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Hypopituitarism | Hormone Health Network

More about Rare Diseases

Hypopituitarism (also called pituitary insufficiency) is a rare condition in which your pituitary gland doesn’t make enough of certain hormones. Your body can’t work properly when important glands, such as your thyroid gland and adrenal gland, don’t get the hormones they need from your pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism can develop very slowly, over several months or even over several years.

Hypopituitarism can be caused by:

Sometimes, the cause is unknown.

Symptoms can include one or more of the following:

Your doctor will check your hormone levels with blood tests. You may have other tests, such as an MRI of your pituitary gland, to help find the cause of your hypopituitarism.

Treatment usually includes taking the hormones you’re missing, sometimes for life. Your doctor also will teach you how to take extra cortisone (a hormone) when you are sick or under stress. If a tumor is causing your hypopituitarism, you might need surgery to remove it and/or possibly radiation treatment. If needed, you can take medicine for infertility.

You will need to get regular check-ups. It’s wise to wear medical identification, such as a bracelet or pendant, which provides information about your condition in case of an emergency.

You can expect a normal life span, as long as you regularly take the medications recommended by your doctor.

Link:
Hypopituitarism | Hormone Health Network

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Hypothyroidism – Symptoms, Treatment, and More

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid glanda small, butterfly-shaped gland in your neckdoes not produce enough thyroid hormone. It is sometimes referred to as an “underactive” thyroid. Hypothyroidism slows down a person’s metabolism, leading to symptoms like weight gain, sluggishness, feeling cold, and more. A simple blood test called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) can diagnose hypothyroidism, and thyroid hormone replacement medication can treat it.

By gaining knowledge about hypothyroidism, including what it feels like to have this thyroid problem, and how it’s diagnosed and managed, you will be more prepared and self-assured as you embark on your thyroid journey.

A look at the anatomy of the thyroid, located above the collarbone.

Your thyroid gland uses dietary iodine to make thyroid hormone. When there is a deficiency in thyroid hormone, your body has trouble using energy and staying warm.

Your muscles, brain, and other organs may also have trouble functioning.

The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism are variable and can be subtle, even mistaken for stress or another medical problem.

Here is a closer look at some of the symptoms a person with an underactive thyroid may experience:

There are a number of health issues and conditions that cause hypothyroidism.

The autoimmune disease Hashimotos thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. In this disease, antibodies attack the thyroid gland, making it incapable of functioning properly.

Post-surgical hypothyroidism refers to insufficient thyroid hormone due to surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. Surgery on the thyroid is known as a thyroidectomy.

Radiation-induced hypothyroidism may occur from radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, which is used to treat hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Exposure to radiation treatments to the head and neck, or radioactive fallout from nuclear accidents like Chernobyl or Fukushima, may also cause hypothyroidism.

With congenital hypothyroidism, newborns come into the world without a thyroid gland or with a partial thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism may also result from taking certain medications (called drug-induced hypothyroidism). While this is not a comprehensive list, some of the more commonly known medications include:

Hypothyroidism can occur with too little iodine consumption (called iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism) or if too much iodine is consumed (called iodine-induced hypothyroidism).

In secondary or central hypothyroidism, the pituitary gland (located in your brain) is damaged (from a tumor, radiation, or surgery) and is unable to trigger your thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone.

Rarely, hypothyroidism from infiltrative diseases (for example, sarcoidosis or hemochromatosis) can deposit substances (like granulomas or iron, respectively) into the thyroid gland, reducing its ability to function.

The diagnosis of hypothyroidism requires a clinical examination and blood tests.

Clinical Examination In addition to a clinical thyroid examination, which includes a manual and visual examination of the thyroid gland, a doctor will also perform a physical examination to look for signs of hypothyroidism. Some of these signs include dry, coarse skin, a slow heart rate, slow reflexes, and swelling.

Blood Tests

The main blood test used to diagnose hypothyroidism is the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test. This test measures TSH, a pituitary hormone. TSH rises when it detects low levels of thyroid hormone, and drops when it detects excess thyroid hormone. Laboratories have established a reference range, and levels above the reference range are considered potentially indicative of hypothyroidism.

In addition, the unbound and available levels of the actual circulating thyroid hormonesfree thyroxine (free T4) and free triiodothyronine (free T3)may be measured. There are reference ranges for these two hormone tests, and levels below the reference range (showing that there is insufficient free T4 and/or free T3) are considered indicative of hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism is treated with a thyroid hormone replacement drug, which is a medication that replaces the missing thyroid hormone in the body.

LevothyroxineThe most commonly prescribed thyroid hormone replacement drug is known generically as levothyroxine, a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4).

LiothyronineThere is also a synthetic form of the T3 hormone, known as liothyronine. It is sometimes added to levothyroxine as part of a therapy known as T4/T3 combination treatment, though this practice is considered controversial by the many endocrinologists and mainstream practitioners.

Natural Desiccated ThyroidFinally, there is a hormone replacement drug called natural desiccated thyroid, sometimes abbreviated NDT or called “thyroid extract.” NDT contains natural forms of both T4 and T3. While it has been available for more than a century, and is still in use today, it is considered controversial by the mainstream medical community and is prescribed more often by integrative, functional, and holistic physicians, as compared to endocrinologists and conventional physicians.

The official guidelines of various endocrinology organizations position levothyroxine as the preferred treatment, and discourage both T4/T3 combination therapy and use of NDT.

A Word From Verywell

Whether you (or a loved one) has been recently diagnosed with hypothyroidism, or you are being currently treated for it, but still not feeling right, please know that you are not alone. Continue to seek knowledge about your thyroid disease and remain resilient as you navigate this sometimes taxing journey.

Also, remember that living well with hypothyroidism is not just about medication. It’s also important to eat well, get enough rest, make time for exercise and play, and manage your stress. And even if you feel like youre fighting an uphill battle with doctors, treatments, and debilitating symptoms, don’t give up. You will eventually find the answers that will help you live well and feel well.

Sources:

American Thyroid Association. (n.d.). Hypothyroidism (Underactive).

Braverman, L, Cooper D. Werner & Ingbar’s The Thyroid, 10th Edition. WLL/Wolters Kluwer; 2012.

Garber J et. al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hypothyroidism in Adults: Cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract. 2012 Nov-Dec;18(6):988-1028.

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Hypothyroidism – Symptoms, Treatment, and More

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

Gene therapy – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body’s cells in an effort to treat or stop disease.

Genes contain your DNA the code that controls much of your body’s form and function, from making you grow taller to regulating your body systems. Genes that don’t work properly can cause disease.

Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new gene in an attempt to cure disease or improve your body’s ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS.

Researchers are still studying how and when to use gene therapy. Currently, in the United States, gene therapy is available only as part of a clinical trial.

Gene therapy is used to correct defective genes in order to cure a disease or help your body better fight disease.

Researchers are investigating several ways to do this, including:

Gene therapy has some potential risks. A gene can’t easily be inserted directly into your cells. Rather, it usually has to be delivered using a carrier, called a vector.

The most common gene therapy vectors are viruses because they can recognize certain cells and carry genetic material into the cells’ genes. Researchers remove the original disease-causing genes from the viruses, replacing them with the genes needed to stop disease.

This technique presents the following risks:

The gene therapy clinical trials underway in the U.S. are closely monitored by the Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health to ensure that patient safety issues are a top priority during research.

Currently, the only way for you to receive gene therapy is to participate in a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that help doctors determine whether a gene therapy approach is safe for people. They also help doctors understand the effects of gene therapy on the body.

Your specific procedure will depend on the disease you have and the type of gene therapy being used.

For example, in one type of gene therapy:

Viruses aren’t the only vectors that can be used to carry altered genes into your body’s cells. Other vectors being studied in clinical trials include:

The possibilities of gene therapy hold much promise. Clinical trials of gene therapy in people have shown some success in treating certain diseases, such as:

But several significant barriers stand in the way of gene therapy becoming a reliable form of treatment, including:

Gene therapy continues to be a very important and active area of research aimed at developing new, effective treatments for a variety of diseases.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Dec. 29, 2017

Originally posted here:
Gene therapy – Mayo Clinic

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eBay determines trending price through a machine learned model of the products sale prices within the last 90 days. “New” refers to a brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item, and “Used” refers to an item that has been used previously.

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life extension | eBay

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Employees Jump at Genetic Testing. Is That a Good Thing …

While regulators called their decision a step forward in the availability of direct-to-consumer genetic screening, they explicitly warned that the test did not detect most mutations that increase breast cancer risk. They also warned consumers not to use the tests as a substitute for qualified medical care and genetic counseling.

Color, the genomics company, takes something of a middle road. It markets comprehensive medical diagnostic tests that screen for all mutations of certain genes known to be linked to certain kinds of heredity cancers and heart risks. It has doctors available to order its tests online for users and provides genetic counseling to discuss users results.

By using genetics, you can help some people prevent or interrupt something at an earlier stage where the costs are much lower, said Othman Laraki, chief executive of Color Genomics. The start-up advises users that they could develop major diseases even if their test results show no harmful mutations.

Executives at SAP and Nvidia said they hoped genetic screening might ultimately help prevent at least a few late-stage cancers, the kinds of life-threatening illnesses that can debilitate employees and cost companies with self-funded health plans more than $1 million in medical fees.

After Nvidia began offering free screening from Color last year, about 27 percent of its 6,000 eligible employees in the United States took the test. After SAP started subsidizing the genetic tests last year, about 17 percent of the companys 30,000 eligible employees and family members participated.

In the long-term view of a program like this, its going to pay for itself, said Jason J. Russell, who oversees employee compensation and benefits for SAP North America. And, he added, You are creating good will with employees.

Given the expense of screening more people of average risk as well as follow-up costs from additional tests, medicines, surgery and potential complications from surgeries experts said that overall medical expenditures were actually likely to increase. Even so, they said, spending on screening for conditions like hereditary high cholesterol, which increases risk for strokes and heart attacks before the age of 50, could ultimately prolong some lives.

You are getting good preventive care value for money, said David L. Veenstra, a professor at the University of Washington who studies health outcomes and economics.

Color has raised $150 million from venture capital firms like General Catalyst as well as Bay Area tech luminaries including Max Levchin, a PayPal co-founder; Sundar Pichai, Googles chief executive; and Laurene Powell Jobs, a philanthropist-investor who is the widow of the Apple co-founder Steve Jobs.

The company has reduced genetic testing costs by using robotics and machine learning and eliminating tasks like in-person prescreening by doctors. It charges $249 for hereditary risk screening for eight of the most common cancers and began offering that price while more established medical diagnostics firms were charging $4,000 for similar tests.

The price point appealed to OpenTable. It started offering genetic screening benefits after an employee with a history of cancers told executives she was spending thousands of dollars out of her own pocket to pay for hereditary risk tests.

This was a really interesting opportunity to provide some choice to our employees that was accessible and affordable so they could better understand their own personal health, said Christa Quarles, chief executive of OpenTable.

As for privacy concerns, executives at several companies said that Color regularly sent them aggregated data on the number of employees with harmful disease mutations, but that the data is not tied to identifying details like employees names or birth dates.

As more large-scale research is conducted, medical recommendations may change. More than 150,000 patients, for instance, have enrolled in a DNA sequencing study at Geisinger Health, a medical center in Danville, Pa. And the federal advisory panel is updating its recommendation on genetic screening for certain breast cancer mutations.

Executives at several companies that have signed up with Color said they were aware of the debate over genetic screening, but said they believed the start-up was simply ahead of the curve.

Over time, innovation becomes consensus science, said Mr. Russell of SAP.

See the rest here:
Employees Jump at Genetic Testing. Is That a Good Thing …

Recommendation and review posted by sam

Bone marrow transplant – Mayo Clinic

Overview

A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or diseased bone marrow. A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant.

A bone marrow transplant may be necessary if your bone marrow stops working and doesn’t produce enough healthy blood cells.

Bone marrow transplants may use cells from your own body (autologous transplant) or from a donor (allogeneic transplant).

