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The Kyoto University team’s plan to transplant iPS cartilage into knee joints is OK – gotech daily

KYOTO A panel of experts from the Ministry of Health approved a clinical research program proposed by a team from the University of Kyoto on Friday for the transplantation of cartilage from induced pluripotent stem cells [iPS] into damaged knee joints.

Professor Noriyuki Tsumaki and other members of the team are planning to produce 2 to 3 millimeter diameter cartilage using iPS cells, which will be stored at the Universitys Center for iPS Cell Research and Application [CiRA].

The team plans to perform the first transplant this year. According to a clinical study by Asahi Kasei Corp., which supports the project, the technology should be put into practice in 2029.

Four people between the ages of 20 and 70 are transplanted with iPS cell cartilage for their damaged knee joints, with the damage range between 1 cm and 5 cm. The team does not plan to seek additional patients for the program.

Immunosuppressors are not used in the transplant because cartilage usually does not show an immune response.

The team will monitor the four patients for possible tumor development for a year after the operation. If the operations are successful, the transplanted material melts into the existing cartilage.

There are many patients who experience discomfort from cartilage damage, said Tsumaki at a press conference at Kyoto University Hospital on Friday. We will work hard to offer therapy methods.

The team will also try to apply the therapy to patients with osteoarthritis.

In 2014, Riken, a research institute affiliated with the Japanese government, transplanted retina cells made from iPS cells to treat an incurable eye disease in the worlds first transplant of iPS-derived cells.

Similar transplants were later performed by Kyoto University for Parkinsons and Osaka University for corneal diseases.

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The Kyoto University team's plan to transplant iPS cartilage into knee joints is OK - gotech daily

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

The Crazy Story of How Florida Panthers Were Saved From Extinction – The Revelator

Its not even February yet, and Florida panthers are already having a bad year. Three have been killed by vehicles and one by a train in the first two weeks of 2020 alone.

The big cats once ranged across the South but now are mostly found slinking between fragments of habitat in southern Florida. Traffic poses a significant hazard: Last year 23 panthers were killed by vehicles a significant blow to a wild population that hovers precariously at only around 230 animals.

But there likely wouldnt be any Florida panthers today if it werent for decades of work to save them. The story of how Florida panthers, a puma subspecies, were rescued from the brink of extinction is expertly told in the new book Cat Tale: The Wild, Weird Battle To Save the Florida Panther, by journalist and New York Times best-selling author Craig Pittman. Pittmans been tracking the story for 20 years at the Tampa Bay Times.

The cast of characters and wild turns of event in Pittmans book seem like the stuff of fiction. Theres the Stetson-wearing Texas cougar hunter Roy McBride, who becomes a master panther tracker. Veterinarian Melody Roelke rings the alarm on the panthers genetic problems, only to have her male colleagues look the other way. And the arch villain of the story, a biologist nicknamed Dr. Panther, establishes himself as the preeminent expert but is actually fudging his research and colluding with developers.

Pittman traces these and other characters through years of discoveries, mistakes, public backlash and breakthroughs a fledgling program to radio-collar and track the animals that taught important lessons about tranquilizing big cats high up in trees; a failed captive-breeding program; a failed reintroduction plan in north Florida; and a last-ditch effort to bring in new genes by releasing Texas cougars in panther habitat.

The story is tragic, inspiring and deeply poignant. In his prologue Pittman calls it a scientific cautionary tale. As we grapple with mass extinction across the world, he writes, This is a guide to what extraordinary efforts it takes to bring back just one sub-species one thats particularly popular and what unexpected costs such a decision brings.

Pittman talked to The Revelator about the threats that panthers continue to face and what lessons we can learn about saving other endangered species.

When you first started writing about panthers 20 years ago, what did you think about their prospects?

My first stories were around 1998-1999. Nobody knew if the Texas cougar experiment had worked yet. Things looked pretty grim and a lot of developers were proceeding on the understanding that panthers wouldnt be a problem anymore, so it was OK to build in panther habitat.

Things looked dire at that point and it wasnt until around 2001 or 2002 where you started seeing these new kittens being born and thinking maybe things would be OK. The concern then became making sure that the Texas cougar genetics didnt swamp the panther genetics.

We know that panthers arent out of the woods yet. Is there clear science on what would be considered a recovered population?

Ever since scientists drew up the very first recovery plan decades ago, they said the key was to have three [geographically] separate populations of about 250 or 300 panthers. Obviously, were still a long way from that and from even starting a second population. You could call whats going on in central Florida the start of a new population, but theres just a handful of panthers there.If they choose to follow those particular goals, theyre a long way away.

But I phrase it that way because [the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service] did not follow their own recommendations when they down-listed manatees [from endangered to threatened]. They didnt follow their recovery plan. They just said, Well, this computer model says its OK, so were going to say its OK, even though the threats are still there.

You know a good bit about manatees, which you wrote about in Manatee Insanity: Inside the War Over Floridas Most Famous Endangered Species. How does the manatees story compare to the panthers?

I call manatees the endangered species you can see, because they will show up everywhere people are theyre in your backyard canal, swimming around your dock. At the time I wrote that book, they were an endangered species, but one that you could see with your own eyes.

Panthers, not so much. Panthers are very elusive. They dont like to be around people. So theyre more of an abstract concept to a lot of folks. People know the panthers exist, but theyve never seen one. So its not quite as personal with panthers.

And the other thing that I wrote about in Manatee Insanity is that the Save the Manatee Club, and specifically its cofounder Jimmy Buffett, came up with this brilliant marketing concept called adopt a manatee, where they took the IDs from a whole bunch of the manatees that the state had been following and, for a contribution of around $5 or so originally, you could adopt a manatee. Youd get a little adoption certificate with the name of your manatee on it and its background.

People became personally invested in the fate of their particular manatee. I was digging through state archives and I saw letters from, you know, Mrs. Johnsons fourth grade class in Mesa, Arizona to the Citrus County Commission saying, Why are you being mean to our manatee and not passing this rule to make boats slow down?

They found a way to make people all over the country care about individual manatees as a way of getting them to care about the species as a whole. Theres no similar project for panthers and generally most of the panthers dont have nicknames like the manatees do.

There are people who absolutely love panthers, mostly in the abstract. And there are some folks who would dearly love to see a hunting season opened on them and feel like the governments lying about how many there are. But I think the majority of Floridians support panthers and are happy that they seem to be coming back.

Your book is a really incredibly in-depth case study of what it takes to save one endangered species. Are there lessons we can learn from it about saving other species?

I like what Melody Roelke said at the point where they started to realize they needed to take action [to save the panthers], it was almost too late to do anything. So her advice was, if you see it heading this way, take action immediately. Dont dawdle around and get into arguments and get mired down in bureaucratic red tape about what youre going to do.

They really were almost too late to save the panther. It basically came down to five female Texas cougars breeding with the remaining male panthers. And had that not worked, that wouldve been it. Theyd probably be gone by now.

The other thing is, if youre going to spend this much money and work this hard to bring back an endangered species, think about whats going to happen afterwards. What are the ramifications going to be? Because as we saw with the captive-breeding experiment that they started and then dropped, they had not planned very well. They had figured out they were going to take these panther kittens out of the wild and breed them in captivity to put [grown] panthers back in the wild, but they hadnt really thought about where they were going to put them and how they were going to train these captive panthers to be OK in the wild.

What are the biggest threats they face now?

The reason I waited so long to write this book is because I needed a good ending and I finally got one. [Editors note: We wont give it away, but its a doozy.]

But just because I found an ending for the book doesnt mean the story of the panther is over. Were now dealing with this mystery ailment thats afflicting some panthers and bobcats, to the point where they cant walk and scientists dont know why.

Weve also got more large development coming down the pike headed for the area [where most panthers live]. In particular theres a proposal backed by the governor who is supposedly pro-environment to build this enormous toll road right through panther habitat, which would bring more development into that area.

One of my colleagues, Lawrence Mower, just wrote a story where wed gotten copies of some emails from Fish and Wildlife Service biologists who study the panthers saying this will just basically be a stake in the heart of panther recovery if you build this toll road through there.

So there are continuing threats, and were a long way from them being considered recovered. But things are looking hopeful in ways they havent for a long time and all because of the very hard work from these folks who labored for years mostly in anonymity because they believed in the cause and they believed that what was going on was something worth devoting their lives to even though it led to burnout and fighting and depression and, in one case, suicide.

In a way, I wrote the book to call attention to the role of those unsung heroes to say, look at what they did, look at the risks that they took, look at the brutal work days they put in trying to figure this out sometimes even against the publics own desires.

Excerpt from:
The Crazy Story of How Florida Panthers Were Saved From Extinction - The Revelator

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Helping Hemp Farmers to Know What They Grow – AgWired

Companies like Phylos Bioscience are looking to partner with hemp distributors across the nation. Thats why the Portland-based company exhibited at the 2020 Heart of America Agricultural Hemp Classic in Independence, Mo.

Phylos Bioscience is a genetics testing company in the hemp and cannabis space, which identifies male and female plants and also hosts a 3D repository of all the DNA theyve sampled over the years to provide transparency and help farmers to know exactly what they are growing.

Take the time to really do the research on how to grow it, and make sure that whatever variety you do have is actually hemp, said Aaron Jarvis with Phylos.

Jarvis said the company is already working with the Missouri Hemp Association and American Hemp Research, and they intend to develop more partnerships in the days to come.

Listen to Chucks interview with Aaron here: Interview with Aaron Jarvis, Phylos Bioscience

Listen to Aarons presentation here: Presentation by Aaron Jarvis, Phylos Bioscience

2020 Heart of America Agricultural Hemp Classic Photo Album

Original post:
Helping Hemp Farmers to Know What They Grow - AgWired

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

CRISPR Has The Potential To Improve Lives. But At What Cost? – WBUR

CRISPR, the breakthrough method for editing genes, has the potential to improve our lives. But one of its inventors warns us scientists may be tempted to change life itself in ways we wont like.

Jennifer Doudna, biochemist who helped invent CRISPR technology. Professor of chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of California, Berkeley. (@doudna_lab)

Alta Charo, member of the WHO's advisory committee on developing global standards for governance and over-sight of human genome editing. 2019-2020 Berggruen fellow at theCenter for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciencesat Stanford University. (@CASBSStanford)

Science Magazine: "Editorial: CRISPR's unwanted anniversary" "There are key moments in the history of every disruptive technology that can make or break its public perception and acceptance. For CRISPR-based genome editing, such a moment occurred 1 year agoan unsettling push into an era that will test how society decides to use this revolutionary technology.

