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Male hypogonadism – Mayo Clinic

Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn’t produce enough testosterone the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty or has an impaired ability to produce sperm or both.

You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life from injury or infection. The effects and what you can do about them depend on the cause and at what point in your life male hypogonadism occurs. Some types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy.

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Male hypogonadism Symptoms – Mayo Clinic

Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition develops.

If the body doesn’t produce enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired growth of the external sex organs. Depending on when hypogonadism develops and how much testosterone is present, a child who is genetically male may be born with:

Male hypogonadism may delay puberty or cause incomplete or lack of normal development. It can cause:

In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs and symptoms may include:

Hypogonadism can also cause mental and emotional changes. As testosterone decreases, some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause in women. These may include:

See a doctor if you have any symptoms of male hypogonadism. Establishing the cause of hypogonadism is an important first step to getting appropriate treatment.

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Hypogonadism – definition of Hypogonadism by Medical …

Hypogonadism Definition

Hypogonadism is the condition more prevalent in males in which the production of sex hormones and germ cells are inadequate.

Gonads are the organs of sexual differentiationin the female, they are ovaries; in the male, the testes. Along with producing eggs and sperm, they produce sex hormones that generate all the differences between men and women. If they produce too little sex hormone, then either the growth of the sexual organs or their function is impaired.

The gonads are not independent in their function, however. They are closely controlled by the pituitary gland. The pituitary hormones are the same for males and females, but the gonadal hormones are different. Men produce mostly androgens, and women produce mostly estrogens. These two hormones regulate the development of the embryo, determining whether it is a male or a female. They also direct the adolescent maturation of sex organs into their adult form. Further, they sustain those organs and their function throughout the reproductive years. The effects of estrogen reach beyond that to sustain bone strength and protect the cardiovascular system from degenerative disease.

Hormones can be inadequate during or after each stage of developmentembryonic and adolescent. During each stage, inadequate hormone stimulation will prevent normal development. After each stage, a decrease in hormone stimulation will result in failed function and perhaps some shrinkage. The organs affected principally by sex hormones are the male and female genitals, both internal and external, and the female breasts. Body hair, fat deposition, bone and muscle growth, and some brain functions are also influenced.

Sex is determined at the moment of conception by sex chromosomes. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. If the male sperm with the Y chromosome fertilizes an egg, the baby will be male. This is true throughout the animal kingdom. Genetic defects sometimes result in changes in the chromosomes. If sex chromosomes are involved, there is a change in the development of sexual characteristics.

Female is the default sex of the embryo, so most of the sex organ deficits at birth occur in boys. Some, but not all, are due to inadequate androgen stimulation. The penis may be small, the testicles undescended (cryptorchidism) or various degrees of “feminization” of the genitals may be present.

Besides the tissue changes generated by hormone stimulation, the only other symptoms relate to sexual desire and function. Libido is enhanced by testosterone, and male sexual performance requires androgens. The role of female hormones in female sexual activity is less clear, although hormones strengthen tissues and promote healthy secretions, facilitating sexual activity.

Presently, there are accurate blood tests for most of the hormones in the body, including those from the pituitary and even some from the hypothalamus. Chromosomes can be analyzed, and gonads can, but rarely are, biopsied.

Replacement of missing body chemicals is much easier than suppressing excesses. Estrogen replacement is recommended for nearly all women after menopause for its many beneficial effects. Estrogen can be taken by mouth, injection, or skin patch. It is strongly recommended that the other female hormone, progesterone, be taken as well, because it prevents overgrowth of uterine lining and uterine cancer. Testosterone replacement is available for males who are deficient.

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Chromosome : MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

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Research Xx Male Syndrome | World of Genetics

XX male syndrome occurs when the affected individual appears as a normal male, but has a female genotype (two X chromosomes). Two types of XX male syndrome can occur: those with detectable SRY gene and those without detectable SRY. SRY is the main genetic switch for determining that a developing embryo will become male.

XX male syndrome is a condition where the sex chromosomes of an individual do not agree with the physical sex of the affected person. Normally, there are 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs of chromosomes, in each cell. The first 22 pairs are the same in men and women. The last pair, the sex chromosomes, is two X chromosomes in females (XX) and an X and a Y chromosome in males (XY).