Mayo Clinic’s approach

A bone marrow transplant may be used to:

Bone marrow transplants can benefit people with a variety of both cancerous (malignant) and noncancerous (benign) diseases, including:

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some bones. Its job is to produce blood cells. If your bone marrow isn’t functioning properly because of cancer or another disease, you may receive a stem cell transplant.

To prepare for a stem cell transplant, you receive chemotherapy to kill the diseased cells and malfunctioning bone marrow. Then, transplanted blood stem cells are put into your bloodstream. The transplanted stem cells find their way to your marrow, where ideally they begin producing new, healthy blood cells.

A bone marrow transplant poses many risks of complications, some potentially fatal.

The risk can depend on many factors, including the type of disease or condition, the type of transplant, and the age and health of the person receiving the transplant.

Although some people experience minimal problems with a bone marrow transplant, others may develop complications that may require treatment or hospitalization. Some complications could even be life-threatening.

Complications that can arise with a bone marrow transplant include:

Your doctor can explain your risk of complications from a bone marrow transplant. Together you can weigh the risks and benefits to decide whether a bone marrow transplant is right for you.

If you receive a transplant that uses stem cells from a donor (allogeneic transplant), you may be at risk of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This condition occurs when the donor stem cells that make up your new immune system see your body’s tissues and organs as something foreign and attack them.

Many people who have an allogeneic transplant get GVHD at some point. The risk of GVHD is a bit greater if the stem cells come from an unrelated donor, but it can happen to anyone who gets a bone marrow transplant from a donor.

GVHD may happen at any time after your transplant. However, it’s more common after your bone marrow has started to make healthy cells.

There are two kinds of GVHD: acute and chronic. Acute GVHD usually happens earlier, during the first months after your transplant. It typically affects your skin, digestive tract or liver. Chronic GVHD typically develops later and can affect many organs.

Chronic GVHD signs and symptoms include:

You’ll undergo a series of tests and procedures to assess your general health and the status of your condition, and to ensure that you’re physically prepared for the transplant. The evaluation may take several days or more.

In addition, a surgeon or radiologist will implant a long thin tube (intravenous catheter) into a large vein in your chest or neck. The catheter, often called a central line, usually remains in place for the duration of your treatment. Your transplant team will use the central line to infuse the transplanted stem cells and other medications and blood products into your body.

If a transplant using your own stem cells (autologous transplant) is planned, you’ll undergo a procedure called apheresis (af-uh-REE-sis) to collect blood stem cells.

Before apheresis, you’ll receive daily injections of growth factor to increase stem cell production and move stem cells into your circulating blood so that they can be collected.

During apheresis, blood is drawn from a vein and circulated through a machine. The machine separates your blood into different parts, including stem cells. These stem cells are collected and frozen for future use in the transplant. The remaining blood is returned to your body.

If a transplant using stem cells from a donor (allogeneic transplant) is planned, you will need a donor. When you have a donor, stem cells are gathered from that person for the transplant. This process is often called a stem cell harvest or bone marrow harvest. Stem cells can come from your donor’s blood or bone marrow. Your transplant team decides which is better for you based on your situation.

Another type of allogeneic transplant uses stem cells from the blood of umbilical cords (cord blood transplant). Mothers can choose to donate umbilical cords after their babies’ births. The blood from these cords is frozen and stored in a cord blood bank until needed for a bone marrow transplant.

After you complete your pretransplant tests and procedures, you begin a process known as conditioning. During conditioning, you’ll undergo chemotherapy and possibly radiation to:

The type of conditioning process you receive depends on a number of factors, including your disease, overall health and the type of transplant planned. You may have both chemotherapy and radiation or just one of these treatments as part of your conditioning treatment.

Side effects of the conditioning process can include:

You may be able to take medications or other measures to reduce such side effects.

Based on your age and health history, your doctor may recommend lower doses or different types of chemotherapy or radiation for your conditioning treatment. This is called reduced-intensity conditioning.

Reduced-intensity conditioning kills some cancer cells and somewhat suppresses your immune system. Then, the donor’s cells are infused into your body. Donor cells replace cells in your bone marrow over time. Immune factors in the donor cells may then fight your cancer cells.

Your bone marrow transplant occurs after you complete the conditioning process. On the day of your transplant, called day zero, stem cells are infused into your body through your central line.

The transplant infusion is painless. You are awake during the procedure.

The transplanted stem cells make their way to your bone marrow, where they begin creating new blood cells. It can take a few weeks for new blood cells to be produced and for your blood counts to begin recovering.

Bone marrow or blood stem cells that have been frozen and thawed contain a preservative that protects the cells. Just before the transplant, you may receive medications to reduce the side effects the preservative may cause. You’ll also likely be given IV fluids (hydration) before and after your transplant to help rid your body of the preservative.

Side effects of the preservative may include:

Not everyone experiences side effects from the preservative, and for some people those side effects are minimal.

When the new stem cells enter your body, they begin to travel through your body and to your bone marrow. In time, they multiply and begin to make new, healthy blood cells. This is called engraftment. It usually takes several weeks before the number of blood cells in your body starts to return to normal. In some people, it may take longer.

In the days and weeks after your bone marrow transplant, you’ll have blood tests and other tests to monitor your condition. You may need medicine to manage complications, such as nausea and diarrhea.

After your bone marrow transplant, you’ll remain under close medical care. If you’re experiencing infections or other complications, you may need to stay in the hospital for several days or sometimes longer. Depending on the type of transplant and the risk of complications, you’ll need to remain near the hospital for several weeks to months to allow close monitoring.

You may also need periodic transfusions of red blood cells and platelets until your bone marrow begins producing enough of those cells on its own.

You may be at greater risk of infections or other complications for months to years after your transplant.

A bone marrow transplant can cure some diseases and put others into remission. Goals of a bone marrow transplant depend on your individual situation, but usually include controlling or curing your disease, extending your life, and improving your quality of life.

Some people complete bone marrow transplantation with few side effects and complications. Others experience numerous challenging problems, both short and long term. The severity of side effects and the success of the transplant vary from person to person and sometimes can be difficult to predict before the transplant.

It can be discouraging if significant challenges arise during the transplant process. However, it is sometimes helpful to remember that there are many survivors who also experienced some very difficult days during the transplant process but ultimately had successful transplants and have returned to normal activities with a good quality of life.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Living with a bone marrow transplant or waiting for a bone marrow transplant can be difficult, and it’s normal to have fears and concerns.

Having support from your friends and family can be helpful. Also, you and your family may benefit from joining a support group of people who understand what you’re going through and who can provide support. Support groups offer a place for you and your family to share fears, concerns, difficulties and successes with people who have had similar experiences. You may meet people who have already had a transplant or who are waiting for a transplant.

To learn about transplant support groups in your community, ask your transplant team or social worker for information. Also, several support groups are offered at Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota.

Mayo Clinic researchers study medications and treatments for people who have had bone marrow transplants, including new medications to help you stay healthy after your bone marrow transplant.

If your bone marrow transplant is using stem cells from a donor (allogeneic transplant), you may be at risk of graft-versus-host disease. This condition occurs when a donor’s transplanted stem cells attack the recipient’s body. Doctors may prescribe medications to help prevent graft-versus-host disease and reduce your immune system’s reaction (immunosuppressive medications).

After your transplant, it will take time for your immune system to recover. You may be given antibiotics to prevent infections. You may also be prescribed antifungal, antibacterial or antiviral medications. Doctors continue to study and develop several new medications, including new antifungal medications, antibacterial medications, antiviral medications and immunosuppressive medications.

After your bone marrow transplant, you may need to adjust your diet to stay healthy and to prevent excessive weight gain. Maintaining a healthy weight can help prevent high blood pressure, high cholesterol and other negative health effects.

Your nutrition specialist (dietitian) and other members of your transplant team will work with you to create a healthy-eating plan that meets your needs and complements your lifestyle. Your dietitian may also give you food suggestions to control side effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as nausea.

Your dietitian will also provide you with healthy food options and ideas to use in your eating plan. Your dietitian’s recommendations may include:

After your bone marrow transplant, you may make exercise and physical activity a regular part of your life to continue to improve your health and fitness. Exercising regularly helps you control your weight, strengthen your bones, increase your endurance, strengthen your muscles and keep your heart healthy.

Your treatment team may work with you to set up a routine exercise program to meet your needs. You may perform exercises daily, such as walking and other activities. As you recover, you can slowly increase your physical activity.

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Bone marrow transplant – Mayo Clinic

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Common ancestors of all humans (using genetics)

In fact, by focusing only on common ancestry of DNA that gets inherited,all CA’s found in genetic studies will be much older than the MRCA.

Our most recent female-female line ancestor is called “Mitochondrial Eve”since Mitochondrial DNA passes (almost) entirely through the female lineand so may be used to estimate a date for her.Contrary to a lot of confused discussion,e.g. [Ayala, 1995],Mitochondrial Eve’s existence is not in doubt.We can work it out from our armchair.What is in dispute is the date,which has been estimated at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.

Also contrary to much confused discussion by paleontologists,no date for Mitochondrial Eve implies any sort ofpopulation bottleneck at that time. Mitochondrial Eve would have co-existedwith huge numbers of male andfemale relations from whom we also descend.Indeed, [Ayala, 1995] points out thatour inheritance from Mitochondrial Evewould be only 1 part in 400,000 of our DNA.The rest we inherit from her contemporaries.But he still spends half the paper attacking the ideaof a small ancestral population – an idea that no one believes.

As a result of thinking about Y chromosome Adam, we can see that if we use surnames strictly in the male line forever into the future,then not only will all hereditary titles die out,but all surnames except one will die out too.

The world does not of course strictly follow that surname rule,but the West approximately does,and surnames do go extinct.Without a mechanism for generating entirely new surnames from scratch(not belonging to either parent)the diversity of surnames can only decline.Neil Frasernicely describes it as”a random walk – next to a cliff. The only force acting on the system is that once a name randomly stumbles to zero it is gone and can never recover.”

Say for one gene, your father’s two copies are AB,your mother’s are CD.You could end up with AC, your sibling could end up with BD.For this gene only,there is no genetic evidence of your recent common ancestry.

If there are n events at which to choose betweenyour father’s grandfather copy and grandmother copy,the probability of you inheriting from himnone of your grandfather’s DNA (*)is:

(*) If you are your father’s daughter.If his son, you must inherit the Y chromosome.We will ignore the special cases of themale-male and female-female lines.Admittedly these are hard to ignore with grandparents,since they are 2 of only 4 lines,but these 2 special lines can be ignored as we go back 10 generations or more.

[Chang, 1999, author’s reply]discusses this extreme case.I’m not sure if n=23 here(the no. of chromosomes).Then the probability of all grandmother,none from grandfather, would be(1/2)23= 1 in 223= 1 in 8.4 million.

If we allow for crossover, the probability of all grandmother,none from grandfather, is:

If n=23,(1/4)23= 1 in 246= 1 in 70 trillion.

Q. Is n=23?

If n=23probability (3/4)23 = 1 in 747.

How does crossover affect this?If one great-grandparent is c,your father has 3/4 chance of getting either c,or c crossed with d.He then has 3/4 chance of passing this on,either as is or crossed over.So you have (3/4)2 = 0.56 chance of inheriting some c,or 1 – (3/4)2 = 0.44 chance of inheriting none.So we get chance of inheriting no DNAfrom a great-grandparent is:

If n=23probability (0.44)23= 1 in 181 million.

Q. Is n=23?

If n=23, the probability depends on t.This is equal to 1/2 for:1-(1/2)t-1 = 0.971/2t-1 = 0.032t-1 = 33.7t-1 = 5In other words, more than 6 generations back,the prob. of inheriting no DNA at all from one of yourancestors is more than 1/2.

But what about crossover?With crossover, the probability of inheriting none of the DNAof an ancestor at generation t is:

If n=23, the probability depends on t.This is equal to 1/2 for:(3/4)t-1 = 0.03t-1 = 12In other words, more than 13 generations back,the prob. of inheriting no DNA at all from one of yourancestors is more than 1/2.Note that at 13 generations back (c. 1500s – 1600s) you have8192 ancestors.

