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Human Gene Patents Invalidated

Basing his decision on legal arguments that human genes are products of nature and hence cannot be patented, in March of 2010 a U.S. District Court judge invalidated several patents held by a company called Myriad Genetics on the human breast cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Myriad Genetics sells a kit used to test for the two genes for about $3,000. The company tried to argue that their method of isolating the genes changed the genes, and thus made them patentable. But the judge ruled that such an argument was just a trick to circumvent the prohibition on the direct patenting of DNA.

About 20% of human genes have already been patented. A number of biotech companies were planning to make a hefty profit by developing and selling patent-protected genetic tests or by selling the patent rights to others. Whether all of those patents could ultimately be invalidated is unclear. With potentially billions of dollars at stake, the decision is likely to be appealed.

Medical and research organizations and patients are pleased by the decision. If it holds up on appeal it should provide wider access to human genes currently under patent protection, and ultimately make genetic tests like those for BRCA1 and BRCA2 less expensive.

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In Southeast Community Hospitals Clostridium Difficile Is More Common Than MRSA

Story Summary: Previous studies were based on estimates using hospital ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes. To better understand and identify infection trends, researchers also examined 949 other cases of HAIs. They found bloodstream infections occurred in 481 patients on general hospital wards and device-related infections occurred in 468 patients in intensive care units (ICU). Source: Sharon Reis Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Contact Our News EditorsFor any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form. Where to Go When You Cant Get a Good Nights SleepWhen you cant get a good nights sleep on a regular basis, a sleep center can help you figure out whats keeping you up. At a sleep center, doctors measure different body functions while you sleep to figure out if you have a sleep disorder….Read the Full Story

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  2. New superbug surpasses MRSA infection rates in community hospitals
  3. Community-acquired MRSA becoming more common in paediatric ICU patients


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Clues To Language Learning Offered By Songbirds Genome

Story Summary: Researchers who collaborated on the finch genome found a much higher proportion of the birds DNA is actively engaged by the act of singing songs. The system for singing has much more complexity than we imagined, said co-author Erich Jarvis, Ph. We were also able for the first time to use the genome sequence to infer the regulatory regions that turn genes on and off and the manner in which they may interact, he said. Jarvis noted that sequencing additional genomes, like the parrot genome his lab is working on with the Warren laboratory, would contribute valuable information about spoken language. The zebra finch is only the second bird to have its genome decoded. More than 20 institutions worldwide collaborated on the zebra finch genome project. The organizing committee of the zebra finch genome sequencing project included Wes Warren of Washington University School of Medicine; David Clayton of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Hans Ellegren of Uppsala University in Sweden; and Arthur P. Arnold of the University of California-Los Angeles. Source: Mary Jane Gore Duke University Medical Center Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Please send any medical news or health news press releases to: These are the most read articles from this news category for the last 6 months: Do Genes Play A Role In PTSD? Please send any medical news or health news press releases to: These are the most read articles from this news category for the last 6 months: Do Genes Play A Role In PTSD? The Heimlich Maneuver – First Aid for ChokingYou may recognize the universal sign for choking, but its also important to know what to do to help someone who is making that sign. The Heimlich Maneuver – First Aid for ChokingYou may recognize the universal sign for choking, but its also important to know what to do to help someone who is making that sign. Learning the right way to perform the Heimlich maneuver means you could be ready to save someones life. Learning the right way to perform the Heimlich maneuver means you could be ready to save someones life….Read the Full Story

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  1. Songbirds Give Clues About Vocal Learning
  2. Tweet: Scientists decode songbirds genome
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Aging gene found to govern lifespan, immunity and resilience

Story Summary: To do that, we looked at a gene that we already knew to be involved in the ageing process, called DAF-16, to see how it may determine the different rates of ageing in different species. And, importantly, the differences in DAF-16 corresponded to differences in longevity, stress resistance and immunity between the four species – in general higher levels of DAF-16 activity correlated with longer life, increased stress resistance and better immunity against some infections. Dr May continued: DAF-16 is part of a group of genes that drive the biological processes involved in ageing, immunity and responses to physical or environmental stresses. Improving the healthspan to mirror increases in the lifespan is an important subject of BBSRC research. — full story– 27 July 2009Researchers have developed a new technique that allows them to make a movie of bacteria infecting their living host. — full story– 23 July 2009A small green beetle may have some interesting lessons to teach scientists about optics and liquid crystals – complex mechanisms the insect uses to create a shell so strikingly beautiful. — full story– 9 July 2009Although the fact that we generate new brain cells throughout life is no longer disputed, their purpose has been the topic of much debate….Read the Full Story

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Electronic medical records may accelerate genome-driven diagnoses and treatments

Story Summary: Electronic Medical Records May Accelerate Genome-Driven Diagnoses and Treatments A new study reveals an exciting potential benefit of the rapidly accumulating databases of health care information, the ability to make unprecedented links between genomic data and clinical medicine. The research, published by Cell Press in the April issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics,supports the idea that large scale DNA databanks linked to electronic medical record (EMR) systems provide a valuable platform for discovering, assessing and validating associations between genes and diseases. The deployment of EMRs offers the hope of improving routine care, not only by enhancing individual practitioner access to patient information but also by aggregating information for clinical research, explains senior study author Dr. Dan M. Roden from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville Tennessee. It took only four months to generate a set of nearly 10,000 records from which the cases and controls were identified. Our data demonstrate that phenotypes representing clinical diagnoses can be extracted from EMR systems, and support the use of DNA resources coupled to EMR systems as tools for rapid generation of large datasets required for replication of associations found in research and for discovery in genome science, concludes Dr. Roden. The researchers include Marylyn D. Ritchie, Joshua C. Denny, Dana C. Crawford, Andrea H. Ramirez, Justin B. Weiner, Jill M. Pulley, Melissa A. Basford, Kristin Brown-Gentry, Jeffrey R. Balser, Daniel R. Masys, Jonathan L. Haines, Dan M. Roden, of Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN. Robust Replication of Genotype-Phenotype Associations across Multiple Diseases in an Electronic Medical Record. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:FeedbackTell us what you think of the new ScienceDaily — we welcome both positive and negative comments….Read the Full Story