With XX male syndrome, the person has female chromosomes but male physical features. The majority of persons with XX male syndrome have the Y chromosome…

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Esther Konigsberg M.D. Toronto Hormone Doctor

As aToronto Bioidentical Hormone Doctor specialist, Esther Konigsberg, M.D. uses advanced anti-aging protocols, such as bio-identical hormone replacement therapy to increase vitality and improve the overall quality of life. Esther Konigsberg, M.D. endeavors to listen to patients needs and concerns, while really taking the time to evaluate lifestyle factors, social habits, stress levels, environmental factors, and hormonal balance.

After taking all of a patients history and current health factors into consideration Esther Konigsberg, M.D. will develop a customized treatment plan to suit the individual. At the Toronto Bioidentical Hormone based clinic, patients can feel confident that they will receive comprehensive care in a warm and caring environment, and Esther Konigsberg, M.D. will use only the most effective treatment protocols to help patients recover their health and wellness.

Bioidentical hormones have the same molecular structure and function as those naturally occurring in men and women. Bioidentical hormones can be used to replace any synthetic hormone replacement therapy (sHRT) estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, thyroid hormone, DHEA, etc.

Bio-identical hormones are usually formulated by a special compounding pharmacist. sHRT are branded and patented pharmaceutical drugs. To obtain a patent for any drug, the molecular structure must be modified from how it occurs in nature. The result is a hormone that looks very similar to the hormone that the body makes but, in fact, is very different in structure and function.

Compounded bio-identical hormones cannot be patented because their molecular structure is the same as they occur in nature. There are several exceptions where bio-identical hormones are used in patented pharmaceuticals (e.g., Prometrium, Estrace) because they have a novel delivery system or some quality that made them unique and patentable. Unfortunately, these medicines can contain additives, preservatives, dyes and other potential allergens, which make them an unacceptable option for many people. They are also only available in certain doses. Compounded bio-identical hormones are free of undesirable chemicals and doses can be tailored for each individual. In addition, compounded hormones are available in many forms oral, sublingual, topical, vaginal whichever works best for each patient.

sHRT has more potential to be broken down into harmful metabolites than bio-identical hormones which are identical to the hormones already circulating in your body. Those of us who prescribe bio-identical hormones believe that this is the core reason why sHRT has many of the negative health effects that it does.

While dietary and lifestyle changes, supplements and herbs can often resolve symptoms of hormonal imbalance, there are times when hormone replacement is the only option that provides sufficient relief. Hormone imbalance affects women of reproductive age as well as menopausal women and men.

Symptoms can include but are not limited to: difficult menopause, PMS and painful periods, irregular periods, fertility issues, adult acne, endometriosis, fibroids, ovarian cysts, abnormal hair growth, weight gain, muscle loss, insomnia, decreased libido, fatigue, insomnia, thyroid dysfunction, bone loss, anxiety, depression, cognitive decline, etc. Men can experience much of the above as well as erectile dysfunction.

Blood tests may be recommended to determine the right dosage of bio-identical hormone therapy. The most common initial blood test will include testing for thyroid hormones, DHEAS (a hormone secreted from the adrenal glands and a precursor for sex hormones), testosterone and possibly estrogens and progesterone levels, etc.

At Integrative Medicine Consultants, INC, we believe that bio-identical hormones are a vital alternative to sHRT. While they do NOT remove all the risks involved with taking hormones, emerging research shows bio-identical hormones not only relieve hormonal symptoms, they also minimize the negative side effects and long-term health risks associated with sHRT.

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Hormone Therapy Utah | East Bay Hormone Therapy Center

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Hypopituitarism in Children: Get Information About Symptoms

Hypopituitarism in Children Hypopituitarism in Children Overview

The pituitary is a small gland located at the base of the brain, roughly in the space between your eyes. It is responsible for the regulation and secretion of a number of different hormones both in adults and in children. These are described in detail below.

Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce enough of one or more of these hormones. This condition may occur because of disease in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus (a part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland). When there is low or no production of all the pituitary hormones, the condition is called hypopituitarism. Hypopituitarism can occur at any age.

The pituitary gland sends signals to other glands to produce hormones (for example, it makes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH – which regulates production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland). The hormones released by the pituitary and other glands have a significant impact on important bodily functions, such as growth, reproduction, blood pressure, and metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body). When levels of one or more of these hormones are not properly balanced, the body’s normal functions can be affected.

The pituitary gland produces several hormones.

In hypopituitarism, the level of one or more of these pituitary hormones is insufficient. The lack of hormone results in a loss of function of the gland or organ that it controls.

