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Scientists discover change in cell logistics that helps cancer become resistant – The Institute of Cancer Research

Image: Proliferating cells in a tumour organoid of triple-negative breast cancer. Credit: Dr Rebecca Marlow

Researchers have uncovered a potential cause of sustained resistance to hormone therapy in the most common form of breast cancer.

The majority of breast cancersare hormone receptor positive these are cancers which have an oestrogen receptor on the surface of the cells. Hormone therapy is an effective treatment, but roughly 40 per cent of women relapse with a form of the disease which proves resistant to available treatments.

Scientists found that breast cancers which had become resistant to hormone therapy have a molecular advantage that helps their cells successfully evade hormone therapies, which are the best treatment option currently available for patients with hormone receptor positive (or ER+) cancers.

The study, led by researchers at Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences at the University of Florence, Italy, in collaboration with colleagues at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, has shown that breast cancer cells which are resistant to hormone therapy have more of a microRNA molecule called miR-23b-3p.

MicroRNA is involved in gene expression controlling whether a gene has an effect or not, and how much and the researchers found that miR-23b-3p causes a decrease in a type of protein for transporting amino acids which are either alkaline or neutral in pH.

In resistant breast cancer cells, a rise is seen in a different type of transporter which deals with the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate. Cells which are reliant on these acidic amino acids are able to continue to successfully resist hormone therapy treatment.

Scientists in our Division of Breast Cancer Research have been involved in some of the most famous discoveries in the history of breast cancer research. Learn how the ICR is tackling the most common type of cancer among women, which affects around one in eight women in their lifetime.

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In this study, which was published in Cell Reportsand funded by Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC)and Fondazione Umberto Veronesi, researchers used multiple models of cancer including the so-called patient-derived xenografts, which originate from a patient but are then implanted into a mouse model to aid their study and monitoring.

This allowed for careful and thorough experimentation on naturally growing cancers and provides data which is relevant for the original patient.

By looking at the expression of all of the genes in the cancer cells, scientists could point out which substances were being made in excess, and which substances were made in shorter supply.

Analysis of these results led to researchers painting a picture of which molecules the cancer cells were reliant on as fuel sources, and which substances cells were not able to make use of.

Cells unable to transport neutral and basic amino acids become forced to rely on their acidic counterparts.

The scientists then showed that increasing the levels of aspartate and glutamate in ER+ breast cancer cells was related to the development of resistance to endocrine therapy.

Whats more, shutting down the cells ability to move aspartate and glutamate inside the cell reduced the ability of endocrine therapy resistant cells to spread, proving that there is a robust relationship between these molecules and the cancer cells ability to survive and thrive.

Dr Andrea Morandi, an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Group Leader at the University of Florence, who led the research and was previously a postdoctoral fellow in the Division of Breast Cancer Researchat the ICR, said:

It was great to collaborate with colleagues at the ICR on this paper to examine the factors that drive resistance in breast cancer in the experimental setting.

We know that 40 per cent of patients with this cancer who respond to treatment will go on to relapse with a form of the disease that is resistant to all available treatment options. Uncovering the molecular basis of this is a critical step in towards understanding what helps drive cancers resistance to treatment.

In the future we hope this research will provide valuable information to help predict the likelihood of relapse in patients with hormone therapy-resistant cancers, as well as providing insight into a potential new way to treat these cancers.

Dr Lesley-Ann Martin, former Group Leader in Endocrinologyand the lead ICR researcher on the study, said:

This analysis gives information about the key molecular players involved in ER+ cancers which are resistant to the current front-line treatments in our experimental settings.

Further work will determine whether the findings presented in this work have significance in the clinic for predicting the best treatment courses for patients, and the potential for the development of resistance in some patients.

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Scientists discover change in cell logistics that helps cancer become resistant - The Institute of Cancer Research

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Meet the ‘detransitioners’: the women who became men – and now want to go back – Telegraph.co.uk

How could I remove my healthy breasts when Id seen my mother lose one of hers to cancer? asks Charlie Evans. Until recently, the science writer from Margate identified as transgender, convinced, along with increasing numbers of young women, that she had been born in the wrong body.

After undergoing a social transition, for which she changed her name from Charlotte, as well as her pronouns, her passport and driving licence, in order to live as her chosen sex, she refused to go through with the gender reassignment operation that would give her the sexual characteristics she thought she wanted.

But earlier this year, at 28, she faced coming out for a third time in her life: having announced...

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Meet the 'detransitioners': the women who became men - and now want to go back - Telegraph.co.uk

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The Jason Hahn Files: The Pains Of Having A Hunky Yoga Instructor Named Javier – TODAYonline

The Jason Hahn Files: The Pains Of Having A Hunky Yoga Instructor Named Javier  TODAYonline

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The Jason Hahn Files: The Pains Of Having A Hunky Yoga Instructor Named Javier - TODAYonline

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Chronic Pain Eased With Meditation And Lower Doses Of Opioids : Shots – Health News – NPR

To deal with chronic pain, Pamela Bobb's morning routine now includes stretching and meditation at home in Fairfield Glade, Tenn. Bobb says this mind-body awareness intervention has greatly reduced the amount of painkiller she needs. Jessica Tezak for NPR hide caption

To deal with chronic pain, Pamela Bobb's morning routine now includes stretching and meditation at home in Fairfield Glade, Tenn. Bobb says this mind-body awareness intervention has greatly reduced the amount of painkiller she needs.

There's new evidence that mind-body interventions can help reduce pain in people who have been taking prescription opioids and lead to reductions in the drug's dose.

In a study published this month in JAMA Internal Medicine, researchers reviewed evidence from 60 studies that included about 6,400 participants. They evaluated a range of strategies, including meditation, guided imagery, hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy.

"Mindfulness, cognitive behavioral therapy and clinical hypnosis appear to be the most useful for reducing pain," says study author Eric Garland, a professor at the University of Utah. The reductions in dose were modest overall, he says, but the study is a signal that this approach is beneficial.

And Pamela Bobb, who lives in Fairfield Glade, Tenn., can attest to the benefits. She's 56 and has endured decades of pain. "Oh, I had been suffering terribly for years," Bobb tells us.

Bobb was born with a malformation in her pelvis that led to pain. Over the span of two decades, she underwent more than a dozen major surgeries, yet none offered relief. "When you get to that point, you can't see beyond the pain," Bobb says. "You're just surviving." Jessica Tezak for NPR hide caption

Bobb was born with a malformation in her pelvis that led to pain. Over the span of two decades, she underwent more than a dozen major surgeries, yet none offered relief. "When you get to that point, you can't see beyond the pain," Bobb says. "You're just surviving."

She was born with a malformation in her pelvis that led to pain. Over the span of two decades, she underwent more than a dozen major surgeries, yet none of them gave her relief; each procedure left more scar tissue and nerve damage.

"I felt desperate, " Bobb says. "I didn't feel like I had any control."

She couldn't do basic things such as cook or take care of her family.

"I was completely debilitated," Bobb says. "And when you get to that point, you can't see beyond the pain you're just surviving."

She was put on high doses of opioids to ease the constant pain, but then a few years ago she thought, "There just has to be a better way." Ultimately, she found help at a clinic that specializes in complementary and alternative medicine.

"We offer a variety of things, explains Wayne Jonas, a physician who treated Bobb at the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Pain Clinic in Fairfax County, Va.

"We offer physical therapy, behavioral medicine, acupuncture, yoga and mind body practices," Jonas says. None of these is a cure-all, he adds, but the idea is that there are lots of tools in the toolkit for people to try.

Jonas is a longtime proponent of an integrated, mind-body approach to treating pain and the author of How Healing Works, a book that describes the science behind these approaches.

He says that when someone is in severe pain, their body's normal defenses are down.

Pamela Bobb harvests some mint from her indoor herb and lemon garden at her home in Fairfield Glade, Tenn. Changes in her diet lots more greens, fruits, vegetables and herbs and spices that reduce inflammation are also part of her pain-reduction routine. Jessica Tezak for NPR hide caption

Pamela Bobb harvests some mint from her indoor herb and lemon garden at her home in Fairfield Glade, Tenn. Changes in her diet lots more greens, fruits, vegetables and herbs and spices that reduce inflammation are also part of her pain-reduction routine.

"It bumps up a variety of dysfunctions," Jonas says. Pain increases levels of the stress hormone cortisol and increases inflammatory processes in the body, too. "This starts a continual negative feedback loop that produces more pain," Jonas explains.

It's not a surprise, he says, that techniques such as meditation or yoga can be helpful. "If you engage in a deep mindfulness and relaxation it will counter those stress responses," Jonas says.

Think of meditation as a form of mental exercise.

"It's almost like weightlifting for your brain," says Garland. Just as curling a dumbbell strengthens the bicep, he says, "meditation is almost a way of, sort of curling the dumbbell of the mind to strengthen the mind's self control."

And this can change the way the brain perceives the input from the body. "If you can change the way the brain perceives signals from the body you can actually change the experience of pain," Garland says.

But there's a trick here: Learning to meditate takes time, effort and some training. It's more complicated than swallowing a pill. Pamela Bobb has stuck with it. She has tried a bunch of these alternative mind-body strategies, including acupuncture and biofeedback, and now starts every morning with a meditation practice.

"It's 4:45 in the morning and I've just awakened," she says in a recording she made of her practice, so I could listen in. She sounds centered, and calm. "I'm allowing my body to feel as relaxed as it possibly can."

After several surgeries were unable to alleviate her pain, Bobb couldn't do basic things such as cook or take care of her family, she says. "I was completely debilitated." Incorporating mind-body techniques have completely changed that, she says. Jessica Tezak for NPR hide caption

After several surgeries were unable to alleviate her pain, Bobb couldn't do basic things such as cook or take care of her family, she says. "I was completely debilitated." Incorporating mind-body techniques have completely changed that, she says.

Bobb has also overhauled her diet, now eating a lot more greens, fruits and vegetables and herbs and spices with anti-inflammatory properties. On the day we talk, she's making a spinach saute with ginger, mint and rosemary.

"I swear you can smell each of those spices. They smell so good!" she says.

Bobb is so at ease now that, just hanging out with her, you'd never guess all that she has endured. And she feels so much better, she says.

"It's empowering to [have] come all this way," Bobb says. She says she's made a fundamental transition in her mind: Instead of waiting for doctors to heal her with surgeries or injections, she now realizes that many of these alternative therapies have empowered her to help herself.

Pamela Bobb still takes medicine to help manage her pain and other health issues, but she cites meditation as key to helping her reduce the opioid dose to 25% of the amount she once took. Jessica Tezak for NPR hide caption

Pamela Bobb still takes medicine to help manage her pain and other health issues, but she cites meditation as key to helping her reduce the opioid dose to 25% of the amount she once took.

"So much of it does lie within me," she says.

Bobb accepts that she may never be completely pain-free, but now feels she has control over the discomfort.

She has reduced her opioid dose by 75%. She says she still benefits from a small maintenance dose of the medication. And her doctors say that for her, the benefits of the medicine outweigh potential harms.

In the midst of an opioid epidemic, Bobb's story may seem unlikely. But many people who have taken opioids for a prolonged period have similar stories. And last month, the Department of Health and Human Services released new guidelines urging doctors to take a deliberate approach to lowering doses of opioids for chronic pain patients.

The guidelines point to the potential harms of forcing patients off the medications.

"The goal is not necessarily to get off of all opioids but to reduce it to a dose [that is] safe," Adm. Brett P. Giroir, a physician and assistant secretary for health at HHS, told NPR. We asked him about Bobb's case. He is not her doctor, but after hearing her story he said, "The fact that she's been able to reduce her opioids substantially is a success story."

Giroir says this kind of comprehensive approach that includes alternative therapies "could be a model for what we want to do nationwide." He points out that earlier this year, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services proposed covering acupuncture for Medicare patients who have chronic lower back pain.

Bobb massages her feet with sweet-smelling lavender oil another part of her morning routine. Successfully mitigating long-term pain, she finds, takes all of the tools in the toolkit. Jessica Tezak for NPR hide caption

Bobb massages her feet with sweet-smelling lavender oil another part of her morning routine. Successfully mitigating long-term pain, she finds, takes all of the tools in the toolkit.

As the evidence accumulates, Giroir says, there will be more attention placed on covering alternative therapies.

A 2017 Gallup Poll found that 78% of people would prefer to try other ways to address their physical pain before they take pain medication.

And doctors groups such as the American College of Physicians recommend that doctors offer more nonpharmacological treatments to pain patients, such as those who have chronic lower back pain.

Yet, a paper published last year finds that most insurers have not adopted policies that are consistent with these guidelines, and many don't pay for coverage of these services. An accompanying editorial argues that it's time for that to change.

It's clear that when it comes to tackling pain, it takes all of the tools in the toolkit. And when it comes to opioids, the approach needn't be all or nothing. Bobb says she has learned that, for her, the combination of medicine plus mind-body therapies works best.

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Chronic Pain Eased With Meditation And Lower Doses Of Opioids : Shots - Health News - NPR

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Genome research gave life back to West Van cancer survivor – Vancouver Courier

Candy Woodworth knows shes won the lottery.