Q. Is n=23?

For small n, it is easier (more probable) to not inherit from an ancestor.With a single event (n=1), it could easily lose that event.With a large number of events, it is unlikely it losesthem all.For large n, it is harder to not inheritfrom an ancestor.As n goes to infinity, you must have inherited some DNAfrom the ancestor.

We can see that above, for any finite t,as n goes to infinity,the probability of not inheriting goes to zero.

For an MRCA 30 generations ago,you need 230 people = 1 billion peopleto be sure that their samples of1 part in 230 of the ancestor’s DNAmust overlap.

As I say, I need to do more reading on this.I’m sure this has been discussed before.There is some discussion of this in[Wiuf and Hein, 1999].

So the “real” CAs (the CA1s) outnumber the CAs of a gene (the CA4s),but do they vastly outnumber them?As genome size tends to infinity(i.e. n goes to infinity)it becomes impossible for an actual ancestor (CA1) not to be at leasta partial genetic ancestor (CA2) as well.So the difference between CA1 and CA2 breaks down.

I used to say on this page:

but now we can see this is not so.(At least I put in “(I think)” in the correct place!)The difference between CA2 and CA3 does not break down.For any finite n, you are getting a larger inheritance from the ancestoralright,but it is still only 1 part in 2t,so for any 2 descendants it is quite possible that their samplesdo not overlap (for any reasonable size t).The probability of overlap depends on t, not on n.

For instance, [O’Connell, 1995] is confused about Mitochondrial Eve’s relation to the fossil record- no date for Mitochondrial Eve, no matter how recent,could possibly contradict the fossil record studied by the paleontologists.This is based on the error of assuming that Mitochondrial Eve is important(see above).

One could even say that genealogy is the pursuit of statistical artefacts.

Link:
Common ancestors of all humans (using genetics)

Recommendation and review posted by simmons

Genetic testing – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Genetic testing involves examining your DNA, the chemical database that carries instructions for your body’s functions. Genetic testing can reveal changes (mutations) in your genes that may cause illness or disease.

Although genetic testing can provide important information for diagnosing, treating and preventing illness, there are limitations. For example, if you’re a healthy person, a positive result from genetic testing doesn’t always mean you will develop a disease. On the other hand, in some situations, a negative result doesn’t guarantee that you won’t have a certain disorder.

Talking to your doctor, a medical geneticist or a genetic counselor about what you will do with the results is an important step in the process of genetic testing.

When genetic testing doesn’t lead to a diagnosis but a genetic cause is still suspected, some facilities offer genome sequencing a process for analyzing a sample of DNA taken from your blood.

Everyone has a unique genome, made up of the DNA in all of a person’s genes. This complex testing can help identify genetic variants that may relate to your health. This testing is usually limited to just looking at the protein-encoding parts of DNA called the exome.

Genetic testing plays a vital role in determining the risk of developing certain diseases as well as screening and sometimes medical treatment. Different types of genetic testing are done for different reasons:

Generally genetic tests have little physical risk. Blood and cheek swab tests have almost no risk. However, prenatal testing such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling has a small risk of pregnancy loss (miscarriage).

Genetic testing can have emotional, social and financial risks as well. Discuss all risks and benefits of genetic testing with your doctor, a medical geneticist or a genetic counselor before you have a genetic test.

Before you have genetic testing, gather as much information as you can about your family’s medical history. Then, talk with your doctor or a genetic counselor about your personal and family medical history to better understand your risk. Ask questions and discuss any concerns about genetic testing at that meeting. Also, talk about your options, depending on the test results.

If you’re being tested for a genetic disorder that runs in families, you may want to consider discussing your decision to have genetic testing with your family. Having these conversations before testing can give you a sense of how your family might respond to your test results and how it may affect them.

Not all health insurance policies pay for genetic testing. So, before you have a genetic test, check with your insurance provider to see what will be covered.

In the United States, the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) helps prevent health insurers or employers from discriminating against you based on test results. Under GINA, employment discrimination based on genetic risk also is illegal. However, this act does not cover life, long-term care or disability insurance. Most states offer additional protection.

Depending on the type of test, a sample of your blood, skin, amniotic fluid or other tissue will be collected and sent to a lab for analysis.

The amount of time it takes for you to receive your genetic test results depends on the type of test and your health care facility. Talk to your doctor, medical geneticist or genetic counselor before the test about when you can expect the results and have a discussion about them.

If the genetic test result is positive, that means the genetic change that was being tested for was detected. The steps you take after you receive a positive result will depend on the reason you had genetic testing.

If the purpose is to:

Talk to your doctor about what a positive result means for you. In some cases, you can make lifestyle changes that may reduce your risk of developing a disease, even if you have a gene that makes you more susceptible to a disorder. Results may also help you make choices related to treatment, family planning, careers and insurance coverage.

In addition, you may choose to participate in research or registries related to your genetic disorder or condition. These options may help you stay updated with new developments in prevention or treatment.

A negative result means a mutated gene was not detected by the test, which can be reassuring, but it’s not a 100 percent guarantee that you don’t have the disorder. The accuracy of genetic tests to detect mutated genes varies, depending on the condition being tested for and whether or not the gene mutation was previously identified in a family member.

Even if you don’t have the mutated gene, that doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll never get the disease. For example, the majority of people who develop breast cancer don’t have a breast cancer gene (BRCA1 or BRCA2). Also, genetic testing may not be able to detect all genetic defects.

In some cases, a genetic test may not provide helpful information about the gene in question. Everyone has variations in the way genes appear, and often these variations don’t affect your health. But sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish between a disease-causing gene and a harmless gene variation. These changes are called variants of uncertain significance. In these situations, follow-up testing or periodic reviews of the gene over time may be necessary.

No matter what the results of your genetic testing, talk with your doctor, medical geneticist or genetic counselor about questions or concerns you may have. This will help you understand what the results mean for you and your family.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Jan. 06, 2018

Read the rest here:
Genetic testing – Mayo Clinic

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

New Jersey Stem Cell Therapy – Stem Cell Center Of NJ

COPD

Over 32 million Americans suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also known as COPD). COPD is a progressive lung disease, however regenerative medicine, such as lung regeneration therapies using stem cells are showing potential for COPD by encouraging tissue repair and reducing inflammation to the diseased lung tissue.

Following up with stem cell therapy and exome therapy immediately in the first 36 to 48 hours after stroke symptoms surface has proven to be crucial to long-term recovery and regaining mobility again. Cell therapy also calms post-stroke inflammation in the body, and reduces risk of serious infections.

Parkinsons is a neurodegenerative brain disorder caused by the gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. It afflicts more than 1 million people in the U.S., and currently, there is no known cure. Stem cell therapies have been showing incredible progress. Using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, a mature cell can be reprogrammed into an embryonic-like, healthy and highly-functioning state, which has the potential to become a dopamine-producing cell in the brain.

A thick, full head of hair is possible, naturally! Stem cell and exosome therapy promotes healing from within to naturally stimulate hair follicles, which encourages new hair growth. Using your own stem cells, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and exosomes, you can regrow your own healthy, thick hair naturally and restore your confidence!

Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue to improve performance and sensation.

If chronic joint pain is derailing your active lifestyle, then youre not alone. Regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option that commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to reduce inflammation, promote natural healing and regenerate healthy tissue surrounding the joint for relief.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) affects 400,000 people in the U.S., and occurs when the body has an abnormal immune system response and attacks the central nervous system. Regenerative medicine now offers treatment for MS with stem cell therapy, which is an exciting and rapidly developing field of therapy. Stem cells work to repair damaged cells these new cells can become replacement cells to restore normal functionality.

Spinal cord injuries are as complex as they are devastating. Today, cellular treatments, usually a combination of therapies, such as stem cell, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and exosome therapy with growth factors are showing promise in contributing to spinal cord repair and reducing inflammation at the site of injury.

If you have chronic nerve injury pain that doesnt fade, your health care provider may recommend surgery to reverse the damage. However, regenerative medicine offers a non-surgical option to repair damaged tissue and reduce inflammation at the site of injury. Stem cell therapy commonly uses the patients own stem cells, exosomes, and other sources of growth factors to regenerate healthy tissue.

Neuropathy also called peripheral neuropathy occurs when nerves are damaged and cant send messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, skin and other parts of the body. Simply put, the two areas stop communicating. Stem cell and exosome therapies treat damaged nerves affected by neuropathy, and they have the ability to replicate and create new, healthy cells, while repairing damaged tissue.

See more here:
New Jersey Stem Cell Therapy – Stem Cell Center Of NJ

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Center for Gene Therapy :: The Research Institute at Nationwide …

The mission of the Center for Gene Therapy is to investigate and employ the use of gene and cell based therapeutics for prevention and treatment of human diseases including: neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, lysosomal storage disorders, ischemia and re-perfusion injury, neonatal hypertension, cancer and infectious diseases.

Learn about our areas of focus and featured research projects.

The Center for Gene Therapy and the Viral Vector Core are home to a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) production facility for manufacture of clinical-grade rAAV vectors.

View the Viral Vector Core & Clinical Manufacturing Facility site.

TheOSU and Nationwide Children’s Muscle Groupbrings together investigators with diverse research interests in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and neuromuscular biology.

Hosted by Kevin Flanigan, MD,”This Month in Muscular Dystrophy” podcastshighlight the latest in muscular dystrophy and other inherited neuromuscular disease research.During each podcast, authors of recent publications discuss how their work improves our understanding of inherited neuromuscular diseases, and what their work might mean for treatment of these diseases.

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Center for Gene Therapy :: The Research Institute at Nationwide …

Recommendation and review posted by sam

Nu You Med Clinic – Hormone Replacement Therapy Frankfort, KY

We started this clinic for natural hormone replacement in Frankfort, KY because my patients were fatigued with the lack of energy. They had loss of memory and difficulty thinking at times. They displayed irritability, anxiety, and depression-like symptoms. They were having decreased loss of muscle strength with joint pain. Along with these symptoms, they lacked sexual desire and performance. I knew their hormones were to blame but the medicines offered by the conventional medical community had potential side effects or even caused heart attacks, stroke, DVTs and cancer and I didnt really see them as effective.

I searched for a long time to find the right solution that would be safe for my patients, be effective and reverse all the symptoms they were experiencing. I found it in Human-identical Hormone Therapy or HRT for short. These hormones, along with some supplements, allowed my patients to regain energy and muscle strength while feeling younger and happier. They had increased mental clarity and ability to lose weight again. It restored or increased their sex drive and performance while decreasing their joint and muscle pain. Its been a great experience and we are just starting out. We are seeing people get theirlife back to want they want it to be. They are Living Happier and Aging Healthier.

If you want to see a video about what Dr. Lingreen thinks about hormone replacement pleasewatch the following:

.

Call to speak to a representative and see if Balanced Hormone therapy in Frankfort, KY is right for you. Just call (855) 592-4683 and leave a Voice Message and our staff will call you back.

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Nu You Med Clinic – Hormone Replacement Therapy Frankfort, KY

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

What is a Stem Cell Transplant (Bone Marrow Transplant)? | Cancer.Net

A stem cell transplant is a treatment for some types of cancer. For example, you might have one if you have leukemia, multiple myeloma, or some types of lymphoma. Doctors also treat some blood diseases with stem cell transplants.

In the past, patients who needed a stem cell transplant received a bone marrow transplant because the stem cells were collected from the bone marrow. Today, stem cells are usually collected from the blood, instead of the bone marrow. For this reason, they are now more commonly called stem cell transplants.

A part of your bones called bone marrow makes blood cells. Marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside bones. It contains cells called hematopoietic stem cells (pronounced he-mah-tuh-poy-ET-ick). These cells can turn into several other types of cells. They can turn into more bone marrow cells. Or they can turn into any type of blood cell.

Certain cancers and other diseases keep hematopoietic stem cells from developing normally. If they are not normal, neither are the blood cells that they make. A stem cell transplant gives you new stem cells. The new stem cells can make new, healthy blood cells.

The main types of stem cell transplants and other options are discussed below.