The most common pituitary hormone deficiency is growth hormone deficiency. In the United States, growth hormone deficiency occurs rarely with a frequency of less than 1 in 3,480 children.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/23/2014

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Hypopituitary: Learn Hypopituitarism Causes and Symptoms

Hypopituitary Hypopituitary Overview

Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) does not produce one or more of its hormones or not enough of them. This condition may occur because of disease in the pituitary or hypothalamus (a part of the brain that contains hormones that control the pituitary gland). When there is low or no production of all the pituitary hormones, the condition is called panhypopituitarism. This condition may affect either children or adults.

The pituitary gland sends signals to other glands (eg, thyroid gland) to produce hormones (eg, thyroid hormone). The hormones produced by the pituitary gland and other glands have a significant impact on the bodys functions, such as growth, reproduction, blood pressure, and metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body). When one or more of these hormones is not produced properly, the bodys normal functions can be affected. Some of the hormones like cortisol and thyroid hormone may require prompt treatment, whereas others may not be life threatening.

The pituitary gland produces several hormones. Some of the important hormones are as follows:

In hypopituitarism, one or more of these pituitary hormones is missing. The lack of hormone results in a loss of function of the gland or organ that it controls.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/30/2014

Medical Author:

James R Mulinda, MD, FACP, FACE

Medical Editor:

Arthur B Chausmer, MD, PhD, FACP, FACE, FACN, CNS

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Denver Bioidentical Hormone Doctors

http://www.denverbioidenticalhormones.com

As a CentennialBioidentical Hormones specialist, Lori Moore FNP-Coffers bio-identical hormone replacement therapy programs in Centennial to help men and women recover from the effects of hormone decline. Bioidentical hormones not only make a patient look and feel better, they also prevent the diseases and decline associated with aging, such as heart disease, neurological dysfunction, Alzheimers, bone weakness, osteoporosis, weight gain, diabetes, poor moods, low energy, reduced sex drive, and hair, skin and nails support. These are just some of the conditions that only bio-identical hormones are proven to help prevent. Centennial Bioidentical HormoneSpecialist, Lori Moore FNP-C is affiliated with Dr. Neal Rouzier, an innovator and leader in the research, development and art of longevity medicine. She has completed extensive bio-identical hormone replacement training with Dr. Neal Rouzier, an innovator and educator in the research and development of the medical specialty Bio-identical Hormone Replacement and Balancing. Lori Moore personally does all blood draws, and she does not do pellets. She is trained in an Evidence-Based Bioidentical Hormone Protocol, which comes directly from the peer-reviewed medical literature. Her clinic is a small practice in Centennial Colorado where patients receive hands-on personal attention from Lori, the provider and owner, and a knowledgeable, caring front office person.

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http://www.bioidenticalboulder.com

Donna has practiced in the evolving field of Integrative Medicine for nearly twenty-five years, the past twelve years in Boulder Colorado. She is currently completing her PhD in Integrative Health Care. Donnas mind-body centered approach includes addressing each patient as a unique individual. Through science evidence based medicine and a comprehensive history, she assesses the patients individual biochemistry and physiology through definitive testing. She later applies a customized health management program, which may include detoxification, nutrition, and hormone balancing. Other patient modalities include stress management, self-regulating biofeedback, imagery and visualization and transpersonal counseling.

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The Hormone Doctor Estrogen – The Hormone Doctor

Estrogens are present in significant amounts in both men and women. Estrogen is not one hormone, it is the name of a group of hormones.

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The Hormone Doctor Estrogen – The Hormone Doctor

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Male hypogonadism Tests and diagnosis – Mayo Clinic

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam during which he or she will note whether your sexual development, such as your pubic hair, muscle mass and size of your testes, is consistent with your age. Your doctor may test your blood level of testosterone if you have any of the signs or symptoms of hypogonadism.

Early detection in boys can help prevent problems from delayed puberty. Early diagnosis and treatment in men offer better protection against osteoporosis and other related conditions.

Doctors base a diagnosis of hypogonadism on symptoms and results of blood tests that measure testosterone levels. Because testosterone levels vary and are generally highest in the morning, blood testing is usually done early in the day, near 8 a.m.

If tests confirm you have low testosterone, further testing can determine if a testicular disorder or a pituitary abnormality is the cause. Based on specific signs and symptoms, additional studies can pinpoint the cause. These studies may include:

Testosterone testing also plays an important role in managing hypogonadism. This helps your doctor determine the right dosage of medication, both initially and over time.