In the past five years, shes seen a daughter get married and celebrate the births of two grandchildren.

But for a while, whether the West Vancouver grandmother would be around to mark those milestones was far from certain.

Six years ago, Woodworth was a busy 65-year-old, looking after her first grandchild while her daughters took care of the family business.

It was during a Pilates class when she was lying on her stomach that she first noticed something odd an uncomfortable feeling in her lower abdomen. Woodworth didnt think much of it, but when she felt it again at next weeks class, she made an appointment to see her doctor, who sent her for an ultrasound.

When she got back home, the phone was ringing before she even had her coat off, telling her to come to her doctors office right away.

There she got the news that she had ovarian cancer.

According to the BC Cancer Agency, over 300 women in B.C. will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer this year. Its not nearly as common as breast cancer women have about a one in 70 lifetime chance of getting ovarian cancer but the prognosis can be far more serious.

You just dont feel anything, said Woodworth. Thats the difficult thing with ovarian cancer.

Because there is no way to screen for ovarian cancer, and the disease is usually without symptoms until at an advanced stage, effective treatment is often a challenge.

We have treatments that are very likely to cause the cancer to regress and improve but theres a very high risk of recurrence, said Dr. Anna Tinker, a medical oncologist at BC Cancer who is one of the leading experts in gynecological cancers and who worked on Woodworths case.

Woodworth knew she was facing a serious diagnosis. So she did some research and was referred to the expert team that specializes in gynecological cancer at Vancouver General Hospital, headed by Dr. Dianne Miller.

Woodworth had surgery to remove the tumour from her abdomen, which was confirmed as a high-grade Stage 3 aggressive cancer.

But her journey was only just beginning.

For the next four and a half months, Woodworth had 18 rounds of chemotherapy. After my third week I literally crawled on my hands and knees into the chemo clinic, she said. I was literally throwing up as I was sitting in the chair.

She credits her support team of her husband and three daughters for getting her through it. And the chemotherapy worked at first.

But 18 months later, the cancer was back, with a tumour on her colon. She had another surgery.

Throughout the process, My attitude was always Lets get in there. Lets get the job done, she said.

When the tumour returned again in the same place, six months later, Woodworths doctors signed her up for an experimental research program, the Personalized Onco-Genomics program, run by a team of doctors and researchers at the BC Cancer Agency.

The program which is usually only open to patients after standard treatments have been tried takes a novel approach to cancer, looking for genetic mutations in a patients tumour for clues to whats causing the cancer to grow, and with that, a possible treatment.

In Woodworths case, the analysis showed her tumour had a signature similar to that seen when a BCRA gene mutation is present more usually associated with some types of breast cancer, said Tinker.

In early 2017 Woodworths results were matched with an experimental drug, Olaprib Lynparza.

In Woodworths case, the drug worked. Shes now been on it for two and a half years with no side effects and no recurrence in her cancer.

The 12 capsules she takes every day down from the number she started on have literally saved her life.

Im so grateful for every day, said Woodworth. I dont think the public realizes the scientists we have here in Vancouver.

Woodworth is among the more dramatic success stories to come out of the personalized genomic research project, falling into a small group of super responder patients.

Others include a Langley woman whose metastatic breast cancer was beaten back by a drug commonly used to treat diabetes, in addition to hormone treatment.

Another Metro Vancouver woman was saved when scientists discovered her advanced colon cancer had a protein that responded to blood pressure medication.

Since the program started in 2012, 1,136 patients, including 123 children, have been enrolled in the program.

Patients who take part need to understand the process is experimental, said Tinker. While helpful new information is gleaned in about 80 per cent of cases, the result is not always as dramatic as it was in Woodworths case and not all cancer patients are helped by the genome analysis.

In some patients, no helpful mutations are discovered that can be used as clues to treatment and in some cases, no drugs are a match.

Cancer patients start new treatments as a result of their genome results about 40 per cent of the time.

Ideally, patients who are matched with treatments can be enrolled in clinical trials that make expensive drugs available to them free of charge, said Tinker.

But thats not the always the case.

Woodworth knows shes lucky. I knew what I was up against, she said, but she remained stubbornly optimistic, describing herself as a glass half full kind of person.

These days, Woodworth who recently celebrated her 70th birthday takes delight in spending time with her grandkids.

I cant let a day go by without stopping by for a quick hug, she said. I dont stay around and clean my house. I get out there.

I dont take anything for granted. Thats the one thing you take away when you feel that mortality. You have to live every day the best that you can.

She hopes stories like hers will lead to money for research that will benefit other cancer patients.

The research at the Personalized Onco-Genome program is funded by approximately $22.7 million from the BC Cancer Foundation, largely raised through philanthropic donations, as well as by research grants, particularly through the Canada Foundation for Innovation.

Hopefully theyll find more [information on how cancers behave], and more people will survive, said Woodworth. Thats what I want for everyone. There is hope out there.

To find out how to donate to the research funded by the BC Cancer Foundation, including the Personalized Onco-Genomics program, click here.

To find out how to donate to the VGH/UBC Hospital Foundation, which benefits programs including the Ovcare research team examining gynecological cancers, click here

To view a CBC Nature of Things documentary on the Personalized Onco-Genomics program, which aired on the network in February 2017, click here

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Genome research gave life back to West Van cancer survivor - Vancouver Courier

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Victoria Beckham on testing products on David and Harper’s concerns for sustainability as she launches new skincare – The Times

Victoria Beckham has called on scientist Augustinus Bader, who created a 205 face cream that celebrities rave about, to develop a hi-tech skincare product that claims to supercharge your complexion

The Sunday Times,November 17 2019, 12:01am

Do you remember when Victoria Beckham launched a product called Morning Aura? It was part of her first make-up collection for Este Lauder in 2016 and sent fans into a frenzy, selling out in record time.

In September, VB launched her own beauty brand, Victoria Beckham Beauty, with the help of Sarah Creal the former head of global make-up marketing and product development at Este Lauder, and the woman who worked closely with her on that first beauty collection. And now they are returning to Morning Aura, but better, Beckham says, when we speak on the phone.

But this isnt the usual new-bottle-same-formula reboot: she has teamed up with Professor Skincare himself, Augustinus Bader, one of the most googled names in beauty. Bader shot

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Victoria Beckham on testing products on David and Harper's concerns for sustainability as she launches new skincare - The Times

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Global Regenerative Medicine Market to Grow Over $81 Billion by 2023 and Market Driven by Stem Cells – PharmiWeb.com

PUNE, India, Nov. 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- This report provides a comprehensive overview of the size of the regenerative medicine market, segmentation of the market (stem cells, tissue engineering and CAR-T therapy), key players and the vast potential of therapies that are in clinical trials.The analysis indicates that the global Regenerative Medicine Market was worth $28 billion in 2018 and will grow to over $81 billion by 2023, with a CAGR of 23.3% between this time frame. Within this market, the stem cell industry will grow significantly. This report describes the evolution of such a huge market in 15 chapters supported by over 350 tables and figures in 700 pages report at https://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/974420-global-regenerative-medicine-market-analysis-forecast-to-2021-stem-cells-tissue-engineering-biobanking-car-t-industries.html

Get Free Sample Copy of Regenerative Medicine MarketAnalysis athttps://www.reportsnreports.com/contacts/requestsample.aspx?name=974420

Executive Summary

Regenerative medicine's main objective is to heal and replace organs/cells that have been damaged by age, trauma or disease. Congenital defects can also be addressed with regenerative medicine. Therefore, it's market encompasses dermal wounds, cardiovascular disease, specific cancer types and organ replacement. To that end, regenerative medicine is a broader field and manipulates the body's immune system and regeneration potential to achieve its requirement. Financially speaking, investment into this space is dominated by grants, private investors and publicly traded stocks. Looking forward, the regenerative medicine market is promising for a number of robust reasons including:

Of course restrictions to this market include strict regulations in certain geographies, and also the level of investment required to support R&D, clinical research, trials and commercialization. Reimbursement strategies are also paramount to success of the overall space.

There are over 700 regenerative medicine companies globally at present. At present, the total regenerative medicine market has more than 500 products commercialized. The Regenerative Medicine Marketencompasses a number of key technology submarkets including:

Reconstructive surgeries for bones and joints is the mainstay of the regenerative medicine market. Geographically speaking, due to the dominance of the bone and joint reconstruction market, the US has the biggest space. This is followed by Europe. However, due to recent positive legislation in Japan and Europe, the stem cell arena will grow more substantially in these regions over the next five years. By 2023, it is possible that Europe will surpass the US market with respect to stem cell applications, and this will become more likely if the Trump Administration restricts legislation and funding.

Market Applications & Opportunities for Regenerative Therapies

Regenerative medicine, including cellular and gene therapies will have a significant impact on the expenditure of payers once reimbursement schemes are optimized. To that end, a number of conditions that regenerative medicine tackles is synonymous with an aging population such as:

Global Financial Landscape

The last few years have been busy for regeneration medicine, cellular therapeutics and the gene therapy industry, with high investment from pharma giants such as Eli Lilly, BMS, Astra Zeneca and Sanofi. Company partnerships were also in motion that included Kite Pharma and Bluebird/Five Prime, Juno and Fate Therapeutics/ Editas Medicine.

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Stem Cell Market Analysis & Forecast to 2023

Today the stem cell and regenerative medicine industries are interlinked and over the last number of years have grown substantially. Regenerative medicine replaces or regenerates cells, tissues or organs and in order to achieve this, uses produces from the pharmaceutical, biologics, medical device and cell therapy spaces. Therefore, cell therapy and stem cells come under the umbrella market of regenerative medicine. Cell therapy is a platform by which regenerative medicine can achieve its aim and concentrates on using cells as therapeutics to treat disease.

Tissue Engineering Market Analysis and Forecast to 2023

Tissue engineering was the forerunner of the present regenerative medicine market. The area of biomaterials was developed to use cells and biological material and incorporate them into scaffolds and functional tissues. Some of the main applications of tissue engineered products include artificial skin and cartilage and so this area dominates the dermatology, bone and joint submarket. Wound repair is also a significant area for tissue engineering, with products such as Dermagraft in the market.

Tissue engineering is being driven by the increase in technology of biomaterials, bioscaffolds and bio 3D printing. The rise in the amount of orthopedic transplantations is demanding the market to produce more innovative solutions such as 3D printed organs. In the long term future, Kelly Scientific forecasts the advance of cutting edge 3D bioprinters in this market place.

Biobanking Market Analysis

The biobanking industry is made up of over 500 public and private blood banks globally. These companies and institutions collect, store and distribute adipose tissue, cord blood and birth tissues, musculoskeletal tissues, pericardium, skin, bone, vascular tissue, autologous and allogeneic cells and other biological samples. They operate by charging a collection fee and then a storage fee, which is usually operational for 20 years. Private banking costs between $1,350 to $2,300 as an initial fee, and then between $100 to $175 per annum for storage. Public banking is free, and a number of hybrid models have been introduced in Europe and Asia to date.

CAR-T Industry

The CAR-T industry is addressing unmet needs in specific relapsed cancers, however does early clinical trial data support a blockbuster status for this upcoming therapy? Some patients do indeed show long term activity and high remission rates, but there is a large proportion of patients with toxicities such as cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. The main players within the CAR-T market are Juno Therapeutics, Kite Pharma, Novartis and Cellectis. The market is moving ahead, backed by years of R&D, from both academia and industry, investors capital and small clinical studies. From 2017, Kelly Scientific forecasts that CAR-T therapy will become more streamlined, with faster manufacturing times as advances in technologies take hold and clinical trials provide more robust evidence that this immunotherapy is robust. These factors, plus strategies to reduce adverse reactions and toxicities and larger players like Novartis taking stage will push CAR-T therapy ahead. However, recent deaths in the Juno ROCKET trial are creating questions amongst investors. How will the CAR-T space influence the total immunotherapy industry going forward? This comprehensive report scrutinizes the total market and provides cutting-edge insights and analysis.

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Key Questions Answered

Companies Mentioned

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4th Annual MarketsandMarkets Bioprocessing of Advanced Cellular Therapies & Regenerative Medicine Congress

Date: 10th 11th March 2020Location: London UK

In the 4th edition of MarketsandMarkets Bioprocessing of Advanced Cellular Therapies & Regenerative Medicine we would be focusing on the pre-clinical, manufacturing, clinical and regulatory aspects of cell therapies and regenerative medicine. This Congress event will be held on 10th and 11th March 2020 in London -UK

Regenerative therapies are proving its acceptance in potential of cell-based therapies for chronic disorders. Since our past three editions, our aim through this conference is to provide illustrative approach to recent developments in technologies of bioprocessing of cellular therapies, to process development and addressing qualitative and regulatory hurdles.

Get Register at https://www.reportsnreports.com/events/4th-annual-marketsandmarkets-bioprocessing-of-advanced-cellular-therapies-regenerative-medicine-congress/payment

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Global Regenerative Medicine Market to Grow Over $81 Billion by 2023 and Market Driven by Stem Cells - PharmiWeb.com

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10 Times 2000s Sci-Fi Movies Predicted The Future | ScreenRant – Screen Rant

If you're a science fiction enthusiast, then chances are, you already have a clear picture of what the future holds for humanity. Be it space travel, robots, or some weird means of extradimensional communication, sci-fi films have given us a glimpse of future technologies and events one way or another. In fact, each decade, sci-fi movies' futuristic predictions keep growing more accurate.