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  3. NABsys Secures $4M First Round to Develop Electronic DNA Sequencing | Xconomy


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JCI online early table of contents: April 1, 2010

Story Summary: Recent data have indicated that this approach, which is known as oncolytic virotherapy, has potential. Now, Richard Vile and colleagues, at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, have found that this approach can be combined with a standard clinical therapy to provide substantial regression and cure of tumors in mice, leading them to suggest that this combinatorial approach could be of tremendous benefit in the clinic. TITLE: Antiangiogenic cancer therapy combined with oncolytic virotherapy leads to regression of established tumors in miceEDITORS PICK: Genetic form of anemia defined molecularlySideroblastic anemia is a form of anemia caused by an inability to incorporate iron into hemoglobin, something that is essential if the molecule is to perform its vital function of carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Specifically, they find that in human cells, GLRX5 is essential for generating iron-sulfur clusters (molecular groups that facilitate a wide range of cellular activities, including sensing of iron and oxygen) and maintaining normal levels of iron in cellular compartments known as mitochondria and the cytosol. Further analysis revealed a molecular explanation for why GLRX5 protein deficiency caused disease in only one cell type in the body, the red blood cell. TITLE: Glutaredoxin 5 deficiency causes sideroblastic anemia by specifically impairing heme biosynthesis and depleting cytosolic iron in human erythroblastsAUTHOR CONTACT: Tracey A. Rouault National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. gov. CARDIOLOGY: Protecting heart muscle cells from deathA team of researchers, led by Uta Hoppe, at the University of Cologne, Germany, has identified a role for the protein connexin 43 in protecting mouse heart muscle cells from death. The team therefore suggest that it might be an attractive target for therapies that help protect cells from injuries that normally result in death, such as the injuries suffered by cells as a result of heart attack. Several lines of evidence indicate that the PKC protein and mitoKATP potassium channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane have a central role in protecting cells from death. Lloyd Miller and colleagues, at the University of California at Los Angeles, have now provided new insight into this by studying a mouse model of the condition. Specifically, they found that the immune molecule IL-17 has an important role in controlling Staphylococcus aureusinfection in the mouse skin. TITLE: IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureusinfection in miceAUTHOR CONTACT: Lloyd S. Miller University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. In this regard, Behazine Combadiere and colleagues, at INSERM U945, France, have now determined that immune cells known as CD4+ T cells have an important role in controlling skin lesion size at sites of revaccination. Specifically, high numbers of these cells correlated with small skin lesion size upon revaccination. New insight into the signaling pathways that contribute to visceral white fat tissue dysregulation has now been provided by Philippe Lefebvre and colleagues, at INSERM, UMR1011, France, who determined that the PPAR-gamma signaling pathway operates differently in the visceral white fat tissue of lean and obese mice and humans. Specifically, it shows increased sensitivity to activation by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone in obese mice and humans. There are at least ten types of enteroendocrine cell and it has been hard to determine the exact role of each cell type and hormone they secrete because many of the hormones have partially overlapping functions. Surviving mice were smaller than normal littermates, had soft stool, and were impaired in their ability to absorb fat in the intestines. TITLE: Loss of enteroendocrine cells in mice alters lipid absorption and glucose homeostasis and impairs postnatal survivalAUTHOR CONTACT: Georg Mellitzer Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, INSERM U964, Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. Gerard Gradwohl Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, INSERM U964, Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. These vessels have a role in many processes in the body, including regulating fluid levels in tissues and immune surveillance. Although dysfunction in the lymphatic system contributes to human diseases such as the spread of cancer to other sites and lymphademas (localized fluid retention and tissue swelling), little is known about the molecules that regulate the formation of new lymphatic vessels, a process known as lymphangiogenesis. However, a team of researchers, led by Sophia Tsai and Ming-Jer Tsai, at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, has now identified a role for the gene regulatory protein COUP-TFII in lymphangiogenesis in mouse embryonic development and tumor lymphangiogenesis in adult mice. The authors therefore suggest that COUP-TFII might be an effective molecular target in pro-lymphangiogenic treatment of lymphedemas or in antilymphangiogenic therapy targeting tumor spreading via the lymphatic vessels. TITLE: Direct transcriptional regulation of neuropilin-2 by COUP-TFII modulates multiple steps in murine lymphatic vessel developmentCARDIOLOGY: Switching energy source in stressed hearts under the control of the protein MycWhen heart muscle cells are put under stress, for example by high blood pressure or by oxygen deprivation (such as occurs during a heart attack), they switch from using fatty acids as their source of energy to using glucose. Initial analysis by the authors indicated that expression of Myc was increased in the hearts of mice under conditions that model high blood pressure as well as conditions that model the oxygen deprivation associated with a heart attack. Furthermore, increasing Myc expression in the heart in the absence of any stress condition made the heart muscle cells switch from fatty acids to glucose as their source of energy. Importantly, the Myc-mediated switch to using glucose as an energy source was associated with preserving heart function and improving recovery from oxygen deprivation. TITLE: Myc controls transcriptional regulation of cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in response to pathological stress in miceAUTHOR CONTACT: W. Robb MacLellan David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA….Read the Full Story

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  1. JCI online early table of contents: Feb. 15, 2010
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  3. JCI online early table of contents: Feb. 8, 2010


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Anti-HIV drugs inhibit emerging virus linked to prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome

Story Summary: The results were published on April 1, 2010 by the journal PLoS One. The findings suggest that if XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) is proven to be a cause for prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome, those illnesses may be treatable with drugs already approved for treating HIV. We will need to see the results of clinical trials before these drugs can be used in a clinical setting. Our study showed that these drugs inhibited XMRV at lower concentrations when two of them were used together, suggesting that highly potent cocktail therapies might inhibit the virus from replicating and spreading, Schinazi says. This combination of therapies might also have the added benefit of delaying or even preventing the virus from mutating into forms that are drug-resistant. Although both XMRV and HIV are retroviruses, there is little similarity between HIV and XMRV at the protein level. Singh and Schinazi are now investigating the development of resistance in XMRV to raltegravir and other drugs. Singh led a recently published study that demonstrated the presence of XMRV in 27 percent of prostate cancers examined, with the virus more likely to be found in the most-aggressive tumors….Read the Full Story

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Turmeric and Amla Health Remedies

Be Your Own Doctor

There various vegetables , fruits and nuts readily available in our kitchens and our local markets. But we often forget the medicinal value and no soon we have a ailment we run to the doctors for help. It is very important to consult a doctor and take the medication, but the herbal medicenes that are available readily at our kitchen could help us if the ailment is very nominal. For eg. if someone has a gastric problem, or an acidity problem , then there are so many condiments, and other herbal cures which are at our reach, but that goes unnoticed or being ignored. I give you a few remedies on very normal and common ailments from the vegetables, condiments, fruits etc available at home.