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Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine

Impact Factor: 2.204* Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine will accept manuscripts in most areas of molecular and genetic medicine both basic and applied. Keeping in view the considerable health-related problems faced by the developing nations, particular consideration will be given to articles on applied biomedical issues of the developing world, especially, research focusing on malaria, HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and microbial diseases. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine is a peer reviewed scientific journal known for rapid dissemination of high-quality research. This Molecular and Genetic Medicine Journal with high impact factor offers an open access platform to the authors in academia and industry to publish their novel research. It serves the International Scientific Community with its standard research publications. Manuscripts in the following categories will be considered for publication: reviews and mini-reviews, research articles and short research reports, new methods and technologies, opinions on previously published literature and letters to the editor, meeting reports and commercial, patent and product news (inquiries to the Editor). Submit manuscript at http://www.editorialmanager.com/jmgm/ (OR) Submit manuscripts as an E-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at editor.jmgm@omicsonline.net Unofficial 2014 Impact Factorwas established by dividing the number of articles published in 2012 and 2013 with the number of times they are cited in 2014 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If X is the total number of articles published in 2012 and 2013, and Y is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2014 than, impact factor = Y/X. Aims and Scope

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Jerome Zack: Creating iPS Cells – YouTube

In 2006 scientists learned how to create a pluripotent stem cell out of a human skin cell. These cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have many of the characteristics of embryonic stem cells including the ability to create mature cell types. Dr. Jerome Zack has a CIRM grant to create iPS cells that could be used in human therapies. Zack is Associate Director, UCLA AIDS Institute, professor of Medicine, Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, and a scientist with the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem cell Research at UCLA.

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Gene Therapy | Doctor | Patient.co.uk

In the 1990s there was great hope that this novel approach may provide an answer to many hitherto incurable diseases. The basic idea is to correct defective genes responsible for disease development. This can be achieved in a number of ways:

When a normal gene is inserted into the genome, a carrier molecule (a vector) is used. This will deliver the new gene to the target cells. The most commonly used vectors are viruses. The most commonly used viruses are:

These viruses are altered to carry normal human DNA. The patient’s target cells are infected with the vector, which deposits its genetic load including the gene to be replaced . The target cell is then able to produce a functioning protein. More recently, success has been seen by combining a tumour-specific adenovirus vector and several single therapy genes. Targeting gene-virotherapy has killed tumour cells with minimal damage to normal cells in mice.[1][2] There are also nonviral insertion options. The simplest method is direct introduction of new DNA into the target tissues. This is limited by the type of tissue and the amount of DNA required. An artificial lipid sphere with an aqueous core is created – a liposome – which can both carry the therapeutic DNA and pass it through the target cells membrane. The therapeutic DNA can also bind chemically to molecules that will attach to target cell receptor sites. These are then taken into the cell’s interior. This tends to be less effective than the other methods.

Human gene therapy is still largely in the experimental phase. There have been few big breakthroughs since the first trial started in 1990. There has also been at least one death attributed to therapy and two cases of leukaemia developing post-therapy. There are also technical problems involved:

In a bid to alleviate disease at the earliest possible stage, in utero fetal gene therapy has also been tried.[6] Prenatal screening for severe genetic disease such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Pompe’s disease and haemophilia B has been tested in mouse models. There have been issues with the development of liver tumours, insufficient target cells are reached and the therapy is not toxic enough to target cells. There are attempts underway to manufacture antitumour vaccines.In this technique Epstein-Barr virus vectors mediate gene transfer into human B lymphocytes.[7] Other areas of research include:

A recent trial, approved by the American Food and Drug Administration, is for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. This is a phase 1 clinical trial with 11 patients already enrolled. They are aiming to produce the neuroprotective and restorative subthalamic glutamic decarboxylase. There have been no adverse events reported to date.[13]

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Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism : MedlinePlus Medical …

Hypogonadism is a condition in which the male testes or the female ovaries produce little or no sex hormones. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a form …

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Diagnosis and Evaluation of Male Hypogonadism

Clinical signs and symptoms of male hypogonadism may be subtle, nonspecific, and influenced by the severity and duration of androgen deficiency, previous testosterone …

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Cook MyoSite Incorporated

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Genetic Testing – Genetics Home Reference

Please choose from the following list of questions for information about testing to identify changes in a persons genes, chromosomes, or proteins.

On this page:

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a persons chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. More than 1,000 genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed.