RELATED:Ranked: 10 Scariest '90s Sci-Fi Movie Monsters

By the 2000s, some of them have already gotten a little too prophetic and hauntingly precise. Needless to say, they are definitely worth watching for their predictions alone. So, we present you with 10 sci-fi films from the 2000s that got the future right in one or more aspects. These masterpieces have not only entertained us but also prepared us for the coming years.

Crime is one of the favorite subject matters of sci-fi media because it allows for creative twists in the otherwise exhaustive genre.Minority Report(2002)and its Pre-crime system is a good example. It's basically a prediction of who will commit crimes or become criminals based on their psychological background and allows authorities to stop crim before they even happen.

As it turns out, Pre-crime is not entirely far-fetched as a law-enforcement system. Japan (who'd have thought?) has something quite similar but less advanced, from A.I. cameras that can detect shoplifters before they do the deed to a "crime analytics" system which predicts where crime will happen. Their police force only began using such tech during this decade.

A.I. Artificial Intelligenceis one of the most philosophical sci-fi films of all time and doesn't shy away from questioning the nature of humanity and what makes us human. In that regard, it paints a rather familiar scene of the future where humans are using robots for prostitution.

RELATED:10 Sci-Fi Movies That Will Make You Think As Much As Inception

In the film, this becomes apparent as soon as Jude Law's robot character, Gigolo Joe, gets introduced. You can probably guess what he does for a living. You'll either be pleased or weirded out to know that bots like Gigolo Joe exist today. There are now official sex dolls who can talk and even give compliments, there's even a brothel full of dolls. Who knows what a few more years of robotics and primal human urges can bring?

Many things inWall-Efrom 2008 are now starting to become true today. Well, perhaps they were already true back then, but they're definitely becoming a lot more apparent today. We're talking about the Earth becoming a giant landfill, advertisements everywhere there's a breathing human being, drivable chairs, and of course, rising obesity rates.

Oh, there's also the fact that certain Governments and even corporations are most likely already looking for a way out of Earth (andto Mars) before things get too messy. In a way,Wall-Eis already happening and we really should be more alarmed now, shouldn't we?

You've probably never heard ofThe Islandbefore and that's due to the film not having the best marketing. In any case,The Islandis about a man who struggles to fit in at an isolated compound he lives in. He soon discovers that everyone was a clone of someone else and that they were merely being harvested for their organs to treat the social elite.

RELATED:10 Best Sci-Fi Movies of the '90s, According to IMDb

Surprise, surprise, there have been scientific and medical breakthroughs about the exact same thing. Scientists have been able to use human cloning to create stem cells that were used to regenerate the skin cells of a 75-year-old man. Further studies and developments are needed and we're still stuck with experimenting on pigs at the moment.

I, Robot was a cinematic flop but was still impressive enough to get its own meme culture more than a decade later. Critics often hailed it as a rip-off ofBlade Runner but in hindsight,I, Robot was a little more radical in how it gave us a picture of future societies. In the film, corporations ruled everything, with automation and A.I. replacing many jobs, making lots of humans unemployed.

Sadly, robots might actually soon take our jobs. We're not just referring to blue-collar work being replaced by heavy machinery; A.I. is learning fast and might take over some administrative jobs and basically everything that requires routine and repetition. It's time to re-evaluate your career options.

It's more romance than sci-fi butEternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mindhas that one plot device (metaphorical or not) which makes quality as science fiction. That would be the memory deletion procedure which a mad neuro-surgeon in the film invented. It allows him to delete people's memories of other people, basically selective amnesia with consent; the first application the filmmakers thought for that technology was moving on from a heartbreak.

RELATED:10 Worst Sci-Fi Movies, According To IMDb

Turns out, there are more practical uses for such a procedure in the real world. Scientists have successfully erased some traumatic memories for mice back in 2013 by locating a gene. They do hope to apply the same procedure to ease the mental pain of patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), rather than just for couples with breakup difficulties.

Unfortunately,The Matrixwas released back in 1999, which makes it a year short of qualifying as a 2000s movie. Still, it had sequels and an animated anthology spin-off calledThe Animatrixthat basically explored the same ideas. One notable technology thatThe Matrixfranchiseprophesized (see what we did there?) is virtual reality.

The protagonists ofThe Matrixfranchise basically plug themselves into computers to sort of act as viruses that can bring down their machine enemies. To an extent, we do have this tech today in the form of VR headsets. It's not as immersive as sticking a huge needle into your spine, of course.

Marvel'sIron Manback in 2008 kicked off many great and influential things that we enjoy today and among those is a rekindled interest in robotics and military engineering. Apart from Robert Downey Jr. as Tony Stark, the biggest star inIron Manwas his self-sustaining and relatively compact armor; it's basically the equivalent of a whole country's army controlled by one man.

RELATED:10 90s Sci-Fi Masterpieces Youve Probably Never Seen

We don't have anything that advanced today; it's practically impossible at the moment with our limited resources and lack of further frontal lobe development but the U.S. Army is trying nonetheless with its exo-suit. These allow soldiers a better physical edge on the battlefield. They did try to re-create something more similar to the Iron Man suit but failed and ended up wasting millions of dollars.

The idea of visiting, recording, and manipulating dreams was popularized in Hollywood by films likeInception; however,Inception's primary inspiration was a Japanese anime film calledPaprika(2006), which also explored the same concept of entering, viewing, and interfering with dreams.

These days, such a feat is no longer limited to daydreaming; in 2011, a team of scientists at UC Berkeley was able to view someone else's dream. The scientists recordedthe subjects'brain activity and then translated the whole thing into a video. There were also scientists in Kyoto, Japan who managed to predict another person's dream into a picture which was 60 percent accurate. No more forgetting your dreams sooner or later.

You're probably tired of seeingChildren of Menin movie lists over and over again but it can't be helped, it's such a revelatory masterpiece that we can learn a lot from it. It's more modern dystopia than sci-fi, meaning most of what the film foresaw are political and socio-economic struggles similar to what we're experiencing today.

Apart from the rapidly declining birth rate which is happening to a certain country today,Children of Menalso painted a picture of a disturbing immigration crisis where people of wartorn countries are rushing like animals to the only countries with functioning governments left in the world. Oh, and resources are also in decline and everyone's out for themselves.Sounds eerily familiar.

NEXT:10 Times 90s Sci-Fi Movies Predicted The Future

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10 Times 2000s Sci-Fi Movies Predicted The Future | ScreenRant - Screen Rant

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Cryonics Technology Market to be valued at USD Millions by 2024: Praxair, Cellulis, Cryologics, Cryotherm, KrioRus, VWR, Thermo Fisher Scientific,…

Cryonics Technology Market Report 2019

The Cryonics TechnologyMarket research report providesinformative datafor evaluating various market phenomena, Sheds light on the various market opportunities, and also supports strategic and a calculated decision-making process. This report additionally recognizes that in this continually regularly switching condition a la mode showcase data is critical and fundamental to settle on different key choices which are a proportion of development and benefit.

Cryopreservation technology is used for the preservation of living cells and tissues at very low temperature.

The following manufacturers have covered: , Praxair, Cellulis, Cryologics, Cryotherm, KrioRus, VWR, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Custom Biogenic Systems, Oregon Cryonics, Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Osiris Cryonics, Sigma-Aldrich, Southern Cryonics

Get a Sample PDF Report:http://marketresearchvision.com/request-sample/27496

The product business is stepping along a great development way and has entered the positions of a portion of the worlds driving ventures with monstrous development prospects soon. With applications over the fields of mechanical technology, Internet-of-things, and computerization ascending at an empowering pace, the industry is required to proceed with its bullish keep running in the following couple of years also, affecting the development prospects of various specialty markets it obliges.

The Type Coverage in the Market are :, Slow freezing, Vitrification, Ultra-rapid,

Market Segment by Applications, covers: , Animal husbandry, Fishery science, Medical science, Preservation of microbiology culture, Conserving plant biodiversity,

Geographically, thisCryonics Technologyreport is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share (%) and growth rate (%) of the Cryonics Technologyin these regions,covering

The Cryonics Technology market report additionally exhibits the thorough examination ofkey showcase sections and sub-fragments, Evolving market patterns and elements, changing free market activity situations, Quantifying market openings through Cryonics Technology market estimating and advertise gauging, Tracking current patterns/openings/challenges, Competitive bits of knowledge, Opportunity mapping regarding innovative leaps forward.

Get Discount on this Report:http://marketresearchvision.com/check-discount/27496

Important Questions Covered in this Report:1. What will the market size be in 2024?2. What are the key factors driving the market?3. What are the challenges to market growth?4. Who are the key players in the market?5. What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key players?6. What will be the growth rate in 2024?7. Which strategies are used by top players in the Cryonics Technologymarket?

The report covers all important aspects:1. The Market Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, and market driving force;2. The top market players of a Cryonics Technology, with sales, revenue, and price;3. The competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue, and market shares;4. To show the market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of a Cryonics Technology, for each region;5. To analyze the market by countries, by type, by application, and by manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;6. To show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application;7. The Cryonics Technologymarket forecast, by regions, type, and application, with sales and revenue;

In the end, It focuses on the various market trends and developments of the market as well as the materials and the ever-changing nature of the Cryonics TechnologyMarket.

For more information@http://marketresearchvision.com/reports/27496/Cryonics-Technology-Market

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Cryonics Technology Market to be valued at USD Millions by 2024: Praxair, Cellulis, Cryologics, Cryotherm, KrioRus, VWR, Thermo Fisher Scientific,...

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Cryonics Technology Industry Global Market Research and Analysis 2019-2137 – 99Newsindustry

Cryonics Technology market research report provides the details about Industry Chain structure, Market Competition, Market Size & Share, SWOT Analysis, Technology, Cost, Raw Materials, Consumer Preference, Development & Trends, Regional Forecast, Company & Profile and Product & Service.

Cryonics Technology market research report also gives information on the Trade Overview, Policy, Regional Market, Production Development, Sales, Regional Trade, Business Operation Data, Market Features, Investment Opportunity, Investment Calculation and other important aspect of the industry.

Request a Sample of Cryonics Technology Market Research Report and Analysis of Top Key Players at https://inforgrowth.com/sample-request/5557682/cryonics-technology-market

The main objectives of the research report elaborate the overall market overview on Cryonics Technology market dynamics, historic volume and value, robust market methodology, current & future trends, Porters Five Forces Analysis, upstream and downstream industry chain, new technological development, cost structure, government policies & regulations, etc. Major companies, company overview, financial data, products and services, strategy analysis, key developments market competition, industry competition structure analysis, SWOT Analysis, etc.

Further Cryonics Technology market research report provides regional marketanalysis with production, sales, trade & regional forecast. it also provides market investment plan like product features, price trend analysis, channel features, purchasing features, regional & industry investment opportunity, cost & revenue calculation, economic performance evaluation etc.

The Cryonics Technology industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed, and overall research conclusions offered.

Report Scope

The tunnel ventilation market has been segmented based on different types and application. In order to provide a holistic view on the market current and future market demand has been included in the report.

Major players covered in this report: Praxair, Cellulis, Cryologics, Cryotherm, KrioRus, VWR, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Custom Biogenic Systems, Oregon Cryonics, Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Osiris Cryonics, Sigma-Aldrich, Southern Cryonics

Major players profiled in the report are Praxair, Cellulis, Cryologics, Cryotherm, KrioRus, VWR, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Custom Biogenic Systems, Oregon Cryonics, Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Osiris Cryonics, Sigma-Aldrich, Southern Cryonics.

On the basis of products, report split into, Cryonics Technology.

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including Animal husbandry, Fishery science, Medical science, Preservation of microbiology culture, Conserving plant biodiversity.

Different regions covered in this market research report are North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, Latin America etc. Major Countries are United States, Canada, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Spain, Rest of Europe, China, India, Japan, Rest of Asia Pacific, GCC, South Africa, Rest of Middle East & Africa, Brazil, Argentina, Rest of Latin America etc.

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Justin Bieber Wants To Be Frozen With Hailey Baldwin So They Can Live Together Forever? – Gossip Cop

(Getty Images)

Does Justin Bieber hope to be frozen alongside Hailey Baldwin so they can live together forever? Thats the ridiculous claim in one of this weeks tabloids. Gossip Cop has learned its completely made-up.

According to NW, Bieber has been exploring cryonics, the process of freezing a persons dead body with the goal of resuscitating them in the future. An alleged insider tells the magazine that the singer recently surprised his wife by purchasing HisnHers cryogenic frozen pods. The supposed tipster adds, Hailey thought he was joking, but Justins already put deposits down.

He really wants them to do it one day, adds the seemingly phony source. Hes read up a lot about cryogenics and has already spoken to his team regarding the best way to go about it. The outlet, however, further maintains that Baldwin isnt too on board with the idea. Justin thought it would be a huge romantic gesture, but he didnt get the reception he was hoping for, says the suspicious source. Once the shock wore off, Hailey pretty much hasnt stopped laughing and now she loves offering him ice in his drinks, even the hot ones!