Autologous transplant. Doctors call this an AUTO transplant. This type of stem cell transplant may also be called high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.

In an AUTO transplant, you get your own stem cells after doctors treat the cancer. First, your health care team collects stem cells from your blood and freezes them. Next, you have powerful chemotherapy, and rarely, radiation therapy. Then, your health care team thaws your frozen stem cells. They put them back in your blood through a tube placed in a vein (IV).

It takes about 24 hours for your stem cells to reach the bone marrow. Then they start to grow, multiply, and help the marrow make healthy blood cells again.

Allogeneic transplantation. Doctors call this an ALLO transplant.

In an ALLO transplant, you get another persons stem cells. It is important to find someone whose bone marrow matches yours. This is because you have certain proteins on your white blood cells called human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The best donor has HLA proteins as much like yours as possible.

Matching proteins make a serious condition called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) less likely. In GVHD, healthy cells from the transplant attack your cells. A brother or sister may be the best match. But another family member or volunteer might work.

Once you find a donor, you receive chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Next, you get the other persons stem cells through a tube placed in a vein (IV). The cells in an ALLO transplant are not typically frozen. So, doctors can give you the cells as soon after chemotherapy or radiation therapy as possible.

There are 2 types of ALLO transplants. The best type for each patient depends his or her age and health and the type of disease being treated.

Ablative, which uses high-dose chemotherapy

Reduced intensity, which uses milder doses of chemotherapy

If your health care team cannot find a matched adult donor, there are other options. Research is ongoing to determine which type of transplant will work best for different patients.

Umbilical cord blood transplant. This may be an option if you cannot find a donor match. Cancer centers around the world use cord blood.

Parent-child transplant and haplotype mismatched transplant. These types of transplants are being used more commonly. The match is 50%, instead of near 100%. Your donor might be a parent, child, brother, or sister.

Your doctor will recommend an AUTO or ALLO transplant based mostly on the disease you have. Other factors include the health of your bone marrow and your age and general health. For example, if you have cancer or other disease in your bone marrow, you will probably have an ALLO transplant. In this situation, doctors do not recommend using your own stem cells.

Choosing a transplant is complicated. You will need help from a doctor who specializes in transplants. So you might need to travel to a center that does many stem cell transplants. Your donor might need to go, too. At the center, you talk with a transplant specialist and have an examination and tests. Before a transplant, you should also think about non-medical factors. These include:

Who can care for you during treatment

How long you will be away from work and family responsibilities

If your insurance pays for the transplant

Who can take you to transplant appointments

Your health care team can help you find answers to these questions.

The information below tells you the main parts of AUTO and ALLO transplants. Your health care team usually does the steps in order. But sometimes certain steps happen in advance, such as collecting stem cells. Ask your doctor what to expect before, during, and after a transplant.

A doctor puts a thin tube called a transplant catheter in a large vein. The tube stays in until after the transplant. Your health care team will collect stem cells through this tube and give chemotherapy and other medications through the tube.

You get injections of a medication to raise your number of white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infections.

Your health care team collects stem cells, usually from your blood.

Time: 1 to 2 weeks

Where its done: Clinic or hospital building. You do not need to stay in the hospital overnight.

Time: 5 to 10 days

Where its done: Clinic or hospital. At many transplant centers, patients need to stay in the hospital for the duration of the transplant, usually about 3 weeks. At some centers, patients receive treatment in the clinic and can come in every day.

Time: Each infusion usually takes less than 30 minutes. You may receive more than 1 infusion.

Where its done: Clinic or hospital.

Time: approximately 2 weeks

Where its done: Clinic or hospital. You might be staying in the hospital or you might not.

Time: Varies based on how the stem cells are collected

Where its done: Clinic or hospital

Time: 5 to 7 days

Where its done: Many ALLO transplants are done in the hospital.

Time: 1 day

Where its done: Clinic or hospital.

You take antibiotics and other drugs. This includes medications to prevent graft-versus-host disease. You get blood transfusions through your catheter if needed. Your health care team takes care of any side effects from the transplant.

After the transplant, patients visit the clinic frequently at first and less often over time.

Time: Varies

For an ablative transplant, patients are usually in the hospital for about 4 weeks in total.

For a reduced intensity transplant, patients are in the hospital or visit the clinic daily for about 1 week.

The words successful transplant might mean different things to you, your family, and your doctor. Below are 2 ways to measure transplant success.

Your blood counts are back to safe levels. A blood count is the number of red cells, white cells, and platelets in your blood. A transplant makes these numbers very low for 1 to 2 weeks. This causes risks of:

Infection from low numbers of white cells, which fight infections

Bleeding from low numbers of platelets, which stop bleeding

Tiredness from low numbers of red cells, which carry oxygen

Doctors lower these risks by giving blood and platelet transfusions after a transplant. You also take antibiotics to help prevent infections. When the new stem cells multiply, they make more blood cells. Then your blood counts improve. This is one way to know if a transplant is a success.

It controls your cancer. Doctors do stem cell transplants with the goal of curing disease. A cure may be possible for some cancers, such as some types of leukemia and lymphoma. For other patients, remission is the best result. Remission is having no signs or symptoms of cancer. After a transplant, you need to see your doctor and have tests to watch for any signs of cancer or complications from the transplant.

Talking often with the doctor is important. It gives you information to make health care decisions. The questions below may help you learn more about stem cell transplant. You can also ask other questions that are important to you.

Which type of stem cell transplant would you recommend? Why?

If I will have an ALLO transplant, how will we find a donor? What is the chance of a good match?

What type of treatment will I have before the transplant? Will radiation therapy be used?

How long will my treatment take? How long will I stay in the hospital?

How will a transplant affect my life? Can I work? Can I exercise and do regular activities?

How will we know if the transplant works?

What if the transplant doesnt work? What if the cancer comes back?

What are the side effects? This includes short-term, such as during treatment and shortly after. It also includes long-term, such as years later.

What tests will I need later? How often will I need them?

If I am worried about managing the costs of treatment, who can help me with these concerns?

Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

Making Decisions About Cancer Treatment

Donating Blood and Platelets

Donating Umbilical Cord Blood

Explore BMT

Be the Match: National Marrow Donor Program

Blood & Marrow Transplant Information Network

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Understanding Transplantation as a Treatment Option

National Bone Marrow Transplant Link

Follow this link:
What is a Stem Cell Transplant (Bone Marrow Transplant)? | Cancer.Net

Recommendation and review posted by sam

Hypopituitarism – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment – Prime Health Channel

[Total: 0 Average: 0/5] What is Hypopituitarism ?

Hypopituitarism refers to a rare clinical syndrome that is characterized by the low secretion of one or more hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. It is a condition primarily affecting the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The hormones that are produced by the pituitary glands and may be affected by hypopituitarism are Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Growth Hormone (GH) and Prolactin. When any one of these hormones is affected, one is considered to suffer from Partial Hypopituitarism and the case involving several hormones at a time is known as Panhypopituitarism. The German physician, Dr.Morris Simmonds can be credited to have detected and described the first such condition as early as 1914. Both children and adults may suffer from hypopituitarism which may be caused by a number of reasons affecting the pituitary glands. An underactive pituitary gland affects the normal body functions. One who is affected with hypopituitarism since birth or inherits the same, is said to suffer from congenital or postpartum hypopituitarism. However, like hypoparathyroidism, hypopituitarism is a disease that is most likely to last for life, so its treatment also lasts long.

The symptoms of hypopituitarism basically depend on the deficiency of a particular hormone secreted by the pituitary glands and its severity as well as the underlying cause responsible for it as. The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism are usually subtle in nature but may also appear very suddenly.

In cases such as insufficient gonadotropins production that is actually secreted by the follicle-stimulating hormone and the luteinizing hormone, one may experience sexual problems such as hot flashes, infertility, impotence, loss of pubic hair, decreased sperm production, drying of the vagina, shriveling of the testes, amenorrhea or the absence of menstrual cycle in women and altogether a decreased sex drive. It may also cause osteoporosis in adults. The deficiency of such a hormone may be responsible for delaying puberty in children.

Insufficient production of the growth hormone caused by hypopituitarism in adults usually has no specific symptoms. But growth hormone deficiency may cause hypopituitarism dwarfism in children. This kind of specific hormone deficiency is more associated with people already suffering from tumor in the pituitary glands. One may suffer from the enlargement of the limbs or acromegaly, headaches, autoimmune inflammation of the pituitary glands or lymphocytic hypophysitis, and pituitary apoplexy or stroke.

The deficiency or the poor secretion of the TSH may be signaled by the gain or loss of weight, puffiness or the drying of the skin, sensitivity towards cold, constipation and even cretinism. The poor functioning of the pituitary glands to produce the ACTH or the prolactin results in low blood pressure, fatigue, stress, low blood sugar, anemia and the lack of production of breast milk in women after the birth of a child. On a more general sense, people with hypopituitarism may suffer from skin, nail and hair problems.

The causes of hypopituitarism are quite a few in number and also quite distinct by nature. The most common cause of hypopituitarism is the development of tumor in any of the pituitary glands. Such a condition is also known as pituitary adenomas in which case the normal tissues in the gland are compressed and it may also cause brain tumors, namely, craniopharyngiomas, glioma, chordoma, metastasis, ependymoma, and meningioma that are actually derivatives from pituitary gland problems. Cancer may also aggravate hypopituitarism.

Other common causes of hypopituitarism include hypophysis trauma, brain injury, ill effects of neurosurgical operations and ionizing radiation therapies to cure brain tumors and transsphenoidal adenomectomy.

Infections of the brain or the pituitary glands such as meningitis, brain abscess, syphilis, and encephalitis may also be responsible for causing hypopituitarism. Inflammatory diseases like amyloidosis and sarcoidosis are other causes of hypopituitarism. Diseases associated with infiltration by abnormal cells, histiocytosis and neurosarcoidosis may also be held responsible for hypopituitarism. Autoimmune diseases such as lymphocytic hypophysitis, empty sella syndrome that causes the disappearance of the pituitary tissues, and hemochromatosis or excessive iron content in the body may also be attributed to the occurrence of hypopituitarism.

Vascular hypopituitarism is a disease that affects pregnant women when their pituitary gland is harmed due to hemorrhage or infarction, or excessive bleeding following a delivery, a condition known as Sheehanss Syndrome. Pituitary apoplexy and strokes may also be held responsible for the same. On the other hand, congenital hypopituitarism is a disorder that affects a child since his/her birth. It may arise as a result of genetic complications or complications related to the birth. Certain specific gene mutations may cause the poor development of the pituitary glands to such an extent that they even be on the verge of dysfunction. The condition related to the insufficient development of the glands is called hypoplasia. Congenital hypopituitarism may also be caused by the Kallmann Syndrome which causes a deficiency of the sex hormones.

Certain other syndromes such as Prader-Willi and Biedl, chronic metabolic and autoimmune syndromes such as diabetes insipidus may also be responsible for causing hypopituitarism. Any other kind of damage to the nerves or the vessels by either internal or external factors may also cause the deficiency of the pituitary hormones.

Some of the symptoms of hypopituitarism are so obvious and serious that may facilitate the easy diagnosis of the disorder. But for discerning the exact reason behind hypopituitarism, one must go through the proper clinical tests, which shall help in the proper diagnosis of the ailment.

Blood tests are the most common form of clinical test that is beneficial in the proper diagnosis of just not hypopituitarism but for most of the diseases and disorders. The blood tests are usually of two types, namely, basal level tests and dynamic tests. Basal level tests have a specific timing for the collection of blood samples, mostly early morning when one is not stimulated before being injected. One the other hand, dynamic tests requires one to get injected by a stimulant before conducting the actual blood test. Basal level tests are conducted in the case of the measurement of the FSH, TSH and prolactin. Whereas, low levels of growth hormone and ACTH can be detected by the dynamic blood test.

Another way to detect the cause of hypopituitarism is to undergo an x-ray of the neck, hand or the wrist. This is a way most common in cases related to hypopituitarism in children. However, if this method does not prove to be helpful, one may take recourse to the other imaging tests such as CT scan or an MRI.

