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Russia Cryonics Technology Market Insights Report 2019 2025 : Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Biocision, Cellulis – ScoopJunction

Russia Cryonics TechnologyMarket report explains the basic aspects of the industry and market statistics. The recent advances in technology, business plans, policies, possibilities for development and risks to the sector are being developed. The reports two major sections are defined, namely market revenue in (USD Million) and market size. The report examines the Russia Cryonics Technology market considering the export and import numbers along with the current industry chain. The Russia Cryonics Technology market report delivers an unbiased and extensive analysis of the on-going trends, opportunities/ high growth areas, drivers, which would help stakeholders to device and align Business strategies according to the current and future market dynamics. The Russia Cryonics Technology Market Report offers energetic visions to conclude and study the market size, market hopes, an competitive backgrounds. As per the world economic growth rate of the past four years, market size is estimated from xxx million $ in 2015 to xxx million $ in 2018. The Russia Cryonics Technology Market is expected to exceed more than US$ xxx million by 2023 at a CAGR of xx% in the given forecast period.

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The Russia Cryonics Technology Market report contains exhaustive data on the most important factors the growth of the company. The report contains a study on the change in the dynamics of competition. It also delivers specific awareness that helps you choose the right business executions and steps. The Russia Cryonics Technology Market report systematically presents information in the form of organizational charts, facts, diagrams, statistical charts, and figures that represent the state of the relevant trading on the Global and regional platform. Additionally, the report comprises the overall business chain, through which growth rate and decline rate of the specific industry in the market can be analyzed. The total cost spent on manufacturing the product and analysis of its assembling procedure is also described in the report.

Global Russia Cryonics Technology industry research report is spread across pages and provides exclusive vital statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape details in this niche sector. The global Russia Cryonics Technology market study offers a comprehensive analysis of the business models, key strategies, and respective market shares of some of the most prominent players in this landscape. Along with an in-depth review of the key influencing factors, business statistics in terms of revenues, segment-wise data, region-wise data, and country-wise data are offered in the full study. This study is one of the several complete documentation that captures all the facets of the evolving global Russia Cryonics Technology market.

This study presents the Russia Cryonics Technology production, revenue, and market share and growth rate for each key company, and also covers the breakdown data (production, consumption, revenue and market share) by regions, type and applications. History breakdown data from 2014 to 2019, and forecast to 2025. For top companies in United States, European Union and China, this report investigates and analyzes the production, value, price, market share and growth rate for the top manufacturers, key data from 2014 to 2019.

Competitive Analysis:The key players are highly focusing innovation in production technologies to improve efficiency and shelf life. The best long-term growth opportunities for this sector can be captured by ensuring ongoing process improvements and financial flexibility to invest in the optimal strategies. Company profile section of players such asAlcor Life Extension Foundation, Biocision, Cellulis, Cesca Therapeutics, Cryologics, Cryonics Asia Ltd., Cryonics Institute, Cryotherm, GE Healthcare, Humai, Kriorus, Oregon Cryonics, Osiris, Panasonic Biomedical, Praxair Technology, Sigma-Aldrich, Southern Cryonics, Thermo Fisher Scientific, VWRincludes its basic information like legal name, website, headquarters, its market position, historical background and top competitors by Market capitalization / revenue along with contact information. Each player/ manufacturer revenue figures, growth rate and gross profit margin is provided in easy to understand tabular format for past 5 years and a separate section on recent development like mergers, acquisition or any new product/service launch etc.

Russia Cryonics Technology Market Breakdown by Types:ProductType Segmentation :Slow Freezing, Vitrification, Ultra-RapidIndustry Segmentation :Animal Husbandry, Fishery Science, Medical Science, Preservation Of Microbiology Culture, Conserving Plant Biodiversity End user Segmentation, Life Science And Healthcare Facilities, Research Laboratories

Reason to purchase: 1) Global Russia Cryonics Technology Market Outline, Market Size Estimates, Industry Scope, and Division.2) Competitive analysis is specified for eminent Russia Cryonics Technology players, price structures and value of production.3) Focuses on the key Russia Cryonics Technology manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.4) Global Russia Cryonics Technology Market Drivers, Opportunities, Emerging Sectors, and Recent Plans and Policies are shown.5) The current status of the global Russia Cryonics Technology Market, current market & the two regional and region level.6) To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.

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The research report explores the Russia Cryonics Technology market across the globe shows industry summary, definition, and scope along with major regions and countries. The research report provides a detailed study on each and every aspect of Russia Cryonics Technology Market. Furthermore, the research study classifies the market based on product types, application and end user industries of Russia Cryonics Technology. The top industry players, revenue analysis, and sales margin are also explained. The report also covers raw materials analysis, production and consumption specifications. Besides, the report also covers geographical segmentation for Russia Cryonics Technology market. The SWOT analysis, the growth rate for each type and application is covered. A forecast global Russia Cryonics Technology market perspective will lead to valuable business plans and strategic moves.

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Russia Cryonics Technology Market Insights Report 2019 2025 : Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Biocision, Cellulis - ScoopJunction

Success in Cryonics –

Despite the fact that no human placed in a cryonic suspension has yet been revived, some living organisms can be, and have been, brought back from a dead or near-dead state.

Many biological specimens, including whole insects, many types of human tissue including brain tissue, and human embryos have been cryogenically preserved, stored at liquid nitrogen temperature where all decay ceases, and revived. Cooling living cells to cryogenic temperatures slows metabolic process almost to a stop, making sure the cell doesn't use anymore energy, receive chemical signals, or to carry out any living processes. This would allow a cell to stay in its current state for any amount of time needed, until it is heated to normal functioning temperatures, where the body would continue its processes of life with freezing being a pause on life. This leads scientists to believe that the same can be done with whole human bodies, and that any minimal harm can be reversed with future advancements in medicine.