The tabloids report is total fiction. Gossip Cop checked in with a source close to the situation, who dismisses the report as total nonsense. Its possible this article was concocted because Bieber has reportedly tried cryotherapy in the past. Cryotherapy involves sitting in a freezing cold tank for a few minutes for therapeutic benefits. Many celebrities and athletes have taken part in the fad. However, we can confirm that Bieber has no intention of freezing himself and his wife for eternity.

NW has already proven to have zero insight into the couples relationship. In August, Gossip Cop busted the magazine for falsely claiming Baldwin refused to have a wedding with Bieber because she was grossed out by his pimples. Just two months after we debunked the utterly ridiculous report, the spouses walked down the aisle.

Earlier this year, Gossip Cop called out the tabloid for wrongly reporting Baldwin was forcing Bieber to go to rehab. That never happened. Going back to last year, the unreliable outlet insisted Bieber and Baldwin were breaking up. The publication seems to come up with its storylines as it goes along.

Its also worth noting, this isnt the first time weve had to bust a tabloid for a cryogenics-related article. Earlier this year, Gossip Cop busted the Globe for making up a story about Cher freezing her body when she dies in the hopes of being brought back to life. Theres no validity to this recurring theme.

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Justin Bieber Wants To Be Frozen With Hailey Baldwin So They Can Live Together Forever? - Gossip Cop

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Youve heard of CRISPR, now meet its newer, savvier cousin CRISPR Prime – TechCrunch

CRISPR, the revolutionary ability to snip out and alter genes with scissor-like precision, has exploded in popularity over the last few years and is generally seen as the standalone wizard of modern gene-editing. However, its not a perfect system, sometimes cutting at the wrong place, not working as intended and leaving scientists scratching their heads. Well, now theres a new, more exacting upgrade to CRISPR called Prime, with the ability to, in theory, snip out more than 90% of all genetic diseases.

Just what is this new method and how does it work? We turned to IEEE fellow, biomedical researcher and dean of graduate education at Tuft Universitys school of engineering Karen Panetta for an explanation.

CRISPR is a powerful genome editor. It utilizes an enzyme called Cas9 that uses an RNA molecule as a guide to navigate to its target DNA. It then edits or modifies the DNA, which can deactivate genes or insert a desired sequence to achieve a behavior. Currently, we are most familiar with the application of genetically modified crops that are resistant to disease.

However, its most promising application is to genetically modify cells to overcome genetic defects or its potential to conquer diseases like cancer.

Some applications of genome editing technology include:

Of course, as with every technology, CRISPR isnt perfect. It works by cutting the double-stranded DNA at precise locations in the genome. When the cells natural repair process takes over, it can cause damage or, in the case where the modified DNA is inserted at the cut site, it can create unwanted off-target mutations.

Some genetic disorders are known to mutate specific DNA bases, so having the ability to edit these bases would be enormously beneficial in terms of overcoming many genetic disorders. However, CRISPR is not well suited for intentionally introducing specific DNA bases, the As, Cs, Ts and Gs that make up the double helix.

Prime editing was intended to overcome this disadvantage, as well as other limitations of CRISPR.

Prime editing can do multi-letter base-editing, which could tackle fatal genetic disorders such as Tay-Sachs, which is caused by a mutation of four DNA letters.

Its also more precise. I view this as analogous to the precision lasers brought to surgery versus using a hand-held scalpel. It minimized damage, so the healing process was more efficient.

Prime editing can insert, modify or delete individual DNA letters; it also can insert a sequence of multiple letters into a genome with minimal damage to DNA strands.

Imagine being able to prevent cancer and/or hereditary diseases, like breast cancer, from ever occurring by editing out the genes that are makers for cancer. Cancer treatments are usually long, debilitating processes that physically and emotionally drain patients. It also devastates patients loved ones who must endure watching helpless on the sidelines as the patient battles to survive.

Editing out genetic disorders and/or hereditary diseases to prevent them from ever coming to fruition could also have an enormous impact on reducing the costs of healthcare, effectively helping redefine methods of medical treatment.

It could change lives so that long-term disability care for diseases like Alzheimers and special needs education costs could be significantly reduced or never needed.

How did the scientific community get to this point where did CRISPR/prime editing come from?

Scientists recognized CRISPRs ability to prevent bacteria from infecting more cells and the natural repair mechanism that it initiates after damage occurs, thus having the capacity to halt bacterial infections via genome editing. Essentially, it showed adaptive immunity capabilities.

Its already out there! It has been used for treating sickle-cell anemia and in human embryos to prevent HIV infections from being transmitted to offspring of HIV parents.

IEEE engineers, like myself, are always seeking to take the fundamental science and expand it beyond the petri dish to benefit humanity.

In the short term, I think that Prime editing will help generate the type of fetal like cells that are needed to help patients recover and heal as well as developing new vaccines against deadly diseases. It will also allow researchers new, lower cost alternatives and access to Alzheimers like cells without obtaining them post-mortem.

Also, AI and deep learning is modeled after human neural networks, so the process of genome editing could potentially help inform and influence new computer algorithms for self-diagnosis and repair, which will become an important aspect of future autonomous systems.

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Youve heard of CRISPR, now meet its newer, savvier cousin CRISPR Prime - TechCrunch

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

CRISPR’s unwanted anniversary – Science Magazine

PHOTO: BARBARA RIES FOR UCSF

There are key moments in the history of every disruptive technology that can make or break its public perception and acceptance. For CRISPR-based genome editing, such a moment occurred 1 year agoan unsettling push into an era that will test how society decides to use this revolutionary technology.

In November 2018, at the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing in Hong Kong, scientist He Jiankui announced that he had broken the basic medical mantra of do no harm by using CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genomes of two human embryos in the hope of protecting the twin girls from HIV. His risky and medically unnecessary work stunned the world and defied prior calls by my colleagues and me, and by the U.S. National Academies of Sciences and of Medicine, for an effective moratorium on human germline editing. It was a shocking reminder of the scientific and ethical challenges raised by this powerful technology. Once the details of He's work were revealed, it became clear that although human embryo editing is relatively easy to achieve, it is difficult to do well and with responsibility for lifelong health outcomes.

It is encouraging that scientists around the globe responded by opening a deeper public conversation about how to establish stronger safeguards and build a viable path toward transparency and responsible use of CRISPR technology. In the year since He's announcement, some scientists have called for a global but temporary moratorium on heritable human genome editing. However, I believe that moratoria are no longer strong enough countermeasures and instead, stakeholders must engage in thoughtfully crafting regulations of the technology without stifling it. In this vein, the World Health Organization (WHO) is pushing government regulators to engage, lead, and act. In July, WHO issued a statement requesting that regulatory agencies in all countries disallow any human germline editing experiments in the clinic and in August, announced the first steps in establishing a registry for future such studies. These directives from a global health authority now make it difficult for anyone to claim that they did not know or were somehow operating within published guidelines. On the heels of WHO, an International Commission on the Clinical Use of Human Germline Genome Editing convened its first meeting to identify the scientific, medical, and ethical requirements to consider when assessing potential clinical applications of human germline genome editing. The U.S. National Academy of Medicine, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society of the United Kingdom lead this commission, with the participation of science and medical academies from around the world. Already this week, the commission held a follow-up meeting, reflecting the urgent nature of their mission.

Where is CRISPR technology headed? Since 2012, it has transformed basic research, drug development, diagnostics, agriculture, and synthetic biology. Future CRISPR-based discoveries will depend on increased knowledge of genomes and safe and effective methods of CRISPR delivery into cells. There needs to be more discussion about prioritizing where the technology will have the most impact as well as equitable, affordable access to its products. As for medical breakthroughs, clinical trials using CRISPR are already underway for patients with cancer, sickle cell disease, and eye diseases. These and many other future uses of genome editing will involve somatic changes in individuals, not heritable changes that are transmissible. But the rapidly advancing genome editing toolbox will soon make it possible to introduce virtually any change to any genome with precision, and the temptation to tinker with the human germ line is not going away.

The CRISPR babies saga should motivate active discussion and debate about human germline editing. With a new such study under consideration in Russia, appropriate regulation is urgently needed. Consequences for defying established restrictions should include, at a minimum, loss of funding and publication privileges. Ensuring responsible use of genome editing will enable CRISPR technology to improve the well-being of millions of people and fulfill its revolutionary potential.

* J.D. is a cofounder of Caribou Biosciences, Editas Medicine, Scribe Therapeutics, and Mammoth Biosciences; scientific advisory board member of Caribou Biosciences, Intellia Therapeutics, eFFECTOR Therapeutics, Scribe Therapeutics, Mammoth Biosciences, Synthego, and Inari; and director at Johnson & Johnson. Her lab has research projects sponsored by Biogen and Pfizer.

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CRISPR's unwanted anniversary - Science Magazine

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CRISPR Could Stop Replication Of Viruses That Cause Illness, Researchers Say : Shots – Health News – NPR

Susanna M. Hamilton/Broad Communications

Susanna M. Hamilton/Broad Communications

It's not easy to treat viral infections. Just ask anyone with a bad cold or a case of the flu.

But scientists in Massachusetts think they may have a new way to stop viruses from making people sick by using what amounts to a pair of molecular scissors, known as CRISPR.

It's a gene editing tool based on a molecule that occurs naturally in microorganisms.

CRISPR comes in many "flavors" that perform a variety of functions inside cells. The Cas9 flavor has been widely used as a tool for editing DNA inside cells. It's already shown promise for medical therapies such as treating sickle cell disease.

What's different is that the antiviral approach researchers at the Broad Institute in Cambridge are using involves a form of CRISPR called Cas13 that targets specific regions of RNA, not DNA.

RNA is a chemical cousin of DNA. Many viruses, including flu and Zika, package their genetic instructions in RNA instead of DNA.

When a virus infects a cell in our bodies, it hijacks the cell's molecular machinery to make copies of itself. Those new viruses can go on to spread the infection through your body.

So for therapy, "we need to be able to cut the virus at a fast enough rate to slow down replication or to stop replication from happening," says Cameron Myhrvold, a postdoc at the Broad Institute.

Finding the right target is key. There's a lot of RNA inside cells that is necessary for the cell to survive, so it's important to find an RNA target that's unique to the virus you're trying to control.

Myhrvold says RNA viruses are particularly difficult to control because they are a bit like shape-shifters: They tend to change their genetic sequences when you try to pin them down. That's one of the reasons people need a new flu vaccine each year.

Understanding how the virus changes in response to Cas13 treatment should be informative.

"That could potentially teach us about what parts of the virus are particularly important for its function," says Catherine Freije, a doctoral student at the Broad Institute. And that in turn will show the best places to target the virus in order to disable it.

So far, Freije and Myhrvold say they've only shown their antiviral treatment works in cells.

But Pardis Sabeti, head of the lab they work in, is bullish about using the CRISPR Cas13 system to treat viral infections in people.

"There's still a bunch of things we want to work out, but we feel pretty confident that this will work as a therapy if it can be delivered in the right way," Sabeti says.

By delivering, she means getting the CRISPR Cas13 tool into the right cells inside an infected patient.

Since CRSIPR Cas13 specifically targets RNA, it will only be useful for illnesses caused by RNA.

Janice Chen says researchers are now finding a variety of CRISPRs with different properties. Chen is chief research officer at Mammoth Biosciences, a company that hopes to capitalize on CRISPR technology.

"Having a broader CRISPR toolbox is really important to figure out what is the specific need for any given application," Chen says.

Progress in building that toolbox has proceeded quite quickly. After all, it's only been six years since scientists first became aware of how powerful a tool CRISPR could be.

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CRISPR Could Stop Replication Of Viruses That Cause Illness, Researchers Say : Shots - Health News - NPR

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

AMD, Amarin and Crispr are three stocks to watch for potentially higher prices – MarketWatch

These three health and technology stocks are on the move and pointing higher.

Advanced Micro Devices Inc. AMD, +0.55% jumped 81 cents to $37.52 on 67 million shares traded Wednesday. On Tuesday, the chip maker announced Tencent TCEHY, +0.20% will use its latest server processors. The stock has been in a steep rising channel since its recent low below $28 in early October. Next target is the rising channel top near $40.

Amarin Corp. PLC AMRN, +11.77% followed through on Wednesday, up 55 cents to $21.49 after popping 23% on Tuesday. An FDA advisory committee is scheduled to meet today to help decide the fate of the companys fish-derived cardiovascular drug. While trading has been halted this morning in advance of the meeting, the chart points to a test of the July high in the $23.50-$24.00 zone next.

Crispr Therapeutics AG CRSP, +3.29% rose $1.42 to $55 on 1 million shares Wednesday. The move, on no news from the company, continued the gene-editings stocks month-long rally from around $36. It also followed through on Tuesdays breakout of a mini-wedge. Watch for a move to $58 next.

See Harrys video-chart analysis on these stocks.

The writer has no holdings in any securities mentioned.

Harry Boxer is founder of TheTechTrader.com, a live trading room featuring his stock picks, technical market analysis and live chart presentations.