1. Amla (indian gooseberry) Genera-Phylanthus Speices-emblica Read more...

Kama Raja Old Formula for Penis Enhancement!

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New tool for RNA silencing

Story Summary: New tool for RNA silencingApril 1, 2010 Anti-sense reagents have been developed for C. Elegansmicro RNA. Researchers writing in BioMed Centrals open access journal Silencehave created the first class of reagents to potently and selectively inhibit miRNAs in this widely used model organism. Wen-hong Li, from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, USA, worked with a team of researchers including Dr. Genhua Zheng and Dr. Victor Ambros (University of Massachusetts Medical School) to develop this latest addition to the genetics toolkit. He said, Caenorhabditis elegans has long been used as a model organismfor studying the regulation and function of small non-coding RNA molecules, and yet no antisense reagents have been available to reliably inhibit miRNAs in worms. They can be used combinatorially to inhibit more than one miRNA in the same animal. They conclude, Combined with numerous mutants or reporter stains available, these reagents should provide a convenient approach to examine genetic interactions that involve miRNA, and may facilitate studying functions of miRNAs, especially ones whose deletion strains are difficult to generate. More information:Inhibiting miRNA in Caenorhabditis elegans using a potent and selective antisense reagent, Genhua Zheng, Victor Ambros and Wen-hong Li, Silence2010, 1:9. jpg If your skin is cut deeply, meaning a cut to dermis why is that we can see scar tissue. html I didnt even realize that human cloning was yet scientifically possible. I know that some scientists cloned a sheep many years ago. Structure of Evolutionary Theory, why did he leave this out?Mar 29, 2010 Hi, Ive been leafing through the index of Stephen Jay Goulds book The Structure of Evolutionary Theory on the amazon index feature and he has only mentioned Edward O. Wilson on two pages in the. This has been shown by a new study carried out by researchers at Uppsala University and Stockholm University. This has been shown by a new study carried out by researchers at Uppsala University and Stockholm University. The . . . When cells are deprived of water, they shrink, collapsing in upon themselves and, without water as a medium, chemicals and enzymes inside the cells may malfunction. com) — A genome is a complex system of genes and factors that regulate them….Read the Full Story

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Gene flaw found in induced stem cells

Story Summary: Stem-cell researchers have puzzled over why reprogrammed cells taken from adult tissues are often slower to divide and much less robust than their embryo-derived counterparts. However, because scientists have always obtained iPS and ES cells from different sources — in general, iPS cells are derived from skin samples taken during biopsies and ES cells from excess embryos from fertility clinics — it was impossible to tell whether the discrepancies could be chalked up to the unique biology of the cells or the genetics of the underlying tissue. The team added the stem cells into embryos from mice of a different colour; once each mouse matures, the colouring of its coat reveals how much the stem cells contributed to forming its tissue. When the scientists compared genome-wide expression patterns between the two cell types, they discovered that a small stretch of DNA on the long arm of chromosome 12 displayed significantly different gene activity. In this region, two genes and a slew of tiny regulatory sequences called microRNAs were consistently activated in the ES cells and silenced in the iPS cells, regardless of whether the reprogrammed cells came originally from skin, brain, blood or other tissue. Although the function of the key genes is unknown, this region is usually silenced in mouse sperm cells and activated in other types of cell, so reprogramming might somehow mimic the silencing process, the authors speculate. This is an important step towards identifying the differences that may exist in those imperfectly reprogrammed cells, says Sheng Ding, a stem-cell researcher at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. It points towards the possibility that hot spots for epigenetic abnormalities exist also in human iPS cells, he says. It points towards the possibility that hot spots for epigenetic abnormalities exist also in human iPS cells, he says. A profound abnormality like that could confound results obtained with patient-specific iPS cells. Stadtfeld agrees, noting that the silenced genes might not matter for tissues in which such genes have no role. Although findings in mice dont always apply to humans, if a similar gene signature is found in human cells, it could help researchers to identify which iPS cells to avoid using, and which stand the best chance of producing the desired tissue. #9970Day is not far away when we will make iPS cells behaving like ES cells. co. in, +919452196686(M)Add your own commentThis is a public forum. You need to be registered with Nature to leave a comment….Read the Full Story

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  3. Scientists Reveal How Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Differ From Embryonic Stem Cells and Tissue of Derivation-11/4/09


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Human genome at ten: Life is complicated