Neurosurgeons often cool patients bodies so they can operate on aneurysms without damaging or rupturing the nearby blood vessels. Human embryos that are frozen in fertility clinics, defrosted and implanted in a mothers uterus grow into perfectly normal human beings. This method isnt new or groundbreaking- successful cryopreservation of human embryos was first reported in 1983 by Trounson and Mohr with multicellular embryos that had been slow-cooled using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO).

Even though a mammal has not been fully frozen at cryogenic temperatures and revived, similar tests have been done on monkeys and dogs. The animals had their blood removed and the cryoprotectant inserted. The animals were then cooled to temperatures under 0 degrees Celsius and fully revived.

Some frogs and other amphibians have a protein manufactured by their cells that act as a natural antifreeze which can protect them if theyre frozen completely solid.

And just in Feb. of 2016, there was a cryonics breakthrough when for the first time, scientists vitrified a rabbits brain and, after warming it back up, showed that it was in near perfect condition. Problems with the brain are the main reason why people are skeptical about cryonics, yet the rabbit's brain retained all memory and learning ability. This was the first time a cryopreservation was provably able to protect everything associated with learning and memory.

Cryogenically preserved rabbit brain

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Success in Cryonics -

What is cryonics? – Cryogenics Human & Pet Freezing for …

Cryonics is an effort to save lives by using temperatures so cold that a person beyond help by today's medicine might be preserved for decades or centuries until a future medical technology can restore that person to full health. Cryonics is a second chance at life. It is the reasoned belief in the advancement of future medicinal technologies being able to cure things we cant today.

Many biological specimens, including whole insects, many types of human tissue including brain tissue, and human embryos have been cryogenically preserved, stored at liquid nitrogen temperature where all decay ceases, and revived. This leads scientists to believe that the same can be done with whole human bodies, and that any minimal harm can be reversed with future advancements in medicine.

Neurosurgeons often cool patients bodies so they can operate on aneurysms without damaging or rupturing the nearby blood vessels. Human embryos that are frozen in fertility clinics, defrosted, and implanted in a mothers uterus grow into perfectly normal human beings. This method isnt new or groundbreaking- successful cryopreservation of human embryos was first reported in 1983 by Trounson and Mohr with multicellular embryos that had been slow-cooled using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO).

And just in Feb. of 2016, there was a cryonics breakthrough when for the first time, scientists vitrified a rabbits brain and, after warming it back up, showed that it was in near perfect condition. This was the first time a cryopreservation was provably able to protect everything associated with learning and memory.

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What is cryonics? - Cryogenics Human & Pet Freezing for ...

CI MEMBER | Cryonics Institute


If the person is in critical condition or hospice care, collect all required legal documents relating to suspension and confirm plans for standby and transport as soon as possible.

If the person has been legally pronounced dead and is currently a CI member, then entirely cover and cool his or her head with bags of crushed ice.Do NOT place ice on a Member until there has been a legal pronouncement of death -- attempt to obtain a pronouncement as soon as possible.


In order to fund a suspension at the $28,000 fee, a member must sign all required CI documents themselves with their signature witnessed by a notary. The membership documents and funding must be in place for a minimum of two weeks otherwise, the suspension fee will cost $35,000 and other nonmember restrictions may apply.

In either situation, contact the Cryonics Institute as soon as possible at:

Also see the listing below for exit codes for countries that do not use 00

Calling from Outside North America: + 1 586 791 5961 where +represents the exit code for your country,see "

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CI MEMBER | Cryonics Institute

Frequently Asked Questions | Cryonics Institute

Good news: you heard wrong! With CI, the minimum fee for cryopreservation at CI (which includes vitrification perfusion and long term storage) is $28,000 a one-time fee, due at time of death. And though the fee can be paid in cash, usually a member has a life insurance policy made that pays the amount to CI upon death. A term life insurance policy in the amount of the minimum fee often costs around $30 per month for a person starting their policy in good health at middle age. Funding at a higher level can be used to defray additional costs, including transportation (which is not included in CIs base fee) or even a cryonics standby team to perform rapid cooling and cardiopulmonary support upon pronouncement of death.

Advice from an insurance professional is recommended before selecting a policy.

A person who wishes to become a Lifetime CI Member can make a single membership payment of $1,250 with no further payment required. If a new member would rather pay a smaller amount up front, in exchange for funding a slightly higher cryopreservation fee later on ($35,000), he or she can join with a $75 initiation fee, and pay annual dues of only $120, which are also payable in quarterly installments of $35. (And such a dues-paying member can upgrade to Lifetime Membership at any time, saving $7,000 and future any dues.) Members at a distance may have to pay local funeral director fees and transportation costs to Michigan to be cryopreserved. These payments are not made to CI, and are not included in the figures outlined above.

Take a look at our Membership FAQ and the membership application forms to find out more. And if you've got any questions, or want to talk about making special arrangements? Give us a call at (586) 791-5961 or drop us an email at We're more than happy to help.

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Frequently Asked Questions | Cryonics Institute

Cryonics: does it offer humanity a chance to return from the …

The decision of a teenage girl to have her body cryogenically frozen in the hope of being reanimated by medical advances in the future is one with which many could sympathise. But does current evidence suggest the gamble will pay off, or does cryonics simply give desperate people false hope dressed up in the language of science?

There are two advances that make cryonics a little less far-fetched that it once was. The first is vitrification. As Arctic explorers and mountaineers have learned, humans are not designed to be frozen and defrosted. When our cells freeze, they fill with ice crystals, which break down cell walls as they expand, reducing our body to mush once it is warmed up again.

Vitrification prevents this by replacing the blood with a mixture of antifreeze-like chemicals and an organ preservation solution. When cooled to below -90C, the fluid becomes a glass-like solid.