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AMD, Amarin and Crispr are three stocks to watch for potentially higher prices - MarketWatch

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

The Crispr-Cas9 patent tussle continues: The case of UC Berkeley at the EPO – Lexology

In Europe, we dont do things the way the Americans do

Oral proceedings in the opposition against UC Berkeleys (UCs) main European patent EP2800811 are scheduled for all of three (!) days in February of 2020 at the European Patent Office (EPO). The opposition divisions (ODs) preliminary and non-binding opinion, provided on the 30th of August 2019 in preparation for the hearing, is favorable to the patentee. In its opinion, the OD sides with UC Berkeley and dismisses the main arguments of the seven opponents. Arguments relating to minor issues of added subject matter have been accepted by the OD, however UC is likely to be able to overcome these. Thus, there is a chance that UC Berkeley will keep their strong hold on rights to general platform Crispr technology in Europe.

UC Berkeleys patent claims priority from four provisional US applications. The question of whether the priority from the first provisional application P1 is valid or not lies at heart of the case.

According to European practice, G2/98, the requirements of claiming priority of the same invention in the meaning of Art 87(1) EPC mean that priority can only be acknowledged if the skilled person can derive the subject matter directly and unambiquously, using common general knowledge (CGK), from the previous application as a whole. In addition, the priority document must provide an enabling disclosure, in other words, all essential elements needed to carry out the invention must be disclosed in the priority document.

The opponents argue that P1 fails to provide an enabling disclosure, as it does not disclose or exemplify elements which are essential for the workability of the Crispr-Cas9 system in eukaryotic cells. At the heart of this issue is the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), a 2-6 base pair DNA sequence which immediately follows the target DNA sequence and is an essential targeting component. The opponents argue that without knowledge of a PAM sequence, a person skilled in the art was not in a position to design an appropriate guide RNA and would therefore not have been able to achieve cleavage of target DNA (as the Cas9 endonuclease will not recognize target DNA without the PAM).

UC replies that the requirement of a PAM to be located downstream of the target DNA sequence was CGK at the date of filing of P1 and therefore the omission of any reference to PAM is of no detriment to the disclosure of P1. UC states that the skilled persons understanding of this was confirmed by the sequences disclosed in P1, wherein the amino acid sequences corresponding to PAMs are present immediately downstream of the target DNA.

If the priority claim from P1 is found to be invalid, the effective date of the patent at hand would be after UCs scientific paper on Crispr-Cas9 was published in Science. This would be detrimental to the patentability of at least some of the claims.

However, UC was successful during the examination before the EPO, as well as in the corresponding UK cases, in arguing that PAM was part of CGK. By accepting in their preliminary opinion that PAM was part of the CGK at the time of filing of P1, the OD has provisionally concluded that the disclosure of P1 is enabling over the whole claim scope, encompassing eukaryotic applications.

Concerning what actually was CGK at the time, UC argues that CGK was represented by review and research articles in the fast-evolving new technology area. UC holds that such articles confirm that the requirement for PAM in the target DNA was CGK. Although full of references to CGK and the skilled person, the preliminary opinion does not dwell on the identity of the skilled person. Establishing the identity of the skilled person is likely to be important during the oral proceedings. Not limited to PAM, the opponents argue that several lines of technical information are missing in P1 and that a skilled person operating within the limits of what is explicitly defined in P1 would be confronted with an inacceptable degree of failure.

The OD has also come to the preliminary view that the claims are novel and exhibit inventive step. The inventive step analysis is based on the problem-solution approach starting from a prior art document from the TALEN field of gene editing, and not from the Crispr-field, based on the purpose of the UC invention. The technical problem solved by the invention is considered to be to provide a more versatile gene editing system. The OD adds that the Examples in the patent show that UCs invention achieves this, or at least renders the achievement credible, also for eukaryotic cells.

UCs position is that P1 not only claimed a new class of endonucleases, but also provided ample guidance on how to use the endonuclease complex for example in eukaryotic systems as, amongst other things, P1 disclosed expression systems including vectors suitable for eukaryotic expression. They point to the fact that several groups in the scientific community quickly, upon publication of the Science paper, confirmed that the Crisp-Cas9 system could be used for gene editing in eukaryotic cells.

Interestingly, the OD takes no notice of UC inventors Doudnas and Charpentiers public statements, made upon publishing of the Science paper, about unpredictability and technical challenges of adapting the Crispr-Cas9 system to eukaryotic gene editing. In fact, the OD underlines the difference between the question of obviousness in the US interference proceedings by exclaiming under US law! in the opinion and the question of plausibility in the present case. Although plausibility is not a term used in the European Patent Convention, it is increasingly more discussed. According to case law, however, the question of plausibility only comes into play if experimental data is lacking. The OD states in its opinion that this does not apply to present case, because the disclosure does contain experimental data.

Nevertheless, plausibility, as well as the identity of the skilled person, are likely to be discussed during the oral proceedings. Is the skilled person going to be someone from the TALEN field? If so, would they be expected to know all the details and nuances of the Crispr-Cas9 field or not? The identity of the skilled person may have implications on several aspects of the case.

For now, it appears that the differences between the European and US patent landscape in the Crispr-Cas9 field may remain, at least as indicated by the non-binding and preliminary opinion of the OD.

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The Crispr-Cas9 patent tussle continues: The case of UC Berkeley at the EPO - Lexology

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Science Behind the Scenes: Multiplexed CRISPR and sgRNA Arrays with the Howard Salis Lab | PLOS Synthetic Biology Community – PLoS Blogs

Over the last few years, thousands of studies have employed CRISPR/Cas systems to edit, or transcriptionally regulate, individual genetic targets. But a new study has taken CRISPR to soaring heights.

CRISPR/Cas is remarkably simple in principle: a protein, usually Cas9, can bind to an RNA molecule, such as a single guide RNA (sgRNA), which has a sequence complementary to a target site in the genome. When the Cas9:sgRNA complex binds to its target site, it cleaves the target DNA. By mutating specific amino acids in Cas9, DNA cleavage activity is abolished, thus converting it into a transcriptional repressor (called dCas9).

Though many research groups have explored methods to increase the number of sgRNAs that can be expressed at once in vivo, it has been a difficult challenge, in part, because sgRNAs have very repetitive elements. One part of the sgRNA, called the handle, is a 42-nucleotide strand of RNA that physically associates with Cas9. Unfortunately, most DNA synthesis manufacturers are unable to synthesize these repetitive elements, thus limiting the number of sgRNAs that can be assembled and expressed in living organisms.

In a new study, published in Nature Biotechnology, researchers from Penn State University have devised a method that enables 22 distinct sgRNAs to be expressed at once in bacterial cells. The solution? Design and characterize hundreds of non-repetitive genetic parts, including new sgRNA handles, that maintain their function but can actually be synthesized by DNA manufacturers.

I sat down with Alex Reis and Sean Halper (joint first authors) and Howard Salis (corresponding author and Associate Professor at Penn State University) to learn more about multiplexed CRISPR, how nonrepetitive parts are designed, and their plans for the future.

This interview with Alex Reis, Sean Halper and Professor Howard Salis on Simultaneous repression of multiple bacterial genes using nonrepetitive extra-long sgRNA arrays, published in Nature Biotechnology, has been edited for clarity. Words in parentheses are my own.

***

Niko McCarty: Can you tell me a bit about the inspiration behind this study? What was the impetus that made you look at the CRISPR multiplexing field and say, I bet we can improve the number of sgRNAs expressed at once in living cells?

Alex Reis: Well, five years ago, Sean Halper (co-first author) and I took a graduate level course with Professor Howard Salis, and we were exploring different ideas for scalable genetic circuit design. We kept going back to CRISPR because it is a scalable system; all you need to do to build complex CRISPR-based genetic circuits is express one protein regulator (Cas9), and a whole bunch of single-guide RNA regulators (sgRNAs). That was a very powerful idea to us, and we really wanted to scale that up. So this project was motivated from an application side, the desire to build larger genetic circuits.

Professor Howard Salis: When looking at this long DNA sequence or genetic circuit that we had designed for this class project, we basically saw that there were quite a few long regions of repetitive DNA. And if you were to copy-paste that sequence into an order form for any gene synthesis provider, it would immediately tell you, We cant make this. Its too long, too repetitive. So we knew that this was going to be a challenge for the CRISPR field as groups try to multiplex sgRNAs. If you redesign the whole system so that there is no more repetitive DNA, you would be able to build it easier, assemble it faster, and you would be able to express a lot more CRISPR regulators simultaneously.

Niko: Can you walk me through the key advancements from the paper, especially the things that you set out to do and what you accomplished?

Alex: After we identified that repetitive DNA was going to be a key bottleneck in cloning sgRNA arrays, we decided that the first step would be to identify and characterize non-repetitive parts for both genetic expression and the sgRNA handles themselves. The first thing we did was to design and characterize non-repetitive promoters and non-repetitive terminators. But a key challenge that that we faced was to identify non-repetitive handle sequence for sgRNAs. What sequences will enable handle sequence variants to still bind to the Cas9 or dCas9 protein?

To design these non-repetitive sgRNA handles, we carried out multiple rounds of a design, build, and test cycles and imposed specific constraints. In the first design round, the constraint was purely structural we told our algorithm that the sgRNA had to fold into a structure that could be recognized by the Cas9 structure. After that round, we applied a machine learning technique called linear discriminant analysis to identify which mutations would cause handle failure. With that, we identified two nucleotides in the sgRNA handle, G43 and G52 that, when mutated, would abolish handle function. After iterating through these processes a few times, we ultimately characterized 28 highly functional, non-repetitive handle variants. And these handles work equally well for Cas9 and dCas9.

Grace Vezeau, another author on the paper, ran a bunch of cleavage assays to verify, measure and quantify how well these different non-repetitive sgRNA handles were able to load up into Cas9 and cleave DNA.

Niko: After you verified these non-repetitive sgRNA handles, you then used them for three different engineering applications. Can you walk me through those?

Sean Halper: We built three different ELSAs (extra long sgRNA arrays), the longest of which contained 22 distinct sgRNAs. We wanted to come up with some applications that would show the power of scaling up the number of sgRNAs using nonrepetitive handles in E. coli. Our first proof-of-concept was to aerobically produce succinate using a knockdown of six different genes. At first, when we targeted these six genes, it didnt work. We troubleshooted the problem, and found that we had to increase the expression of dCas9, after which we saw a 1000-fold knockdown on some of the genes that we were targeting. This incidentally also showed that, once you start expressing many sgRNAs at once, you need to have enough Cas9 or dCas9 to handle that many simultaneous RNA regulators.

In a second example, we used an ELSA to target different amino acid biosynthesis pathways. We really wanted to see if we could use CRISPRi knockdowns to impose auxotrophy-like behavior. For the third example, we knocked down different stress response genes to explore how a broad spectrum perturbation would affect the behavior and response of E. coli.

Howard: Part of this effort was also to develop algorithms that allow us to design DNA sequences that can be readily synthesized by commercial service providers. Some of these ELSAs have over 20 promoters, 20 terminators, and so forth. Terminators can form hairpins and may contain palindromic sequences, however, so if you ask a gene synthesis provider to synthesize any old DNA with lots and lots of hairpins, theyre going to balk at you. But if you design the system correctly, if you draw from a large enough pool or toolbox of genetic parts, and you arrange those genetic parts just right, you can meet your target metrics for what can be synthesized. As long as your DNA sequence is within those target metrics, then these companies can actually deliver the DNA fragments to you. By the end of this project, we were able to synthesize 33 DNA fragments up to 3 kilobases each, all containing ELSAs, with about a 90% success rate and turnaround time, which is about five days.

Niko: Do you have any plans for designing non-repetitive ribozymes or cleavage sites, which may enable you to express many sgRNAs from a single promoter?

Howard: Let me just start off by saying that we started this project four or five years ago, and we have made some important advancements since then. Another graduate student in our group, Ayaan Hossain, developed an algorithm called the Non-Repetitive Parts Calculator, which formalizes how you can go about designing very large toolboxes of non-repetitive genetic parts. With this algorithm, weve been able to design, construct and characterize huge toolboxes of non-repetitive parts, including 4300 non-repetitive E. coli promoters, 1917 non-repetitive yeast promoters, at least 600 non-repetitive ribozymes with near wildtype cleavage activities, and about 2000 non-repetitive Cas9 handles.

So, is it possible to design many more non repetitive parts? It is absolutely possible. We know that for sure. Theoretically, there are about 100,000 non-repetitive sgRNA handles out there for Cas9. We clearly havent characterized 100,000 yet, weve only characterized 2000, but that kind of gives you an order of magnitude for the possibilities. Now, it should be possible to arrange all these genetic parts in an array and build ELSAs that are about 500,000 bases long, which is smaller than many yeast chromosomes that labs have already built. So its possible to build these very long sgRNA arrays, and there are many applications for them across industrial metabolic engineering and in the biomedical space.

Niko: And what about the different authors on the paper? Were there specific skillsets brought by individuals?