CT scan or Computed Tomography and MRI are non-invasive diagnosis procedures that helps to detect any kind of abnormality just not associated with the pituitary glands but the body as a whole.

In addition to these, vision tests are conducted specially on children to conform if hypopituitarism tumor has caused any kind of impairment to the eyes. Moreover, in case of congenital hypopituitarism, one may be asked to undergo a genetic test in order to discern the exact cause of hypopituitarism. Urine specific gravity test is used for patients with hypopituitarism and diabetes. All of these diagnostic procedures facilitate the treatment of hypopituitarism.

The treatment for hypopituitarism depends on the underlying cause of the disease that has been detected through the various ways of diagnosis. Some of the treatment methods that are adopted include medicines, drugs, hormone replacement therapy, and radiation therapy. Surgeries and radiation therapies are usually performed in case of pituitary tumors.

The hormone replacement medications perform the similar functions that insulin is supposed to perform in case of diabetes. Such medications help the pituitary glands to artificially produce the hormones that it is deficient in. Some of the most commonly prescribed medications are corticosteroids such as prednisone and hydrocortisone, levothyroxine like synthroid and levoxyl, desmopression, sex hormones, namely, testosterone, progesterone and estrogen, and artificial growth hormones like the somatropin. Corticosteroids help in making up for ACTH deficiency, Levothyroxines help in replacing deficient TSH. Desmopression (DDAVP) or Vasopressin helps in the case of ADH deficiency and also to treat diabetes insipidus. The sex hormones are administered either through the skin to compensate for the deficiency of sex hormones in case of hypopituitarism. In fact, in case of severe hypopituitarism due to FSH and LH deficiency, one may have to be administered gonadotropins to stimulate the production of the sex hormones. The artificially produced growth hormones help in raising the height of children who had to suffer from a stunted growth due to hypopituitarism.

A surgery is usually conducted if one detects a tumor in the vicinity of the pituitary glands. Radiation therapies also serve the purpose of damaging the tumor through powerful radiations.

However, hypopituitarism is a disorder from which one cant escape till ones death. So, one need to go through routine tests in order to monitor the effects of the disorder and take precautions to thwart away the complications involved with hypopituitarism. So, undertaking the treatment for hypopituitarism under the supervision of an endicronologist is the best way to keep it on tabs.

References :

Wikipedia

http://www.emedicinehealth.com

http://www.mayoclinic.com

More:
Hypopituitarism – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment – Prime Health Channel

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

PPT Bone Marrow Transplantation Stem Cell Transplantation PowerPoint …

PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.

You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides andpresentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows – with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music – that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That’s all free as well!

For a small fee you can get the industry’s best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it’s free. We’ll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today – for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!

For a small fee you can get the industry’s best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it’s free. We’ll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today – for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!

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PPT Bone Marrow Transplantation Stem Cell Transplantation PowerPoint …

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

2018s 100% Real HCG Drops Real HCG Hormone Drops

last update January 15th 2018

List of Top HCG DropsSuppliers(with comparison chart)

The real hcg hormone drops can be purchased only from certain merchants and you should always double check whether they are authentic, original, legit and 100% pure. Everyone knows that there are loads of crappy company and sites selling fake hcg hormone drops. However, before you continue with your purchase, you might need to know the things you should look out for:

1. It should be pharmaceutical grade HCG. A pharmaceutical grade HCG is nothing but purest form of HCG. On the other hand, other types of HCG have hormones diluted with it reducing the effectiveness.

2. The HCG should be manufactured within US. Never Buy HCG supplied from Third world countries as they do not meet quality guidelines and might contain microbes.

3. Finally and most important of all, the process of manufacturing HCG must be approved by the FDA. If the merchant has this certificate then you can buy from them blindly. This will ensure that you are buying the real hcg drops and not fake ones.

Of all the real HCG suppliers HCG Complex is the best and meets all the above criteria. Moreover, they have great inventory that beats other suppliers.

Note: For a Limited Time HCG Complex is providing Buy One Get One Offer.

We have also listed a number of top HCG suppliers for your convenience. Browse each supplier and choose your product independently.

There are new and exiting offers for the year 2018. Therefore, ensure to check them out.

Obesity has become prevalent across the world. As a result, number of rapid weight loss programs and solutions have been developed. One of the effective solutions is HCG drops. They offer a painless, convenient and fast way to shed large pounds of weight in a short period. They contain HCG hormone that develops in considerable quantities during pregnancy. This hormone influences how the fats are utilized in the body. It is very effective for weight loss as it signals your hypothalamus to convert your fat deposits into energy. If you want to shed the extra pounds of weight, you should first learn how to find legit hcg drops, buy them and adhere to strict diet. This is important if you want to achieve the desired results. There are many reports published that reveal effectiveness of hcg drops for rapid weight loss.

HCG drops are simply drops you place on the tongue and it is comprised of HCG hormone. It may be found in shakes and some other products. The drops are scientifically proven to assist with weight loss. The oral administering is a good alternative to the injections. It is great, cheaper, way to losing weight on hcg diet. It attracts minimal costs and maximum dosage, no unnecessary trips to doctors and you are free to increase the dosage yourself to get desired results. The following are some of the important things you should consider on how to find legit hcg drops online:

A simple search online will yield a lot of products, companies and reviews. Any blog or review you are reading should cover quality of documentation. In addition, instructions about the product need to be included. The instructions ought to cover basics of diet; its implementation and it can be maintained throughout. It is important to note that the diet is very powerful and it will produce stunning weight loss results in short period. However, this is only possible if you adhere to diets guidelines. On the other hand, using inaccurate dieting instructions is likely to make your purchase useless. Therefore, a good review ought to list products or supporting information that comes with the purchase. All materials that are provided with your product need to describe the particular dosage instructions.

It is important to note that it is the ingredients that make hcg drops work. Therefore, they are very essential part of the information on how to find legit hcg drops. All the ingredients must be listed and their effect briefly explained. In this way you will be able to find out whether your hcg drops are going to work or not. Generally, the ingredients should follow guidelines set by FDA. Therefore, they should be manufactured in FDA approved facility. Homeopathic HCG is illegal in according to FDA. It is unfortunate that some manufacturing firms have incorporated illegal ingredients in their HCG drops products.

Simply, if all the ingredients of HCG drops are not listed, then never trust that product. In fact, failure to disclose the ingredients is a red flag and should be treated that way.

Most HCG drop reviews do not have price comparisons. You need price comparisons in order to find right products that meet your budget. Ideally, they should compare the size and price of every product. All these are important characteristics to give a consideration. This is because dosage plays an important role as it helps determine the duration your dosage will last.

You should note that not all HCG drops manufacturing companies are trustworthy and reputable. You should look for companies, which offer generous product guarantees and return policies. Some guarantees do have absurd rules in fine print, which are meant to discourage returns. A reputable company that offers legal hcg drops should offer solid guarantees and solid return policies. Such guarantees are important as they ensure that the company you are dealing with believes in its products and it is confident that you will be satisfied with them. Also, the company you are dealing with should have prominent contact customer support and phone number.

Any review you are reading about hcg drops should not promote a particular product. Ideally, it should offer honest and unbiased information about the products. This is the best way to ensure that all information you are getting is true.

You should note that hcg diet is available in different forms. However, diet drops is still the most popular form currently on the market. Therefore, before spending your hard-earned money, it makes sense to read legal hcg drops reviews. The information you get will be of help in finding best products from reputable companies.

Not all legal hcg drops are made equal. A number of homeopathic varieties have cropped up with the main intention of scamming customers. Homeopathic simply means the product contains no dosage at all or contains a small dosage. You will note that hcg diet is quite strict about need for the real dosages to make hcg effective. Generally, 500 calories and clinical dosages are needed daily to achieve the desired results.

Previously, it had become difficult for the customers to acquire real, legal, non-homeopathic hcg drops. But nowadays, it is possible to find genuine hcg drops that offer same results as injections.

One of the benefits of these drops is the instant results you get. In fact, the results are noted faster as compared to other diet products that take months. During the first days, you body begins feeling lighter. This will inspire and keep motivating you. Secondly, you will not have a constant hunger. This makes hcg drops perfect solution for people with busy lifestyles who want to lose weight. You will be able to continue working on important things without worrying about losing weight loss. This is possible as hcg hormone eliminates hunger feeling. While taking these drops, it is not a must to couple with exercises. The results are possible without exercises and there is no need to actively change your lifestyle. Lastly, it is a cost effective method of losing weight.

note: a recent research had indicates HCG diet is healthy as it is low in carbs.

HCG stands for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. It is a hormone that is produced within the body of pregnant women.

HCG is generally extracted from the urine of pregnant women. After 11 days of conception the body of pregnant women starts to produce HCG hormone. The amount of HCG within a pregnant womans body doubles every 45 hours or 90 hours. This level increases until the woman is 11 weeks pregnant. After that period the amount of HCG decreases steadily.

For Introduction to HCG diet Click Here

Any HCG hormone that is purest in its form without any other addition of hormone is known as pure HCG and in fact it is also known as pharmaceutical HCG.

It is a form of HCG that is known as homeopathic and does not contain much of HCG. And for your kind Information we would also like to state that Homeopathic HCG drops are not as effective as the real ones. Moreover, the FDA considers homeopathic HCG drops as Illegal as they shouldnt be prescribed within the US.

Dr Simeons was the first to find that HCG when consumed with low calorie diet can lead to weight loss. It was in India while studying pregnant women that he came to the conclusion. He wrote all his findings and published them as a book which today is sold worldwide called as Pounds and Inches.

The HCG works in several ways. For first it increases metabolism of the body so that it can burn more fat. Secondly, while being on HCG diet with low calorie the hormone programs the brain to stick with low fatty foods and avert themselves of high fatty substances. Therefore, even if you have stopped with your HCG diet you will still be able to lose weight.

Thirdly, It keeps the leans muscle from losing as it targets only the fat cells.

No, it is not possible to lose weight only on HCG hormone alone. You will have to accompany the meal protocol that is mentioned in the book Pounds and Inches written by Dr. Simeons. However, there are many other modern authors that have polished the works of Dr Simeons and have presented the works as theirs.

Ideally the diet will supply calorie anywhere from 500 to 800 per day.

Yes, it is completely safe as long as you eat the right mentioned foods. The meal protocol was meant to provide your body with whole nutrition keeping the calorie in check. Therefore, it is very important that you follow the meal protocol especially meant for HCG diet. Also check our HCG Mythsand a True story of weight loss on Shape.com

For the first week you might a little hard to keep on the low calorie food and you might get frequent cravings. However, from the second week you will noticed that you have adapted to the low calorie diet and you will no longer have those cravings. Moreover, the HCG hormone in itself is a hunger suppressant. Therefore, you do not have to worry about cravings as you will soon manage them within a week or two.

No, you cannot exercise while on the HCG diet. This is because while on the diet your body will burn fat at its maximum potential. Further increasing the metabolism through exercise will shoot the metabolism even higher. This can lead to imbalance within the body or will cause you to eat more. Eventually, you will end up in failing the weight loss. Hence, exercise during the HCG diet is strictly prohibited.

You will lose more weight that with any other diet. If you are following the meal protocol exactly then it is possible to lose up to 3 lbs per day. However, on average people lose at least one lbs per day.

It depends on you as only you know how much weight you wish to lose. A single bottle of HCG drops (1 oz) helps in losing around 7 to 12 lbs. The time it takes is a month on average. Therefore, if you wish to lose 50 lbs then we strongly recommend following the diet for at least 4 months in a row. Yes, you need to follow in a row as only then you will be able to lose weight. Skipping the HCG diet every month will throw your system to into chaos as it will forced to choose between fatty food consumption and low calorie consumption. Therefore, before starting your HCG diet plan it accordingly and decide for how long you wish to be on the diet and how much weight is needed to be lost.

After Dr. Simeons published his findings in a book the whole weight loss industry was thrown over as his diet became the most popular diet to lose weight instantly. However, FDA has yet to find any claims as to whether the HCG really helps in losing weight. Therefore, The FDA hasnt given its approval for HCG as a weight loss supplement. click here to see what FDA thinks about HCG diet.