The technique has substantially improved the reliability of freezing and thawing embryos, and particularly eggs, in fertility treatment and it works for small pieces of tissue and blood vessels. Earlier this year, scientists managed to cryogenically freeze the brain of a rabbit and recover it in an excellent state although it is not clear if the brains functions would have been preserved as well as its superficial appearance. However, even vitrifying larger structures, such as human kidneys for transplantation, has never been done clinically and remains some way off.

Barry Fuller, a professor in surgical science and low temperature medicine, at University College London, said: There is ongoing research into these scientific challenges, and a potential future demonstration of the ability to cryopreserve human organs for transplantation would be a major first step into proving the concept, but at the moment we cannot achieve that.

This is the growing appreciation that our personality, skills and memories are to some extent defined by the connections between neurons. This has led some to speculate that rather than bringing the actual body back to life, the brains contents could be downloaded on to a computer, allowing the person to live as a robot in the future.

This might have the whiff of nonsense, but Nick Bostrom, a professor of philosophy at the University of Oxfords Future of Humanity Institute, and his colleague, Anders Sandberg, are both banking on this possibility. As a head, my life would be limited, but by then we will be able to make real connections to computers, Anders said in a 2013 interview. So my hope is that, once revived, my memories and personality could be downloaded into a computer.

However, many neuroscientists have pointed out that even if you could code the astronomical number of connections between the brains 100bn neurons, even this would not capture the full complexity of the human mind.

From a purely scientific perspective, your money is probably better spent while you are still alive.

Cryonics: does it offer humanity a chance to return from the ...

About CI | Cryonics Institute

Stability, Safety, And Security

We have a proven track record of financial security and stability, as well as price stability. CI is the only cryonics organization with no debt, no stockholders, and no landlords. We own our patient care facilities outright, and all of our member officers and directors donate their services voluntarily. We're one of the oldest cryonics organizations in existence -- and the only such organization that has never raised its prices, even in high-inflation times like the late 70s and early 80s. Adjusting for inflation, our prices have actually steadily declined, and we hope to continue that trend.

As members, each and every one of us has a vested interest in the long-term viability of our organization - our facilities, cryostats and finances are built to last into the future we're striving toward.

We have a flexible and rapid system of emergency patient care based on widely available networks of mortuary assistance. This means that in the critical early stages, we can bring qualified professionals to you throughout most of the world. In particular, London-based F.A. Albin & Sons funeral directors are trained, practiced, equipped, and prepared to fly a team anywhere in Europe on short notice to help European CI members, tourists or business travellers.

Our prices are lower than any other organization in fact, the most affordable prices anywhere in the world. This is in keeping with our membership philosophy to provide ourselves reliable cryonic services at a reasonable and affordable cost. If we were to raise prices, we'd only be charging ourselves more.

Our minimum whole-body suspension fee is $28,000. (For members at a distance, transportation costs and local help will be additional.) Our $28,000 fee is a one-time only payment, with no subsequent charges. It's easily funded by insurance or other means. (For last-minute cases, where the patient was not signed up beforehand, we ordinarily charge $35,000 rather than $28,000, if arrangements can be worked out at all.)

Does that lower fee mean lower quality patient care or services? Absolutely not. We believe that our non-profit status allows us to more successfully control costs. We believe that specific methods and research offered by alternative cryonics organizations differ only slightly from ours and that our procedures and policies give an equal or better chance for patient survival than competing organizations.

See for yourself. Read our FAQ and review "The CI Advantage." Remember, many CI members could afford the higher prices of other organizations for themselves and their families, but we've chosen CI because we know it's our best bet. And yours.

CI Membership

Details on joining the Cryonics Institute. We offer Annual (yearly) or Lifetime Membership options. Please note, ONLY members are eligible for the cryonics services provided by CI.

CI Membership Worldwide

The Cryonics Institute (CI) welcomes those living outside the United States to join us as as Members. We offer human cryopreservation, pet cryopreservation and tissue/DNA cryopreservation to CI Members around the world.

Membership Statistics

Details on CI's worldwide membership, including a breakdown by Country.

Cryopreservation Patient Details

A complete listing of patients curently in cryopreservation at CI's Michigan facility.

Human Cryostatis

CI's premier service is human cryopreservation, using state-of-the-art techniques and equipment to ensure optimal suspensions. CI only performs full-body suspensions, and at a fraction of the cost of other companies' "Neuro" (head only) suspensions.

DNA/Tissue Freezing

CI also offers DNA Preservation as a simpler and more economical cryopreservation option for members.

Pet Cryopreservation

Life-extension possibilities for beloved pets.

Memorabilia Storage

Secure perpetual storage for essential personal documents and keepsakes.

Optional Standby Service through Suspended Animation, Inc.

Third-Party Standby, Stabilization and Transport services are available to CI Members through an arrangement with SA inc.

Emergency Jewelry and Wallet Cards

Cryonics emergency necklaces and/or bracelets are available for Cryonics Institute (CI) Members who have made all the necessary arrangements to be cryopreserved by CI. These items include important information to help expedite local help in a cryonics emergency.

CI's state-of-the-art equipment ensures optimal cryonic suspensions.

Please see our extensive Resources Library for a deeper look into Cryonics and the Cryonics Institute. The library includes sample forms, internet links, equipment and procedure details and much more.

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About CI | Cryonics Institute

Osiris Cryonics

Cryonics is an effort to save lives by using temperatures so cold that a person beyond help by today's medicine might be preserved for decades or centuries until a future medical technology can restore that person to full health. Cryonics is a second chance at life. It is the reasoned belief in the advancement of future medicinal technologies being able to cure things we cant today.

Many biological specimens, including whole insects, many types of human tissue including brain tissue, and human embryos have been cryogenically preserved, stored at liquid nitrogen temperature where all decay ceases, and revived. This leads scientists to believe that the same can be done with whole human bodies, and that any minimal harm can be reversed with future advancements in medicine.

