CRISPR, CAR-T, Consolidation: Top Advanced Therapy Milestones of 2019 – Xconomy

Posted: February 12, 2020 at 4:45 pm

XconomyNational

CRISPR, capacity, and consolidation powered the cell and gene therapy space in 2019, but a proactive focus on patient access topped Falcon Therapeutics CEO Susan Nichols annual roundup.

In what has become one of the most anticipated presentations at the Phacilitate Leaders World Conference, Susan Nichols, CEO of private North Carolina-based cell therapy firm Falcon Therapeutics, laid out the top 10 events of the previous year that shaped the regenerative medicine space, driving conversation, investment, and innovation.

The top spot in 2019 focused on efforts to increase patient access to the life-changing therapies entering the market, withMays approval of Novartis/AveXis Zolgensma(onasemnogene abeparvovec) and its unprecedented $2.1 million (1.9 million) price tag being the catalyst for change.

Nichols number one spot in 2018 centered around reimbursement conversations. Sparks approval of gene therapy Luxturna (voretigene neparvovec) shook 2017, while Europes approval ofex-vivostem cell gene therapy Strimvelis significantly advanced the sector in 2016.

For further context,check out theTop 10 cell and gene therapy milestones of 2018here, but below in reverse order is the full list of the top 10 key events of the previous 12 months, as presented at the conference in Miami, FL:

In December, a jury found Kite Pharma owned by Gilead Sciences (NASDAQ: GILD) guilty of infringing a patent exclusively licensed by Juno Therapeutics owned by Bristol-Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMS) from researchers at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

The 190 patentrelates to technology used in Kite/Gileads chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel).

The jurys decision left Gilead to pay $585 million plus 27.6% in royalties, totaling $752 million, to Bristol and Sloan Kettering, resolving a case filed a day after Yescarta won approval in October 2017.

But in a post-script that could well feature on Nichols 2020 list,it has been suggested the emboldening of Bristol has led the firm to file a motion last month to include punitive damages that would raise Gileads penalty to $1.5 billion.

Vertex (NASDAQ: VRTX) and CRISPR Therapeutics (NASDQ: CRSP) opened clinical trials in b-thalassemia and sickle cell disease to replace the defective genes that case these disorders andin November, the firms announced positive efficacy data from the first two patients treated with the investigational therapy CTX001.

Meanwhile, Editas Medicine (NASDAQ: EDIT) and Allergan initiated clinical trials for their CRISPR-based candidate AGN-151587 (EDIT-101), aimed at treating Leber congenital amaurosis 10 (LCA10), an inherited form of blindness.

The significance is CRISPR therapies have finally arrived in the clinic, Nichols said.

8) Pharma and biotech inhouse manufacturing

With a lack of third-party capacity especially for viral vector production, 2019 saw numerous investments by major cell and gene therapy players to grow their internal networks. Some of the examples Nichols pointed out include:

Susan Nichols, CEO of Falcon Therapeutics, spoke at Phacilitate in Miami, Florida in January

Positive data from Decembers American Association of Hematology (ASH) meeting in San Diego, CA was a further boon for the sector, said Nichols.

Johnson & Johnsons (NYSE: JNJ) JNJ-4528, a CAR-T Cell Therapy Directed Against B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), reported a 100% remission rate and response from its Phase Ib/II CARTITUDE-1 trial. 69% of patients showed complete remission or better.

The candidate licensed fromNanjing Legend in a $350 million deal will move into a full Phase II study this year.

ASH also brought positive news from bluebird and Bristol-Myers Squibb, which saw a 73.4% overall response rate in a Phase II KarMMa trial of its BCMA-targeted CAR-T candidate idecabtagene vicleucel.

The $950 million deal,announced in September, adds Semma Therapeutics a firm focusing on using stem-cell derived human islets as a possible cure for type 1 diabetes to Vertex growing regenerative medicine portfolio.