Alex: Sean, myself and Phillip Clauer, a former undergraduate, did the bulk of the cloning and characterization of the parts, but most of the lab pitched in and helped out. Daniel Cetnar helped with RNA level characterization, including a lot of the early RT-qPCR on the CRISPRi knockdowns.

Sean: Ayaan Hossain was really helpful in terms of helping us expand our non-repetitive part libraries for the promoters and terminators especially, as well as helping with some of the machine learning analysis. But it was definitely a collaborative effort over the last five years.

Niko: What are your plans for after graduation?

Sean: I actually defended my PhD just a couple of weeks ago. Im part of the SMART Scholarship for Service program, which is a fellowship with the Department of Defense. Once I wrap up here, I plan on beginning work soon with my sponsoring facility, the Army Research Lab in Adelphi, Maryland.

Alex: Im wrapping up a project or two and then will hopefully graduate and move on to the next thing. I love synthetic biology, so I am looking at postdocs along those lines. Im also thinking about some entrepreneurial aspects that I could pursue.

Niko: This study is so appealing to me, in part, because of its collaborative nature. It seems like most people in the group helped out can you tell me a bit about that?

Howard: Well, we have a very relaxed environment. While some people in the synthetic biology field have groups with 30-40 people, our group has less than 10. This means that everyone knows everyone else, and we all help each other. I intentionally set up my lab so that new people come in, and they receive training not just from myself, but from other graduate students and postdocs. Because of this, many students feel the obligation to pay it forward and help out other people. If youre really good at something, and you can carry out some set of experiments quickly, then you should help out your colleagues in the lab. In our group, a lot of sharing goes on, and thats what makes work like this possible.

***

Biographies:

Howard Salis is an Associate Professor of Biological and Chemical Engineering and Synthetic Biology at Penn State University. Research in the Salis laboratory focuses on the development of rational design methods for engineering synthetic biological systems metabolic pathways, genetic circuits, and genomes.

Sean Halper is a graduate student at Penn State University, and co-first author on this study. He recently defended his PhD in Chemical Engineering.

Alex Reis is a graduate student at Penn State University, and co-first author on this study.

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Science Behind the Scenes: Multiplexed CRISPR and sgRNA Arrays with the Howard Salis Lab | PLOS Synthetic Biology Community - PLoS Blogs

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CRISPR and Cas Genes Market Estimated to Rise at a Lucrative CAGR of 20.1% During 2018-2026 – TheFinanceTime

The research report provides valuable insights into demand drivers, geographical outlook, and competitive landscape of the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market over the forecast period. Further, it throws light on restraints as well discusses opportunities at length that are likely to come to the fore over the forecast period. The analysis thus provided helps market stakeholders with business planning and to gauge scope of expansion in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market over the forecast period.

The report discusses the market structure, including prevailing trends, size of the market vis--vis revenue and volume, and finally forecasts values. Vital information, facts, and statistical figures provided for the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market are based on extensive primary and secondary research. Analysts also reached out to industry experts for their insightful inputs on the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market.

Further, the report provides a comparative analysis of historical and current trends prevailing in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market. This helps to estimate growth trends in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market over the assessment period. Such comparative analysis is provided using an exhaustive collection of tables and graphical representations.

The report delves into the vendor landscape of the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market. The research report on the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market provides valuable insights on the competitive landscape of the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market. Besides this, the research report provides deep insights into growth strategies employed by key players, along with impact of these strategies on future business growth.

The SWOT analysis of key vendors along with a detailed profile of key vendors based on business overview, financial status, and product portfolio helps to gauge competitive dynamics in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market. This analysis helps to gauge growth strategies to be employed by prominent vendors in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market, and scope of collaborations and partnerships between these players.

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The report includes an exhaustive list of top players in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market are Synthego, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., GenScript, Addgene, Merck KGaA (Sigma-Aldrich), Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., Transposagen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., OriGene Technologies, Inc., New England Biolabs, Dharmacon, Cellecta, Inc., Agilent Technologies, and Applied StemCell, Inc.

Further, market share projections and changing competitive hierarchy in the CRISPR and Cas Genes Market until the end of the forecast period are vital offerings of this report.

Key Questions Answered in the Report

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CRISPR and Cas Genes Market Estimated to Rise at a Lucrative CAGR of 20.1% During 2018-2026 - TheFinanceTime

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Everything You’ve Heard About Viral Texas Custody Case Is Wrong – Dallas Observer

If you happen to follow any of Texas' Republican leadership on Twitter and God bless you if you do you've likely encountered the state GOP's latest causeclbre: a child-custody dispute in Dallas County between a mom who says that one of her two 7-year-old twins is a trans girl and a dad who insists that the child chooses to dress and live as a boy when they're at the father's house.

A family court jury in the case initially awarded sole custody to the child's mother,Anne Georgulas, in late October before a state district judge overruled their decision and gave Georgulas and the child's father, Jeffrey Younger, joint custody, including joint responsibility over medical decisions affecting the child.

In the wake of the judge and jury's decisions, conservative media outlets like the Washington Examiner, The Texan and The Daily Wirepounced on the story, suggesting that Georgulas' and Younger's child might be "chemically castrated" or "mutilated" if left in Georgulas' care.

Politicians like Sen. Ted Cruz and Gov. Greg Abbott hopped on the bandwagon.

Comments like Cruz's are representative of the backlash against Georgulas. They're also screaming to be corrected.

Georgulas does not, as her representatives are careful to point out, intend to have her child placed on hormone blockers. Seven-year-olds don't go on hormone blockers, because they don't have sex hormones to block unless they're going through premature puberty, a condition for which doctors commonly prescribe hormone blockers.

"There are no medical interventions for prepubescent gender diverse children. The only thing to do at this stage is love and support your child,"Dr. Jack Turban, resident physician in psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, where he researches the mental health of transgender youth, told the Observervia email.

Even for pubescent kids who do take hormone blockers, the drugs' effects can hardly be described as a medical transition. The drugs have been used for decades, according to Turban, and are safe.

"The risks associated with dysphoria toward puberty are typically much higher," he says.

If a kid elects to go off the blockers, they simply go through puberty.

"The only significant side effect is that the adolescent may fall behind on bone density. For this reason, doctors will regularly check bone density while the patient is on the medication," Turban wrote in an article published by Vox in October 2018. "If the medication is stopped, bone density catches up to normal after a few years as the child goes through the puberty of their gender assigned at birth."

Sex hormones if they are administered to teenagers at all are rarely started before a patient is 16, Turban says.

"Endocrine Society guidelines recommend age 16. In some instances where the gender history is very clear, estrogen or testosterone may be started as early as age 14," Turban says.

The only irreversible effects of sex hormone therapy, for teenagers or anyone else, are cosmetic changes like body fat redistribution and changes in body hair, Turban says.

"The greatest predictor of these kids doing well is when their parents love and accept them. Support your child and do not try to change them," Turban says. "If your child has questions about gender-affirming medical interventions, take them to a doctor who is knowledgeable about these options. Do not rely on information online, as much of it is misinformation."

Stephen Young has written about Dallas news for the Observer since 2014. He's a Dallas native and a graduate of the University of North Texas.

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Everything You've Heard About Viral Texas Custody Case Is Wrong - Dallas Observer

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Ascendis Pharma Expands TransCon PTH Phase 2 PaTH Forward Clinical Trial to Expedite Enrollment of Subjects Previously Treated with NATPARA in the…

- Reflects company values and commitment to patients living with hypoparathyroidism -

- Top-line data from expanded PaTH Forward Trial expected in first quarter of 2020 -

- Company expects to exceed targeted enrollment of 40 subjects -

COPENHAGEN, Denmark, Nov. 14, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Ascendis Pharma A/S (ASND), a biopharmaceutical company that utilizes its innovative TransCon technology to address unmet medical needs, today announced a protocol addendum designed to facilitate enrollment of subjects previously treated with NATPARA (parathyroid hormone) for Injection in the United States (US) in PaTH Forward, a global phase 2 trial evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of TransCon PTH in adult subjects with hypoparathyroidism (HP). TransCon PTH is an investigational long-acting prodrug of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in development as a potential once-daily replacement therapy for HP.

Previously, patients treated with NATPARA were required to undergo a long washout period prior to entering screening in PaTH Forward. In response to the recent recall of NATPARA in the US, Ascendis has been evaluating pathways to help enroll patients affected by the recall. Under the protocol addendum, patients previously treated with NATPARA in the US will now have an expedited pathway to enroll in PaTH Forward. As a result, the company expects to exceed targeted enrollment of 40 subjects in the trial.

This has been one of the most challenging times in the history of the hypoparathyroidism community, as we have navigated both the emotional and physical impact of the only PTH replacement therapy available being recalled in the US, said Deb Murphy, President and Vice Chair of the Board of Trustees of the HypoPARAthyroidism Association, Inc. We are grateful and very excited about Ascendis Pharmas efforts to expedite participation in the PaTH Forward Trial for additional patients.

Patients interested in participating in PaTH Forward in the US should discuss it with their physician, or visit pathforwardtrial.com, where they may contact a clinical representative who will refer them to a participating clinical investigator.

The unexpected recall of NATPARA in the US has had a major impact on my patients who have not been optimally controlled on standard of care with vitamin D and calcium supplements, said Mishaela Rubin, M.D., a PaTH Forward investigator. Patients living with hypoparathyroidism have an acute need to manage both their short-term symptoms and reduce risk of long-term complications. The PaTH Forward Trial is an opportunity for patients to participate in evaluation of a new potential treatment option for this debilitating disease.

PaTH Forward is a global, phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial that will evaluate safety and efficacy of three fixed doses of TransCon PTH. The goal of PaTH Forward is to evaluate TransCon PTH control of serum and urinary calcium, and identify a titration regimen for complete withdrawal of standard of care (i.e., active vitamin D and calcium supplements). The trial will include adult subjects with HP who are currently receiving standard of care or were previously treated with parathyroid hormone therapies at up to 40 sites worldwide. The PaTH Forward Trial will introduce a ready-to-use pre-filled pen device and assess disease-specific patient-reported outcomes. After four weeks of dosing, all subjects may enter an open-label extension period with the opportunity to receive TransCon PTH to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy.

About TransCon Technology

TransCon refers to transient conjugation. The proprietary TransCon platform is an innovative technology to create new therapies that optimize therapeutic effect, including efficacy, safety and dosing frequency. TransCon molecules have three components: an unmodified parent drug, an inert carrier that protects it, and a linker that temporarily binds the two. When bound, the carrier inactivates and shields the parent drug from clearance. When injected into the body, physiologic pH and temperature conditions initiate the release of the active, unmodified parent drug in a predictable release manner. Because the parent drug is unmodified, its original mode of action is expected to be maintained. TransCon technology can be applied broadly to a protein, peptide or small molecule in multiple therapeutic areas, and can be used systemically or locally.

Story continues

About Hypoparathyroidism (HP)

Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by insufficient levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in low calcium and elevated phosphate levels in the blood. HP affects approximately 80,000 patients in the United States, the majority of whom develop the condition following damage or accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. Patients often experience decreased quality of life. In the short term, symptoms include weakness, severe muscle cramps (tetany), abnormal sensations such as tingling, burning and numbness (paresthesia), memory loss, impaired judgment and headache. Over the long term, this complex disorder can increase risk of major complications, such as extraskeletal calcium depositions occurring within the brain, lens of the eye, and kidneys, which can lead to impaired renal function.

Until recently, HP remained among the few hormonal insufficiency states not treated by replacement of the missing hormone. Standard of care with active vitamin D analogs and calcium supplementation do not fully control the disease and may contribute to risk of renal disease. As a result, patients with HP have an estimated 4-fold to 8-fold greater risk of renal disease compared to healthy controls.

About Ascendis Pharma A/S

Ascendis Pharmais applying its innovative platform technology to build a leading, fully integrated biopharma company focused on making a meaningful difference in patients lives. Guided by its core values of patients, science and passion, the company utilizes its TransCon technologies to create new and potentially best-in-class therapies.

Ascendis Pharma currently has a pipeline of three independent endocrinology rare disease product candidates in clinical development and has established oncology as its second therapeutic area of focus. Additionally,Ascendis Pharma has multi-product collaborations withSanofiin diabetes and Genentech in the field of ophthalmology and continues to expand into additional therapeutic areas for both internal and external development.

Ascendis is headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark, with offices in Heidelberg, Germany and Palo Alto, California.

For more information, please visit http://www.ascendispharma.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this press release regarding our future operations, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. Examples of such statements include, but are not limited to, statements relating to (i) the timing of the topline data from the PaTH Forward Trial, (ii) our ability to apply our platform technology to build a leading, fully integrated biopharma company, (iii) our expectations regarding our ability to create new and potentially best-in-class therapies and (iv) our product pipeline. We may not actually achieve the plans, carry out the intentions or meet the expectations or projections disclosed in the forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, expectations and projections disclosed in the forward-looking statements. Various important factors could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make, including the following: unforeseen safety or efficacy results in our TransCon hGH, TransCon PTH and TransCon CNP or other development programs; unforeseen expenses related to the development and potential commercialization of TransCon hGH, TransCon PTH and TransCon CNP or other development programs, general and administrative expenses, other research and development expenses and our business generally; delays in the development of TransCon hGH, TransCon PTH and TransCon CNP or other development programs related to manufacturing, regulatory requirements, speed of patient recruitment or other unforeseen delays; dependence on third party manufacturers to supply study drug for planned clinical studies and potential commercial sale, if approved; and our ability to obtain additional funding, if needed, to support our business activities. For a further description of the risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed in these forward-looking statements, as well as risks relating to our business in general, see our current and future reports filed with, or submitted to, theU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC), including our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year endedDecember 31, 2018, which we filed with theSEConApril 3, 2019. Forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future in-licensing, collaborations, acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may enter into or make. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, except as required by law.