Story Summary: Erika Check Hayden asks if theres a way to make life simpler. The true number, it turns out, is closer to 21,000, and biologists now know what many of those genes are. Few predicted, for example, that sequencing the genome would undermine the primacy of genes by unveiling whole new classes of elements — sequences that make RNA or have a regulatory role without coding for proteins. Non-coding DNA is crucial to biology, yet knowing that it is there hasnt made it any easier to understand what it does. We fooled ourselves into thinking the genome was going to be a transparent blueprint, but its not, says Mel Greaves, a cell biologist at the Institute of Cancer Research in Sutton, UK. Instead, as sequencing and other new technologies spew forth data, the complexity of biology has seemed to grow by orders of magnitude. Delving into it has been like zooming into a Mandelbrot set — a space that is determined by a simple equation, but that reveals ever more intricate patterns as one peers closer at its boundary. How tantalizing this notion is depends somewhat on the scientist; some say it is enough to understand the basic principles that govern life, whereas others are compelled to reach for an answer to the next question, unfazed by the ever increasing intricacies. For the rest of the twentieth century, scientists expanded on the details of the model, but they were confident that they understood the basics. Just one decade of post-genome biology has exploded that view. Researchers from an international collaborative project called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) showed that in a selected portion of the genome containing just a few per cent of protein-coding sequence, between 74% and 93% of DNA was transcribed into RNA2. Much non-coding DNA has a regulatory role; small RNAs of different varieties seem to control gene expression at the level of both DNA and RNA transcripts in ways that are still only beginning to become clear. The protein p53, for example, was first discovered in 1979, and despite initially being misjudged as a cancer promoter, it soon gained notoriety as a tumour suppressor — a guardian of the genome that stifles cancer growth by condemning genetically damaged cells to death. It also binds to numerous other proteins, which can modify its activity, and these protein-protein interactions can be tuned by the addition of chemical modifiers, such as phosphates and methyl groups. The data deluge following the Human Genome Project is undoubtedly part of the problem. Gone are the days when cloning and characterizing a gene would garner a paper in a high-impact journal. Now teams would have to sequence an entire human genome, or several, and compare them. In many cases youve got high-throughput projects going on, but much of the biology is still occurring on a small scale, says James Collins, a bioengineer at Boston University in Massachusetts. A new discipline — systems biology — was supposed to help scientists make sense of the complexity. So far, all these attempts have run up against the same roadblock: there is no way to gather all the relevant data about each interaction included in the model. In retrospect, it was probably unrealistic to expect that charting out the biological interactions at a systems level would reveal systems-level properties, when many of the mechanisms and principles governing inter-and intracellular behaviour are still a mystery, says Leonid Kruglyak, a geneticist at Princeton University in New Jersey. You would have all this stuff in your detector, and you would have no idea how to think about it, because it would involve processes that you didnt understand at all, says Kruglyak. This doesnt mean that biologists are stuck peering ever deeper into a Mandelbrot set without any way of making sense of it. Biology is entering a period where the science can be underlaid by explanatory and predictive principles, rather than little bits of causality swimming in a sea of phenomenology, says Eric Davidson, a developmental biologist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Theyre still using a systems approach, but focusing it through a more traditional, bottom-up lens. His group has spent almost a decade dissecting sea-urchin development by systematically knocking out the expression of each of the transcription factors — regulatory proteins that control the expression of genes — in the cells that develop into skeleton. Yet it includes all of these regulatory interactions and then attempts to draw from them common guiding principles that can be applied to other developing organisms. For example, transcription factors encoded in the urchin embryos genome are first activated by maternal proteins. Like the sea urchin, other organisms from fruitflies to humans organize development into modules of genes, the interactions of which are largely isolated from one another, allowing evolution to tweak each module without compromising the integrity of the whole process. The fundamental idea that the genomic regulatory system underlies all the events of development of the body plan, and that changes in it probably underlie the evolution of body plans, is a basic principle of biology that we didnt have before, says Davidson. Davidson calls his work a proof of principle that you can understand everything about the system that you want to understand if you get hold of its moving parts. He credits the Human Genome Project with pushing individual biologists more in the direction of understanding systems, rather than staying stuck in the details, focused on a single gene, protein or other player in those systems. The eye of the beholderSo how is it that Davidson sees simplicity and order emerging where many other biologists see increasing disarray? Researchers who work on model systems, for instance, can manipulate those systems in ways that are off-limits to those who study human biology, arriving at more definitive answers. He used to make the tongue-in-cheek prediction that the budding yeast would be solved by 2007 when every gene and every interaction has been characterized. He has since written more seriously that this feat will be accomplished within the next few decades5. Johnston argues that it is neither possible not necessary to arrive at the quantitative understanding that he hopes to achieve for the glucose-sensing pathway for every other system in yeast. You have to decide what level of understanding youre satisfied with, and some people respond that theyre not satisfied at any level — that we have to keep going, he says. It plays out every day as study sections and peer reviewers decide which approach to science is worth funding and publishing. The edge of the universeSome, such as Hiroaki Kitano, a systems biologist at the Systems Biology Institute in Tokyo, point out that systems seem to grow more complex only because we continue to learn about them. Bert Vogelstein, a cancer-genomics researcher at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, has watched first-hand as complexity dashed one of the biggest hopes of the genome era: that knowing the sequence of healthy and diseased genomes would allow researchers to find the genetic glitches that cause disease, paving the way for new treatments. Indeed, drugs that influence those bafflingly complex signal-transduction pathways are among the most promising classes of new medicines being used to treat cancer. The complexity explosion, therefore, does not spell an end to progress. Mina Bissell, a cancer researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California, says that during the Human Genome Project, she was driven to despair by predictions that all the mysteries would be solved. Biology is complex, and that is part of its beauty. Add your own commentThis is a public forum. You can be controversial, but please dont get personal or offensive and do keep it brief. Remember our threads are for feedback and discussion – not for publishing papers, press releases or advertisements. Remember our threads are for feedback and discussion – not for publishing papers, press releases or advertisements. You need to be registered with Nature to leave a comment. Please log in or register as a new user….Read the Full Story

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Lights, camera, action for cells