"In November 2018, at the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing in Hong Kong, scientist He Jiankui announced that he had broken the basic medical mantra of 'do no harm' by using CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genomes of two human embryos in the hope of protecting the twin girls from HIV.

"His risky and medically unnecessary work stunned the world and defied prior calls by my colleagues and me, and by the U.S. National Academies of Sciences and of Medicine, for an effective moratorium on human germline editing. It was a shocking reminder of the scientific and ethical challenges raised by this powerful technology.

"Once the details of He's work were revealed, it became clear that although human embryo editing is relatively easy to achieve, it is difficult to do well and with responsibility for lifelong health outcomes."

MIT Technology Review: "One of CRISPRs inventors has called for controls on gene-editing technology" "Regulators need to pay more attention to controlling CRISPR, the revolutionary gene-editing tool, says Jennifer Doudna.One year on: Doudna, a University of California biochemist who helped invent CRISPR technology in 2012, wrote an editorial in Science yesterday titled CRISPRs unwanted anniversary.

"The anniversary is that of the announcement by a Chinese scientist, He Jiankui, that he had created gene-edited twin girls. That was a medical felony as far as Doudna is concerned, an unnecessary experiment that violated the doctors rule to avoid causing harm and ignored calls not to proceed.

"A moratorium? Forget about it. So how do we stop this from happening again? Since the 'CRISPR babies' debacle, scientists have talked about self-regulation. One idea was a moratorium: a self-imposed ban of a few years before anyone tries using the technology on the human germline again. (The germline refers to embryos, sperm, and eggsanything that, if you edit it, will cause changes that pass down through the generations.) But that's not going to cut it, says Doudna."

The New York Times: "Jennifer Doudna, a Pioneer Who Helped Simplify Genome Editing" "As a child in Hilo, one of the less touristy parts of Hawaii, Jennifer A. Doudna felt out of place. She had blond hair and blue eyes, and she was taller than the other kids, who were mostly of Polynesian and Asian descent.

'I think to them I looked like a freak,' she recently recalled. 'And I felt like a freak.'Her isolation contributed to a kind of bookishness that propelled her toward science. Her upbringing 'toughened her up,' said her husband, Jamie Cate. 'She can handle a lot of pressure.' These days, that talent is being put to the test.

"Three years ago, Dr. Doudna, a biochemist at the University of California, Berkeley, helped make one of the most monumental discoveries in biology: a relatively easy way to alter any organisms DNA, just as a computer user can edit a word in a document.

"The discovery has turned Dr. Doudna (the first syllable rhymes with loud) into a celebrity of sorts, the recipient of numerous accolades and prizes. The so-called Crispr-Cas9 genome editing technique is already widely used in laboratory studies, and scientists hope it may one day help rewrite flawed genes in people, opening tremendous new possibilities for treating, even curing, diseases."

The New York Times: "Chinese Scientist Who Genetically Edited Babies Gets 3 Years in Prison" "A court in China on Monday sentenced He Jiankui, the researcher who shocked the global scientific community when he claimed that he had created the worlds first genetically edited babies, to three years in prison for carrying out 'illegal medical practices.'

"In a surprise announcement from a trial that was closed to the public, the court in the southern city of Shenzhen found Dr. He guilty of forging approval documents from ethics review boards to recruit couples in which the man had H.I.V. and the woman did not, Xinhua, Chinas official news agency, reported. Dr. He had said he was trying to prevent H.I.V. infections in newborns, but the state media on Monday said he deceived the subjects and the medical authorities alike.

"Dr. He, 35, sent the scientific world into an uproar last year when he announced at a conference in Hong Kong that he had created the worlds first genetically edited babies twin girls. On Monday, Chinas state media said his work had resulted in a third genetically edited baby, who had been previously undisclosed."

Excerpt from:
CRISPR Has The Potential To Improve Lives. But At What Cost? - WBUR

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Tech 24 – CRISPR-Cas9: The era of genome editing – FRANCE 24

Issued on: 24/01/2020 - 17:12Modified: 24/01/2020 - 17:13

It's called CRISPR-Cas 9 and while the name may not sound impressive, don't be mistaken:this gene-editing technology is set to change our world in many unpredictable ways. We take a closer look in this edition of Tech 24.

It's often referred to as "DNA scissors". CRISPR-Cas 9 is a powerful tool that scientists can use to edit DNA and modify gene functions. It was created byresearchersJennifer Doudnaand Emmanuelle Charpentier in 2012 and it could help eradicate genetically-based diseases like Alzheimer's and HIV.

However, as our reporters Naibe Reynoso and Valrie Defertexplain, this technique isbecoming available to the public even as it's still being tested for safety. Officials in the state of California are worried its use could get out of control.

An important application of genome editing is so-called gene drive, which could help put an end to malaria by altering the genomes of entire mosquito populations.

Our guest Dr. Jacob Corn,Professor of Genome Biology and Principal Investigator at the Corn Lab, ETH Zurichtells us how it could also be the solution to producing more food and doing so more efficiently to feed the world's growing population.

More here:
Tech 24 - CRISPR-Cas9: The era of genome editing - FRANCE 24

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Researchers use CRISPR to identify proteins that prevent inflammation – Drug Target Review

New findings using CRISPR have shown that the IL-4 and IL-13 proteins can protect the body against inflammation from autoimmune diseases.

Proteins that play a role in allergies and parasitic infection can also stop the immune system from attacking the body and causing inflamed joints. The researchers suggest their findings will give rise to new drugs for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

these proteins prevent neutrophils from migrating into the inflamed join

The investigation, from the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, revealed that the IL-4 and IL-13 proteins can aid in preventing autoimmune attacks.

These proteins are secreted by immune cells in the presence or allergens or parasitic infections. This then influences the behaviour of neutrophils, a specific type of immune cell. Neutrophils are commonly found in the actively inflamed joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and are particularly virulent against tissue as they can secrete non-specific tissue irritants.

Previous research has shown that IL-4 and IL-13 can affect arthritis in experimental models, but exactly how they do so has remained unknown.

The results of this latest study show that these proteins prevent neutrophils from migrating into the inflamed joint. Using CRISPR to modify selected immune-cell genes to understand how they affect cell behaviour, the researchers found that the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 also stimulates an increase in neutrophil surface receptors which have an inhibiting effect on joint inflammation.

We will continue to study these mechanisms and hope that our work can contribute to the development of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, said principal investigatorDr Fredrik Wermeling, assistant professor at theDepartment of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.

I have high hopes that the experimental use of CRISPR will be hugely important to our understanding of how immune-cell behaviour is regulated and that this can guide us in the development of new efficacious drugs, concluded Wermeling.

The findings were published in PNAS.

Link:
Researchers use CRISPR to identify proteins that prevent inflammation - Drug Target Review

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Promising Opportunities in North America and Europe to Propel the Growth of the CRISPR and CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes Market 2017 2025 Dagoretti…

The CRISPR and CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes market research encompasses an exhaustive analysis of the market outlook, framework, and socio-economic impacts. The report covers the accurate investigation of the market size, share, product footprint, revenue, and progress rate. Driven by primary and secondary researches, the CRISPR and CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes market study offers reliable and authentic projections regarding the technical jargon.

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Trends and Drivers

The products available in the global CRISPR and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes market are DNA-free Cas and vector-based Cas. The widening applications of these are expected offer several lucrative opportunities to the global market. Out of various applications, genome engineering is expected to be a key contributor to the soaring revenue of the overall market in the near future. This trend will be attributable to eh increasing uptake of genome editing method for the therapeutic development and germline modifications. The report indicates that advancements in plant genome engineering will result in positive impact on the global market.

Analysts predict that CRISPR could be the next biotechnology treatment that has the ability to gradually replace the present single-antibody drugs. Genome engineering is anticipated to pick up a phenomenal pace in the coming years as it is being developed to build an immune response for targeting cancer. The widening application of these methods in the field of oncology is likely to change the game for the global market in the coming years.

Global CRISPR and CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes Market: Regional Outlook

In terms of geography, the global market is segmented into North America, Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, and Europe. North America is estimated to lead the global CRISPR and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes market as the U.S. has shown a keen interest in developing effective therapeutics. Asia Pacific is also expected to offer several growth opportunities to the overall market as the region is facing a challenge of mounting unmet medical needs.

Key Players Mentioned in the Report are:

The report has identified the following as the key operating players in the global CRISPR and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes market: Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Caribou Biosciences, Inc., CRISPR THERAPEUTICS, Addgene, Mirus Bio LLC, Merck KGaA, Editas Medicine, GE Healthcare Dharmacon Inc., Takara Bio USA, Horizon Discovery Group plc, and Intellia Therapeutics, Inc. Analysts predict that these companies will focus on making strategic collaborations to ahead of the competition present in the overall market.

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Promising Opportunities in North America and Europe to Propel the Growth of the CRISPR and CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Genes Market 2017 2025 Dagoretti...

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CRISPR & CRISPR-associated (Cas) Genes Market Growth Opportunities and Forecast to 2027 – Fusion Science Academy

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CRISPR & CRISPR-associated (Cas) Genes Market Growth Opportunities and Forecast to 2027 - Fusion Science Academy

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The North America genome editing market is expected to reach US$ 4,148.1 Mn in 2025 from US$ 1,234.5 Mn in 2017 – Yahoo Finance

The market is estimated to grow with a CAGR of 17. 2% from 2018-2025. The growth of the genome editing market is primarily attributed to the rise in the production of genetically modified crops and rising prevalence of the genetic diseases.

New York, Jan. 24, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "North America Genome Editing Market to 2025 - Regional Analysis and Forecasts by Technology, Application End User, and Country" - https://www.reportlinker.com/p05774528/?utm_source=GNW However, the stringent regulatory framework and limitations in genome editing are likely to pose a negative impact on the market growth.

On the other hand, emerging markets for precision and regenerative medicines is likely to have a positive impact on the growth of the North America genome editing market in the coming years.The genome editing has proved itself to be the most promising way of feeding the fast growing population across the world.The changes in the climatic conditions due to the global warming and others conditions such as droughts floods are witnessed more across the world.

Therefore, the feeding the rising population is question among the people across the world.Due to the genome editing the concerns are being reduced to a great level, the two types of the genetically modified crops are widely grown.