Ascendis, Ascendis Pharma, the Ascendis Pharma logo, the company logo and TransCon are trademarks owned by the Ascendis Pharma group.November 2019 Ascendis Pharma A/S.

Internal contact: Scott T. Smith Chief Financial Officer (650) 352-8389ir@ascendispharma.com

Media contact:Ami KnoeflerHead of Global Communications(650) 739-9952 ack@ascendispharma.com

Investor contact:Patti BankWestwicke Partners(415) 513-1284patti.bank@westwicke.com

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Ascendis Pharma Expands TransCon PTH Phase 2 PaTH Forward Clinical Trial to Expedite Enrollment of Subjects Previously Treated with NATPARA in the...

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What to anticipate from Intercourse After Having A Baby – ESPBR

What to anticipate from Intercourse After Having A Baby

Pregnancy and distribution modification great deal regarding the human anatomy, along with your sex-life.

Postdelivery hormone changes will make tissue that is vaginal and much more sensitive and painful. Your vagina, womb, and cervix have actually to return to size that is normal too. And when youre nursing, that may reduce libido.

Theres no timeline that is definitive says just how long you really need to wait to possess intercourse after having a baby. Nonetheless, many health practitioners suggest ladies wait 4 to 6 months carrying out a genital distribution.

After your medical professional has provided you the all clear to resume intimate tasks, you might still have to take things gradually. Keep in mind: as well as recovery that is physical youll also be adjusting up to a brand new member of the family, less rest, and a modification of your regular routine.

Its also possible to need certainly to wait much longer when you yourself have a perineal episiotomy or tear. An episiotomy is really a medical cut to widen the canal that is vaginal. Going back to intercourse too quickly may raise your chance of problems, such as for example postpartum hemorrhage and uterine infection.

Keep reading to find more info on the results of being pregnant and distribution on intercourse, and just how to possess a healthy, satisfying sex life after infant.

Intercourse after distribution shall feel various. One study that is small 2005 discovered that 83 % of females skilled sexual dilemmas in the 1st 90 days after their very very first distribution.

Nonetheless, that quantity will continue to fall due to the fact months that are post-pregnancy.

Hormones perform a large role in postdelivery data recovery and a come back to normal sexual intercourse.

When you look at the days childbirth that is immediately following estrogen falls to pre-pregnancy amounts. If nursing, estrogen levels might sink below pre-pregnancy levels. Estrogen helps provide natural lubrication that is vaginal therefore lower levels associated with hormone raise the probability of vaginal dryness.

Dry muscle can cause discomfort, also bleeding, while having sex. This increases your chance of illness.

Genital delivery can temporarily extend the muscle tissue associated with the canal that is vaginal. These muscles require time and energy to recover their stability and strength.

You may have a longer recovery if you had a perineal tear or episiotomy during vaginal birth. Making love too early can boost your threat of an infection.

A cesarean distribution also can impact sensation that is vaginal your brides website. Equivalent hormone problems could make the cells for the vagina dry and thin, perhaps resulting in painful intercourse.

Plus, youll be coping with stomach surgery, therefore youll desire to ensure that the incision web site has precisely healed before resuming intercourse.

You may get expecting interestingly quickly after delivering an infant. One research discovered the first ovulation for women that werent nursing is about six days. Some females ovulated even early in the day.

If youre nursing, the hormonal advantages of medical can behave as a natural type of contraceptive when it comes to first 4 to 6 months after distribution.

But, no more than 1 in 4 ladies who utilize this lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), or nursing as birth prevention, do therefore properly. That increases their danger for maternity.

If youre going to possess intercourse after pregnancy but dont want to risk another child therefore soon, intend to make use of a dependable approach to birth control.

A barrier technique, such as for instance a condom, might be good to use in the beginning. An implant or IUD can be used also. But, hormone choices may impact nursing and that can additionally have particular dangers, such as for example an increased danger for bloodstream clots.

Consult with your medical professional concerning the right selection for you.

Getting pregnant too rapidly after one maternity can place you at an elevated danger for premature birth or delivery defects.

Healthcare experts encourage ladies to place their pregnancies. Any office of Womens wellness suggests waiting at the least one year between each maternity. In addition to March of Dimes suggests waiting eighteen months.

If youre reasoning about another child, speak to your medical care pro. Theyll certainly be many acquainted with your wellbeing history and provide more recommendations that are personalized.

Some regular bleeding as your uterus heals in the weeks immediately following childbirth, youll likely experience. Intercourse could potentially cause some blood loss that is additional.

Likewise, your vagina may be drier and more sensitive and painful in the early days after childbirth. This is why the muscle tissue slimmer, that may lead to tearing or damage. The vagina may also become inflamed and swollen. During these cases, bleeding is not uncommon.

In the event that bleeding during intercourse does stop within four nt to six months or it worsens, see your medical practitioner. Youve probably an irritation or tear that needs treatment before starting having sex once again.

The hormones estrogen and progesterone are necessary to your babys development that is healthy maternity. Additionally they are actually crucial to your sexual interest.

Quantities of these hormones are extremely high during maternity. When the child is born, they decrease considerably, back again to levels that are pre-pregnancy.

Which means you might not feel any desire that is sexual a couple of months. However you ought to be waiting 4 to 6 months anyhow, as the human body recovers.

After your medical professional has offered you the all clear to resume activities that are sexual you may possibly opt to wait much longer before reigniting your sex-life. One research unearthed that 89 per cent of females had resumed sexual intercourse within 6 months of pregnancy.

If youre nursing, it may simply simply take additional time for the libido to go back than it might for females whom arent nursing. Thats because nursing keeps estrogen levels low.

Estrogen supplements are discouraged if youre nursing as it may affect milk manufacturing.

You and your partner may not feel like intimacy is even on the books when you couple changes in hormones with the fatigue of being a parent to a newborn.

As the human body adjusts to its brand brand new normal or once you stop breastfeeding, the hormones will start working once again, along with your libido should get back.

Pregnancy contributes to large amount of real modifications to your system. Thats why it is crucial to offer your self 4 to 6 days after distribution just before have sexual intercourse once again.

Throughout your recovery duration, the womb will shrink, hormones will come back to pre-pregnancy amounts, and muscle tissue will regain power and security.

Once youve been because of the go-ahead by the medical practitioner, be sure to simply take returning to intercourse to your time.

If any pain is experienced by you or symptoms that persist, consult with your physician. Painful intercourse may be an indicator of other conditions unrelated to pregnancy data data recovery.

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What to anticipate from Intercourse After Having A Baby - ESPBR

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‘Conscience rule’ that puts providers’ personal beliefs ahead of patient’s emergency needs deemed unlawful – Northern Kittitas County Tribune

SPOKANE A federal judge in Spokane today ruled that the White House Administrations conscience rule is unlawful, granting summary judgment in Attorney General Bob Fergusons legal challenge. The rule would have given health care professionals broad discretion to refuse lawful and medically necessary care to patients for religious or moral reasons, even when the patients life is at risk.

This case represents the Washington Attorney Generals 25th consecutive legal victory against the Administration.

The court agreed that all Washingtonians deserve to receive the full range of health care services, Ferguson said. This rule would have disproportionately harmed rural and working poor Washington families, who have no alternatives to their local health care providers, as well as LGBTQ individuals, who already face discrimination when they seek medical care.

The lawsuit, filed in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Washington, argued that the rule would jeopardize access to reproductive health care, particularly for low-income, rural and working poor patients and allow providers to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals.

The conscience rule would have allowed health care workers to deny a patient access to medical care and services including reproductive care, end-of-life decisions, and care for transgender patients for moral or religious reasons, with no exception for medical emergencies. Under the rule, if the federal government believed Washington, its health care institutions, or other recipients of federal health care funds violated the rule, the federal government would be allowed to cut off all health care funding to the state more than $10 billion per year.

Ferguson filed the lawsuit in federal court in Spokane because rural communities, including those in Eastern Washington, have fewer health care providers and would be more likely to be harmed by the rule.

On Nov. 6, a federal judge in New York found the rule was unlawful and struck it down nationwide. Todays ruling provides an extra layer of protection against appeal by the Administration.

The conscience rule

The rule would have significantly expanded the number of individuals eligible to make refusals based on religious or moral beliefs. The rule applies to any employee providing any service to any patient, from ambulance drivers to receptionists to customer service representatives at insurance companies.

Some examples of potential impacts under the rule:

-A woman experiencing a life-threatening miscarriage calls an ambulance to her home. The EMT or paramedic who arrives could refuse to transport her to the hospital because they may terminate the pregnancy, despite the risk to the health of the mother and the fact that the pregnancy is not viable.

-A patient in need of an IUD to treat a condition such as endometriosis could be denied coverage by her insurance company on moral grounds because an IUD is also birth control. The patient would be responsible for the entire cost of her treatment.

-A patient who suffers debilitating pain with menstruation, or constant menstruation, could be cured with a surgery to remove her uterus. Her doctor could refuse to tell her about that option if he or she personally opposed sterilization.

-An employer could offer unmarried employees only health coverage that does not cover birth control, or choose to provide only plans that do not cover birth control at all.

-A receptionist, citing religious or moral objections, could refuse to schedule an appointment for an LGBTQ patient.

-A pharmacist could refuse to fill a prescription for hormone therapy for a transgender person.

-If a doctor who objects to physician-assisted suicide on religious grounds treats a patient with a painful, terminal disease who wants to use Washingtons Death with Dignity Act, the doctor may refuse to transfer that patients medical records to a participating provider.

Impacts on Washington

The rule threatened severe sanctions on states that do not comply. Any failure or apparent failure to follow the rule would jeopardize all federal health care funding, which states rely on to provide critical and often life-saving care.

Washington receives $8.2 billion annually for its Medicaid and Childrens Health Insurance programs, and more than $10.5 billion every year in federal funding from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Washington relies on those funds for essential public health programs, including the Childrens Health Insurance Program, HIV/AIDS and STD prevention and education, and substance abuse and mental health treatment.

The rule provided no information on how the federal government will determine the rule has been violated.

The rule would have substantially increased the risk of discrimination against patients on the basis of sex, sexual orientation or gender identity. Transgender patients already face discrimination in the health care industry, including denial of routine medical care, like physicals, diabetes treatments and flu shots. The rule would give providers more leeway to refuse to provide care to transgender patients and discriminate based on gender identity.

Washington has a network of laws that balances patients right to health care treatment with respect for personal conscience. These laws allow medical professionals to refuse to provide certain services based on conscience, except in an emergency to save a human life. They also require health care institutions and providers to ensure that no one is denied information about or timely access to health care, by, for example, advising patients of all options required by todays medical standards.

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'Conscience rule' that puts providers' personal beliefs ahead of patient's emergency needs deemed unlawful - Northern Kittitas County Tribune

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Meditation Reduced The Opioid Dose She Needs To Ease Chronic Pain By 75% – WABE 90.1 FM

Theres new evidence that mind-body interventions can help reduce pain in people who have been taking prescription opioids and lead to reductions in the drugs dose.

In a study published this month in JAMA Internal Medicine, researchers reviewed evidence from 60 studies that included about 6,400 participants. They evaluated a range of strategies, including meditation, guided imagery, hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Mindfulness, cognitive behavioral therapy and clinical hypnosis appear to be the most useful for reducing pain, says study author Eric Garland, a professor at the University of Utah. The reductions in dose were modest overall, he says, but the study is a signal that this approach is beneficial.

And Pamela Bobb, who lives in Fairfield Glade, Tenn., can attest to the benefits. Shes 56 and has endured decades of pain. Oh, I had been suffering terribly for years, Bobb tells us.

She was born with a malformation in her pelvis that led to pain. Over the span of two decades, she underwent more than a dozen major surgeries, yet none of them gave her relief; each procedure left more scar tissue and nerve damage.

I felt desperate, Bobb says. I didnt feel like I had any control.

She couldnt do basic things such as cook or take care of her family.

I was completely debilitated, Bobb says. And when you get to that point, you cant see beyond the pain youre just surviving.

She was put on high doses of opioids to ease the constant pain, but then a few years ago she thought, There just has to be a better way. Ultimately, she found help at a clinic that specializes in complementary and alternative medicine.

We offer a variety of things, explains Wayne Jonas, a physician who treated Bobb at the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Pain Clinic in Fairfax County, Va.

We offer physical therapy, behavioral medicine, acupuncture, yoga and mind body practices, Jonas says. None of these is a cure-all, he adds, but the idea is that there are lots of tools in the toolkit for people to try.