Story Summary: They perturbed gene expression using short interfering RNA molecules (siRNA) and then observed the effects over two days on fluorescently labelled chromosomes using time-lapse imaging. The method recognized with 87% accuracy changes in the nuclear shape that were related to basic functions such as cell division, proliferation, survival and migration. Technically this paper is really a tour de force, says Jason Swedlow, a cell biologist at the University of Dundee, UK. The systematic way the group has gone through and knocked down genes and filmed the results is really impressive. Even though we know the sequences of different genomes, we dont yet know the names of all the genes involved in a fundamental process like cell division. The systematic way the group has gone through and knocked down genes and filmed the results is really impressive. Nearly half of these genes are involved in mitosis (see videoshowing normal cell division). This showed that delays in mitosis result in cell death and abnormal chromosome segregation, the process by which paired chromosomes split (see videoof cell division disrupted using siRNA). Some genes were associated with problems in early cell division, and others were linked to problems in a later stage called cytokinesis, in which cells containing two nuclei divide in half. Its a very comprehensive study, says Michael Boutros, a cell biologist at the German Cancer Research Center, also in Heidelberg. It broadly reflects the different effects that genes have on the cell cycle. Thats going to be a very important contribution. Thats going to be a very important contribution. Thats going to be a very important contribution. Cellular YouTubeThe next step is for multiple research groups to validate the hundreds of candidate mitotic genes found in this screen and to figure out how they guide cell division, Ellenberg says. Cellular YouTubeThe next step is for multiple research groups to validate the hundreds of candidate mitotic genes found in this screen and to figure out how they guide cell division, Ellenberg says. Cellular YouTubeThe next step is for multiple research groups to validate the hundreds of candidate mitotic genes found in this screen and to figure out how they guide cell division, Ellenberg says. Cellular YouTubeThe next step is for multiple research groups to validate the hundreds of candidate mitotic genes found in this screen and to figure out how they guide cell division, Ellenberg says. In the long run, the technology will really allow us to diagnose and treat cancer much better, he says. In the long run, the technology will really allow us to diagnose and treat cancer much better, he says. Overwhelmingly the reaction is very positive, Ellenberg says. Overwhelmingly the reaction is very positive, Ellenberg says. People bombard me with e-mails and ask, Can I have the movies for my favourite gene? People bombard me with e-mails and ask, Can I have the movies for my favourite gene? People bombard me with e-mails and ask, Can I have the movies for my favourite gene? Now they can log on to the database and discover clusters of genes that underlie a particular response in cells, he says. Now they can log on to the database and discover clusters of genes that underlie a particular response in cells, he says. They dont want to do the silencing experiments themselves anymore. They dont want to do the silencing experiments themselves anymore. People can go to the data set and discover new relationships that have not been described in the paper. To have everything available online is a big step forward. There are currently no comments. Add your own commentThis is a public forum. Remember our threads are for feedback and discussion – not for publishing papers, press releases or advertisements. You need to be registered with Nature to leave a comment….Read the Full Story

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Future funding for agricultural research uncertain

Story Summary: The lions share of that funding comes from financial donors that include government agencies in the United States and United Kingdom, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Agricultural strategyUnder the proposed reforms, donor contributions would go into a common pot, which would then be distributed among eight broad research areas, or mega programmes. ) The idea is to cut out research overlap between centres, create a clear mission and refocus research on the questions and problems donors want tackled. Donors say that they want this reform process accelerated, and to see more flesh on the bones of the outlined research proposals. In particular, they want to see three fast-tracked research programmes launched by the end of the year, including one on the impact of climate change on agriculture, says Jonathan Wadsworth, senior agricultural research adviser to Britains Department for International Development (DFID). DFID is one of the centres largest donors, and has said that it wants to double funding to the group in future. But Wadsworth told that funding hikes will depend on the reforms, and on the centres achieving their research targets. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the worlds largest private foundation, contributes around $80 million per year to the CGIARs budget and has committed funding to the centres until 2013. Changes to be madeThere is some truth in Pingalis criticisms, says Colin Chartres, director general of the International Water Management Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka, one of the CGIARs centres. But he says that he and others developing the reforms have deliberately not presented specific ideas so that the conference participants, including farmers, can have input into the strategy. In particular, the CGIAR would focus research on specific regions, and target the more vulnerable groups of people for its programmes. A meeting on 24 May will decide which of the broad programmes will be the first to be put to donors for funding decisions, Perez del Castillo added. You can be controversial, but please dont get personal or offensive and do keep it brief. You need to be registered with Nature to leave a comment….Read the Full Story

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  3. The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation recommit to gastroenterologys future


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New Mouse Models Give Insight to Gene Mutation That Is Potential Cause Of Parkinsons Disease

Story Summary: Newswise — Using new one-of-a-kind mouse models that promise to have a significant impact on future Parkinsons disease research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers are among the first to discover how mutations in a gene called LRRK2 may cause inherited (or familial) Parkinsons disease, the most common form of the disease. Even though it was clear that LRRK2 played a role in causing Parkinsons, scientists had not been able to fully pursue the discovery of the gene mutation due to lack of a suitable animal model with abnormal forms of the gene. They are now pursuing the question whether the increased kinase activity accounts for the reduced dopamine levels, subsequently leading to neurodegeneration. About The Mount Sinai Medical CenterThe Mount Sinai Medical Center encompasses The Mount Sinai Hospital and Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The Mount Sinai Hospital is one of the nations oldest, largest and most-respected voluntary hospitals. Founded in 1852, Mount Sinai today is a 1,171-bed tertiary-care teaching facility that is internationally acclaimed for excellence in clinical care. Last year, nearly 60,000 people were treated at Mount Sinai as inpatients, and there were nearly 450,000 outpatient visits to the Medical Center. Mount Sinai School of Medicine is internationally recognized as a leader in groundbreaking clinical and basic science research, as well as having an innovative approach to medical education….Read the Full Story

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Max Planck scientists develop gene switch for chloroplasts in plant cells

Story Summary: These RNA molecules are the instruction manuals that show the ribosomes – the cells protein factories – how to build a protein. A few years ago, scientists studying bacterial cells discovered sections in certain messenger RNAs that metabolic products (metabolites) can bind to. The scientists smuggled a gene into the chloroplast DNA and equipped it with a riboswitch. Thats because each tobacco cell contains as many as 100 chloroplasts. As a result, it is capable of building more proteins than the DNA in the cell nucleus. In many cases, however, these foreign proteins damage cellular metabolism or photosynthesis if the cells produce them continuously. Foreign genes have another advantage in the chloroplasts besides this: they are inherited almost without exception through the female egg cell. It is therefore extremely rare for foreign genes to spread through the pollen of the tobacco plants. Source: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft– 27 July 2009Researchers have developed a new technique that allows them to make a movie of bacteria infecting their living host. — full story– 9 July 2009Although the fact that we generate new brain cells throughout life is no longer disputed, their purpose has been the topic of much debate. — full story– 8 July 2009The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) announced today the discovery of a new monkey in a remote region of the Amazon in Brazil. The monkey is related to saddleback tamarins, which….Read the Full Story

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BioNanomatrix Announces Issuance of Key Nanochannel Array Patent for High Throughput Macromolecular Analysis