Firstly, these crops are altered in a ways that they are not affected by the herbicide glyphosate.Secondly, crops are produced to protect themselves from the insecticides.

The advantages of the genetically modified crops includes diseases resistance, improvement of the photosynthesis, improvement of the nutrition, and more. The genetic modification helps to enhance the productivity without hampering the health of the crops. In addition, for the genetically modified crops the limited resources are required and it require less or no pesticides for its growth. The time required for the growth of the genetically modified crops is less, therefore these are highly preferred crops in the western world. The demand for the genetically modified crops is rising in the eastern region due to the benefits offered by these crops.According to the International Service For The Acquisition Of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), 2017 statistics, 19 developing countries have planted 53% which is approximately to 100.6 million hectares of the global biotech hectares, whereas the 5 industrial countries have took the 47% which is near about 89.2 million hectares share. The trend of growing genetically modified crop is expected to grow in the coming future.In 2017, the CRISPR segment segment held a largest market share of 53.6% of the genome editing market, by technology. This segment is also expected to dominate the market in 2025 owing to the simple, fast and accurate property of the CRISPR. Moreover, the TALENs segment is anticipated to witness the significant growth rate of 17.1% during the forecast period, 2018 to 2025 owing to the properties provided by the TALENs the market for it is expected to rise in the coming near future.North America genome editing market, based on application was segmented into genetic engineering, cell line engineering and others. The cell line engineering segment is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 18.0% during the forecast period. Moreover, the genetic engineering segment is expected to grow at the significant rate during the coming years owing to its sub segments such as animal genetic engineering and plant genetic engineering that are being carried out extensively. In 2017, the biotechnology & pharmaceutical companies segment held a largest market share of 61.2% of the genome editing market, by end user. This segment is also expected to dominate the market in 2025 owing to the advantages of the CRISPR, the companies have enhanced their research and development for the drug discoveries that can treat various diseases. Hence, the market is likely to propel in the coming years.Some of the major primary and secondary sources for genome editing included in the report are, Contract Research Organizations (CRO), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD), Ministry of Science and Technology (MST), International Service For The Acquisition Of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and others.Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05774528/?utm_source=GNW

About ReportlinkerReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

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The North America genome editing market is expected to reach US$ 4,148.1 Mn in 2025 from US$ 1,234.5 Mn in 2017 - Yahoo Finance

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Stock Highlights: :CRISPR Therapeutics AG, (NASDAQ: CRSP) – News Align

On Thursday, Shares ofCRISPR Therapeutics AG, (NASDAQ: CRSP), inclined/declined 56.57% and closed at $-3.12 in the last trading session.

Arithmetic Moving Averages CRSP:

Simple Moving Average (SMA) is easy to calculate and SMA20 one is principally looking at prime trends. The 50-day moving average is more responsive to price changes than the 200-day moving Whereas long-term trend followers generally use SMA200 and most shareholders will look for a cross up or down this average to means if the stock is in a bullish or bearish trend. SMA20 is the last stop on the bus for (ST) short-term traders. The CRISPR Therapeutics AG having its distance from 20-days simple moving average is -7.77%, and its distance from 50-days simple moving average is -10.46%, while it has a distance of 16.42% from the 200-days simple moving average.

Working over theproductivity proportionsof business stock, the speculator will discover its ROE, ROA, ROI remaining at -2.60%, -2.00% and -40.70%, individually.

ATR remains at 2.50 while Beta component of the stock stands at 0.00. The beta component is used to check the eccentrics of the stock. The CRSP stock remained -5.02% unpredictable for the week and -16.88% for the month.

Market capitalization is only an extravagant proclaim for a bright idea: it is the market estimation of an organizations remarkable offers. These Amount and numbers are found by taking the postscript cost and increasing it by the all outnumber of offers remarkable. Understanding the market top isnt merely sign if you nearly putting legitimately in stocks. It is additionally helpful for common reserve speculators, the same number of assets will list the normal or middle showcase capitalization of its property. As the name recommends, this gives the centre-ground of the stores value speculations, filling financial specialists in as to whether the reserve, for the most part, puts resources into large, mid-or little top stocks.

CRISPR Therapeutics AGTarget:

The EPS of the company is strolling at -0.46. The companys Market capitalization is $3.39BBillion.

As stocks have aP/S,P/EandP/Bestimations of 15.96, 0.00 and 5.24 separately. Its P/Cash is esteemed at 5.39.

Development in profit per offer is everything. The healthy future development in profit per share (EPS) is an amazingly significant factor in recognizing an underestimated stock. The effect of income development is exponential. As time goes on, the cost of a stock will typically go up in lockstep with its income (accepting the P/E proportion is steady). Hence stocks with higher profit development should offer the most elevated capital increases. Whats more, doubling-up the growth more than doubles the capital gain, due to the compounding effect.

Volume & Average Volume Shares:

Volume of the CRISPR Therapeutics AG exchanged hands with 1028892 shares compared to its average daily volume of 1.19M shares. Total volume is the number of shares or deals that point towards the whole activity of a security or market for a same period.

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Stock Highlights: :CRISPR Therapeutics AG, (NASDAQ: CRSP) - News Align

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Global CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes Market Insights 2019 Thermo Fisher Scientific, Editas Medicine, Caribou Biosciences, CRISPR therapeutics,…

Apex Market Research provides market research reports from more than four years. Here we have issued the research report on Global CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes Market Market. The report shows the all leading market players profiles. The report represents the full market analysis of the CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market with SWOT analysis, fiscal status, present development, acquisitions, and mergers. The CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market report represents the major challenges and newer opportunities. In-depth the newer growth tactics influenced by the industry manufactures the shows the international competitive scale of this market sector. The report gives the closer views to the global vendors to understand the CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market trends and meanwhile, generate important tactical actions to boost their business. The report investigates industry growth and risk factors as well as keep updates regarding development task happening in the globe market.

Get Sample PDF for More Professional and Technical Insights at: https://www.apexmarketreports.com/Life-Science/global-crispr-and-crispr-associated-genes-market-by-451326#sample

Major Industry Player Profiles That Included by CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes Market Research Report:

Thermo Fisher ScientificEditas MedicineCaribou BiosciencesCRISPR therapeuticsIntellia therapeutics, Inc.CellectisHorizon Discovery PlcSigma AldrichPrecision BiosciencesGenscriptSangamo Biosciences Inc.Lonza Group LimitedIntegrated DNA TechnologiesNew England BiolabsOrigene Technologies

Detailed view of CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes Market:

For staying consistent in businesses and new initiate in the market, it is very essential to have a complete structure of the market holder. While thinking about this factor, the analysts provide a detailed view of the competitive strategies and landscape accepted by the principal players. The major feature of the market covered in this CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market report focused on opportunities, restraints, obstructions, global and regional distribution, market driving factors, and growth limiting factors.

The CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market report provides detailed data to mentor industry players while forming important business decisions. To provide this the report has used different analytical tools and procedures. In an aggressive market landscape, the report concentrate on every players detailed profile along with their product details, capacity, price, revenue, gross and contact information. CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market report consumes the production, import and export forecast by type, applications, and region with uniquely generated graph by our research team.

Market Type,

Genome EditingGenetic engineeringGRNA Database/Gene LibrarCRISPR PlasmidHuman Stem CellsGenetically Modified Organisms/CropsCell Line Engineering

Market Application,

Biotechnology CompaniesPharmaceutical CompaniesAcademic InstitutesResearch and Development Institutes

Customize Report And Inquiry For The CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes Market Report: https://www.apexmarketreports.com/Life-Science/global-crispr-and-crispr-associated-genes-market-by-451326#inquiry

Regional Segmentation:

The report focuses on regional segmentation to assist clients to understand region-wise analysis of CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes market report. The report includes the case study of the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa.

Key Objectives of This Report:

To redeem complete information to entrepreneurs about future products and technologies to be introduced in the market.To deliver access to unique information about top players of the Automotive Tyre market.The report focuses on feature about long-term and short-term strategies adopted by major players of the market along with their key developments.The report provides a country-wise analysis of the market helps to understand the market more precisely.To offer demand and growth trends of the market and segregation into segments.

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Global CRISPR And CRISPR-Associated Genes Market Insights 2019 Thermo Fisher Scientific, Editas Medicine, Caribou Biosciences, CRISPR therapeutics,...

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

The mosquito that repels the dengue virus – University of California

An international team of scientists has synthetically engineered mosquitoes that halt the transmission of the dengue virus.

Led by biologists at the University of California San Diego, the research team describes details of the achievement in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the insects that spread dengue in humans, on January 16 in the journal PLOS Pathogens.

Researchers in UC San Diego Associate Professor Omar Akbaris lab worked with colleagues at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in identifying a broad spectrum human antibody for dengue suppression. The development marks the first engineered approach in mosquitoes that targets the four known types of dengue, improving upon previous designs that addressed single strains.

They then designed the antibody cargo to be synthetically expressed in female A. aegypti mosquitoes, which spread the dengue virus.

Once the female mosquito takes in blood, the antibody is activated and expressedthats the trigger, said Akbari, of the Division of Biological Sciences and a member of the Tata Institute for Genetics and Society. The antibody is able to hinder the replication of the virus and prevent its dissemination throughout the mosquito, which then prevents its transmission to humans. Its a powerful approach.

Akbari said the engineered mosquitoes could easily be paired with a dissemination system, such as a gene drive based on CRISPR/CAS-9 technology, capable of spreading the antibody throughout wild disease-transmitting mosquito populations.

It is fascinating that we now can transfer genes from the human immune system to confer immunity to mosquitoes. This work opens up a whole new field of biotechnology possibilities to interrupt mosquito-borne diseases of man, said coauthor James Crowe, Jr., M.D., director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn.

According to the World Health Organization, dengue virus threatens millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Severe dengue is a leading cause of serious illness and death among children in many Asian and Latin American countries. The Pan American Health Organization recently reported the highest number of dengue cases ever recorded in the Americas. Infecting those with compromised immune systems, dengue victims suffer flu-like symptoms, including severe fevers and rashes. Serious cases can include life-threatening bleeding. Currently no specific treatment exists and thus prevention and control depend on measures that stop the spread of the virus.

This development means that in the foreseeable future there may be viable genetic approaches to controlling dengue virus in the field, which could limit human suffering and mortality, said Akbari, whose lab is now in the early stages of testing methods to simultaneously neutralize mosquitoes against dengue and a suite of other viruses such as Zika, yellow fever and chikungunya.