Neurosurgeons often cool patients bodies so they can operate on aneurysms without damaging or rupturing the nearby blood vessels. Human embryos that are frozen in fertility clinics, defrosted, and implanted in a mothers uterus grow into perfectly normal human beings. This method isnt new or groundbreaking- successful cryopreservation of human embryos was first reported in 1983 by Trounson and Mohr with multicellular embryos that had been slow-cooled using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO).

And just in Feb. of 2016, there was a cryonics breakthrough when for the first time, scientists vitrified a rabbits brain and, after warming it back up, showed that it was in near perfect condition. This was the first time a cryopreservation was provably able to protect everything associated with learning and memory.

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Osiris Cryonics

Cryopreservation – Wikipedia

Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures[1] (typically 80C using solid carbon dioxide or 196C using liquid nitrogen). At low enough temperatures, any enzymatic or chemical activity which might cause damage to the biological material in question is effectively stopped. Cryopreservation methods seek to reach low temperatures without causing additional damage caused by the formation of ice crystals during freezing. Traditional cryopreservation has relied on coating the material to be frozen with a class of molecules termed cryoprotectants. New methods are constantly being investigated due to the inherent toxicity of many cryoprotectants.[2] By default it should be considered that cryopreservation alters or compromises the structure and function of cells unless it is proven otherwise for a particular cell population. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is the process in which animal genetic material is collected and stored with the intention of conservation of the breed.

Water-bears (Tardigrada), microscopic multicellular organisms, can survive freezing by replacing most of their internal water with the sugar trehalose, preventing it from crystallization that otherwise damages cell membranes. Mixtures of solutes can achieve similar effects. Some solutes, including salts, have the disadvantage that they may be toxic at intense concentrations. In addition to the water-bear, wood frogs can tolerate the freezing of their blood and other tissues. Urea is accumulated in tissues in preparation for overwintering, and liver glycogen is converted in large quantities to glucose in response to internal ice formation. Both urea and glucose act as "cryoprotectants" to limit the amount of ice that forms and to reduce osmotic shrinkage of cells. Frogs can survive many freeze/thaw events during winter if no more than about 65% of the total body water freezes. Research exploring the phenomenon of "freezing frogs" has been performed primarily by the Canadian researcher, Dr. Kenneth B. Storey.[citation needed]

Freeze tolerance, in which organisms survive the winter by freezing solid and ceasing life functions, is known in a few vertebrates: five species of frogs (Rana sylvatica, Pseudacris triseriata, Hyla crucifer, Hyla versicolor, Hyla chrysoscelis), one of salamanders (Hynobius keyserlingi), one of snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) and three of turtles (Chrysemys picta, Terrapene carolina, Terrapene ornata).[3] Snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina and wall lizards Podarcis muralis also survive nominal freezing but it has not been established to be adaptive for overwintering. In the case of Rana sylvatica one cryopreservant is ordinary glucose, which increases in concentration by approximately 19mmol/l when the frogs are cooled slowly.[3]

One of the most important early theoreticians of cryopreservation was James Lovelock. He suggested that damage to red blood cells during freezing was due to osmotic stress. During the early 1950s, Lovelock had also suggested that increasing salt concentrations in a cell as it dehydrates to lose water to the external ice might cause damage to the cell.[4] In the mid-1950s, he experimented with the cryopreservation of rodents, determining that hamsters could be frozen with 60% of the water in the brain crystallized into ice with no adverse effects. Other organs were shown to be susceptible to damage.[5]

Cryopreservation was applied to humans beginning in 1954 with three pregnancies resulting from the insemination of previously frozen sperm.[6] Fowl sperm was cryopreserved in 1957 by a team of scientists in the UK directed by Christopher Polge.[7] However, the rapid immersion of the samples in liquid nitrogen did not, for certain samples such as some types of embryos, bone marrow and stem cells produce the necessary viability to make them usable after thawing. Increased understanding of the mechanism of freezing injury to cells emphasised the importance of controlled or slow cooling to obtain maximum survival on thawing of the living cells. A controlled-rate cooling process, allowing biological samples to equilibrate to optimal physical parameters osmotically in a cryoprotectant (a form of anti-freeze) before cooling in a predetermined, controlled way proved necessary. The ability of cryoprotectants, in the early cases glycerol, to protect cells from freezing injury was discovered accidentally. Freezing injury has two aspects: direct damage from the ice crystals and secondary damage caused by the increase in concentration of solutes as progressively more ice is formed. During 1963, Peter Mazur, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the U.S., demonstrated that lethal intracellular freezing could be avoided if cooling was slow enough to permit sufficient water to leave the cell during progressive freezing of the extracellular fluid. That rate differs between cells of differing size and water permeability: a typical cooling rate around 1C/minute is appropriate for many mammalian cells after treatment with cryoprotectants such as glycerol or dimethyl sulphoxide, but the rate is not a universal optimum.[8]

Storage at very low temperatures is presumed to provide an indefinite longevity to cells, although the actual effective life is rather difficult to prove. Researchers experimenting with dried seeds found that there was noticeable variability of deterioration when samples were kept at different temperatures even ultra-cold temperatures. Temperatures less than the glass transition point (Tg) of polyol's water solutions, around 136C (137K; 213F), seem to be accepted as the range where biological activity very substantially slows, and 196C (77K; 321F), the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, is the preferred temperature for storing important specimens. While refrigerators, freezers and extra-cold freezers are used for many items, generally the ultra-cold of liquid nitrogen is required for successful preservation of the more complex biological structures to virtually stop all biological activity.