Several methods can be used for genetic testing:

Chromosomal genetic tests analyze whole chromosomes or long lengths of DNA to see if there are large genetic changes, such as an extra copy of a chromosome, that cause a genetic condition.

Genetic testing is voluntary. Because testing has benefits as well as limitations and risks, the decision about whether to be tested is a personal and complex one. A geneticist or genetic counselor can help by providing information about the pros and cons of the test and discussing the social and emotional aspects of testing.

MedlinePlus offers a list of links to information about genetic testing.

The National Human Genome Research Institute provides an overview of this topic in its Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing. Additional information about genetic testing legislation, policy, and oversight is available from the Institute.

The National Institutes of Health fact sheet Genetic Testing: What It Means for Your Health and for Your Familys Health provides a brief overview for people considering genetic testing.

Educational resources related to genetic testing are available from GeneEd.

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Genetic Testing Fact Sheet – National Cancer Institute

What is genetic testing?

Genetic testing looks for specific inherited changes (mutations) in a persons chromosomes, genes, or proteins. Genetic mutations can have harmful, beneficial, neutral (no effect), or uncertain effects on health. Mutations that are harmful may increase a persons chance, or risk, of developing a disease such as cancer. Overall, inherited mutations are thought to play a role in about 5 to 10 percent of all cancers.

Cancer can sometimes appear to run in families even if it is not caused by an inherited mutation. For example, a shared environment or lifestyle, such as tobacco use, can cause similar cancers to develop among family members. However, certain patternssuch as the types of cancer that develop, other non-cancer conditions that are seen, and the ages at which cancer typically developsmay suggest the presence of a hereditary cancer syndrome.

The genetic mutations that cause many of the known hereditary cancer syndromes have been identified, and genetic testing can confirm whether a condition is, indeed, the result of an inherited syndrome. Genetic testing is also done to determine whether family members without obvious illness have inherited the same mutation as a family member who is known to carry a cancer-associated mutation.

Inherited genetic mutations can increase a persons risk of developing cancer through a variety of mechanisms, depending on the function of the gene. Mutations in genes that control cell growth and the repair of damaged DNA are particularly likely to be associated with increased cancer risk.

Genetic testing of tumor samples can also be performed, but this Fact Sheet does not cover such testing.

Does someone who inherits a cancer-predisposing mutation always get cancer?

No. Even if a cancer-predisposing mutation is present in a family, it does not necessarily mean that everyone who inherits the mutation will develop cancer. Several factors influence the outcome in a given person with the mutation.

One factor is the pattern of inheritance of the cancer syndrome. To understand how hereditary cancer syndromes may be inherited, it is helpful to keep in mind that every person has two copies of most genes, with one copy inherited from each parent. Most mutations involved in hereditary cancer syndromes are inherited in one of two main patterns: autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive.

With autosomal dominant inheritance, a single altered copy of the gene is enough to increase a persons chances of developing cancer. In this case, the parent from whom the mutation was inherited may also show the effects of the gene mutation. The parent may also be referred to as a carrier.

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Life Extension (@LifeExtension) | Twitter

Life Extension @ LifeExtension. The latest research on health, wellness, nutrition, & aging. Offering unique, premium quality dietary supplements, vitamins, minerals …

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NEWS – Life Extension

Current findings published by news media worldwide on the topics of health and wellness, dietary supplements, diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and stroke, and numerous other subjects of interest to those who wish to live a longer, healthier life are posted each day in Life Extension Daily News. New articles posted seven days a week under the headings of vitamins, nutrition, disease and aging cover a range of subjects, from health tips for the lay person to peer-reviewed medical journal reports.

Under Aging, cutting-edge research that improves our understanding of the aging process is revealed, in addition to suggestions for anti-aging supplements as we grow older.

The Disease section reports medical breakthroughs as well as alternative therapies for conditions and diseases that affect many of us, such as stroke, atherosclerosis, and arthritis.

Items posted under Vitamins provide the latest research findings and practical information on the best vitamins contained in food and dietary supplements, as well as legislative information.

Can’t visit http://www.lef.org every day? Articles are archived under Aging, Disease, Nutrition and Vitamins (for a limited time period) to allow you to browse them at your leisure.

Articles featured in Life Extension Daily News are derived from a variety of news sources and are provided as a service by Life Extension. These articles, while of potential interest to readers of Life Extension Daily News, do not necessarily represent the opinions nor constitute the advice of Life Extension.

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