Mosquitoes have been given the bad rap of being the deadliest killers on the planet because they are the messengers that transmit diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever that collectively put 6.5 billion people at risk globally, said Suresh Subramani, professor emeritus of molecular biology at UC San Diego and global director of the Tata Institute for Genetics and Society (TIGS). Until recently, the world has focused on shooting (killing) this messenger. Work from the Akbari lab and at TIGS is aimed at disarming the mosquito instead by preventing it from transmitting diseases, without killing the messenger. This paper shows that it is possible to immunize mosquitoes and prevent their ability to transmit dengue virus, and potentially other mosquito-borne pathogens.

Coauthors of the research include: UC San Diego graduate student Stephanie Gamez; Anna Buchman and Ming Li of the Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, UC San Diego; Igor Antoshechkin of the California Institute of Technology, Shin-Hang Lee, Shin-Wei Wang and Chun-Hong Chen of the National Health Research Institutes (Taiwan); and Melissa Klein, Jean-Bernard Duchemin and Prasad Paradkar of CSIRO Health and Biosecurity.

Funding for the research was provided by a Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Safe Genes Program Grant (HR0011-17-2-0047), a National Institutes of Health Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Award (1R21AI123937) and CSIRO internal funding.

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The mosquito that repels the dengue virus - University of California

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Limousin genetics are the way forward – The Scottish Farmer

Donald Fraser, who farms at Dunain Mains Farm, at Inverness, believes he has 'cracked the code' to producing the best 'all-round' cow for his large commercial suckler herd and the secret lies with Limousin genetics.

Farming in the steep hills and along the banks of the Caledonian Canal which runs from Inverness to Loch Ness brings with it difficult challenges, however Donald and his father, also Donald, are breeding hardy cattle that seem to benefit from their surroundings.

"The Limousin cross cow is an all-rounder. They make for good breeding females, with high fertility as well as producing a fantastic carcass which ideal when producing fat cattle," said Donald, who's family have farmed there since 1934.

"We find that the Limousin crosses, on average, last for two calvings longer than the Simmental crosses. They also sell for a third more in the ring and always look fresh for a cast cow, which is a pleasing aspect for any potential buyers," commented Donald senior, adding that a Simmental bull is introduced as an out-cross when the Limousin part of the equation becomes too pure.

The family have also invested in a Saler bull, primarily for ease of calving with their heifers and to introduce some new breeding into the herd.

Purchasing the right bull is a key aspect to their system and as a result, he has relied on Limousin genetics from Alasdair and Gill Macnabs Alagils herd, based at Dingwall.

"When buying a bull, I'm looking for good locomotion, length and legs, as well as female traits such as milkiness and temperament for potential replacement heifers. I like that Alisdair and Gill don't push their bulls to the extreme, which is what you tend to find with bulls at the bigger sales," Donald explained.

"I'm able to see them as youngsters, which gives me a clear idea of their potential progeny and if they'll work in my system, with my cattle."

Some of the bulls that Donald has used in his herd in previous years include Alagils Juno, a son of Netherhall Gallant which is a three-quarter brother of Jambon, which sold for 28,000gns, in 2016, at Carlisle.

The herd is split into two calving groups consisting of 125 spring calvers and 100 autumn calvers, with the heifers being brought inside for monitoring during calving. The rest of the cattle are calved outside.

In order to produce a more uniform group of calves, Donald has constricted his bulling period to six weeks for the autumn calvers, and eight weeks for the spring calvers. This may appear a simple system, but it is certainly working as all heifers are calving at two-years-old, with minimal barren rates.

Donald explained: "The bulling period is split between two bulls either two Limousin bulls, or a Limousin and a Simmental or Saler bull. This helps ensure bulls are working and that all cattle are covered by at least one of the two."

During the bulling period, Donald purchases a tonne of calf pellets and mixes this with home-grown barley to help take some off the pressure off the cows.

The farm's sandy and stony low-ground soil is ideal for out-wintering cattle and Donald tries to out-winter as many of the herd as possible. "Our in-calf heifers and cows are definitely in better condition as a result of being out-wintered because they are constantly moving, which means that they are fitter when it comes to calving," commented Donald senior.

Th spring calvers are all out wintered and fed forage crops, except the old cows and heifers, which only receive silage. Calves are weaned in late September, before being sold in the spring.

The back-end calvers are outside and fed on silage and draft, however cows are run into a shed at night for monitoring and to shelter from poorer weather conditions.

Once calves have been weaned at the end of August, the cows are sent off back up the hill.

"We bring the weaned calves indoors in October and feed them a total mixed ration which includes draff, home-grown barley and silage, in preparation for market," Donald senior stated.

Calves are then sold through Dingwall and Highland Marts as forward stores at the end of January at 13-months of age and weighing around 450kg. All cattle are sold liveweight through the ring last year, Donald's calves returned a profit of 1048 per head, or 234p per kg.

"We find that our cattle are selling in the top end of the sale and we have regular buyers, all who give us great feedback about the calves it makes the job worthwhile," commented Donald.

On average, Donald is retaining around 35 replacement females per year in order to maintain a reasonably young and productive herd. Maintaining a high health status is one aspect that is fundamental in producing quality cattle and with a strict culling policy, Donald ensures he is only breeding the best of the best.

"I usually will cull anything that is not in calf, as well as get rid of anything with bad teats, temper or is a failing animal in terms of health," he stated.

Commenting on the issue of Brexit, Donald concluded: "This is only the beginning regarding Brexit. We're a marginal farm, we can't suddenly change to a full scale arable enterprise. The ground we have is already being utilised to its best extent so, of course, we have our worries regarding the beef industry."

However, Donald is confident that the Limousin breed is the way forward for his business and will continue to flourish in what is an uncertain post-Brexit world that is quickly creeping up on us.

FARM facts:

* Rented farm from two separate estates: Alexander Bailey and Ladycurn Farm.

* Farming 3300 acres rising from 250ft to 1400ft above sea-level, of which 2200 acres is hill ground.

* Business relies on 225 Limousin cross cows all of which are primarily bulled to a Limousin, as well as a Simmental or Saler bull.

* The farm run a closed herd.

* Heifers are calved at two-years of age.

* The majority calf outdoors and progeny are out-wintered and sold as forward stores at the end of January at 13-months of age through Dingwall and Highland Marts, Dingwall.

* Sheep: 750 ewes made up of 150 Cheviots, which are crossed to the Bluefaced Leicester to breed Cheviot Mule females, that are then crossed to a Beltex cross Charolais tup to produce prime lambs, also sold through Dingwall Mart.

* Lambing March/April and lambs fattened on grass.

* Cropping 235 acres of spring barley, 380 tonnes are usually bought by Highland Grain for malting, but 150 tonnes kept for feeding cattle on farm.

* Employ one full time employee Graeme Black who has worked for the Fraser family for 26 years. Part-time worker, Johny Milton is also highly regarded by the family.

1, Biggest change during your farming career The veganism movement is one which is rapidly growing and is a potential threat to our industry, it's definitely one to be aware of. My wife, Joanna, is a geography teacher and she has stated that children are taught, in their curriculum, that agriculture is the number one reason for global warming which is both extremely wrong and worrying!

2, Best purchase The diet feeder has helped with the sale cattle's LWG but also helped us to calf heifers at two-years-old as they aren't too heavy.

3, Best advice If you don't think you need a bag of feed to shift a lot of cattle, take it anyway!

4, Where would you like to be in 2030 To be in a position of being able to pass our business onto the next generation.

5, Favourite TV programme This Farming Life is good, however I think it should cover a lot more variation in farming than what it currently does already.

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Limousin genetics are the way forward - The Scottish Farmer

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

These Prehistoric Fish Are Making a Slow Comeback in the Midwest – EcoWatch

By Susan Cosier

Come February in Wisconsin, almost everything will be covered in ice and snow. In little shanties on frozen Lake Winnebago, a 30-by-13-mile lake in the eastern part of the state, fishers will keep watch over rectangular holes cut into the ice with a chainsaw. When they spot a fin passing below, they'll jab their spears down deep. The lucky ones will earn themselves a lake sturgeon, a species that has prowled the earth's waters for more than 150 million years.

Lake Winnebago is one of only two locations in the world where people can spearfish lake sturgeon. These armored fish, also distinguished by whiskerlike barbels growing from their chins, can live as long as a century, weigh as much as 200 pounds, and grow more than seven feet long. Every year, people gather on the lake for a 16-day fishing event. Just 500 licenses exist, a number that keeps overfishing in check while allowing nearly 1,000 sturgeon to be taken for their caviar (for those lucky enough to catch a female) and meat (delicious when smoked).

The sturgeon spearing event will mark its 80th season this year. And with the fish listed as threatened in 19 of the 20 states where it's found, Wisconsin wildlife officials consider the event one of a number of tactics that help educate people about the fish. (Another is an adoption program allowing members of the public to sponsor and hand-release young fish, reared at a state hatchery, into Lake Michigan and the Milwaukee River, part of the annual SturgeonFest.) Efforts to revive their populations have been somewhat successful, but it's been slow going: Female lake sturgeon don't start reproducing until they're at least 20 years old.

This biological fact, combined with overfishing, pollution, and habitat degradation, has resulted in their plight today. An estimated 15 million sturgeon used to exist in the Great Lakes, with fishers bringing in upwards of four million pounds per year between 1879 and 1900. The trade took a serious toll on the species. By 1929, commercial sturgeon fishing had closed in Lake Michigan due to too few fish. And by the end of the century, fishers had taken 80 percent of the sturgeon out of Lake Erie. Meanwhile, dams and development ruined habitat and kept the fish from reaching key spawning grounds. In response to the population crash, most states instituted protections and mandated hunting limits in the 1990s and early 2000s.

Today, only 1 percent of the lake sturgeon's population remains. In addition to the states that list them as threatened, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service announced in August that it would study whether to list the fish as federally threatened or endangered.

Ryan Koenigs, a fisheries biologist with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), is among those dedicated to bringing the lake sturgeon back. He's part of a team that keeps track of every individual caught, and he helps run the registration stations where fishers who spear a sturgeon in Lake Winnebago must go before taking their catch home. Koenigs and his colleagues look for a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, which offers information about the fish. These tags are implanted in each fish reared or caught and released by the agency. Some individuals caught in the past few years were tagged decades ago. "I'm reaping the benefits right now of what the biologists two generations before me did in the 1970s," Koenigs says.