Phenomena which can cause damage to cells during cryopreservation mainly occur during the freezing stage, and include: solution effects, extracellular ice formation, dehydration and intracellular ice formation. Many of these effects can be reduced by cryoprotectants.Once the preserved material has become frozen, it is relatively safe from further damage. However, estimates based on the accumulation of radiation-induced DNA damage during cryonic storage have suggested a maximum storage period of 1000 years.[9]

The main techniques to prevent cryopreservation damages are a well established combination of controlled rate and slow freezing and a newer flash-freezing process known as vitrification.

Controlled-rate and slow freezing, also known as slow programmable freezing (SPF),[10] is a set of well established techniques developed during the early 1970s which enabled the first human embryo frozen birth Zoe Leyland during 1984. Since then, machines that freeze biological samples using programmable sequences, or controlled rates, have been used all over the world for human, animal and cell biology "freezing down" a sample to better preserve it for eventual thawing, before it is frozen, or cryopreserved, in liquid nitrogen. Such machines are used for freezing oocytes, skin, blood products, embryo, sperm, stem cells and general tissue preservation in hospitals, veterinary practices and research laboratories around the world. As an example, the number of live births from frozen embryos 'slow frozen' is estimated at some 300,000 to 400,000 or 20% of the estimated 3 million in vitro fertilisation (IVF) births.[11]

Lethal intracellular freezing can be avoided if cooling is slow enough to permit sufficient water to leave the cell during progressive freezing of the extracellular fluid. To minimize the growth of extracellular ice crystal growth and recrystallization,[12] biomaterials such as alginates, polyvinyl alcohol or chitosan can be used to impede ice crystal growth along with traditional small molecule cryoprotectants.[13] That rate differs between cells of differing size and water permeability: a typical cooling rate of about 1C/minute is appropriate for many mammalian cells after treatment with cryoprotectants such as glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide, but the rate is not a universal optimum. The 1C / minute rate can be achieved by using devices such as a rate-controlled freezer or a benchtop portable freezing container.[14]

Several independent studies have provided evidence that frozen embryos stored using slow-freezing techniques may in some ways be 'better' than fresh in IVF. The studies indicate that using frozen embryos and eggs rather than fresh embryos and eggs reduced the risk of stillbirth and premature delivery though the exact reasons are still being explored.

Researchers Greg Fahy and William F. Rall helped to introduce vitrification to reproductive cryopreservation in the mid-1980s.[15] As of 2000, researchers claim vitrification provides the benefits of cryopreservation without damage due to ice crystal formation.[16] The situation became more complex with the development of tissue engineering as both cells and biomaterials need to remain ice-free to preserve high cell viability and functions, integrity of constructs and structure of biomaterials. Vitrification of tissue engineered constructs was first reported by Lilia Kuleshova,[17] who also was the first scientist to achieve vitrification of womans eggs (oocytes), which resulted in live birth in 1999.[18] For clinical cryopreservation, vitrification usually requires the addition of cryoprotectants prior to cooling. The cryoprotectants act like antifreeze: they decrease the freezing temperature. They also increase the viscosity. Instead of crystallizing, the syrupy solution becomes an amorphous iceit vitrifies. Rather than a phase change from liquid to solid by crystallization, the amorphous state is like a "solid liquid", and the transformation is over a small temperature range described as the "glass transition" temperature.

Vitrification of water is promoted by rapid cooling, and can be achieved without cryoprotectants by an extremely rapid decrease of temperature (megakelvins per second). The rate that is required to attain glassy state in pure water was considered to be impossible until 2005.[19]

Two conditions usually required to allow vitrification are an increase of the viscosity and a decrease of the freezing temperature. Many solutes do both, but larger molecules generally have a larger effect, particularly on viscosity. Rapid cooling also promotes vitrification.

For established methods of cryopreservation, the solute must penetrate the cell membrane in order to achieve increased viscosity and decrease freezing temperature inside the cell. Sugars do not readily permeate through the membrane. Those solutes that do, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, a common cryoprotectant, are often toxic in intense concentration. One of the difficult compromises of vitrifying cryopreservation concerns limiting the damage produced by the cryoprotectant itself due to cryoprotectant toxicity. Mixtures of cryoprotectants and the use of ice blockers have enabled the Twenty-First Century Medicine company to vitrify a rabbit kidney to 135C with their proprietary vitrification mixture. Upon rewarming, the kidney was transplanted successfully into a rabbit, with complete functionality and viability, able to sustain the rabbit indefinitely as the sole functioning kidney.[20]

Generally, cryopreservation is easier for thin samples and small clumps of individual cells, because these can be cooled more quickly and so require lesser doses of toxic cryoprotectants. Therefore, cryopreservation of human livers and hearts for storage and transplant is still impractical.

Nevertheless, suitable combinations of cryoprotectants and regimes of cooling and rinsing during warming often allow the successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include:

Additionally, efforts are underway to preserve humans cryogenically, known as cryonics. For such efforts either the brain within the head or the entire body may experience the above process. Cryonics is in a different category from the aforementioned examples, however: while countless cryopreserved cells, vaccines, tissue and other biologial samples have been thawed and used successfully, this has not yet been the case at all for cryopreserved brains or bodies. At issue are the criteria for defining "success". Proponents of cryonics claim that cryopreservation using present technology, particularly vitrification of the brain, may be sufficient to preserve people in an "information theoretic" sense so that they could be revived and made whole by hypothetical vastly advanced future technology. Not only is there no guarantee of its success, many people argue that human cryopreservation is unethical. According to certain views of the mind body problem, some philosophers believe that the mind, which contains thoughts, memories, and personality, is separate from the brain. When someone dies, their mind leaves the body. If a cryopreserved patient gets successfully resuscitated, no one knows if they would be the same person that they once were or if they would be an empty shell of the memory of who they once were. Right now scientists are trying to see if transplanting cryopreserved human organs for transplantation is viable, if so this would be a major step forward for the possibility of reviving a cryopreserved human.[22]

Cryopreservation for embryos is used for embryo storage, e.g., when in vitro fertilization (IVF) has resulted in more embryos than is currently needed.