FDA certified manufacturing process and FDA approved are two different things. The first says the manufacturing of the product is approved by the FDA (only the process not product). The second says that the product is approved and the HCG has no approval from FDA as a weight loss product.

Yes, as long as you buy from a legit seller. Before purchasing from any seller ensure that they are selling real hcg drops and not homeopathic. Secondly, do not buy from any other country except US as HCG imported to US from other countries is considered illegal and might carry infection.

Well, we have some great recommendation on our blog over here. However, if you ask which is the best of best then you must have noticed our recommendation at the top for HCG triumph which is a great brand as all their HCG drops are pharmaceutical grades. Moreover, they even have various types of HCG bottles for people for different tastes like homeopathics and HCG without Hormone.

Yes, actually there are many. We ask you to take a look at our top HCG brands and start out from there. It contains some awesome sites and they are great for casual purchase like a single bottle or for bundle packages. We update the page regularly and if you think we have missed any brand that is worth mentioning over there then kindly let us know through the contact page or comments.

If you are buying from a local store then yes you will need a prescription. However, if you are purchasing from online store then you wont probably need a prescription.

Most online sellers do not test you or ask for any work. However, we strongly advice that you get checked up by your personal physician and get to know if you are fit for the HCG diet. Some people are not meant to be on the low calorie diet and hence we suggest that you do not jump on HCG diet. Rather treat with it cautiously. It has known to cause arrhythmia in some cases.

The side effects of HCG drops are abdomen pain, nausea and loose stools. Other side effects might be possible. Check with your doctor.

This is a most common question and however, depends on the manufacturer and the case in which it is bottled. If you have purchased from a retailer who has manufactured in a lab approved by FDA and the glass bottle is colored to filter out sunlight then it is possible that the hormone would stay good for at least a year.

Note: HCG has also received some negative reviews like this one and yet people still trust it because it really does help in weight loss.

Disclaimer: All the above mentioned information should not be considered as an alternative to medial advise. Readers are advised to make their independent decision before purchasing HCG Diet or Drops.

Read more:
2018s 100% Real HCG Drops Real HCG Hormone Drops

Recommendation and review posted by sam

Sarapy Clinic – Hormone Replacement Therapy & Medical …

Doctor Sarah Ghayouri M.D.

San Diego Doctor Sarah K. Ghayouriis an internal medicine doctor, or internist, with more than 20 years of experience in adult medical care. She focuses on optimizing your overall health, disease prevention, medical weight loss to reverse obesity, and using anti-aging treatments to slow the aging process such as endocrinologist hormone replacement therapy and cosmetic dermatology and laser skin care. Shes the ideal primary care doctor if you wish to feel and look younger.

Many patients prefer having a primary care physician who is an internal medicine doctor, or internist, rather than a general family doctor, because internal medicine doctors have special training to deal with the challenging conditions and illnesses that affect adults as they age. High blood pressure, cholesterol, hormone imbalances, testosterone deficiency, adult growth hormone deficiency, adrenal and thyroid disease, menopause, diabetes, obesity, allergies, arthritis, skin problems, and premature aging are the more common issues that an internal medicine physician like Doctor Sarah treats.

I wish to partner with you in keeping optimal health and minimizing the risk of age related diseases. My goal is to provide innovative, high quality and personalized care in a compassionate atmosphere where the priority is the patient. I encourage patient education and informed life style changes.

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Sarapy Clinic – Hormone Replacement Therapy & Medical …

Recommendation and review posted by simmons

Studies: Stem cells reverse heart damage – CNN

Story highlights

On a June day in 2009, a 39-year-old man named Ken Milles lay on an exam table at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. A month earlier, he’d suffered a massive heart attack that destroyed nearly a third of his heart.

“The most difficult part was the uncertainty,” he recalls. “Your heart is 30% damaged, and they tell you this could affect you the rest of your life.” He was about to receive an infusion of stem cells, grown from cells taken from his own heart a few weeks earlier. No one had ever tried this before.

About three weeks later, in Kentucky, a patient named Mike Jones underwent a similar procedure at the University of Louisville’s Jewish Hospital. Jones suffered from advanced heart failure, the result of a heart attack years earlier. Like Milles, he received an infusion of stem cells, grown from his own heart tissue.

“Once you reach this stage of heart disease, you don’t get better,” says Dr. Robert Bolli, who oversaw Jones’ procedure, explaining what doctors have always believed and taught. “You can go down slowly, or go down quickly, but you’re going to go down.”

Conventional wisdom took a hit Monday, as Bolli’s group and a team from Cedars-Sinai each reported that stem cell therapies were able to reverse heart damage, without dangerous side effects, at least in a small group of patients.

In Bolli’s study, published in The Lancet, 16 patients with severe heart failure received a purified batch of cardiac stem cells. Within a year, their heart function markedly improved. The heart’s pumping ability can be quantified through the “Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction,” a measure of how much blood the heart pumps with each contraction. A patient with an LVEF of less than 40% is considered to suffer severe heart failure. When the study began, Bolli’s patients had an average LVEF of 30.3%. Four months after receiving stem cells, it was 38.5%. Among seven patients who were followed for a full year, it improved to an astounding 42.5%. A control group of seven patients, given nothing but standard maintenance medications, showed no improvement at all.

“We were surprised by the magnitude of improvement,” says Bolli, who says traditional therapies, such as placing a stent to physically widen the patient’s artery, typically make a smaller difference. Prior to treatment, Mike Jones couldn’t walk to the restroom without stopping for breath, says Bolli. “Now he can drive a tractor on his farm, even play basketball with his grandchildren. His life was transformed.”

At Cedars-Sinai, 17 patients, including Milles, were given stem cells approximately six weeks after suffering a moderate to major heart attack. All had lost enough tissue to put them “at big risk” of future heart failure, according to Dr. Eduardo Marban, the director of the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, who developed the stem cell procedure used there.

The results were striking. Not only did scar tissue retreat — shrinking 40% in Ken Milles, and between 30% and 47% in other test subjects — but the patients actually generated new heart tissue. On average, the stem cell recipients grew the equivalent of 600 million new heart cells, according to Marban, who used MRI imaging to measure changes. By way of perspective, a major heart attack might kill off a billion cells.

“This is unprecedented, the first time anyone has grown living heart muscle,” says Marban. “No one else has demonstrated that. It’s very gratifying, especially when the conventional teaching has been that the damage is irreversible.”

Perhaps even more important, no treated patient in either study suffered a significant health setback.

The twin findings are a boost to the notion that the heart contains the seeds of its own rebirth. For years, doctors believed that heart cells, once destroyed, were gone forever. But in a series of experiments, researchers including Bolli’s collaborator, Dr. Piero Anversa, found that the heart contains a type of stem cell that can develop into either heart muscle or blood vessel components — in essence, whatever the heart requires at a particular point in time. The problem for patients like Mike Jones or Ken Milles is that there simply aren’t enough of these repair cells waiting around. The experimental treatments involve removing stem cells through a biopsy, and making millions of copies in a laboratory.

The Bolli/Anversa group and Marban’s team both used cardiac stem cells, but Bolli and Anversa “purified” the CSCs, so that more than 90% of the infusion was actual stem cells. Marban, on the other hand, used a mixture of stem cells and other types of cells extracted from the patient’s heart. “We’ve found that the mixture is more potent than any subtype we’ve been able to isolate,” he says. He says the additional cells may help by providing a supportive environment for the stem cells to multiply.

Other scientists, including Dr. Douglas Losordo, have produced improvements in cardiac patients using stem cells derived from bone marrow. “The body contains cells that seem to be pre-programmed for repair,” explains Losordo. “The consistent thing about all these approaches is that they’re leveraging what seems to be the body’s own repair mechanism.”

Losordo praised the Lancet paper, and recalls the skepticism that met Anversa’s initial claims, a decade ago, that there were stem cells in the adult heart. “Some scientists are always resistant to that type of novelty. You know the saying: First they ignore you, then they attack you and finally they imitate you.”

Denis Buxton, who oversees stem cell research at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health, calls the new studies “a paradigm shift, harnessing the heart’s own regenerative processes.” But he says he would like to see more head-to-head comparisons to determine which type of cells are most beneficial.

Questions also remain about timing. Patients who suffer large heart attacks are prone to future damage, in part because the weakened heart tries to compensate by dilating — swelling — and by changing shape. In a vicious circle, the changes make the heart a less efficient pump, which leads to more overcompensation, and so on, until the end result is heart failure. Marban’s study aimed to treat patients before they could develop heart failure in the first place.

In a third study released Monday, researchers treated patients with severe heart failure with stem cells derived from bone marrow. In a group of 60 patients, those receiving the treatment had fewer heart problems over the course of a year, as well as improved heart function.

A fourth study also used cells derived from bone marrow, but injected them into patients two to three weeks after a heart attack. Previous studies, with the cells given just days afterward, found a modest improvement in heart function. But Monday, the lead researcher, Dr. Dan Simon of UH Case Medical Center, reported that with the three-week delay, patients did not see the same benefit.

With other methods, there may be a larger window of opportunity. At least in initial studies, Losordo’s bone marrow treatments helped some patients with long-standing heart problems. Bolli’s Lancet paper suggests that CSCs, too, might help patients with advanced disease. “These patients had had heart failure for several years. They were a wreck!” says Bolli. “But we found their stem cells were still very competent.” By that, he means the cells were still capable of multiplying and of turning into useful muscle and blood vessel walls.

Marban has an open mind on the timing issue. In fact, one patient from his control group e-mailed after the study was complete, saying he felt terrible and pleading for an infusion of stem cells. At Marban’s request, the FDA granted special approval to treat him. “He had a very nice response. That was 14 months after his heart attack. Of course that’s just one person, and we need bigger studies,” says Marban.

For Ken Milles, the procedure itself wasn’t painful, but it was unsettling. The biopsy to harvest the stem cells felt “weird,” he recalls, as he felt the doctor poking around inside his heart. The infusion, a few weeks later, was harder. The procedure — basically the same as an angioplasty — involved stopping blood flow through the damaged artery for three minutes, while the stem cells were infused. “It felt exacfly like I was having a heart attack again,” Milles remembers.

Milles had spent the first weeks after his heart attack just lying in bed re-watching his “Sopranos” DVDs, but within a week of the stem cell infusion, he says, “I was reinvigorated.” Today he’s back at work full time, as an accounting manager at a construction company. He’s cut out fast food and shed 50 pounds. His wife and two teenage sons are thrilled.

Denis Buxton says the new papers could prove a milestone. “We don’t have anything else to actually regenerate the heart. These stem cell therapies have the possibility of actually reversing damage.”

Bolli says he’ll have to temper his enthusiasm until he can duplicate the results in larger studies, definitive enough to get stem cell therapy approved as a standard treatment. “If a phase 3 study confirmed this, it would be the biggest advance in cardiology in my lifetime. We would possibly be curing heart failure. It would be a revolution.”