Restoration efforts also exist in many other states bordering the Great Lakes. In New York, the Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe harvest sturgeon eggs from the St. Lawrence River and send them to hatcheries in the central part of the state and in Wisconsin. In Michigan, fisheries biologists, researchers, and state agencies successfully protected the sturgeon population in Black Lake and now use the data collected from their efforts to guide their restocking of nearby lakes and streams.

These types of projects replenish waterways with the fish, but the species' recovery has a long way to go. Should conservationists succeed, the fish could end up benefiting the entire ecosystem, notes Ed Baker, a fisheries biologist in Michigan. "If we have a native species fish community that's been degraded, that's a sign that its environment is no longer healthy," he says. "If we can restore lake sturgeon to their prominence, or at least somewhat close to what their prominence was before we started harvesting them, that's a sign that we're doing the right thing for the Great Lakes."

As the lake sturgeon populations rebound, they could help biologists beat back some new threats, too. Notably, they eat invasive zebra and quagga mussels that now blanket the lake beds. They also eat invasive round gobies. All three of these marine species hail from faraway waters and snuck their way in through the ballast water used to balance ships' hulls.

In 1995, Baker was tasked with finishing and implementing Michigan's new sturgeon rehabilitation plan. He observed reach after reach, finding only a few places were the fish still existed. One of those was the Upper Peninsula's Black Lake. Locals still spearfished sturgeon, and the population appeared to be falling. In 2001 Baker and Kim Scribner of Michigan State University set out to study the fish and get a rough population estimate. They concluded that over a 25-year period, sturgeon numbers had declined by more than 60 percent.

The state's Department of Natural Resources decided sturgeon spearfishing could continue, but fishers could harvest no more than five fish a year. Baker and his team stocked the lake, too, and the sturgeon population grew. The limit is now up to 14. Still, the population isn't recovering as quickly as expected.

To figure out why, Baker and Scribner continue their research. They also use the information they collect on basic sturgeon biology, genetics, and behavior to inform conservation efforts in other Michigan water bodies.

One major question they hope to answer concerns the timing of the sturgeon's reproduction. As with steelhead and salmon, it appears that the river where sturgeon spend the first summer of life, between May and October, is imprinted on the fish, and they come back to that place to spawn. Confirming this would help in their stocking effortsespecially in reaches where the fish haven't swum for decades.

In addition to the hatchling adopt-and-release program that takes place in September in Milwaukee, Wisconsonites get another opportunity to help biologists in April, when Koenigs does his stock assessments. On the Wolf River near Lake Winnebago, hundreds of thousands of sturgeon ranging in size from four to seven feet long swim along the waterline. Koenigs and his team stand at the ready with nets to pull the fish out of the water, then weigh, measure, and tag them.

When the team finds fish with those tags implanted during the February spearfishing season, they track the data to get a tagged to non-tagged fish ratio, which is then used to set harvest limits. The data collected at each event helps inform how best to manage the species.

"We're on the right path," says Koenigs, who is now prepping for the spearfishing season that begins on Feb. 8. "The work that's being done through these various efforts seems to be showing some pretty promising signs."

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These Prehistoric Fish Are Making a Slow Comeback in the Midwest - EcoWatch

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

All you need to know about Male Breast Cancer – Outlook India

All you need to know about Male Breast Cancer

New Delhi, Jan 24 (IANSlife) Breast cancer in men is rarely seen. It shares many similarities with cancer of the breast in women but there are some important differences too.

Male breast cancer represents between 0.5 and 1 per cent of all breast cancers diagnosed each year. Higher rates of male breast cancer in central and eastern Africa may be related to higher liver infectious diseases that lead to hypoestrogenism.

Dr Kumardeep Dutta Choudhury, Senior Consultant & Head of Department, Dept of Medical Oncology (IOSPL), Fortis Hospital, Noida, shares the facts you need to know about it. Risk factors associated with breast cancer in men:

Genetics and family history

Family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among men. Approximately 15 to 20 per cent of men with breast cancer have a family history of the disease compared with only 7 per cent of the general male population.

The risk is higher with inherited BRCA2 rather than BRCA1 mutations. Other genes which have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in men are PTEN tumor suppressor gene (Cowden syndrome), tumor protein p53 (TP53; Li-Fraumeni syndrome), partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2), and mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome).

Alterations of the estrogen to androgen ratio

Excessive estrogen stimulation may be due to hormonal therapies (e.g., estrogen-containing compounds or testosterone), hepatic dysfunction, obesity, marijuana use, thyroid disease, or an inherited condition, such as Klinefelter syndrome may increase risk of male breast cancer.

Primary testicular conditions

Testicular conditions may increase risk of breast cancer in men include orchitis, undescended testes (cryptorchidism), and testicular injury.

PRESENTATION:

Male breast cancer has been diagnosed at a more advanced stage than female breast cancer, due to a lack of awareness. They generally present with a painless, firm mass that is usually subareolar, with nipple involvement in 40 to 50 percent of cases. The left breast is involved slightly more often than the right, and less than 1 percent of cases are bilateral. There may be associated skin changes, including nipple retraction, ulceration, or fixation of the mass to the skin or underlying tissues. Axillary nodes are typically palpable in advanced cases.

Most histologic subtypes of breast cancer seen in women are also present in men, men with breast cancer are rarely diagnosed with lobular carcinomas is due to lack of acini and lobules in the normal male breast, although these can be induced in the context of estrogenic stimulation.

TREATMENT:

Approach to treatment in men is same as that for women. However, role of breast conserving surgery is limited because of small volume of breast tissue. In hormone receptor-positive disease, we give adjuvant tamoxifen rather than an aromatase inhibitor (AI), because of insufficient evidence to support AI monotherapy for men. If there are contraindications to tamoxifen (e.g., hypercoagulable state), an AI with GnRHa may be administered. AIs do not reduce testicular production of estrogens, that''s why GnRHa is administered concurrently with AI. They are treated with mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

SURVEILLANCE:

Limited data suggest these patients are at an increased risk of a contralateral breast cancer, but absolute risk is low. They are also at risk for secondary malignancies and 12.5 percent may develop a second primary cancer. The most common types were gastrointestinal, pancreas, non-melanoma skin, and prostate cancer

PROGNOSIS:

Ten-year disease-specific survival rates for histologically negative nodes - 77 and 84 per cent, one to three positive nodes - 50 and 44 per cent and four or more histologically positive nodes - 24 and 14 per cent.

--IANS

tb/sdr/

Disclaimer: This story has not been edited by Outlook Staff and is auto-generated from news agency feeds. Source: IANS

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All you need to know about Male Breast Cancer - Outlook India

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

The Best Facial Oils and How to Use Them – FLARE

(Photo: Stocksy)

You either swear by facial oils or are skeptical of all the fanfare and its myriad of purported benefits. In recent years, facial oils have become a booming skincare category, taking up prominent shelf space. There are all kinds of facial oils you can choose from with ingredients like rosehip, marula and jojoba. They are also said to boast a bevy of skincare benefits like brightening, calming inflammation and minimizing the look of fine lines and wrinkles. Despite their popularity, theres also some confusion around face oils. Will they clog pores? Do they replace your moisturizer? Do you even actually need one? To help make sense of it all, we enlisted the help of two experts to break it all down, plus, the best facial oils for every skin concern.

Read this next:The 20 Best Lip Balms to Save You From Dry Winter Hell

The purpose of a facial oil is to provide moisture to the skins surface and serve as a protective layer against environmental aggressors, says Dr. Monica Li, a Vancouver-based dermatologist and clinical instructor in the department of dermatology and skin science at the University of British Columbia. Facial oils both act like an emollient (filling in the gaps between skin cells to strengthen the outer layer)and an occlusive agent (sealing water in at the skin surface), explains Li.

Our skin produces natural oilsknown as sebumwhich help retain water within the skin surface. A facial oil is basically added protection, helping supplement the oils the skin already produces and maintain a robust skin barrier function, says Li.

A face oil can be a game-changer for your skin, says Jennifer Brodeur, a Montreal-based facialist to celebs like Oprah and Michelle Obama, and founder of JB Skin Guru. The right face oil will help with skin homeostasis [its ability to maintain a stable internal environment], as it provides nutrition and hydration to the skin.

Facial oils can be beneficial for everyoneeven oily skin types. A caveat: theres no one-size-fits-all formula. As not all face oils are created equally, its important to know what face oils are right for you, says Brodeur.

Since not all oils are the same, different ones will have different skincare benefits. Beyond its hydrating and nourishing properties, a facial oil can also have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant benefits, depending on the ingredients and composition, says Li. Brodeur adds: My favourites are those that contain lots of good fatty acids and vitamins. For example, sunflower seed oil, peoni root extract and rosehip seed oil. However, you also need to be mindful of your skin type.

Read this next:I Hate That I Feel Like I *Have* to Wear Makeup

For sensitive skin, Brodeur recommends steering clear of essential oils, especially citrus oils. Essential oils can be very potent, which means they can cause irritation or trigger allergies for sensitive skin. Citrus oils in particular like orange, grapefruit and bergamot can cause photosensitivity, resulting in skin irritation or discolouration. Brodeur also suggests avoiding oils with dye or fragrances.

If you have oily skin, Dr. Li recommends using an oil with a light texture like jojoba or grapeseed that will absorb more easily into the skin and wont clog pores.

For dry skin, look for a facial oil with either oat or argan oil, both of which are known for their soothing and nourishing properties. Mixing two to three drops of the facial oil with a moisturizer will have a compounded hydrating effect, says Li.

Once you choose an oil, apply it on a test spot like on the wrist or behind the ears for at least a week. Keep in mind that these natural oil ingredients may be a source of contact allergens depending on the individual, she adds. Facial oils are still a relatively new category of skincare and more research and clinical studies are l needed, so its best to consult with a board-certified dermatologist if you have any questions or concerns.

Read this next:I Have Dry Acne-Prone Skin and This Is How I Deal in Winter

The answer will vary depending on who you ask (yes, its that controversial). For the most part, experts agree that you should use a facial oil after your moisturizer as the final step in your skincare routine. Oil sits on water, so it creates a protective layer to prevent water loss, explains Brodeur. However, if your skin is on the drier side, you can apply oil first or even layer with an oil, moisturizer and then oil again. You can even mix a few drops of facial oil into your moisturizer or foundation for a dewy glow.

