organ are preserved. The produced scaffolds were then reseeded with cells from the bone marrow of the recipient. The adhering cells have low immunogenicity, which minimizes the risk of immune reaction and graft rejection and also eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs. The cells adhered to the biological scaffold and started to show organ-specific characteristics within three weeks.

The cultured tissues were used to replace segments of the esophagus in rats. All rats survived and after two weeks the researchers found indications of the major components in the regenerated graft: epithelium, muscle cells, blood vessels and nerves.

We believe that these very promising findings represent major advances towards the clinical translation of tissue engineered esophagi, said Paolo Macchiarini, Director of Advanced Center for Translational Regenerative Medicine (ACTREM) at Karolinska Institutet.

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International team of researchers engineer construction of esophagus

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First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man's Skin

hide captionThis mouse egg (top) is being injected with genetic material from an adult cell to ultimately create an embryo and, eventually, embryonic stem cells. The process has been difficult to do with human cells.

Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep’s egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal.

Dolly’s birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases.

But Dolly’s birth also triggered years of frustration. It’s proved very difficult to do that same sort of DNA transfer into a human egg.

Last year, scientists in Oregon said they’d finally done it, using DNA taken from infants. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology, says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes.

“There are many diseases, whether it’s diabetes, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, that usually increase with age,” Lanza says. So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people not just cells from infants to create therapies for adult diseases.

Lanza’s colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success.

Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell, they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. As with Dolly, the women’s nuclear DNA had been removed from these eggs before the man’s DNA was injected. They repeated the process this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man.

hide captionDolly, the first mammal to be genetically cloned from adult cells, poses for the camera in 1997 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Dolly, the first mammal to be genetically cloned from adult cells, poses for the camera in 1997 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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First Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From A Man's Skin

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Scientists create stem cells from adults

Scientists have moved a step closer to the goal of creating stem cells perfectly matched to a patient’s DNA in order to treat diseases, they announced on Thursday, creating patient-specific cell lines out of the skin cells of two adult men.

The advance, described online in the journal Cell Stem Cell, is the first time researchers have achieved “therapeutic cloning” of adults. Technically called somatic-cell nuclear transfer, therapeutic cloning means producing embryonic cells genetically identical to a donor, usually for the purpose of using those cells to treat disease.

But nuclear transfer is also the first step in reproductive cloning, or producing a genetic duplicate of someone – a technique that has sparked controversy since the 1997 announcement that it was used to create Dolly, the clone of a ewe. In 2005, the United Nations called on countries to ban it, and the United States prohibits the use of federal funds for either reproductive or therapeutic cloning.

The new study was funded by a foundation and the South Korean government.

If confirmed by other labs, it could prove significant because many illnesses that might one day be treated with stem cells, such as heart failure and vision loss, primarily affect adults. Patient-specific stem cells would have to be created from older cells, not infant or fetal ones. That now looks possible, though far from easy: Out of 39 tries, the scientists created stem cells only once for each donor.

Outside experts had different views of the study, which was led by Young Gie Chung of the Research Institute for Stem Cell Research at CHA Health Systems in Los Angeles.

Stem cell biologist George Daley of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute called it “an incremental advance” and “not earth-shattering.”

Reproductive biologist Shoukhrat Mitalipov of Oregon Health and Science University, who developed the technique the CHA team adapted, was more positive. “The advance here is showing that (nuclear transfer) looks like it will work with people of all ages,” he said in an interview.

A year ago, Mitalipov led the team that used nuclear transfer of fetal and infant DNA to produce stem cells, the first time that had been accomplished in humans of any age.

ELECTRIC JOLT

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Scientists create stem cells from adults

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Group Makes Stem Cells Using Clone Technique

Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings.

The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man.

They used a bit of skin from each man, took the DNA from the skin cells and inserted it into the egg cell of a female donor, and grew very early embryos called blastocysts, the team reports in the journal Cell Stem Cell. Cells from these embryos closely match the men and could, in theory, be used to make near-identical tissue, blood or organ transplants for the men.

If verified, it would be only the second confirmed time someones been able to use cloning methods to make human embryonic stem cells, considered the bodys master cells.

Therapeutic cloning has long been envisioned as a means for generating patient-specific stem cells that could be used to treat a range of age-related diseases, said Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology.

However, despite cloning success in animals, the derivation of stem cells from cloned human embryos has proven elusive. Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells.

That was last year, at Oregon Health & Science University.