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Studies: Stem cells reverse heart damage – CNN

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Late-onset hypogonadism – Wikipedia

Late-onset hypogonadism is a rare condition in older men, characterized by measurably low testosterone levels and clinical symptoms mostly of a sexual nature, including decreased desire for sex, fewer spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction.[1] It is the result of a gradual drop in testosterone; a steady decline in testosterone levels of about 1% per year can happen and is well documented in both men and women.[2][3]

Late-onset hypogonadism is an endocrine condition as well as a result of aging.[1]

The terms “male menopause” and “andropause” are used in the popular media and are misleading, as they imply a sudden change in hormone levels similar to what women experience in menopause.[4]

As of 2016, the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male defines late-onset hypogonadism as a series of symptoms in older adults related to testosterone deficiency that combines features of both primary and secondary hypogonadism; the European Male Aging Study (a prospective study of ~3000 men)[5] defined the condition by the presence of at least three sexual symptoms (e.g. reduced libido, reduced spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction) and total testosterone concentrations less than 11 nmol/l (3.2ng/ml) and free testosterone concentrations less than 220 pmol/l (64 pg/ml).[1]

Some men present with the symptoms, but with normal testosterone levels, and some men with low testosterone levels have no symptoms; the reasons for this are not known.[1][6]

Some men in their late 40s and early 50s develop depression, loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, and other physical and emotional symptoms such as irritability, loss of muscle mass and reduced ability to exercise, weight gain, lack of energy, difficulty sleeping, or poor concentration; many of these symptoms may arise from a midlife crisis or as the results of a long-term unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, excess drinking, overeating, lack of exercise) and may be best addressed by lifestyle changes, therapy, or antidepressants.[4]

If a person has symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism, testosterone is measured by taking blood in the morning on at least two days; while immunoassays are commonly used, mass spectrometry is more accurate and is becoming more widely available.[6] The meaning of the measurement is different depending on many factors that affect how testosterone is made and how it is carried in the blood. Increased concentrations of proteins that bind testosterone in blood occur if the person is older, has hyperthyroidism or liver disease, or is taking anticonvulsant drugs (which are increasingly used for depression and various neuropathies), and decreased concentrations of proteins that bind testosterone occur if the person is obese, has diabetes, has hypothyroidism, has liver disease, or is taking glucocorticoids or androgens, or progestins.[6] If levels are low, conditions that cause primary and secondary hypogonadism need to be ruled out.[6][7][8]

Due to difficulty and expense of testing, and the ambiguity of the results, screening is not recommended.[1][6] While some clinical instruments (standard surveys) had been developed as of 2016, their specificity was too low to be useful clinically.[1]

Testosterone levels can and are well-documented to decline with aging at about 1% per year in both men and women after a certain age; the causes are not well understood.[1][2][3][9][10]

The significance of a decrease in testosterone levels is debated and its treatment with replacement is controversial. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone have been established in older men with low testosterone levels.[11] Testosterone replacement therapy should only be started if low levels have been confirmed;[7] in the US, this confirmation is not done about 25% of the time, as of 2015.[8] Testosterone levels should also be monitored during therapy.[7]

Adverse effects of testosterone supplementation may include increased cardiovascular (CV) events (including strokes and heart attacks) and deaths, especially in men over 65 and men with pre-existing heart conditions.[1] The potential for CV risks from testosterone therapy led the FDA to issue a requirement in 2015 that testosterone pharmaceutical labels include warning information about the possibility of an increased risk of heart attacks and stroke.[1][11] However, the data are mixed, so the European Medicines Agency, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the American College of Endocrinology have stated that no consistent evidence shows that testosterone therapy either increases or decreases cardiovascular risk.[1]

Other significant adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include acceleration of pre-existing prostate cancer growth; increased hematocrit, which can require venipuncture to treat; and, exacerbation of sleep apnea.[1]

Adverse effects may also include minor side effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as significant hair loss and/or thinning of the hair, which may be prevented with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ordinarily used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, such as finasteride or dutasteride.[12]

Exogenous testosterone may also cause suppression of spermatogenesis, leading to, in some cases, infertility.[1]

As of 2015, the evidence is inconclusive as to whether testosterone replacement therapy can help with erectile dysfunction in men with late-onset hypogonadism.[8] It appears that testosterone replacement therapy may benefit men with symptoms of frailty who have late-onset hypogonadism.[8]

The epidemiology is not clear; 20% of men in their 60s and 30% of men in their 70s have low testosterone;[2][8] around 5% of men between 70 and 79 have both low testosterone and the symptoms, so are diagnosed with late-onset hypogonadism.[2] The National Health Service describes it as rare.[4]

The impact of low levels of testosterone has been previously reported. In 1944, Heller and Myers identified symptoms of what they labeled the “male climacteric” including loss of libido and potency, nervousness, depression, impaired memory, the inability to concentrate, fatigue, insomnia, hot flushes, and sweating. Heller and Myers found that their subjects had lower than normal levels of testosterone, and that symptoms decreased dramatically when patients were given replacement doses of testosterone.[13][14]

Popular interest in the concept of “andropause” was fueled by the 1998 book Male Menopause, written by Jed Diamond, a lay person.[15] According to Diamond’s view, andropause is a change of life in middle-aged men, which has hormonal, physical, psychological, interpersonal, social, sexual, and spiritual aspects. Diamond claims that this change occurs in all men, may occur as early as age 45 to 50 and more dramatically after the age of 70 in some men, and that women’s and men’s experiences are somewhat similar phenomena.[16][17] The language of “andropause” and its supposed parallels with menopause have been rejected by the medical community.[4][18]

Thomas Perls and David J. Handelsman, in a 2015 editorial in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, say that between the ill-defined nature of the diagnosis and the pressure and advertising from drug companies selling testosterone and human growth hormone, as well as dietary supplement companies selling all kinds of “boosters” for aging men, the condition is overdiagnosed and overtreated.[19] Perls and Handelsman note that in the US, “sales of testosterone increased from $324 million in 2002 to $2 billion in 2012, and the number of testosterone doses prescribed climbed from 100 million in 2007 to half a billion in 2012, not including the additional contributions from compounding pharmacies, Internet, and direct-to-patient clinic sales.”[19]

As of 2016, research was necessary to find better ways to measure testosterone and to be better able to understand the measurements in any given person, and to understand why some people with low testosterone do not present with symptoms and some with seemingly adequate levels do present with symptoms.[1] Research was also necessary to better understand the cardiovascular risks of testosterone replacement therapy in older men.[1]

A relationship between late-onset hypogonadism and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and some small clinical studies have been conducted to prevent Alzheimer’s disease in men with late-onset hypogonadism; as of 2009, results were inconclusive.[20]

Read more:
Late-onset hypogonadism – Wikipedia

Recommendation and review posted by sam

Printing Skin Cells on Burn Wounds – Wake Forest School of …

Skin is the body’s largest organ. Loss of the skin barrierresults in fluid and heat loss and the risk of infection. Thetraditional treatment for deep burns is to cover them with healthyskin harvested from another part of the body. But in cases ofextensive burns, there often isn’t enough healthy skin toharvest.

During phase I of AFIRM, WFIRM scientists designed, built andtested a printer designed to print skin cells onto burn wounds. The”ink” is actually different kinds of skin cells. A scanner is usedto determine wound size and depth. Different kinds of skin cellsare found at different depths. This data guides the printer as itapplies layers of the correct type of cells to cover the wound. Youonly need a patch of skin one-tenth the size of the burn to growenough skin cells for skin printing.

During Phase II of AFIRM, the WFIRM team will explore whether atype of stem cell found in amniotic fluid and placenta (afterbirth)is effective at healing wounds. The goal of the project is to bringthe technology to soldiers who need it within the next 5 years.

This video — with a mock hand and burn — demonstrates the process.

More here:
Printing Skin Cells on Burn Wounds – Wake Forest School of …

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

Masculinizing hormone therapy – About – Mayo Clinic

Overview

Masculinizing hormone therapy is used to induce the physical changes in your body caused by male hormones during puberty (secondary sex characteristics) to promote the matching of your gender identity and body (gender congruence). If masculinizing hormone therapy is started before the changes of female puberty begins, female secondary sex characteristics, such as the development of breasts, can be avoided. Masculinizing hormone therapy is also referred to as cross-sex hormone therapy.

During masculinizing hormone therapy, you’ll be given the male hormone testosterone, which suppresses your menstrual cycles and decreases the production of estrogen from your ovaries. Changes caused by these medications can be temporary or permanent. Masculinizing hormone therapy can be done alone on in combination with masculinizing surgery.

Masculinizing hormone therapy isn’t for all transgender men, however. Masculinizing hormone therapy can affect your fertility and sexual function and cause other health problems. Your doctor can help you weigh the risks and benefits.

Mayo Clinic’s approach

Masculinizing hormone therapy is used to alter your hormone levels to match your gender identity.

Typically, people who seek masculinizing hormone therapy experience distress due to a difference between experienced or expressed gender and sex assigned at birth (gender dysphoria). To avoid excess risk, the goal is to maintain hormone levels in the normal range for the target gender.

Masculinizing hormone therapy can:

Although use of hormones is currently not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of gender dysphoria, research suggests that it can be safe and effective.

If used in an adolescent, hormone therapy typically begins at age 16. Ideally, treatment starts before the development of secondary sex characteristics so that teens can go through puberty as their identified gender. Hormone therapy is not typically used in children.

Masculinizing hormone therapy isn’t for everyone, however. Your doctor might discourage masculinizing hormone therapy if you:

Talk to your doctor about the changes in your body and any concerns you might have. Complications of masculinizing hormone therapy include:

Evidence suggests no increased risk of breast or cervical cancer.

The evidence that masculinizing hormone therapy increases the risk of ovarian and uterine cancer is inconclusive. Further research is needed.

Because masculinizing hormone therapy might reduce your fertility, you’ll need to make decisions about your fertility before starting treatment. The risk of permanent infertility increases with long-term use of hormones, especially when hormone therapy is initiated before puberty. Even after discontinuation of hormone therapy, ovarian and uterine function might not recover well enough to ensure that you can become pregnant.

If you want to have biological children, talk to your doctor about egg freezing (mature oocyte cryopreservation) or embryo freezing (embryo cryopreservation). Keep in mind that egg freezing has multiple steps ovulation induction, egg retrieval and freezing. If you want to freeze embryos, you’ll need to go through the additional step of having your eggs fertilized before they are frozen.

At the same time, while testosterone might limit your fertility, you’re still at risk of pregnancy if you have your uterus and ovaries. If you want to avoid becoming pregnant, use a barrier form of contraception or an intrauterine device.

Before starting masculinizing hormone therapy, your doctor will evaluate your health to rule out or address any medical conditions that might affect or contraindicate treatment. The evaluation might include:

You might also need a mental health evaluation by a provider with expertise in transgender health. The evaluation might assess:

Adolescents younger than age 18, accompanied by their custodial parents or guardians, also should see doctors and mental health providers with expertise in pediatric transgender health to discuss the risks of hormone therapy, as well as the effects and possible complications of gender transition.

Typically, you’ll begin masculinizing hormone therapy by taking testosterone. Testosterone is given either by injection or by a patch or gel applied to the skin. Oral testosterone or synthetic male sex hormone (androgen) medication shouldn’t be used because of potential adverse effects on your liver and lipids.

If you have persistent menstrual flow, your doctor might recommend taking progesterone to control it.

Masculinizing hormone therapy will begin producing changes in your body within weeks to months. Your timeline might look as follows:

After masculinizing hormone therapy, you’ll meet regularly with your doctor. He or she will:

After masculinizing hormone therapy, you will also need routine preventive care if you have not had certain surgical interventions, including:

When undergoing cervical cancer screening, be sure to share that you’re on testosterone therapy and make sure that the gender designation on your sample is disregarded. This kind of therapy can cause your cervical tissues to thin (cervical atrophy), which might mimic a condition in which abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix (cervical dysplasia).

Aug. 31, 2017

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Masculinizing hormone therapy – About – Mayo Clinic

Recommendation and review posted by simmons

Hypopituitary: Hypopituitarism Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What is Hypopituitaryism?

What Causes Hypopituitary?

A loss of function of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus results in low or absent hormones. Tumors can cause damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus and can therefore result in a loss of function. Damage to the pituitary gland can also be caused by radiation, surgery, infections (eg, meningitis), or various other conditions. In some cases, the cause is unknown.

What Are the Symptoms of Hypopituitary?

Some persons may have no symptoms or a gradual onset of symptoms. In other persons, the symptoms may be sudden and dramatic. The symptoms depend on the cause, rapidity of onset, and the hormone that is involved.

When to See a Doctor for Hypopituitary

Call the doctor or health care practitioner if any symptoms develop.

What Exams and Tests Diagnose Hypopituitary?

The doctor or health care practitioner may perform blood tests to determine which hormone level is low and to rule out other causes. The following tests may be performed:

An MRI or CT scan of the pituitary gland may be obtained to determine if a tumor is present.

In children, X-rays of the hands may be taken to determine if bones are growing normally.