As a rule of thumb, serums are usually used to target specific skin concerns [such as hyperpigmentation and fine lines and wrinkles], whereas oils are primarily used to nourish and hydrate the skin, says Brodeur, meaning you can use both a serum and a facial oil.

Always apply facial oil on clean skin after youve cleansed. Brodeur recommends using two to three drops and taking the time to massage it into your skin using upward strokes.

Inner Glow Face Oil, $120, amandinesolbotanicals.com

Formulated with a blend of botanicals and essential oils like lavender and calendula sourced from the founders family farm in Ontario, this multi-tasker lends a helping hand for a healthy, glowy complexion.

Lextrait, $225, jbskincare.com

Made with a concentrated blend of sunflower seed oil, peony root extract and licorice root, this gentle oil soothes and hydrates skin.

Rosehip BioRegenerate Oil, $50, shoppersdrugmart.ca

Rosehip seed oil does all the heavy lifting in this formula with vitamins, antioxidants and essential fatty acids, which help with brightening, collagen production and fighting free radicals.

Stem Cellular Vinifera Replenishing Oil, $90, sephora.com

Jojoba, macadamia and olive squalene oils help boost the skins moisture while fruit stem cells, vitamin C and grapeseed oil to help improve skin tone and radiance.

BIO Organic Lavandin Smooth & Glow Facial Oil, $23, walmart.ca

Tapping into lavandin essential oil (a hybrid created from true lavender and spike lavender) and argan oil, this formula promises smooth, supple skin with a non-greasy finish.

Squalane + Tea Tree Balancing Oil, $65, sephora.com

Ultra-hydrating and lightweight squalene meets skin-purifying tea tree oil for a nourishing and quick-absorbing face oil.

More:
The Best Facial Oils and How to Use Them - FLARE

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Video: In 40 years, babies could be made in the lab from skin cells – Genetic Literacy Project

The birds and the bees as we know them are changing. A new process called in vitro gametogenesis (IVG) is currently being developed, and if successful, it will completely transform the way humans think about reproduction.

In 20 to 40 years, people will still have sex. But when they want to make babies, theyll go to a lab, predicts Stanford University Professor Henry T. Greely. Its also the premise of his book The End of Sex and the Future of Human Reproduction.

The process of IVG creates sperm and egg cells in a lab from just about any adult cell. IVG uses skin or blood cells to reverse engineer a special type of cells calledinduced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs).

IVG could eliminate the need for egg and sperm donors. With IVG, post-menopausal women could generate viable eggs. Same-sex couples could make a biological family. Virtually anyone with skin would have the ability to produce eggs or sperm.

Although 40 years might seem a lifetime away, theres a lot to figure out before we can safely, ethically, and responsibly add in vitro gametogenesis to our list of fertility treatment options.

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Video: In 40 years, babies could be made in the lab from skin cells - Genetic Literacy Project

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The GQ team reveals its winter grooming secrets – British GQ

Luke Jefferson Day, Editor of GQ Style and Fashion Director of GQ

"Sensai's SPF 6 Bronzing Gel is my winter grooming tip. I got it from my mega make-up artist friend Gina Kane, who works with Robbie Williams. It has such a light finish but gives you a little glow during the cold months."

"My winter grooming essential has been the same for the past decade or so. Bioeffect's EGF Serum is the best cold weather skin saver bar none. It contains "epidermal growth factor", sourced from barley stem cells, an ingredient that encourages skins cells to duplicate, instantly reducing dryness and producing that dewy glow we all crave (but can never quite achieve) in the winter months. Following a slick of the serum, a spot or two of Weleda's Skin Food is ultra rich and excellently moisturising."

"My go-to product during the winter months is the exfoliating energy scrub by Tom Ford. As energy is what most of us are lacking during a long dark winter, this product helps to bring you back to life and back to the reality that summer is coming (eventually)."

"In winter I use Eve Lom Intense Hydration Serum daily to maintain skin dexterity and to avoid drying, which my skin is susceptible to, especially with the mix of harsh cold outside and synthetic heat inside. I then use Eve Lom Rescue Mask once a week to try to prevent breakouts, as it utilises ground almond to gently exfoliate, camphor to reduce redness and its clay-like formulation is an excellent de-puffer. Winter sorted."

"One product I cant do without in the winter months is hair cream. My favourite is Bumble And Bumbles BB Grooming Creme. My hairs naturally pretty curly and I look absolutely bonkers when I blow dry it or make any attempt at styling. This, I just in pop once Im out of the shower with a bit of curl cream too if Im feeling dead posh and I can spend a whole day not worrying that I might look like something a bird might nest in whenever I meet a light breeze."

"During the cooler months my skin doesnt necessarily go hard and flaky, but it does get affected by the drop in temperature and definitely feels a little more dry. After having tried quite a lot of creams, I actually bought this absolute miracle worker from Awake Organics, which got rid of not only my bags (anti-ageing vitamin C to thank here), but also provided more than enough hydration to my skin. Ive used it since November (every night) and theres no looking back. Oh and its 100 per cent natural and totally affordable, which is the direction Im moving in when it comes to stocking my bathroom cabinet."

"When it comes to winter grooming I try and keep my routine as organic and natural as possible. One of my main go-to's is Dr Jackson's Everyday Oil. I add a couple of drops three or four times a week to my facial moisturiser when my skin is feeling extra dry. It's lightweight, so it doesn't have that greasy, clogging feeling to it and is infused with baobab oil that promotes elasticity in the skin."

Meet our grooming heroes of the week

The biggest grooming trends at the 2020 menswear shows

How to look as well groomed as Luke Evans

All products featured on the website are independently selected by our Editors. However, when you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

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Advancells Group & IFC Concluded their 3-Day Workshop on Regenerative Medicine – MENAFN.COM

(MENAFN - ForPressRelease) 11

New Delhi 23rd January 2020 On Saturday, January 18th, 2020, the Advancells Group & the International Fertility Center together ended their first workshop Sub-Specialty Training in Application of Regenerative Medicine (S.T.A.R. 2020). The three-day workshop had specialized doctors, medical practitioners, learned scientists of Advancells, the leaders in cell manufacturing & processes and IFC, one of India's most prestigious Fertility institute who were joined by candidates with MBBS/BAMS/BHMS/BPharma & Master's degree in Life Sciences.

The key-note speaker of the workshop was Dr. Rita Bakshi, founder and chairperson of International Fertility Centre, the oldest fertility clinic and one of the most renowned IVF clinics in India, one of the organizers of the event. Participants also had a privilege to listen to Dr. Sachin Kadam, CTO, Advancells and gain hands-on experience in the preparation of PRP; Liposuction method; and Bone Marrow aspiration. All these techniques were talked about at length and demonstrated in the form of manual & kit-based models to help the candidates gain exposure.

Dr. Punit Prabha, Head of Clinical Research and Dr. Shradha Singh Gautam, Head of Lab Operations at Advancells successfully set the base of stem cell biology for the participants who were experts in gynecology field, stem cell research and pain specialist. With the help of detailed analysis of 'Application of PRP for Skin rejuvenation'; 'Preparation of Micro-fragmented Adipose Tissue and Nano Fat & SVF (Stromal Vascular Fraction) from Adipose Tissue'; and 'Cell Culturing and Expansion in a Laboratory', applicants understood the application of stem cells in aesthetics, cosmetology, and anti-aging.

Vipul Jain, Founder & CEO of Advancells Group said, 'Educating young scientists about stem cells is important for us. With this workshop we wanted to discuss and share the challenges and lessons we have learned in our journey of curing our customers. We wanted to establish more concrete knowledge base in the presence of subject matter experts and help our attendees in more possible ways. We are hopeful to have successfully achieved what we claimed with this workshop'.

Given the resounding success of the Sub-Specialty Training in Application of Regenerative Medicine (S.T.A.R. 2020), it's hoped that the future events shall offer even greater wisdom to the participants by helping them improve and the lead the community into the age of greater awareness.

Advancells Group Advancells is leading the field of stem cell therapies in India and abroad, with representative offices in Bangladesh and Australia. The company provides arrangements for stem cell banking and protocols for partner doctors and hospitals which they can use for treating the patients using regenerative medicine. With a GMP compliant research and processing center that works on different cell lines from various sources such as Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, Dental Pulp, Blood, Cord Tissue etc. Advancells also intends to file a patent for this processing technology soon.

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China just released the most stunning images from the far side of the Moon – BGR

China started off 2019 by completing the first soft landing on the far side Earths moon. It was a monumental achievement, and the months since the mission arrived at the Moon have been filled with interesting discoveries, including the discovery of a strange gel-like substance around a lunar crater.

Now, as China celebrates the one year anniversary of the Change 4 lander and Yutu-2 rover arriving at the Moon, the countrys space group has released a wealth of data, including some never-before-seen images of the far side of Earths tiny neighbor.

The images some of which benefit from post-processing at the hands of talented scientists and enthusiasts show the Moons least-studied face in stunning detail.

Image Source: CNSA / TECHNIQUES SPATIALES

The Change 4 mission included a lunar lander and a rover that explored the Moons surface. Because of the nature of day and night on the Moon, the instruments are put into a sleep mode when the far side falls into shadow, waking back up when the sun shines again.

China, which has historically lagged behind countries like the United States and Russia when it comes to space exploration, is rapidly catching up. Landing on the far side of the Moon is no easy task, and the countrys space agency pulled it off with flying colors. Going forward, China is poised to be a major player in space exploration and has even discussed the possibility of setting up semi-permanent bases on the lunar surface.

You can browse through a massive collection of these new images via a handy Google Drive link, or sift through the raw images via CNSAs web portal.

Image Source: CNSA / Techniques Spatiales

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China just released the most stunning images from the far side of the Moon - BGR

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Dior’s greatest discovery the amazing story of Capture Totale CELL Energy – The Moodie Davitt Report – The Moodie Davitt Report

What if 0.2% of your skin cells determined its future? That was the question posed, and answered, by Dior as it strove for a breakthrough that would ultimately top anything the French beauty house and its scientific partners had achieved in 30 years of research and innovation.

For the first time, Dior used artificial intelligence to go beyond visible signs. It was thus able to measure what, up until now, was considered immeasurable the key to our perception of age: the faces visible health and vitality.

The result is what Dior calls a major discovery about stem cells, one so incredible that it has driven the creation of a new range focused on the restoration of cellular energy to reactivate the skins vital functions and youthful beauty.