When human embryonic stem cells were first discovered in 1998, scientists immediately dreamed of using cloning technology to help people grow their own organ and tissue transplants, and to use them to study disease. Theyd be perfect genetic matches for each patient, meaning an end to a lifetime of taking dangerous immune-suppressing drugs after an organ transplant.

But in the many years since, no labs been able to do the work easily. It seems it is much harder to clone a human being than it is to clone a sheep, a frog or a mouse.

And using the cloning technique is controversial, because it involves creating, then destroying, a human embryo.

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Group Makes Stem Cells Using Clone Technique

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In a cloning first, scientists create stem cells from adults

Scientists have moved a step closer to the goal of creating stem cells perfectly matched to a patient's DNA in order to treat diseases, they announced on Thursday, creating patient-specific cell lines out of the skin cells of two adult men. The advance, described online in the journal Cell Stem Cell, is the first time researchers have achieved "therapeutic cloning" of adults. Technically called …

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In a cloning first, scientists create stem cells from adults

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Breakthrough in human cloning offers new transplant hope

However a team at the Research Institute for Stem Cell Research at CHA Health Systems in Los Angeles and the University of Seoul said they had achieved the same result with two men, one aged 35 and one 75.

“The proportion of diseases you can treat with lab-made tissue increases with age. So if you cant do this with adult cells it is of limited value, said Robert Lanza, co-author of the research which published in the journal Cell Stem Cell

The technique works by removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg and replacing it with the nucleus of a skin cell. An electric shock causes the cells to begin dividing until they form a blastocyst a small ball of a few hundred cells.

In IVF it is a blastocyst which is implanted into the womb, but with this technique the cells would be harvested to be used to create other organs or tissues.

However, the breakthrough is likely to reignite the debate about the ethics of creating human embryos for medical purposes and the possible use of the same technique to produce cloned babies which is illegal in Britain.

Although the embryos created may not give rise to a human clone even if implanted in a womb, the prospect is now scientifically closer.

However scientists have been trying for years to clone monkeys and have yet to succeed.

Dr Lanza admitted that without strong regulations, the early embryos produced in therapeutic cloning could also be used for human reproductive cloning, although this would be unsafe and grossly unethical.

However, he said it was important for the future of regenerative medicine that research into therapeutic cloning should continue.

Reproductive biologist Shoukhrat Mitalipov of Oregon Health and Science University, who developed the technique last year said: “The advance here is showing that (nuclear transfer) looks like it will work with people of all ages.

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Breakthrough in human cloning offers new transplant hope

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Results are a leap for embryonic stem cells

Scientists have replicated one of the most significant accomplishments in stem cell research by creating human embryos that were clones of two men.

The lab-engineered embryos were harvested within days and used to create lines of infinitely reproducing embryonic stem cells, which are capable of growing into any type of human tissue.

The work, reported Thursday in the journal Cell Stem Cell, comes 11 months after researchers in Oregon said they had produced the world’s first human embryo clones and used them to make stem cells. Their study, published in Cell, aroused skepticism after critics pointed out multiple errors and duplicated images.

In addition, the entire effort to clone human embryos and then dismantle them in the name of science troubles some people on moral grounds.

The scientists in Oregon and the authors of the new report acknowledged that the clones they created could develop into babies if implanted in surrogate wombs. But like others in the field, they have said reproductive cloning would be unethical and irresponsible.

The process used to create cloned embryos is called somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT. It involves removing the nucleus from an egg cell and replacing it with a nucleus from a cell of the person to be cloned. The same method was used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996, along with numerous animals from other species.

Human cloning was a particular challenge, in part because scientists had trouble getting enough donor eggs to carry out their experiments. Some scientists said SCNT in humans would be impossible.

Dr. Robert Lanza, the chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology Inc. in Marlborough, Mass., has been working on SCNT off and on for about 15 years. He and his colleagues finally achieved success with a modified version of the recipe used by the Oregon team and skin cells donated by two men who were 35 and 75.

After swapping out the nucleus in the egg cell, both groups used caffeine to delay the onset of cell division a technique that has been called “the Starbucks effect.” But instead of waiting 30 minutes to prompt cell division, as was done in the Oregon experiment, Lanza and his team waited two hours.

It remains unclear exactly how the egg causes the cells in previously mature tissues in this case, skin to transform into a more versatile, pluripotent state.