Story Summary: Also disclosed are methods of preparing nanochannel array chips, methods of analyzing macromolecules such as entire strands of genomic DNA, and systems for implementing these methods. Dr. Han Cao, the Companys founder and chief scientific officer, said: This patent covers the fundamental method and device for isolating, imaging, and analyzing nucleic acid biopolymers confined within nanoscale fluidic channels. We are very excited about the official issuance of this key patent, which places BioNanomatrix in the forefront of this emerging field. Single molecule analysis of intact native DNA has been limited by the difficulty of linearizing and manipulating these long, complex molecules. To address these limitations, a Princeton University research team, including Dr. Cao, developed a simple approach that uses a nano-fluidic chip to untangle and guide individual molecules into an array of nanochannels. It is designed to provide ultra high-resolution analyses of macromolecules, such DNA and proteins, and their interactions more rapidly, comprehensively, and cost effectively than currently available approaches. BioNanomatrix is the worldwide exclusive licensee of the technology covered by this patent. The companys platform technology permits users to image directly and analyze very long strands of DNA in real time at the single-molecule level, at both high resolution and very high throughputs. This technology has the potential to increase the utility of whole genome imaging and analysis for a wide range of research and diagnostic applications, providing fast, comprehensive and low-cost analysis of genomic, epigenomic and proteomic information. Note: NanoAnalyzer is a registered trademark of BioNanomatrix, Inc. The names of other companies, other entities, products and/or services mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. com or Tamara Bright tbright@tiberendstrategicadvisors….Read the Full Story

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Songbirds Give Clues About Vocal Learning

Story Summary: The researchers also found evidence that song behavior engages complex gene regulatory networks within the brain of the songbird- networks that rely on parts of the genome once considered junk. The zebra finch genome sequence and analysis published in the April 1 issue of the journal Nature was funded in part by the National Human Genome Research Institute, a component of the National Institutes of Health. A major reason researchers decided to study the zebra finch genome was the male birds ability to learn complex songs from his father. However, researchers discovered that some genes associated with vocal behavior have undergone accelerated evolution in the finch. For example, they found a disproportionately high number of ion channel genes among the 49 genes in the finch genome that are suppressed, or turned off, in response to song. Ion channels allow the movement of ions (electrically charged particles) across cell membranes. It was once thought that the non-coding part of the genome was not essential, amounting to biological junk. Recently, researchers have begun to amass evidence that many parts of the non-coding regions serve important biological functions. Analysis of the zebra finch genome sequence suggested that ncRNAs, which have been proposed to contribute to the evolution of greater complexity in humans and other animals, may be a driving force behind learned vocal communication. Although scientists understand much about how songbirds acquire and modify their vocal patterns, the availability of the genome sequence will allow insight into the molecular underpinnings of this natural behavior. —Image Caption: NHGRI-supported researchers have sequenced the genome of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). —Image Caption: NHGRI-supported researchers have sequenced the genome of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). —Image Caption: NHGRI-supported researchers have sequenced the genome of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)….Read the Full Story

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Researchers sequence DNA of peach tree at Clemson University

Story Summary: This genome sequence is the culmination of an extensive research program pioneered at Clemson University under the leadership of Albert Bert Abbott, who holds the Robert and Lois Coker Trustees Chair in Molecular Genetics and is a professor in the genetics and biochemistry department. The choice of this tree was crucial to the overall success of the project, and the extremely high quality of the peach genome sequence assembly is a direct result of this choice. The peach genomics efforts of the Clemson research team and its international collaborators led the Joint Genome Institute, a federally funded sequencing facility, to underwrite the sequencing the genome of peach as one of the key plant species of interest worldwide. Bryon Sosinski, a graduate of the Clemson genetics program, now an associate professor of horticultural science at N. C. State University, served as the American coordinator of an effort to sequence the genome of the peach. Sosinski said the effort spanned the globe, involving scientists in Italy, Spain and Chile. Sosinski said the effort spanned the globe, involving scientists in Italy, Spain and Chile. Sosinski said the effort spanned the globe, involving scientists in Italy, Spain and Chile. In the United States, N. C. State, the Joint Genome Institute, Clemson and Washington State universities were the principal partners. In the United States, the effort was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, while the Italian government funded the international effort. In the United States, the effort was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, while the Italian government funded the international effort. In the United States, the effort was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, while the Italian government funded the international effort. The peach genome should be useful to scientists working with a number of peach relatives whose genomes appear to be similar to that of the peach, according to Sosinski. The peach genome should be useful to scientists working with a number of peach relatives whose genomes appear to be similar to that of the peach, according to Sosinski. The peach genome should be useful to scientists working with a number of peach relatives whose genomes appear to be similar to that of the peach, according to Sosinski. Some of these relatives, such as apple or plum, might be expected, but others, such as strawberries and raspberries, and trees, such as poplar and chestnut, would seem unlikely in that the plants are quite different from peaches, he said. Some of these relatives, such as apple or plum, might be expected, but others, such as strawberries and raspberries, and trees, such as poplar and chestnut, would seem unlikely in that the plants are quite different from peaches, he said. Some of these relatives, such as apple or plum, might be expected, but others, such as strawberries and raspberries, and trees, such as poplar and chestnut, would seem unlikely in that the plants are quite different from peaches, he said. It is likely, Sosinski added, that all these plants had common ancestors, and that while they have evolved to be quite different today, their genetic makeup remains similar. It is likely, Sosinski added, that all these plants had common ancestors, and that while they have evolved to be quite different today, their genetic makeup remains similar. It is likely, Sosinski added, that all these plants had common ancestors, and that while they have evolved to be quite different today, their genetic makeup remains similar. As a result, what scientists learn about the peach genome may transfer to these relatives, as the peach genome appears to be relatively unchanged or ancestral in nature. If, for example, scientists identify a peach gene that influences sugar content in the fruit, strawberries and raspberries may have that same gene and it may have the same function. While sequencing the genome of an organism is a significant scientific achievement, Sosinski said, it is just the beginning of scientific work related to the genome. The genomic sequence of an organism is roughly equivalent to a book that is simply a long list of letters, without spaces between words or punctuation, paragraphs or chapters. This long list of letters, by itself, has little meaning; however, if the letters are organized into words and punctuation added, creating meaningful sentences, paragraphs and chapters, the book begins to make sense, said Sosinski. This long list of letters, by itself, has little meaning; however, if the letters are organized into words and punctuation added, creating meaningful sentences, paragraphs and chapters, the book begins to make sense, said Sosinski. At the Musser farm in Oconee County, S. C. , researchers field test more than 350 different types of peaches, including varieties from Italy, China and France. At the Musser farm in Oconee County, S. C. , researchers field test more than 350 different types of peaches, including varieties from Italy, China and France. The stone fruit industry in South Carolina and the nation faces many significant challenges. These varieties will help growers gain a competitive edge in the marketplace….Read the Full Story