Pregnancies have been reported from embryos stored for 16 years.[23] Many studies have evaluated the children born from frozen embryos, or frosties. The result has been uniformly positive with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities.[24] A study of more than 11,000 cryopreserved human embryos showed no significant effect of storage time on post-thaw survival for IVF or oocyte donation cycles, or for embryos frozen at the pronuclear or cleavage stages.[25] Additionally, the duration of storage did not have any significant effect on clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, implantation, or live birth rate, whether from IVF or oocyte donation cycles.[25] Rather, oocyte age, survival proportion, and number of transferred embryos are predictors of pregnancy outcome.[25]

Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is of interest to women who want to preserve their reproductive function beyond the natural limit, or whose reproductive potential is threatened by cancer therapy,[26] for example in hematologic malignancies or breast cancer.[27] The procedure is to take a part of the ovary and perform slow freezing before storing it in liquid nitrogen whilst therapy is undertaken. Tissue can then be thawed and implanted near the fallopian, either orthotopic (on the natural location) or heterotopic (on the abdominal wall),[27] where it starts to produce new eggs, allowing normal conception to occur.[28] The ovarian tissue may also be transplanted into mice that are immunocompromised (SCID mice) to avoid graft rejection, and tissue can be harvested later when mature follicles have developed.[29]

Human oocyte cryopreservation is a new technology in which a womans eggs (oocytes) are extracted, frozen and stored. Later, when she is ready to become pregnant, the eggs can be thawed, fertilized, and transferred to the uterus as embryos.Since 1999, when the birth of the first baby from an embryo derived from vitrified-warmed womans eggs was reported by Kuleshova and co-workers in the journal of Human Reproduction,[17] this concept has been recognized and widespread. This break-through in achieving vitrification of womans oocytes made an important advance in our knowledge and practice of the IVF process, as clinical pregnancy rate is four times higher after oocyte vitrification than after slow freezing.[30] Oocyte vitrification is vital for preservation fertility in young oncology patients and for individuals undergoing IVF who object, either for religious or ethical reasons, to the practice of freezing embryos.

Semen can be used successfully almost indefinitely after cryopreservation. The longest reported successful storage is 22 years.[31] It can be used for sperm donation where the recipient wants the treatment in a different time or place, or as a means of preserving fertility for men undergoing vasectomy or treatments that may compromise their fertility, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery.

Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue is a developing method to avail reproduction to young boys who need to have gonadotoxic therapy. Animal data are promising, since healthy offsprings have been obtained after transplantation of frozen testicular cell suspensions or tissue pieces. However, none of the fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation (IVM) has proved efficient and safe in humans as yet.[32]

Cryopreservation of whole moss plants, especially Physcomitrella patens, has been developed by Ralf Reski and coworkers[33] and is performed at the International Moss Stock Center. This biobank collects, preserves, and distributes moss mutants and moss ecotypes.[34]

MSCs, when transfused immediately within a few hours post-thawing, may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth (fresh). As a result, cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in in vitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies. Re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved products immediately post-thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[35]

Bacteria and fungi can be kept short-term (months to about a year, depending) refrigerated, however, cell division and metabolism is not completely arrested and thus is not an optimal option for long-term storage (years) or to preserve cultures genetically or phenotypically, as cell divisions can lead to mutations or sub-culturing can cause phenotypic changes. A preferred option, species-dependent, is cryopreservation. Nematode worms are the only multicellular eukaryotes that have been shown to survive cryopreservation. [36][37]

Fungi, notably zygomycetes, ascomycetes and higher basidiomycetes, regardless of sporulation, are able to be stored in liquid nitrogen or deep-frozen. Crypreservation is a hallmark method for fungi that do not sporulate (otherwise other preservation methods for spores can be used at lower costs and ease), sporulate but have delicate spores (large or freeze-dry sensitive), are pathogenic (dangerous to keep metabolically active fungus) or are to be used for genetic stocks (ideally to have identical composition as the original deposit). As with many other organisms, cryoprotectants like DMSO or glycerol (e.g. filamentous fungi 10% glycerol or yeast 20% glycerol) are used. Differences between choosing cryoprotectants are species (or class) dependent, but generally for fungi penetrating cryoprotectants like DMSO, glycerol or polyethylene glycol are most effective (other non-penetrating ones include sugars mannitol, sorbitol, dextran, etc.). Freeze-thaw repetition is not recommended as it can decrease viability. Back-up deep-freezers or liquid nitrogen storage sites are recommended. Multiple protocols for freezing are summarized below (each uses screw-cap polypropylene cryotubes):[38]

Many common culturable laboratory strains are deep-frozen to preserve genetically and phenotypically stable, long-term stocks. Sub-culturing and prolonged refrigerated samples may lead to loss of plasmid(s) or mutations. Common final glycerol percentages are 15, 20 and 25. From a fresh culture plate, one single colony of interest is chosen and liquid culture is made. From the liquid culture, the medium is directly mixed with equal amount of glycerol; the colony should be checked for any defects like mutations. All antibiotics should be washed from the culture before long-term storage. Methods vary, but mixing can be done gently by inversion or rapidly by vortex and cooling can vary by either placing the cryotube directly at 50 to 95C, shock-freezing in liquid nitrogen or gradually cooling and then storing at 80C or cooler (liquid nitrogen or liquid nitrogen vapor). Recovery of bacteria can also vary, namely if beads are stored within the tube then the few beads can be used to plate or the frozen stock can be scraped with a loop and then plated, however, since only little stock is needed the entire tube should never be completely thawed and repeated freeze-thaw should be avoided. 100% recovery is not feasible regardless of methodology.[39][40][41]

The microscopic soil-dwelling nematode roundworms Panagrolaimus detritophagus and Plectus parvus are the only eukaryotic organisms that have been proven to be viable after long-term cryopreservation to date. In this case, the preservation was natural rather than artificial, due to permafrost.