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Results are a leap for embryonic stem cells

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Therapeutic cloning breakthrough

Scientists create patient-specific cell lines from the skin cells of two adult men in a procedure called somatic cell nuclear transfer demonstrating that the technique can work for people of all ages. The embryonic cells are genetically identical to the donor and have profound therapeutic potential. The cloning procedure is difficult, however. Only one in thirty-nine attempts was successful. In …

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Therapeutic cloning breakthrough

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Scientists Clone Stem Cells From Adults For The First Time

For the first time, scientists have created early-stage embryos using cloned cells from adults.

A study from Advanced Cell Technology published Thursday in the journal Cell Stem Cell highlights how researchers were able to create embryos from the skin cells of two men, ages 35 and 75. Tissue from the embryos featured exact DNA matches with the donors.

Last year, scientists at Oregon Health and Science University made a major breakthrough with the first early-stage human clones derived from infant and fetal cells. However, the experiment drew criticism because early-stage human embryos are destroyed when cells are extracted from them.

This more recent experiment involving adult cells, funded by the South Korean government and performed in California, has large implications for advances in medical treatment. However, the success ratio was low: Scientists attempted 39 times to create stem cells but succeeded only once with each donor.

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Scientists Clone Stem Cells From Adults For The First Time

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Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men

Health

After years of failed attempts, researchers have finally generated stem cells from adults using the same cloning technique that produced Dolly the sheep in 1996.

A previous claim that Korean investigators had succeeded in the feat turned out to be fraudulent. Then last year, a group at Oregon Health & Science University generated stem cells using the Dolly technique, but with cells from fetuses and infants.

MORE: Stem-Cell Research: The Quest Resumes

In this case, cells from a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man were used to generate two separate lines of stem cells. The process, known as nuclear transfer, involves taking the DNA from a donor and inserting it into an egg that has been stripped of its DNA. The resulting hybrid is stimulated to fuse and start dividing; after a few days the embryo creates a lining of stem cells that are destined to develop into all of the cells and tissues in the human body. Researchers extract these cells and grow them in the lab, where they are treated with the appropriate growth factors and other agents to develop into specific types of cells, like neurons, muscle, or insulin-producing cells.

Reporting in the journal Cell Stem Cell, Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at biotechnology company Advanced Cell Technology, and his colleagues found that tweaking the Oregon teams process was the key to success with reprogramming the older cells. Like the earlier team, Lanzas group used caffeine to prevent the fused egg from dividing prematurely. Rather than leaving the egg with its newly introduced DNA for 30 minutes before activating the dividing stage, they let the eggs rest for about two hours. This gave the DNA enough time to acclimate to its new environment and interact with the eggs development factors, which erased each of the donor cells existing history and reprogrammed it to act like a brand new cell in an embryo.

VIDEO: Breakthrough in Cloning Human Stem Cells: Explainer

The team, which included an international group of stem cell scientists, used 77 eggs from four different donors. They tested their new method by waiting for 30 minutes before activating 38 of the resulting embryos, and waiting two hours before triggering 39 of them. None of the 38 developed into the next stage, while two of the embryos getting extended time did. There is a massive molecular change occurring. You are taking a fully differentiated cell, and you need to have the egg do its magic, says Lanza. You need to extend the reprogramming time before you can force the cell to divide.

While a 5% efficiency may not seem laudable, Lanza says that its not so bad given that the stem cells appear to have had their genetic history completely erased and returned to that of a blank slate. This procedure works well, and works with adult cells, says Lanza.

The results also teach stem cell scientists some important lessons. First, that the nuclear transfer method that the Oregon team used is valid, and that with some changes it can be replicated using older adult cells. It looks like the protocols we described are real, they are universal, they work in different hands, in different labs and with different cells, says Shoukhrat Mitalopov, director of the center for embryonic cell and gene therapy at Oregon Health & Science University, and lead investigator of that study.

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Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men

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Othropedic Surgeon Dr. Propper Speaks about Stem Cell Therapy – PRP – BMAC – Video



Othropedic Surgeon Dr. Propper Speaks about Stem Cell Therapy – PRP – BMAC
Orthopedic Surgeon Dr. Propper Speaks about the Difference of Stem Cell Injection Therapy PRP – BMAC.

By: Dennis Spoonhour, DC

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Othropedic Surgeon Dr. Propper Speaks about Stem Cell Therapy – PRP – BMAC – Video

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Gene increases cancer risk posed by processed meat

“The possibility that genetic variants may modify an individual’s risk for disease based on diet has not been thoroughly investigated but represents an important new insight into disease development,” said Dr Li Hsu, one of the study authors from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, US.