What Is the Treatment for Hypopituitary?

Medical treatment consists of hormone replacement therapy and treatment of the underlying cause.

What Are the Medications Used to Treat Hypopituitary?

Drugs used to treat hypopituitarism replace the deficient hormone.

Is Surgery a Treatment Option for Hypopituitary?

Surgery may be performed depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor.

What Is the Follow-up for Hypopituitary?

Checkups with the doctor or health care practitioner are important. The doctor may need to adjust the dose of hormone replacement therapy.

What Is the Outlook for Hypopituitary?

If hormone replacement therapy is adequate, the prognosis is good. Complications are often related to the underlying disease.

Reviewed on 1/3/2018

Medically reviewed by John A. Daller, MD; American Board of Surgery with subspecialty certification in surgical critical care

REFERENCE:

“Clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism”

UpToDate.com

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Hypopituitary: Hypopituitarism Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

Finest Bioidentical Hormone Doctors | Hormone Specialist

Dr. Edmund Chein, M.D., author of Age Reversal, Bio-Identical Hormones and Telomerase, and Living to 120 and Beyond, has appeared on various radio and television shows such as:

Dr. Chein is a practicing physician in Palm Springs, California who is regarded by many as one of the founding fathers of longevity and anti-aging medicine.Today, he is known as one of the best bioidentical hormone doctors in the world.

His method of life extension was recently validated by achieving a biological age of 34 as measured by telomere length in the DNA at the calendar age of 61. His patients, who had followed him since 1994, achieved similar results.

He is offering a cash reward of $25,000 to the public for anyone who can show a difference of greater than 27 years between the persons biological age and calendar age.

Dr. Chein was trained at the University of Southern California Medical Center in Rehabilitation Medicine a specialty focused on restoring function to disabled patients. Now, Dr. Chein has narrowed his specialty to rehabilitating those suffering from the disease of aging. He considers aging to be a disease because aging, like any other disease, ultimately leads to death.

Dr. Chein learned the importance of hormone balancing during the years he replaced hormones in patients with damaged glands. In the early 1990s, he researched and discovered the miraculous benefits of the total hormone balancing treatment. His study with Dr. Cass Terry of the Medical College of Wisconsin showed that by replacing and balancing all the hormones in ones body, a person can improve and normalize the bodys systems and functions that deteriorate with age. This results in REVERSING ones biological age and eliminating age-related diseases such as elevated cholesterol, increased body fat, decreased energy and stamina, decreased immunity, decreased sexual functions, and wrinkling of skin. Together, they completed the largest study to date (of 1,000 human subjects) on supplementing growth hormone and other hormones to achieve reversal of biological age.

Dr. Chein was the first hormone doctor in the United States to discover and patent total hormone balancing therapy. He was also the first physician to supplement and optimize human growth hormone in adults in a private practice. In addition, Dr. Chein was the first physician to advocate supplementing thymus hormone and pregnenolone hormone.

Hormone specialist, Dr. Cheins work has been discussed in Newsweek, Health and Medicine for Physicians, Ability, Cosmopolitan, and Life Extension Magazine, to name a few.

In 1994, Dr. Chein founded the Palm Springs Life Extension Institute. The Institute is visited by hundreds of new patients from all over the world, and has the largest clinical client base in hormone replacement therapy. In 1996, he founded the American Academy of Longevity Medicine for bioidentical hormone physicians and scientists to pursue and exchange ideas regarding this new specialty.

In 2010, Dr. Chein founded the Autologous Stem Cell Therapy Institute. Autologous Stem Cell Therapy uses peripheral-blood-derived and adipose-tissue-derived autologous stem cells to regenerate damaged joints (such as torn meniscuses) and damaged organs such as the lungs (emphysema) and the brain (stroke).

He has been granted three patents by the United States Patent and Trademark Office for his discoveries in Total Hormone Replacement Therapy, Method of Hormone Treatment for Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, and Reversal of Coronary Blockages.

His publications include Clinical Experience Using a Low-Dose, High-Frequency Human Growth Hormone Treatment Regimen, Journal of Advancement in Medicine, December 1999, and Retrospective Analysis of the Effects of Low-Dose, High-Frequency Human Growth Hormone Treatment on Serum Lipids and Prostate-Specific Antigen, American Journal of Aging, May 2001.

In addition to his medical degree, Dr. Chein has a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from the University of Southern California and a Juris Doctor degree from Southwestern University School of Law.

Dr. Chein, a renowned name among bioidentical hormone doctors, has written three books:Age Reversal (1997)Bio-Identical Hormones and Telomerase (2011)Living to 120 and Beyond (2013)

Dr. Chein is often asked to speak publicly. Recent Activity

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Finest Bioidentical Hormone Doctors | Hormone Specialist

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Human Gene Therapy | Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

Human Gene Therapy is the premier, multidisciplinary journal covering all aspects of gene therapy. The Journal publishes in-depth coverage of DNA, RNA, and cell therapies by delivering the latest breakthroughs in research and technologies. Human Gene Therapy provides a central forum for scientific and clinical information, including ethical, legal, regulatory, social, and commercial issues, which enables the advancement and progress of therapeutic procedures leading to improved patient outcomes, and ultimately, to curing diseases.

The Journal is divided into three parts. Human Gene Therapy, the flagship, is published 12 times per year. HGT Methods, a bimonthly journal, focuses on the applications of gene therapy to product testing and development. HGT Clinical Development, a quarterly journal, serves as a venue for publishing data relevant to the regulatory review and commercial development of cell and gene therapy products.

Human Gene Therapy was voted one of the most influential journals in Biology and Medicine over the last 100 years by the Biomedical & Life Sciences Division of the Special Libraries Association.

Human Gene Therapy, HGT Methods, and HGT Clinical Development are under the editorial leadership of Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Deput Editors Europe Nathalie Cartier, MD, INSERM, andThierry VandenDriessche, PhD, Free University of Brussels (VUB); Deputy Editors U.S. Barry J. Byrne, MD, PhD,Powell Gene Therapy Center, University of Florida, College of Medicine and Mark A. Kay, MD, PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine; Human Gene Therapy Editor Guangping Gao, PhD, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Methods Editor Hildegard Bning, PhD, Hannover Medical School; Clinical Development Editor James M. Wilson, MD, PhD,University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Gene Therapy Program; and other leading investigators. View the entire editorial board.

Audience: Geneticists, medical geneticists, molecular biologists, virologists, experimental researchers, and experimental medicine specialists, among others.

Human Gene Therapy and HGT Methods provide Instant Online publication 72 hours after acceptance

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Human Gene Therapy | Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

Most Common Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

While there is no cure for multiple sclerosis yet, there are plenty of options available that can help treat symptoms, relapses, and the disease itself.

For those most part, those treatments can fall into one of three camps, each with different purposes. Those treatments are medications, corticosteroids, and disease modifying agents.

Let’s look at each a little more closely.

Medications

Medications may be used short term or long term, and for a variety of different reasons. In general, though, most doctors will prescribe medications as part of an effort to minimize the intensity of various symptoms, thereby improving daily function and quality of life. For instance, if MS is resulting in depression for you, a doctor might prescribe antidepressants.

Corticosteroids

Steroids are often prescribed for MS patients as a way of reducing the severity of a flare-up or relapse, and as such, are usually only prescribed over short periods of time, such as a few days up to a few weeks. Prednisone is one of the most commonly prescribed, though there are others as well.

Disease-Modifying Agents

So far the FDA has approved close to a dozen of these drugs, each of which is aimed at slowing the progression of multiple sclerosis. In general they are most often prescribed for patients with relapse remitting MS or secondary progressive MS.

Combination Prescriptions

For most MS patients, their treatment plan may include several different prescriptions from more than one of the categories above. Some treatments work better than others, and what works well for one MS patient may not work at all for another. As a result, it can take time to determine a medication plan that makes sense for your individual case.

Medications and steroids have long been part of MS treatment plans; disease-modifying agents are a little newer, but most MS patients are now on them.

Let’s look a little more closely.

DMA Questions

DMAs aren’t always easy to take, can have serious side effects (which means they require far more monitoring and testing than the more established other classes of MS drugs), and can be quite expensive. While some patients get assistance in paying for these drugs, either through drug trials, financial aid, or spectacular insurance, far more MS patients are forced to pay out of pocket.

And some studies are now suggesting that DMAs may not work, as interferons (the active part of DMAs) may not actually reduce MS progression. At this time, the research remains mixed.

So should you take a DMA. Or what medication should you take?

Medication Guidelines

First, keep in mind that you didn’t go to medical school. Your doctors, on the other hand, did. At the same time, it’s your body, and you have every right to be informed about what goes in it as part of your treatment plan.

Toward that end, I have a few tips:

  • Doctors aren’t always right. MS patients should listen to their doctor’s knowledge and expertise, certainly, but they should also have final say as to what goes in their body.
  • You rarely if ever will have to make a treatment decision immediately. Instead, you can take your time in doing your research most of the time, as a delay of a few weeks will rarely make a difference in the overall progression of your MS. Use common sense, but also do your research.
  • Toward that end, research thoroughly. Look at the drug trials information, the contraindications, and more. Carefully evaluate any study you look at.
  • And lastly, know the risks and benefits of any drug you do take. If you’re young especially, consider the long-term risks as well.

There still is no cure for MS, nor is there any magic that it’ll make it disappear. You can, however, manage your treatment and do your homework. You can also take care of yourself by taking your own action, making sure you get plenty of sleep, limit stress, exercise regularly, and eat well. Alternative therapies such as massage or yoga can also help.

No matter what your treatment, though, remember: You are in charge of your MS.

Multiple Sclerosis – An infographic by MS

 

Recommendation and review posted by Rebecca Evans

The Genetics of Depression Are Different for Men and Women

A wiring diagram of a human brain.Illustration: NIH

There may not be a single depression gene, but theres no question that our genetic makeup is an important factor in whether or not we get depressed. And our sex, it turns out, can be a factor in how those genes are expressed. In men and women diagnosed with major depressive disorder, the same genes show the opposite changes. In other words, the molecular underpinnings of depression in men and women may be different.

Thats according to a new postmortem brain study published on Wednesday in the journal Biological Psychiatry. The study could in the future help lead to more effective treatments for depression, if it turns out that men and women need different types of treatment.

To arrive at that conclusion, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Torontos Centre for Addiction and Mental Health analyzed gene expression levels in the postmortem brain tissue of 50 people who had major depressive disorder, of which 26 were men and 24 were women. (The data on their subjects was collected from several existing published data sets.) They also looked at the postmortem brain tissue of 50 men and women not diagnosed with depression. Gene expression levels are an indication of how much of a particular protein an individual gene is producing.

In the women with depression, they found that genes affecting synapse function were more expressed, meaning genes that play a role in how electrical activity is transferred between cells were producing more protein. In men, those same genes had decreased expression. In other genes with altered expression, a particular change occurred in only men or only women. Of 706 gene variants in men with depression and 882 variants in women with depression, 52 of the genes showed opposite changes in expression between the men and women. Only 21 genes changed in the same way in both sexes.

In the study, researchers focused on three regions of the brain that regulate mood: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and basolateral amygdala. To bolster their findings, they also looked at a smaller dataset of men and women with major depressive disorder and found similar results. More research, including studies in living patients, will be necessary to further validate the results.

The study is significant for two reasons. For one, it is the first to suggest an opposing pathology for depression in men and women, which could eventually influence how depression is treated. Depression is complex disease that occurs in different regions of the brain, and increased understanding of the neurology and genetics of depression may lead to tailored depression treatments that are far more effective.

But the study also highlights the necessity of diversity in scientific study. Major depressive disorder affects women about twice as often as men. Women are also more likely to experience symptoms like weight gain along with depression, suggesting the biological mechanisms at work may be different. But many depression studies only look at men, and ones that look at both sexes do not necessarily differentiate between the two when reporting findings.

The science of genetics overwhelmingly suggests how similar we all really are. But it also underscores how much there is to gain from understanding and embracing how we are different.

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The Genetics of Depression Are Different for Men and Women

Recommendation and review posted by simmons


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