For Vertex, the deal represented its entry into the cell therapy space, complementing its move into gene editing just months prior with theacquisition of Exonics and a research expansion with CRISPR Therapeutics.

But for the industry, the investment in a company developing a cell therapy for a large indication other than cancer is of major significance, said Nichols.

As mentioned before, Astellas acquired Audentes for $3 billion, but the Japanese pharma firm also bought South San Francisco-basedCAR technology developer Xyphos Biosciencesas part of an end-of-year buying spree.

According to Nichols, these deals by Astellas are a signifier that medium pharma may be using advanced therapies to grow and expand.

With a wealth of therapies moving through the clinic, capacity is at a premium and 2019 saw contract development and manufacturing organizations (CDMOs) scrabbling to secure capabilities.

Thermo Fisher Scientific (NYSE: TMO) acquiredBrammer Bio for $1.7 billion, then Catalent (NYSE: CTLT) paid $1.2 billion toadd Paragon Bioservicesto its CDMO offering. Both marked the first move into gene therapy services by the two large contract manufacturers. Nichols noted the size of the deals as being somewhat impressive.

In other signs of CDMO consolidation, Hitachi Chemical Advanced Therapeutics Solutions (HCATS) entered Europe byacquiring German cell therapy manufacturing firm apceth Biopharma, and Tennessee-based cell therapy firm Cognateacquired Swedish DNA and viral vector manufacturer Cobra Biologics.

2019 also saw a flood of licensing deals with large upfront payments.

Roche (OTCGX: RHHBY) is paying more than $1 billion upfrontfor the rights to Sarepta Therapeutics (NASDAQ: SRPT) Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy outside of the US.

Genentech entered a $300 million with Adaptive Bio (NASDAQ: ADPT) for access to its T-receptor discovery and immune profiling platform, though the deal could be worth up to $2 billion.

And Vertex, as previously mentioned, inked a $175 million deal with CRISPR Therapeutics for its gene therapy pipeline.

We saw medium pharma grow. We saw major licensing deals. We saw CDMO consolidation. But we also saw Big Pharmas buying power with the sector making a significant impact on the cell and gene therapy space in 2019.

The biggest deal sawBristol buy Celgenefor a whopping $74 billion, bringing with it several CAR-T programs.

But Roches $4.8 billionacquisition of Spark Therapeutics which has already seen commercial success with Luxturna was also significant, as was Biogens (NASDAQ: BIIB) $877 million purchase ofNightstar Therapeutics, Pfizers stake-in and optionto buy out Vivet, and Bayers acquisition of the remaining shares ofBlueRock Therapeutics.

These signal that Big Pharma is optimistic to M&A in the advance therapy space and the value that these therapies can bring, said Nichols.

The business model for this new breed of curative medicines is significantly different to that of traditional pharma and biologics, and patient access poses a challenge. With the arrival of Zolgensma and its $2.1 million price tag, the conversations have changed, and all elements of the industry have been forced to address how to manage patient access.

Zolgensma represents a life or death drug for 68% of pediatric patients with SMA1. The patients must be dosed before the age of two, yet only around ten states offer screening before this age.

We need to work as an industry to ensure reimbursement and access is in sync with approvals, said Nichols. However, she added, we must move the conversation to state level and bring state Medicaid and insurance companies to the core of the conversation.

The year saw positive signs that change is happening.

Nichols noted that patient advocacy voices are loud across all disease indications pushing for access to these next-generation medicines. Meanwhile Novartis suggested lottery-style free drug program despitesome criticism demonstrates industry itself is looking for innovative ways to improve access.

This article first appeared in Bioprocess Insider on January 27.

Image: iStock/PashaIgnatov

Dan Stanton is Xconomy's managing editor and is based in France. You can reach him at dan.stanton@knect365.com.

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CRISPR, CAR-T, Consolidation: Top Advanced Therapy Milestones of 2019 - Xconomy

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