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Mapping Heart Disease

Story Summary: Recently, an international team of investigators at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA), Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) and other organizations shed new light on the subject. Studying Drosophila (fruit flies), the team investigated 7061 genes and built a detailed map that shows how a portion of these genes contribute to heart function and disease. Turning off CCR4-Not complex genes caused heart muscle abnormalities (cardiomyopathies) in both flies and mice. They were assisted by researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Toronto General Hospital, Keio University School of Medicine (Japan), Strand Life Sciences (Bangalore, India), New York University, Institute of Human Genetics (Munich, Germany), General Central Hospital (Bolzano, Italy) and the University of Lubeck (Germany). About Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (formerly Burnham Institute for Medical Research) is dedicated to discovering the fundamental molecular causes of disease and devising the innovative therapies of tomorrow. Sanford-Burnham, with operations in California and Florida, is one of the fastest-growing research institutes in the country. From 1999 – 2009, Sanford-Burnham ranked #1 worldwide among all types of organizations in the fields of biology and biochemistry for the impact of its research publications, defined by citations per publication, according to the Institute for Scientific Information. According to government statistics, Sanford-Burnham ranks #2 nationally among all organizations in capital efficiency of generating patents, defined by the number of patents issued per grant dollars awarded. org. Contact InformationAvailable for logged-in reporters onlyDescriptionStudying Drosophila (fruit flies), an international team investigated 7061 genes and built a detailed map that shows how a portion of these genes contribute to heart function and disease….Read the Full Story

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First songbird genome arrives with spring

Story Summary: The little songbirds genetic instruction book has just been deciphered. Male zebra finches memorize their fathers songs and practice singing the song for a month or two. In the new study, the researchers decoded DNA taken from a male zebra finch called Black 17. Comparing Black 17s genetic blueprint to that of chickens revealed several notable features in the birds genomes. For instance, in zebra finches, immune system genes of the major histocompatibility complex are scattered across several chromosomes, while chickens and humans keep such genes in clusters on a single chromosome. The finding supports a previous study by Claytons group, which showed that a large number of RNA molecules change levels when a bird is listening to a song. The new genome sequence revealed that many of those RNAs are regulatory molecules known as noncoding RNAs. Levels of one of those molecules, a tiny snippet of RNA known as microRNA-124, drop rapidly when a bird hears a new song, the researchers report. Levels of one of those molecules, a tiny snippet of RNA known as microRNA-124, drop rapidly when a bird hears a new song, the researchers report. Levels of one of those molecules, a tiny snippet of RNA known as microRNA-124, drop rapidly when a bird hears a new song, the researchers report. MicroRNAs are known to regulate production of proteins and have been suggested to be important for brain function (SN: 03/01/2008, p. 136), but this is the first time a microRNA has been shown to respond to a particular thought process, Clayton says….Read the Full Story

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Songbird genome may shed light on speech disorders

Story Summary: Songbird genome may shed light on speech disorders(Reuters) – Scientists have cracked the genetic code of a songbird for the first time, identifying more than 800 genes linked to song learning in a finding that may shed light on human speech disorders. Song learning is an excellent paradigm for all types of learning, said Chris Ponting, a professor with the Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit at University of Oxford, who was involved in the research. It gives the zebra finch genome a unique relevance to human neuroscience, a team of international scientists led by Wes Warren of Washington Universitys Genome Center reported in the journal Nature Wednesday. Significantly, many of the genes activated by bird song do not act like genes in the usual way as code for making proteins. They may have two birds in the bag, but scientists still want to learn more about these feathered descendants of the dinosaurs. Next up is the parrot genome, which researchers hope to complete by the end of this year. (Editing by Hereward Holland)I suppose the gubbermint will want to use the study to help people with speech problems!Who will us conservativie types make fun of then?DETROIT (Reuters) – General Motors posted a 43 percent jump in U. S. sales for March from a year earlier in its continuing brands, the first of expected sharp gains by automakers driven by incentives and better weather. Apple doesnt want you to know whats inside its new gadget, but two guys armed with heat guns and suction cups have other ideas. Thomson Reuters journalists are subject to an Editorial Handbookwhich requires fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests….Read the Full Story

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Dr. Marilyn M. Li, M.D., FACMG, is the 2010 Luminex/ACMGF award recipient

Story Summary: Marilyn M. Li, M. D. , FACMG, is the 2010 Luminex/ACMGF award recipientThe American College of Medical Genetics Foundation has awarded Dr. Marilyn M. Li, of the Tulane Medical Center and the Tulane University School of Medicine the 2010-2011 Luminex/ACMGF AwardThe American College of Medical Genetics Foundation (ACMGF) has awarded Dr. Marilyn M. Li, of the Tulane Medical Center and the Tulane University School of Medicine the 2010-2011 Luminex/ACMGF Award at the ACMG 2010 Annual Clinical Genetics Meeting in Albuquerque, NM. The award includes a $100,000 grant and is aimed at the promotion of safe and effective genetic testing and services, including the development of research guidelines. Dr. Li and her co-PI Dr. Iqbal will study the efficacy of microarray-based testing for detection of genetic aberrations in hematologic malignancies. ACMGs activities include the development of laboratory and practice standards and guidelines, advocating for quality genetic services in healthcare and in public health, and promoting the development of methods to diagnose, treat and prevent genetic disease. Genetics in Medicine, published monthly, is the official ACMG peer-reviewed journal. net) offers a variety of resources including Policy Statements, Practice Guidelines, Educational Resources, and a Medical Geneticist Locator. The educational and public health programs of the American College of Medical Genetics are dependent upon charitable gifts from corporations, foundations, and individuals. The Companys xMAP(r) multiplex solutions include an open-architecture, multi-analyte technology platform that delivers fast, accurate and cost effective bioassay results to markets as diverse as pharmaceutical drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and biomedical research, including the genomics and proteomics markets. The Companys xMAP Technology is sold worldwide and is already in use in leading clinical laboratories as well as major pharmaceutical, diagnostic and biotechnology companies….Read the Full Story

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Picking our brains: Can we regenerate the brain?