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Cryopreservation - Wikipedia

NOVA – Official Website | Cryonics

Major funding for "Making Stuff" is provided by the National Science Foundation.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DRL-1222986. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Additional funding is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number(s) DE-SC0008715. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

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NOVA - Official Website | Cryonics

Cryonics | Fallout Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Cryonics is the low-level temperature preservation of humans and animals in a suspended animation by slowing their vital functions, for the purposes of preserving them and keeping them alive for periods of time ranging from decades or even centuries until they are needed. Other purposes include safekeeping, or for keeping them alive for as long as possible while their brains are connected to an external expression device.

Before the Great War, Robert House and his company, as well as the Big Mountain Research Facility, are known to have produced technology within the cryogenic and cryonic field. Robert House extensively researched extending the human life, and created his own cryonic chamber that allowed the user to connect their brain pattern and consciousness to an external interface. Big Mountain produced hibernation chambers with similar purposes, however, the nature of their research into the field is unknown.[1] The United States Armed Forces experimented with cryonic technology as well, making the systems at the Raven Rock facility, and using cryonic chambers in the Sierra Army Depot.

The Sierra Army Depot dealt in the field of cryonics, with one example being their cryonic submergence of Dobbs in bio med gel.

The Environmental Protection Agency made use of hibernation chambers, holding three subjects within each. These editions were large transparent tanks filled with ice cold water, that is filled and drained through a long serpentine pipe system.

The Enclave's scientific personnel at the Raven Rock base in the Capital Wasteland have several rooms dedicated to stasis, and their prisoner restraints use the same systems. There are two different versions of the Raven Rock stasis chambers: a green chamber holding the subject in the center, and a transparent blue holographic/light-based/photonic resonance chamber. The systems in Raven Rock appear to be the most advanced systems of their kind currently known on Earth. These chambers have been used to preserve yao guai, deathclaws, super mutants, feral ghouls, and human prisoners. Whether these stasis chambers are built for long-term preservation on the scale of years is unknown. The same blue-light stasis technology is used in Fort Constantine's T-51b power armor storage room. Although unseen in-game, Vault 87 was meant to have been equipped with four stasis-chambers.[2]

Its history unknown, a liquid nitrogen-based weapon commonly known as a Cryolator could be easily constructed.

The alien civilization aboard Mothership Zeta made cryonics a core aspect of their invasion and their research. The longest known preservation of a subject aboard the ship was over 600 years. They worked by entirely sealing the subject and the chamber from the outside, and used freezing cold air to suspend the subject. When opening, the chamber would decompress and stabilize with outside air, and force the subject to drop to the floor. Furthermore, there was a second method of cryonics used by the aliens. In their dedicated cryo lab, during the Zeta Uprising, the Lone Wanderer could have frozen alien soldiers with the loose systems, thawing them into an ice block for a mere few seconds. Elliott Tercorien could have harnessed the energy to create cryo grenades and cryo mines, which exact the same effect on targets within the blast radius.

The only instance of cryonic technology in the Mojave Wasteland is Robert House's cryonic preservation chamber in the Lucky 38. This is one of the only known instances of a cryonic chamber that links the subject's brain and consciousness with an external interface. It is an advanced piece of technology, linking Robert House to an external interface, from which he has access to large amounts of data from the Lucky 38's mainframe, as well as the ability to control his Securitrons. Opening the chamber, even for a second, will doom the subject to having only little more than a year left at life due to exposure to outside contaminants. House hopes that with the Courier's help, he will be able to make the same cryonic technology he uses available to other high-value individuals in the future. The only other instance of cryonic technology is at the hazmat testing ground in the Big Empty, for storing the hazmat suit

Vault 111, located in Boston, was built to observe the effects of suspended animation on unsuspecting test subjects for 180 days, and holds multiple cryosleep pods. They are first shown to the Sole Survivor pre-War, disguised as "decontamination" pods. The Sole Survivor was preserved for exactly 210 years, with their spouse and son being taken in the year 2227, 150 years in. All the other residents of the Vault perished by 2227, due to Conrad Kellogg not reactivating their life support, with Shaun being abducted as an infant by him for the Institute.

Green stasis tanks are also seen holding super mutants in the FEV Lab in the Institute's Bioscience sector.

Vault 0 kept pre-War geniuses in cryogenic stasis, by extracting their brains from their body and freezing them. They were then hooked up to the Calculator supercomputer, melding all of the identities of each connected brain into one.

The Boulder Dome in Denver was equipped with prototype military medical cryo tanks that had a very high malfunction rate, and before the Great War, scientists were frozen in sleeper tanks. Victor Presper continued to use the equipment during his time spent there.

Cryonic technology appears in Fallout 2, Fallout 3, its add-on Mothership Zeta, Fallout: New Vegas and its add-on Old World Blues, Fallout 4, and Fallout Tactics. It is also mentioned in the Fallout: New Vegas add-on Dead Money. Cryonic technology was also meant to appear in the canceled Van Buren.

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Membership | Cryonics Institute

Cryonics is a fascinating concept that has inspired the imagination and dreams of thousands of people worldwide. If you're someone interested in the theory, remarkable potential and practical applications of cryonics, joining CI is a great way to learn more and get involved in the cryonics movement. Our members come from all walks of life and from all around the world, united by our interest in cryonics and the potential benefits it holds for ourselves and for all mankind.