The range is called Capture Totale C.E.L.L. Energy [the C.E.L.L. acronym stands for Cutting-Edge Long-Lasting Energy], a launch we reported earlier this month in a global exclusive. This special eZine edition of The Moodie Davitt Spotlight Series tells the story of how the new launch embodies all the values of Dior skincare, while taking the science behind it to a new level.

Its a remarkable story, which we are honoured to tell.

Note: The Moodie Davitt Report Spotlight Series offers bespoke, curated e-publications for major brand launches and campaigns; airport, store or restaurant openings; and other notable corporate or commercial developments, events and anniversaries. Please contact Martin@MoodieDavittReport.com if youre interested in taking advantage of this unrivalled communications and promotional platform.

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The Center for Breakthrough Medicines is Building the World’s Largest Cell and Gene Therapy Contract Development and Manufacturing Organization (CDMO)…

KING OF PRUSSIA, Pa., Jan. 22, 2020 /PRNewswire/--The Discovery Labs and Deerfield Management Company have formed The Center for Breakthrough Medicines, a Contract Development and Manufacturing Organization (CDMO) and specialty investment company, to alleviate the critical lack of capacity that is preventing patients from accessing critically needed cell and gene therapies. The CDMO is occupying over 40 percent of The Discovery Labs' 1.6 million square foot biotech, healthcare and life sciences campus in King of Prussia, PA.

The CDMO provides preclinical through commercial manufacturing of cell and gene therapies and component raw materials. It offers process development, plasmid DNA,viral vectors, cell banking, cell processing, and support testing capabilities all under one roof. The immense $1.1 billion facility will provide instant capacity as the largest known single source for accelerating the delivery and affordability of lifesaving and life-changing therapies from the bench to the patient's bedside.

The Company has initiated a substantial hiring effort targeting the best and brightest of the life sciences community including, experts in CGMP manufacturing. The Company expects to hire over 2,000 team members within the next 30 months.

The CDMO has retained Nucleus Careers, a cloud-based specialty life sciences human capital recruiting and retention management expert, to buildout the entire team. Nucleus has proprietary recruiting and retention software designed for large scale human capital buildouts of high growth companies.

In addition to developing the world's largest single-point cell and gene therapy manufacturing facility, The Discovery Labs is establishing THE COLONY which will provide custom built discovery labs, breakthrough funding, sponsored research agreements, housing and relocation for the world's leading iconic experts in cell and gene therapy.

THE COLONY will seek to work hand in hand with scientists from both academic and pharmaceutical institutions to unlock and expedite groundbreaking therapies.

Marco A. Chacn, Ph.D., Founder of Paragon Bioservices and Chairman of The Discovery Labs states, "musicians, artists, members of religious communities and great thinkers throughout time have formed colonies where freedom of thought and expression combined with unlimited dreams and potential have resulted in the world's greatest accomplishments." Dr. Chacn went on to say, "the goal of THE COLONY is to unshackle the potential of the world's greatest scientific minds."

The ability for the industry's greatest scientists to cohabitate, collaborate, cooperate, and communicate via technology and in person will create an exponential therapeutic "X FACTOR." THE COLONY seeks to unlock institutional barriers prohibiting the world's greatest scientists from moving at a pace necessary in today's ever-changing therapeutic revolution. THE COLONY will partner with the institutions where the scientists currently work by providing equity, license fees, and revenue sharing.

"The Center for Breakthrough Medicines will be serving companies from the earliest stages through commercialization. Its exceptional scale and offering will quickly relieve the production bottleneck for advanced therapies by reducing the time, complexity, and cost of commercializing vitally needed gene and cell therapies," noted Audrey Greenberg, Board Member and Executive Managing Director for The Discovery Labs.

The addition of this end-to-end manufacturing capability is expected to significantly enhance the offerings of The Discovery Labs in an area that has become one of the largest life sciences hubs in the world. Renovations are underway to construct a total of 86 plasmid, viral vector production, universal cell processing, CGMP testing, process development and cell banking suites. The viral vector and cell processing suites will be fully compliant with both U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency standards. All suites will offer the flexibility to meet client-specific workflows and will be able to adapt quickly to meet demand. The Company is in the process of reserving capacity now for late 2020.

"Today brilliant scientists are advancing an unprecedented number of gene and cell therapy drug candidates. The real tragedy, however, is a scarcity of manufacturing know-how, which is complex and expensive," said Alex Karnal, Partner and Managing Director of Deerfield Management and a Board Member of the Discovery Labs. "With its visionary business model, it is hoped that The Center for Breakthrough Medicines will help realize the promise of cell and gene therapies in time to treat the many patients who need them."

The Discovery Labs provides a central campus where the world's greatest scientists can collaborate on new therapeutic discoveries to eradicate diseases affecting small and large segments of the global population. The Center for Breakthrough Medicines will work with these leaders, life sciences companies, large pharmaceutical companies, and academic and government institutions.

This new manufacturing capability is a transformational addition to The Discovery Labs market offering and dovetails with The Discovery Labs biotech incubator, Unite IQ. Unite IQ offers immediate space to emerging life sciences companies and scientists giving them the ability to grow from startup to enterprise company on one campus. The incubator and accelerator space at Unite IQ provides a comprehensive home for startups with every resource needed to initiate business operations. Unite IQ tenants are expected to utilize the discovery, development, testing, and manufacturing capabilities of the Center for Breakthrough Medicines with seamless forward integration of processes and analytics, and seamless tech transfer from research lab to large scale production

The Emerging Field of Cell and Gene Therapy in Pennsylvania

The demand for clinical and commercial manufacturing capacity is acute and expected to remain that way. The current shortfall in manufacturing for cell and gene therapies is severely underserved with few approved products. There are currently approximately 1,100 advanced therapies in the pipeline pending FDA approval. This will greatly increase highly skilled manufacturing demand. Dr. Peter Marks, Director of the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, states, "what keeps me up at night is will we be able to manufacture these on a scale that will allow us to bring the benefit of these therapies to patients?"He further added that "if we can help see cost of goods and ability to manufacture reproducibly improve, I think that'll be a big thing."All of this adds up to a supply constrained market that The Center for Breakthrough Medicines aims to help address.

With the potential to treat and even cure disabling, and deadly diseases, gene and cell therapies are ushering in a new era of medicine. These therapies may eventually be able to cure genetic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia A, and a range of cancers. The Philadelphia area has become the epicenter for the flourishing field of gene and cell therapy. Research from CBRE currently ranks the market among the top biotech clusters for medical research and health services. The cluster has become known worldwide as "Cellicon Valley"for its leadership in research and development of this rapidly evolving field. The Discovery Lab's suburban Philadelphia location offers a talent rich environment due to the area's preponderance of large pharmaceutical companies and the Philadelphia region's position boasting the top 10 universities and primary school systems in nation.

Over the past three years, multiple Philadelphia companies have received approvals for major breakthroughs in cell and gene therapy. In 2017, the U.S. FDA approved the first-ever CAR-T cell therapy, Novartis's Kymriah, which originated at the University of Pennsylvania. Shortly thereafter, the FDA gave landmark approval for the first-ever gene therapy to treat a genetic blindness condition to Spark Therapeutics, a start-up founded by researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. These discoveries and others in the pipeline are attracting billions of dollars of venture capital. The Greater Philadelphia Region set a recent record in venture capital financing.

The Discovery Labs Center for Breakthrough Medicines joins more than 25 healthcare, life sciences and tech-enabled companies that already call The Discovery Labs King of Prussia home.

Brian O'Neill, Founder of The Discovery Labs Center for Breakthrough Medicines, and Tony Khoury, Board Member of The Discovery Labs and Engineer at Project Pharma, will be speaking at the 2020 PhacilitateWorld Stem Cell Summit discussing The Future of Gene Therapy Manufacturing at 4 p.m. today at the Hyatt Regency in Miami, Florida.

Contact Audrey Greenberg at agreenberg@thediscoverylabs.com for more information about development services, manufacturing capacity, incubator space or leasing information at the property.

About The Discovery LabsPart of MLP Ventures, The Discovery Labs is a global provider of world-class cGMP manufacturing, turnkey laboratory solutions, critical materials and office space that support therapeutic products and services to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry so that groundbreaking medicines get to the patients that need them. The location in eastern King of Prussia is a prototype for a global rollout of The Discovery Labs, providing Big Pharma, emerging life sciences, consumer and technology companies flexible, end-to-end technical real estate and business infrastructure for the customer's entire lifecycle from discovery to delivery, including manufacturing capacity. It is the first fully integrated environment that merges technology and life sciences under one roof to drive innovation.

About Deerfield Management

Deerfield is a healthcare investment management firm committed to advancing healthcare through investment, information and philanthropy.

Media Contact:Tony DeFazio, DeFazio Communications(o) 484-534-3306 (c) 484-410-1354tony@defaziocommunications.com

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Gene Therapy Market Worth $13.0 Billion by 2024 – Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets – Yahoo Finance

CHICAGO, Jan. 20, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- According to the new market research report "Gene Therapy Marketby Vectors [Non-viral (Oligonucleotides), Viral (Retroviral (Gammaretroviral, Lentiviral), Adeno-associated], Indication (Cancer, Neurological Diseases), Delivery Method (In Vivo, Ex Vivo), Region - Global Forecast to 2024", published by MarketsandMarkets, is projected to reach USD 13.0 billion by 2024 from USD 3.8 billion in 2019, at a CAGR of 27.8% from 2019 to 2024.

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The high incidence of cancer and other target diseases, availability of reimbursement, and the launch of new products are the major factors driving the growth of the market.

The non-viral vectors segment accounted for the largest share of the market, by vector, in 2018

The Gene Therapy Market, by vector, has been segmented into viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors accounted for the largest share of the market in 2018. This is mainly attributed to the high market penetration of oligonucleotide-based non-viral vector gene therapies.

Browsein-depth TOC on "Gene Therapy Market" 127 - Tables25 - Figures 129 - Pages

The demand for gene therapies for the treatment of cancer is expected to grow at a high rate

Based on indication, the market is segmented into neurological diseases, cancer, hepatological diseases, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and other indications. The neurological diseases segment accounted for the largest share of the market in 2018. However, the cancer segment is estimated to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period owing to the increasing incidence of cancer and the rising demand for CAR T-cell therapies.