Jonas is a longtime proponent of an integrated, mind-body approach to treating pain and the author of How Healing Works, a book that describes the science behind these approaches.

He says that when someone is in severe pain, their bodys normal defenses are down.

It bumps up a variety of dysfunctions, Jonas says. Pain increases levels of the stress hormone cortisol and increases inflammatory processes in the body, too. This starts a continual negative feedback loop that produces more pain, Jonas explains.

Its not a surprise, he says, that techniques such as meditation or yoga can be helpful. If you engage in a deep mindfulness and relaxation it will counter those stress responses, Jonas says.

Think of meditation as a form of mental exercise.

Its almost like weightlifting for your brain, says Garland. Just as curling a dumbbell strengthens the bicep, he says, meditation is almost a way of, sort of curling the dumbbell of the mind to strengthen the minds self control.

And this can change the way the brain perceives the input from the body. If you can change the way the brain perceives signals from the body you can actually change the experience of pain, Garland says.

But theres a trick here: Learning to meditate takes time, effort and some training. Its more complicated than swallowing a pill. Pamela Bobb has stuck with it. She has tried a bunch of these alternative mind-body strategies, including acupuncture and biofeedback, and now starts every morning with a meditation practice.

Its 4:45 in the morning and Ive just awakened, she says in a recording she made of her practice, so I could listen in. She sounds centered, and calm. Im allowing my body to feel as relaxed as it possibly can.

Bobb has also overhauled her diet, now eating a lot more greens, fruits and vegetables and herbs and spices with anti-inflammatory properties. On the day we talk, shes making a spinach saute with ginger, mint and rosemary.

I swear you can smell each of those spices. They smell so good! she says.

Bobb is so at ease now that, just hanging out with her, youd never guess all that she has endured. And she feels so much better, she says.

Its empowering to [have] come all this way, Bobb says. She says shes made a fundamental transition in her mind: Instead of waiting for doctors to heal her with surgeries or injections, she now realizes that many of these alternative therapies have empowered her to help herself.

So much of it does lie within me, she says.

Bobb accepts that she may never be completely pain-free, but now feels she has control over the discomfort.

She has reduced her opioid dose by 75%. She says she still benefits from a small maintenance dose of the medication. And her doctors say that for her, the benefits of the medicine outweigh potential harms.

In the midst of an opioid epidemic, Bobbs story may seem unlikely. But many people who have taken opioids for a prolonged period have similar stories. And last month, the Department of Health and Human Services released new guidelines urging doctors to take a deliberate approach to lowering doses of opioids for chronic pain patients.

The guidelines point to the potential harms of forcing patients off the medications.

The goal is not necessarily to get off of all opioids but to reduce it to a dose [that is] safe, Adm. Brett P. Giroir, a physician and assistant secretary for health at HHS, told NPR. We asked him about Bobbs case. He is not her doctor, but after hearing her story he said, The fact that shes been able to reduce her opioids substantially is a success story.

Giroir says this kind of comprehensive approach that includes alternative therapies could be a model for what we want to do nationwide. He points out that earlier this year, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services proposed covering acupuncture for Medicare patients who have chronic lower back pain.

As the evidence accumulates, Giroir says, there will be more attention placed on covering alternative therapies.

A 2017 Gallup Poll found that 78% of people would prefer to try other ways to address their physical pain before they take pain medication.

And doctors groups such as the American College of Physicians recommend that doctors offer more nonpharmacological treatments to pain patients, such as those who have chronic lower back pain.

Yet, a paper published last year finds that most insurers have not adopted policies that are consistent with these guidelines, and many dont pay for coverage of these services. An accompanying editorial argues that its time for that to change.

Its clear that when it comes to tackling pain, it takes all of the tools in the toolkit. And when it comes to opioids, the approach neednt be all or nothing. Bobb says she has learned that, for her, the combination of medicine plus mind-body therapies works best.

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Meditation Reduced The Opioid Dose She Needs To Ease Chronic Pain By 75% - WABE 90.1 FM

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Global and Regional Endocrine Testing Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report 2019-2024 -…

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By TestEstradiol (E2) Test, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Test, Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Test, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) Test, Progesterone Test, Testosterone Test, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Test, Others (Gastrin, Thymosin, Secretin, etc.)

By TechnologyTandem Mass spectrometry, Immunoassay (Enzyme immunoassays, Radioimmunoassays (RIA)) Technologies, Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibody Technologies, Sensor (Electrochemical, Biosensors, etc.) Technologies, Clinical Chemistry Technologies, Others (Liquid Chromatography + Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS),

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Global and Regional Endocrine Testing Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report 2019-2024 -...

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

If Laughter Is The Best Medicine, Why Are So Many Comedians In Poor Health? – Forbes

Jim Gaffigan, comedian, writer and actor, worries about his health. "I want to lose weight. I figure ... [+] I have a good seven to ten years of performing at the present level." (Photo by Chris Pizzello/Invision/AP)

Okay, I confess. I went for a provocative title. Are comics infected with the bubonic plague? Nope. Are they dropping like flies? Of course not. However, it may be tempting to think this way because a tragically large number of beloved comedic talents have died suddenly and prematurely: John Candy, Bill Hicks, Freddy Prinze, Patrice ONeal and many others.

After interviewing several stand-up comics, comedic actors and writers during the New York Comedy Festival (which wrapped up November 10, 2019), I have a better understanding of the highly atypical lifestyle led by these immensely talented individuals, the wide range of health issues they face, and the role of medical professionals in addressing their medical and mental health concerns.

There is a thin line that separates laughter and pain, comedy and tragedy, humor and hurt.

The plethora of headlines reporting yet another comedians death at the hands of drugs or suicide tempts us to believe that addiction and mental illness are epidemics within the comedy world. Lenny Bruce, Jim Belushi, Chris Farley, Greg Giraldo, Mitch Hedberg and Robin Williams are just a few in a long list of funny folks who have all sadly succumbed to drug overdose, depression and suicide. In fact, the high number of premature deaths prompted the Laugh Factory in Hollywood to hire an on-site psychologist. To get more clarity on this issue, I posed a series of questions to several comedians.

Why do so many comedians experience addiction and mental illness?

This is nothing new, according to comic superstar Jim Gaffigan. There is nothing normal about going onstage and making a crowd of strangers laugh. The Pale Tourist comic compared comedy to addiction: Stand-up is an endorphin rush probably similar to a drug. Its also a strange combination of control (you have a mic) and no control (the reaction of the audience).

Comedian and breast cancer survivor Jenny Saldana.

Stand-up comedian Jenny Saldana: Its really hard to be ON all the time. The breast cancer survivor and patient advocate explained, We struggle with our onstage persona and our personal lives. Combine these issues with access to drugs in the late-night scene, says Saldana, and addiction lurks around the corner.

According to comedian Jim Mendrinos, there are plenty of risk factors: Isolation, long periods of traveling without a support system, and crazy-easy access to drugs and booze. The Gotham TV Writing instructor added, As with all true artists, we feel too much. Most comics I know suffer from some type of depression.

Comedian Jim Mendrinos has experienced multiple health issues including concussions and facial ... [+] surgery.

If youve experienced addiction or mental illness, what kind of treatment did you receive? How did you achieve recovery? If you havent, how did you avoid both conditions?

Pakistani-American comedian Mona Shaikh is well aware of the connection between trauma and addiction. The comedy community has a lot of trauma and pain. A survivor of significant verbal and physical abuse that led to suicidal thoughts, Ms. Shaikh is crystal clear about her recovery: Therapy singlehandedly saved my life. She also finds comedythe love of my lifevery empowering as it allows her to share her pain and trauma.

Comedian and event emcee Mona Shaikh speaks at the Women's March, San Francisco. Abused by her ... [+] father, brother and ex-husband, Shaikh uses comedy to share her trauma, pain and resilience. (Photo by Kelly Sullivan/Getty Images)

Therapy was a recurring theme. According to Gaffigan, therapy helped a lot. Comedians, like most humans, have demons. He added, my wife [and writing partner, Jeannie Gaffigan] has been invaluable in keeping me grounded.

The tragedy of life is what dies inside a man while he lives.

Comedy Cellar regular, Ian Fidance, credits medications and counseling to his long-term recovery from alcohol use disorder. Naltrexone saved my life. He also praised the Greenwich House for providing him with much-needed care. Fidancelike many people with addictionfaced tremendous stigma: I had to divorce myself from the moral-failing paradigm.

Stand-up comic Ian Fidance takes part in SiriusXM host Ron Bennington's annual Thanksgiving Special ... [+] at the Hard Rock Cafe in New York City. (Photo by Cindy Ord/Getty Images for SiriusXM)

What health issues do comedians worry about?

Alas, comedians are people, too. And just like all of us, they experience a wide range of health issues beyond anxiety and drugs.

Jeannie Gaffigan, writer and executive producer of The Jim Gaffigan Show, cited poor diet and lack of sleep affecting her husband. For an internationally touring comedian, waking up at the same time every morning is impossible. As a television writer, she would be awake until 3 a.m., order Indian food. Then during the day, the mother of five young children would receive calls from school about a childs strep throat. Its a manic existence.

Ms. Gaffigan, author of the recently released memoir, When Life Gives You Pears: The Healing Power of Family, Faith, and Funny People, shared her life-altering journey with a pear-size brain tumor, followed by intubations, infections and vocal cord dysfunction. So how, if at all, did this major neurosurgical health problem impact her life, including comedy writing? It made me bolder. She publicly discusses J-tubes, PEG tubes, colonoscopies and other humiliating topics that arent exactly dinner conversation. The comedic power couple documented their post-hospitalization dietary ritual in a very funny and candid YouTube series, Feeding Frenzy.

NEW YORK, NY: Jeannie Gaffigan and Jim Gaffigan visit SiriusXM Townhall at SiriusXM Studio on June ... [+] 28, 2016, in New York City. (Photo by Robin Marchant/Getty Images)

Many other health issues impact comedians. Stacy Kendro worries about back and neck pain as well as migraines. But lack of health coverage can be a barrier. Im mostly part-time with comedy and need to pay cash out of pocket. Ms. Saldana agreed: Most comedians dont access health care and go a long time without seeing a medical professional.

What would you like medical professionals to know? How can we better serve the comedy community?

Ms. Kendro: I would go to a therapist if I could afford one. Health insurance needs to be accessible to performers, especially those in the trenches, on the road, working clubs.

Mr. Mendrinos: Artists need help. We often dont have access to health insurance. I know five comics who have died by suicide. We tend to self-medicate with drugs and comedy.

Ms. Gaffigan: Doctors need to be creative in their advice. Tailor it to the comedians late-night work hours and travel schedule.

Ms. Saldana: I guarantee that if doctors started a free clinic at a comedy club, offering flu shots, STD screening and basic counseling, theyd be overbooked in minutes.

Comedian Stacy Kendro feels that "real comedy comes from pain." The funniest people she's ever known ... [+] "were the most emotionally fraught."

******************

Personally, I always found laughter to be therapeuticwell before I became a physician. From a young age, I gravitated toward funny films and television sitcoms. I cherishedin fact, enviedmy friends who had a natural ability to make others laugh. Years later, I became an avid fan of stand-up comedy. To this day, I have tremendous admiration for any person who courageously stands alone on stage and makes complete strangers laugh. A unique skill set I will never possess.

It turns out that comedians provide a genuinely therapeutic skilla reality that Im sure many comics discovered at least intuitively at a young age. Evidence shows that laughter has many short- and long-term health benefits. According to the Mayo Clinic, laughter acutely stimulates our heart, lungs and other organs by increasing oxygen intake; it also activates the brain to release endorphins (the happy hormone); and relieves tension by relaxing our muscles. In the long term, laughter can improve our immune system, which fights infections and illnesses; reduce pain; and improve mood.

Women enjoy a laughter yoga session at a laughing club in Kolkata, India. Laughter yoga helps to ... [+] increase happiness, but it also strengthens the immune system, reduces pain and lowers stress. (Photo by Avijit Ghosh/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)

Substance abuse and mental illness are clearly underaddressed in the comedy community, not unlike the general population. The way to tackle this? I will reiterate Mr. Fidances remark: We need to reduce the stigma faced by people with addiction and mental illness. Globally, both remain THE most stigmatized social problems, according to the World Health Organization. A key way to decrease stigma is through widespread education. Addiction and mental illness are chronic illnesses of the brain, NOT signs of moral weakness or failure. Treatment like medications and behavioral therapies existand work! But health care access needs to be widely accessible. Perhaps comedians should have a union, as suggested by Ms. Kendro. Maybe comedy clubs could partner with local hospitals or clinics and offer basic health services. We need to be innovative.

The comedy and addiction medicine worlds taught me a key lesson: the importance of community. A common mantra in my line of work is The opposite of addiction isnt sobriety, its connection. The Gaffigans feeding tube videos led to an outpouring of stories. Pain and suffering are universal. People connect with openness and authenticity. On that note, I am deeply grateful to the comedians who have generously shared their stories. To every comedian out thereamateur and professionalyour humor is truly healing!

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If Laughter Is The Best Medicine, Why Are So Many Comedians In Poor Health? - Forbes

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith


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