Pooling information in this fashion can reveal trends that would otherwise remain hidden.

The study divided people into four groups with increasing levels of meat consumption up to around five servings per week.

Compared with the first group, each subsequent “quartile” of higher consumption of processed meat raised the risk of bowel cancer by 39% for individuals with the most hazardous mutation.

Another version of the rs4143094 gene variant increased the risk by 20% per quartile.

In contrast, vegetable, fruit and fibre intake was associated with a slightly reduced risk overall.

Writing in the online journal Public Library of Science Genetics, the researchers point out that rs4143094 is in the same chromosomal region as a gene known to be linked to several forms of cancer.

The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the immune system, suggesting a possible link with a cancer-promoting inflammatory or immunological response.

Co-author Dr Jane Figueiredo, from the University of Southern California, said: “Diet is a modifiable risk factor for colorectal (bowel) cancer.

“Our study is the first to understand whether some individuals are at higher or lower risk based on their genomic profile. This information can help us better understand the biology and maybe in the future lead to targeted prevention strategies.”

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Gene increases cancer risk posed by processed meat

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Bowel cancer risk 'boosted by gene'

One in three people is born with a gene that significantly increases their likelihood of developing bowel cancer from eating processed meat, a study has found.

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Bowel cancer risk 'boosted by gene'

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Gene increases meat-eaters' cancer risk

April 18, 2014, 4:46 p.m.

One third of us have a gene that makes us more susceptible to colourectal cancer from eating processed meat, according to new study.

One in three people carry a gene that significantly raises the risk of developing bowel cancer from eating processed meat, new research shows.

While it was already known that eating processed meat increased a person’s risk of developing bowel cancer, thestudy, published in the journalPLOS Geneticson Friday, found that for people who carry a common genetic variant, eating processed meat carries an even higher risk than for those who do not carry the gene.

Bowel cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women in Australia. One in 10 Australian men and one in 15 Australian women will be diagnosed with bowel cancer by the time they reach 85. Almost 4000 Australians died of bowel cancer in 2011.

One of the researchers, Li Hsu, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Centre in Seattle, said the discovery provided “an important new insight into disease development”.

Another of the researchers, Jane Figueiredo from the University of Southern California, said the discovery could lead to more targeted cancer prevention strategies.

“Diet is a modifiable risk factor for colourectal cancer,” Dr Figueiredo said. “Our study is the first to understand whether some individuals are at higher or lower risk based on their genomic profile.”

About 30 genetic variants that make a person more susceptible to bowel cancer have been pinpointed throughout the genome. The study, which involved more than 18,000 patients from Australia, the US, Canada and Europe, is the first large-scale, genome-wide analysis of genetic variants and dietary patterns. Researchers searched 2.7 million genetic variants to identify those linked with the consumption of meat, fibre and fruit and vegetables.

Exactly how specific foods affect the activities of genes has not been established.

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Gene increases meat-eaters' cancer risk

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Journalism C101 – 2014-04-14: Pamela Ronald: Plant Genetic Engineering and – Video



Journalism C101 – 2014-04-14: Pamela Ronald: Plant Genetic Engineering and
Journalism C101, 001 – Spring 2014 Creative Commons 3.0: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs.

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GMO Labeling Bill Passes Vermont Senate

NEW YORK (TheStreet) — In what could be a big win for opponents of genetically modified organisms, Vermont is one step closer to signing into law legislation that would require food companies to label products that contain GMOs in the Green Mountain State.

On Wednesday, the Vermont State Senate passed “An Act Relating to the Labeling of Food Produced with Genetic Engineering,” H. 112, by a vote of 28-2. The state legislation, introduced in January 2013, proposes to provide that “food is misbranded if it is entirely or partially produced with genetic engineering and it is not labeled as genetically engineered.” Sen. David Zuckerman is the bill’s lead sponsor, according to the Brattleboro Reformer.

The bill will now go back to the House to approve the Senate’s amendments and then to Gov. Peter Shumlin to sign into law. The act is supposed to become effective on July 1, 2016, according to Reuters.

Genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are plants or animals that have been genetically engineered with DNA from bacteria, viruses or other plants and animals that cannot occur in natural crossbreeding, according to the Non-GMO Project, a non-profit organization dedication to the education of GMOs and helping consumers find alternatives and considered the main organization used by many companies to verify their non-GMO foods.