Story Summary: In the 1990s, decades of dogma were overturned by the discovery that mammals, including people, make new neurons throughout their lives. Lindvall is now looking for ways to make these specialised neurons from embryonic stem cells or stem cells made by reprogramming adult skin cells. Macklis has shown that in animals at least, these progenitors can be directed to form functional neurons. In mice, he has found chemical cues that tip progenitors into becoming motor neurons, the cells damaged by motor neuron disease. Im a great optimist with respect to regulating neurogenesis in normally non-neurogenic parts of the brain. But the nervous system was built with precision, and we will have to rebuild it with that precision. New Scientist does not own rights to photos, but there are a variety of licensing optionsavailable for use of articles and graphics we own the copyright to….Read the Full Story

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Traces of early Native Americans — in sunflower genes

Story Summary: The Current Biologypaper suggests reality may be a little more complex. FT genes play a role in sensitizing flowering plants to seasons, and their expression is usually triggered by changes in day length. As far as biologists know, all flowering plants have at least one FT gene. Blackman and his colleagues identified four FT genes in sunflower, Helianthus annuus, which are known as HaFT paralogs. Based on the level of divergence between the various HaFTs and the presence of a single FT copy in lettuce, we inferred that one copy became two during a whole genome doubling event that occurred roughly 30 million years ago, Blackman said. The scientists examined each paralogs expression patterns within sunflower, and by strategically cloning variants of the HaFT genes into the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, discerned the paralogs physiological properties in one anothers presence. One of the paralogs, HaFT3, has lost function and is no longer expressed. HaFT1 isnt produced in the leaves but at the site of HaFT2 and HaFT4s target — the shoot tip and the green bracts that will radiate out from the flower itself. Only two of the 23 wild populations surveyed possess both types of the HaFT1 allele. That is not the case for domesticated sunflower populations, for which the domestic version of HaFT1 completely (or almost completely) dominates. Modern domesticated sunflowers used in farming are homogeneous for domesticated HaFT1. Genetic evidence the scientists collected from a broad survey of domesticated and wild HaFT1 genes suggests domesticated HaFT1 experienced a selective sweep around the time early Native Americans would have begun cultivating sunflower. How HaFT1 was exerting its flower-delaying effects was not clear until the scientists cloned HaFT1, HaFT2 and HaFT4 into Arabidopsis thaliana in different combinations. Domesticated HaFT1 had no impact on flowering in the presence of HaFT2. But HaFT1 did delay A. thaliana flowering in the presence of HaFT4. Rieseberg has dual appointments at IU Bloomington and the University of British Columbia. It was supported with grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation….Read the Full Story

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10 Years on, aThe Genome Revolution Is Only Just Beginninga

Story Summary: The human genomes sequencing has profoundly influenced basic research and the refinement of genome-reading tools. In the same room that Merriweather Lewis and William Clark presented Thomas Jefferson with a map of the Louisiana Purchase territories, the researchers announced that the human genomes three billion base pairs of DNA had been mapped. Mostly lost in the ceremony was the fact that the genome sequence was not truly complete, but only a first draft. The parts that had been read, still needed to be verified. Since then, it has guided researchers in investigations of human development and disease. Some of their investigations have yielded new tests and drug targets and insights into the basis of human disease and development. But theyve also revealed just how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. Wisely, the president did not attach timetables to his bold predictions, wrote Collins in Nature. Perhaps the greatest genomic advances of the last decade involve tools. The Human Genome Project — the Collins-led governmental side of the genome-sequencing race, with Venter leading the private side — commenced only when the cost of reading DNA finally approached $1 per unit, or $3 billion for a whole genome. The International HapMapproject was formed in 2002, and compared the genomes of several hundred people from around the world. This produced a map of genomic hotspots where people — any two of whom are roughly 99 percent identical at the genetic level — are most likely to have DNA differences. This helps researchers narrow their focus on genes involved in disease. 5 percent of all human genes code for the proteins that make up our cells and tissues. As for what the rest are doing, they are still learning. In 2003, the NIH started the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, or ENCODE, which supports researchers in identifying functions for the rest of our genes. Many genes control when protein-coding genes are turned on and off at different places and times in the body, adding a whole new layer of complexity to the genome. This field of study is called epigenomics, and many researchers think its just as important as genomics. Scientists hope these projects will fill the massive gaps that remain in current genetic explanations for most common diseases. Scientists hope these projects will fill the massive gaps that remain in current genetic explanations for most common diseases. Scientists hope these projects will fill the massive gaps that remain in current genetic explanations for most common diseases. The ability to make meaningful predictions is still quite limited, wrote Collins. Indeed, personalized genomics companies like 23andMe, Navigenics and deCODE have struggled, as the novelty of genomic information gives way to a realization that its still of limited medical use. But all for all that turn-of-the-millennium expectations have been tempered, the genomic age has produced significant medical advances. Analyses of gene disturbances in cancer tissues have produced several promising drugs. Testing for breast cancer mutations is now common. Testing for breast cancer mutations is now common. For some complex diseases, such as schizophrenia, researchers are now looking at genes and physiological systems they never suspected were involved. For some complex diseases, such as schizophrenia, researchers are now looking at genes and physiological systems they never suspected were involved. Making sense of massive new genomic datasets has fueled the growth of systems biology, now one of the hottest areas of science. Making sense of massive new genomic datasets has fueled the growth of systems biology, now one of the hottest areas of science. Knowledge of the human genome wasnt scattered and hoarded. It was freely shared with any researcher who wanted it. As Venter, now the leader of the eponymous J. Craig Venter Institute, responsible for the designing the first synthetic genome, concluded his essay: The genome revolution is only just beginning. Nature, Vol. By Todd Golub. Comments (0)Not a member?If youre not yet registered with Wired. com, join now so you can share your thoughts and opinions….Read the Full Story

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