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North America is the largest regional market for gene therapy products

The global Gene Therapy Market is segmented into North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific, and the Rest of the World. In 2018, North America accounted for the largest share of the market, followed by Europe. Moreover, the North American market is estimated to register the highest growth rate during the forecast period. Factors such as the rising prevalence of chronic diseases, high healthcare expenditure, presence of advanced healthcare infrastructure, favorable reimbursement scenario, and the presence of major market players in the region are driving market growth in North America.

The prominent players operating in the Gene Therapy Market include Biogen (US), Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc. (US), Gilead Sciences, Inc. (US), Novartis AG (Switzerland), Amgen, Inc. (US), Spark Therapeutics, Inc. (US), MolMed S.p.A. (Itlay), Orchard Therapeutics plc. (UK), Sibiono GeneTech Co. Ltd. (China), Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (US), Human Stem Cells Institute (Russia), AnGes, Inc. (Japan), Dynavax Technologies (US), Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Ireland), and Akcea Therapeutics (US).

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Regenerative Medicine Marketby Type [Cell-Based Immunotherapy & Cell Therapy (Allogeneic & Autologous Products), Tissue Engineering, Gene Therapy], Applications (Wounds & Dermal, Musculoskeletal, Oncology), Region - Global Forecast to 2024

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Viral Vector Manufacturing Marketby Type (Retrovirus, Gammaretrovirus, AAV), Disease (Cancer, Infectious Disease, Genetic Disorders), Application (Gene Therapy, Vaccinology), End User (Biotech companies, Research Institutes) - Global Forecast to 2023

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Gene Therapy Recovers Vision in Mice Models of MS, Uncovers How… – Multiple Sclerosis News Today

Early research in animal models and human samples reveals how loss of communication between nerve cells contributes to the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), and shows how gene therapy could be used to preserve such connections and protect againstvision loss.

Researchers say their work identifies a new approach for developing MS therapies that target nerve cell communication, rather than myelin loss, and could be applicable to other neurodegenerative disorders.

The study, Targeted Complement Inhibition at Synapses Prevents Microglial Synaptic Engulfment and Synapse Loss in Demyelinating Disease, was published in the journal Immunity.

MS is a neurological disease marked by inflammation and a self-attack of the immune system against a persons brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.

This attack damages the protective fatty substance covering nerve fibers (axons), which are necessary for proper transmission of nerve signals called myelin. As the myelin sheath is lost (demyelination), the communication between nerve cells is damaged or even interrupted, and nerve cell death occurs, leading to a range of disease symptoms.

Some MS patients experience a version of the disease called progressive MS, in which symptoms continuously worsen over time while their central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) shrinks (atrophies), and the junctions at which nerve cell terminals meet to communicate with each other, called synapses, are lost.

The majority of MS medications work to inhibit the self-attacking immune responses and inflammatory demyelination, but the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease have been more difficult to stop, particularly for patients with progressive MS.

Most MS research and FDA-approved treatments focus on demyelination and axon death, Dorothy P. Schafer, PhD, professor at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, said in a press release.

Far less is known about what happens to the synaptic connections between neurons, which has proven to be a key aspect of neurodegeneration likely leading to cognitive decline in other diseases such as Alzheimers disease, Schafer said.

Using tissue samples from deceased MS patients, a primate model of MS, and mice models of demyelinating disease, Schafer and colleagues investigated how synapses change during MS.They specifically looked at synapses involved in transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain via the optic nerve.

According to the studys first author, Sebastian Werneburg, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at Schafers lab, the visual system is an ideal model for investigating MS because its easy to access for therapeutic intervention, subtle changes can be readily detected, and the visional pathway is affected in almost half of all patients with the disease.

Most MS patients experience vision problems at some point, which result from damage to the optic nerve or from lack of coordination in the eye muscle. These problems can be the first indication of the disease.

Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, researchers found a profound synaptic loss in patient samples as a consequence of immune cells called microgliaeating nerve cell connections.

Microglia are cells that serve as one of the first and main forms of immune defense in the central nervous system, acting to clear cellular debris and dead neurons via phagocytosis a process by which some cells engulf other cells or particles.

In mice, synapse loss occurred independently of local demyelination and neuronal degeneration, but coincided with a rise in a specific immune factor called C3. C3 is part of the complement system, and is normally not present in the brains of adults. It is produced and activated during demyelinating diseases, but it is not clear why.

As C3 was seen to bind to synapses in models of MS, researchers reasoned this complement protein might be involved with the ongoing destruction of synapses in mice with MS-like disease.

To test this hypothesis, they specifically neutralized C3 at synapses of the visual pathway using gene therapy in mice. The strategy basically worked by delivering genetic material to synapses that provided instructions for the production of a C3 inhibitor.

After injection of the therapy, the inhibitor successfully blocked C3, reduced microglia engulfment, and preserved nerve cell connections, which improved eyesight in mice.

As a result of this inhibition, we saw improved visional function in mice, Werneburg said.

Overall, based on the results, the team believes that C3 probably is sending a signal to microglia telling them to eliminate synapses.

The next step will be to determine how C3 turns active during MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Its possible that therapies targeting different circuits of the brain can be used to protect against synaptic damage in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers, Schafer said.

Ana is a molecular biologist with a passion for discovery and communication. As a science writer she looks for connecting the public, in particular patient and healthcare communities, with clear and quality information about the latest medical advances. Ana holds a PhD in Biomedical Sciences from the University of Lisbon, Portugal, where she specialized in genetics, molecular biology, and infectious diseases

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Patrcia holds her PhD in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases from the Leiden University Medical Center in Leiden, The Netherlands. She has studied Applied Biology at Universidade do Minho and was a postdoctoral research fellow at Instituto de Medicina Molecular in Lisbon, Portugal. Her work has been focused on molecular genetic traits of infectious agents such as viruses and parasites.

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Gene Therapy Recovers Vision in Mice Models of MS, Uncovers How... - Multiple Sclerosis News Today

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Gene Therapy Protects Eyesight in Models of Multiple Sclerosis – Technology Networks

New research by Dorothy P. Schafer, PhD, at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, reveals the molecular process in which synaptic connections in the brain are damaged in multiple sclerosis and how this contributes to neurodegenerative symptoms. The paper, published in Immunity, also shows how gene therapy may be used to preserve neural circuits and protect against vision loss in the disease.

These findings suggest a path for developing therapies that may protect synapses from the damaging effects of MS and could be broadly applicable to other neurodegenerative disorders, according to Dr. Schafer, assistant professor of neurobiology, and Sebastian Werneburg, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the Schafer lab.

"Most MS research and FDA-approved treatments focus on demyelination and axon death," said Schafer. "Far less is known about what happens to the synaptic connections between neurons, which has proven to be a key aspect of neurodegeneration likely leading to cognitive decline in other diseases such as Alzheimer's disease."

Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disease of the central nervous system affecting more than 2 million people worldwide. The disease involves an abnormal response of the body's peripheral immune system against the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves, which damages the fatty substance surrounding nerve fibers called myelin. Recurrent episodes of inflammation result in demyelination. As the myelin is stripped away, the nerve fibers are exposed to inflammatory attacks from the immune system and the transmission of nerve signals within the central nervous system are altered or stopped completely. A small subset of MS patients experience chronic progressive neurodegenerative symptoms accompanied by significant synaptic loss and central nervous system atrophy. This version of the disease is called progressive MS.

FDA-approved medications for treating MS have been developed to limit and reduce the number of relapses, which delay progression of the disease and minimize demyelination, but there is no cure for the disease and patients are still left with disability. Current therapies work to inhibit peripheral immune attack of the central nervous system and inflammatory demyelination, but the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease have proven harder to decelerate, particularly for patients with progressive MS.

Vison loss is one of the most common symptoms of MS and is often one of the first that patients notice. Problems with vision result from damage to the optic nerve that connects the eye to the brain or from lack of coordination in the eye muscle.

"The retinogeniculate system, which comprises neurons that extend their axons via the optic nerve to the thalamus in the brain, is an ideal model for investigating MS because it's easy to access for therapeutic intervention, subtle changes can be readily detected and the visional pathway is affected in almost half of all patients with the disease," said Dr. Werneburg.

Profound synaptic loss was observed in animal models as microglia engulfed and eliminated presynaptic connections. Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system and are emerging as key players in regulating neural circuit structure in health and disease. One of the vast number of functions microglia perform in the brain is similar to the role macrophages perform in the immune system: clearing cellular decay and dead neurons from tissue.

"We found the protein C3 in abundance at synapses," said Werneburg.

C3 is not normally found in adult brain tissue. C3 protein usually only shows up in neural tissue during the developmental stages of the brain when synapses are being pruned. Synaptic pruning eliminates weak or unused synapsis as the brain matures to help efficiency and conserve energy.

In the case of demyelinating disease, it is not known why C3 is being produced and activated. This complement protein binds to synapses, sending the signal to microglia that the otherwise healthy-seeming synapse should be eliminated. This leads microglia to attack synapses.

Schafer, in collaboration with Guangping Gao, PhD, the Penelope Booth Rockwell Professor in Biomedical Research, professor of microbiology & physiological systems, director of the UMMS Horae Gene Therapy Center and Viral Vector Core, and co-director of the Li Weibo Institute of Rare Disease, used a gene therapy approach and adeno-associated virus to deliver Crry, an inhibitor of C3, specifically to synapses in the visual system while leaving the rest of the brain untouched, to see if synapses could be spared and vision preserved. Crry is a natural inhibitor of complement proteins such as C3. These regulators help protect cells or tissue from unwanted attack by the immune system.

After injection of the AAV into the circuit, Crry localized to synapses and successfully preserved them by binding to C3 so microglia couldn't damage them.

"As a result of this inhibition, we saw improved visional function in mice," said Werneburg.

Schafer said the protective effects of the AAV-delivered inhibitor were specific to the visual circuit. "It's possible that therapies targeting different circuits of the brain can be used to protect against synaptic damage in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's."

The next step for Schafer and colleagues will be to determine how the C3 protein is being activated and produced during MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Reference: Werneburg, S., Jung, J., Kunjamma, R. B., Ha, S.-K., Luciano, N. J., Willis, C. M., Gao, G., Biscola, N. P., Havton, L. A., Crocker, S. J., Popko, B., Reich, D. S., & Schafer, D. P. (2020). Targeted Complement Inhibition at Synapses Prevents Microglial Synaptic Engulfment and Synapse Loss in Demyelinating Disease. Immunity, 52(1), 167-182.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.12.004

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Link:
Gene Therapy Protects Eyesight in Models of Multiple Sclerosis - Technology Networks

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith


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