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GMO Labeling Bill Passes Vermont Senate

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Vermont Senate passes GMO labeling bill

The Vermont Senate voted to pass a new law requiring labeling for foods that contain ingredients produced with genetic engineering or genetically modified ingredients (GMOs). If enacted, the law would be the first in the nation to require GMO labeling without any contingencies or similar legislation by adjoining states. The proposed effective date is July 1, 2016.

Although the Vermont House previously passed the bill, it will be returned for representatives to approve changes made by the Senate. Once approved, the bill will reach the governors office for signature into law.

It is estimated that 80% of all food sold in the United States is at least partially produced from genetic engineering. The bill would require labeling on all such food sold at retail in Vermont, regardless of whether the food was manufactured in Vermont.

While the bill exempts processing aids and milk from cows that have been fed GMO feed, many dairy products and other foods that incorporate milk would be affected unless they were made with organic ingredients.

The Food and Drug Administration, the American Medical Association, the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Academy of Sciences all have said that GMO ingredients are safe and there are no negative health effects associated with their use.

This bill would confuse consumers, raise food prices and do nothing to ensure product safety, said Ruth Saunders, IDFA vice president of policy and legislative affairs. Its too bad for the dairy industry that Vermont would require such labels on chocolate milk, yogurt and other healthy dairy products while offering an exemption to the entire alcoholic beverage sector.

The neighboring states of Connecticut and Maine already passed labeling laws, but each delayed implementation until at least four other adjoining states passed and implemented similar laws. This strategy is designed to protect them from lawsuits from companies and associations that want to safeguard consistency in food labeling and avoid a 50-state patchwork of laws. Vermont, however, has decided to go it alone and is preparing a war chest in anticipation of the lawsuits to come.

IDFA and many other trade organizations oppose individual state legislation on GMO labeling and fully support The Safe and Accurate Food Labeling Act of 2014, introduced by U.S. Reps. Mike Pompeo (R-KS) and G.K. Butterfield (D-NC). This bill would preempt states from requiring mandatory labeling and establish a federal standard for voluntary labeling of food and beverage products made with GMOs.

IDFA believes that a federal solution on GMO labeling would bolster consumer confidence in American food by affirming FDAs overall authority for setting the nations food safety and labeling regulations, said Saunders.

IDFA is working with the Safe and Affordable Food Coalition, headed by the Grocery Manufacturers Association, on all issues related to GMO labeling.

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Vermont Senate passes GMO labeling bill

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Novel marker discovered for stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood

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PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

17-Apr-2014

Contact: Vicki Cohn vcohn@liebertpub.com 914-740-2100 x2156 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News

New Rochelle, NY, April 17, 2014The development of stem cell therapies to cure a variety of diseases depends on the ability to characterize stem cell populations based on cell surface markers. Researchers from the Finnish Red Cross have discovered a new marker that is highly expressed in a type of stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood, which they describe in an article in BioResearch Open Access, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the BioResearch Open Access website.

Heli Suila and colleagues, Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Helsinki, Finland present evidence to show that the glycan O-GLcNAc, is present on the surface of stem cells and is part of a stem cell-specific surface signature. In the article “Extracellular O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Is Enriched in Stem Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood” the authors suggest that the glycan plays a crucial role in a cell signaling pathway that regulates embryonic development.

“This work is particularly interesting as epidermal growth factor domains are found on the Notch receptors, suggesting that these novel glycans may be involved in Notch receptor signaling pathways in stem cells,” says BioResearch Open Access Editor Jane Taylor, PhD, MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

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About the Journal

BioResearch Open Access is a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access journal led by Editor-in-Chief Robert Lanza, MD, Chief Scientific Officer, Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. and Editor Jane Taylor, PhD. The Journal provides a new rapid-publication forum for a broad range of scientific topics including molecular and cellular biology, tissue engineering and biomaterials, bioengineering, regenerative medicine, stem cells, gene therapy, systems biology, genetics, biochemistry, virology, microbiology, and neuroscience. All articles are published within 4 weeks of acceptance and are fully open access and posted on PubMedCentral. All journal content is available on the BioResearch Open Access website.

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Novel marker discovered for stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood

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Pathway Genomics Adds Leading Genetic Counselors to Advisory Board

Pathway Genomics Corporation, a San Diego-based CLIA and CAP accredited clinical laboratory that offers genetic testing services globally, announced that it has added industry-lead

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Pathway Genomics Adds Leading Genetic Counselors to Advisory Board

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New gene variant found increases the risk of colorectal cancer from eating processed meat

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17-Apr-2014

Contact: Jane C. Figueiredo janefigu@usc.edu PLOS

A common genetic variant that affects one in three people appears to significantly increase the risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of processed meat, according to study published today in PLOS Genetics. The study of over 18,000 people from the U.S., Canada, Australia and Europe represents the first large-scale genome-wide analysis of genetic variants and dietary patterns that may help explain more of the risk factors for colorectal cancer. Dr Jane Figueiredo at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, explained that eating processed meat is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and for about a third of the general population who carry this genetic variant, the risk of eating processed meat is even higher compared to those who do not. “Our results, if replicated by other studies, may provide us with a greater understanding of the biology into colorectal carcinogenesis,” said Dr Ulrike Peters of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center’s Public Health Sciences Division.

The study population totaled 9,287 patients with colorectal cancer and a control group of 9,117 individuals without cancer, all participants in 10 observational studies that were pooled in the largest meta-analysis sponsored by the National Institutes of Health-funded Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO) and Colorectal Cancer Family Registry. Scientists systematically searched 2.7 million variants to identify those that are associated with the consumption of meat, fiber, fruits and vegetables. A significant interaction between the genetic variant rs4143094 and processed meat consumption was detected. This variant is located on the same chromosome 10 region that includes GATA3, a transcription factor gene previously linked to several forms of cancer. The transcription factor encoded by this gene plays a role in the immune system. Dr Figueiredo hypothesized that the genetic locus found to interact with processed meat may have interesting biological significance given its location in the genome, but further functional analyses are required.

Colorectal cancer is a multi-factorial disease attributed to both genetic causes and lifestyle factors; including diet. About 30 known genetic susceptibility alleles for colorectal cancer have been pinpointed throughout the genome. How specific foods affect the activities of genes has not been established but represents an important area of research for prevention. “The possibility that genetic variants may modify an individual’s risk for disease based on diet has not been thoroughly investigated but represents an important new insight into disease development,” said Dr Li Hsu, the lead statistician on the study. “Diet is a modifiable risk factor for colorectal cancer. Our study is the first to understand whether some individuals are at higher or lower risk based on their genomic profile. This information can help us better understand the biology and maybe in the future lead to targeted prevention strategies,” said Dr Figueiredo.

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New gene variant found increases the risk of colorectal cancer from eating processed meat

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Gene variant raises risk for aortic tear and rupture

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PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

17-Apr-2014

Contact: Helen Dodson helen.dodson@yale.edu 203-436-3984 Yale University

New Haven, Conn. Researchers from Yale School of Medicine and Celera Diagnostics have confirmed the significance of a genetic variant that substantially increases the risk of a frequently fatal thoracic aortic dissection or full rupture. The study appears online in PLOS ONE.

Thoracic aortic aneurysms, or bulges in the artery wall, can develop without pain or other symptoms. If they lead to a tear dissection or full rupture, the patient will often die without immediate treatment. Therefore, better identification of patients at risk for aortic aneurysm and dissection is considered essential.

The research team, following up on a previous genome-wide association study by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, investigated genetic variations in a protein called FBN-1, which is essential for a strong arterial wall. After studying hundreds of patients at Yale, they confirmed what was found in the Baylor study: that one variation, known as rs2118181, put patients at significantly increased risk of aortic tear and rupture.

“Although surgical therapy is remarkable and effective, it is incumbent on us to move to a higher genetic level of understanding of these diseases,” said senior author John Elefteriades, M.D., the William W. L. Glenn Professor of Surgery (Section of Cardiac Surgery) at Yale School of Medicine, and director of the Aortic Institute at Yale-New Haven Hospital. “Such studies represent important steps along that path.”

The researchers hope their confirmation of the earlier study may help lead to better clinical care of patients who may be at high risk of this fatal condition. “Patients with this mutation may merit earlier surgical therapy, before aortic dissection has a chance to occur,” Elefteriades says. Yale cardiothoracic surgeons will now begin assessing this gene in clinical patients with aneurysm disease.

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Gene variant raises risk for aortic tear and rupture

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NewLink Genetics Presents Data at the AACR 2014 Annual Meeting – Video



NewLink Genetics Presents Data at the AACR 2014 Annual Meeting
AMES, IA, via eTeligis, 4/9/2014 11:00:00 AM NewLink Genetics Presents Data at the AACR 2014 Annual Meeting Data Demonstrate Synergistic Anti-Tumor Activity …

By: Eteligis.com

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NewLink Genetics Presents Data at the AACR 2014 Annual Meeting – Video

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