As a member, you will be one of the owners and operators of the Cryonics Institute, as we are wholly owned and operated by our membership. CI is run by a Board of Directors elected exclusively from our members, by our members - so we have no outside investors, managers or other parties dictating our operations. Our responsibilities are to our patients, our membership, and to advancing our founder Robert Ettinger's vision. CI membership is an excellent starting point for anyone interested in cryonics to learn more and be part of an exciting, potentially world-changing community of forward-thinking people. There are no specific duties or formal responsibilities required for membership, apart from applying and paying the membership fees. However a large number of our members take a more active role in the organization either as officially elected Officers or as volunteers. How active you choose to be is completely up to your own discretion.

Please note, Cryonics Institute Membership is required if you are actively planning cryonic suspension services for yourself or a loved one through CI. Our "Members-Only" policy for cryonic services helps ensure the quality of our suspensions, and maintains the integrity of our organization and operations. CI is our organization and as member-owners it's clearly in our own best interests to manage it efficiently and especially to insure the highest standards for our suspension arrangements.

There are two classes of CI Membership. A Lifetime Member pays a one-time fee of $1,250 and can arrange for cryopreservation at CI for $28,000, usually by making CI the beneficiary of a life insurance policy. Other close family members can join for an additional $625 (there is no charge for minor children). An Annual (or Yearly) Member pays a $75 initiation fee plus $120 yearly (or $35 quarterly) and can arrange for cryopreservation at CI for $35,000. Every Yearly Membership family member must pay the same price. Neither of these fees include the cost of preparation or shipment by a local funeral director, which must be arranged separately (often with a Local Help Rider). To join, simply fill out a membership form for the type of membership you desire, Annual ($120/year recurring) or Lifetime ($1,250 one time.) The forms are available below or can be mailed on request.

To learn more about membership options and details, please see our Frequently Asked Questions. We also provide a special Membership Outreach program that gives you the opportunity to speak one-on-one with a current CI member who will help answer your questions via phone or email.

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Membership | Cryonics Institute

Cryonics :: essays research papers


If youve ever seen the Austin Powers movie Im sure you remember the part where they cryogenically freeze Austin and then thirty years later thaw him out to save the world. While we all know Austin Powers isnt real, Im sure you wondered if this freezing could be done in real life. Today we will look at what exactly cryonics is, what businesses claim to provide it, the procedure and its risks.Cryonics is the freezing of humans to preserve them for a later time. Yes, it is a possibility. In fact there are several businesses that offer these services. Two of these businesses are The Cryonics Institute and The Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Alcor Life Extension Foundation calls this process Cryotransport. The cryotransport process begins, according to their website, as soon as possible after legal death. The patient is prepared and cooled to a temperature where decay stops, and is then kept in this cooled state called cryostasis until medical science has advanced enough to bring the person back to life when life extension and anti-aging have become a reality. However, there is a lot of damage done to the body during this freezing, says Dr. Ralph Merkle, a professional in the field of cryonics. First there are fractures that form in the frozen tissues caused by thermal strain, if you were warmed up youd fall into pieces as if cut by thousands of sharp knives. And Second, the Cryotransport is used as a last resort because legally the Cryotransport cant even begin until the patient is legally dead. So when the patient comes out he is already sick and may have a hard time coming back from the injuries of being frozen. Even after knowing all this Dr. Merkle says Cryotransport will almost surely work. Why? He says because basically people are made up of molecules and if they are arranged right then the person is healthy, if not the person is either sick or dead. With technological advances he thinks we will be able to make and rearrange the molecular structure of the frozen tissue. In the future, we will be able to stack and unstack these molecules like Lego blocks. Once the molecules are arranged correctly the person is healthy. Death, once we have this technology, really wont be the same. You couldnt be truly dead unless cremated; torn apart or destroyed in some other way that there would be no way to tell where these molecules are supposed to go.

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Cryonics :: essays research papers

cryonics Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

They say current cryonics procedures can preserve the anatomical basis of mind, and that this should be sufficient to prevent information-theoretic death until future repairs might be possible.

The advantages and disadvantages of neuropreservation are often debated among cryonics advocates.

Resuscitation of a postembryonic human from cryonics is not possible with current science.

Cryonics is another method of life preservation but it cryopreserves organisms using liquid nitrogen that will preserve the organism until reanimation.

A moral premise of cryonics is that all terminally ill patients should have the right, if they so choose, to be cryopreserved.

Cryonics patients need a professional response team to stand ready for suspended animation, when the patients are legally declared as dead.

The term is used in cryonics.

Some scientific literature supports the feasibility of cryonics.

The word is also used as a synonym for cryostasis or cryonics.

Rather, it is an examination of different philosophies and perspectives on life, offering viewers a glimpse into the science and commercialism in fields like funeral planning, cryonics, and anti-aging practices.

While cryonics is sometimes suspected of being greatly profitable, the high expenses of doing cryonics are well documented.

Cryonics procedures ideally begin within minutes of cardiac arrest, and use cryoprotectants to prevent ice formation during cryopreservation.

Unlike cryopreservation or cryonics, chemical techniques do not require freezing and storage at extremely low temperatures.

Cryonics organizations use cryoprotectants to reduce this damage.

Cryonics is the preservation through cold storage, usually with liquid nitrogen, of humans (and sometimes non-human animals) after legal death.

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cryonics Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

Cryonics – Transhumanism

what is cryonic suspension?

Cryonic suspension is a scientific approach at extending the life of humans, essentially leading them to immortality. Cryonic suspension is a process in which the human body is preserved at very low temperatures with the hope that in the future it will be revived and able to function again. After a person dies, if they wish to be preserved, their body is injected with preserving chemicals. After the body is frozen from these chemicals, it is suspended in liquid nitrogen until it is time for revival. The purpose of cryonics is to preserve a body in the best state possible so that once it is revived in the future it can be treated with advanced medicine and technology. Scientists begin the preserving process as soon as possible, after legal death is declared, in order to prevent any loss of information from the brain.

In order for a person to be suspended, they must be declared legally dead and the procedure must be legally documented in a will. This is necessary to ensure cryonics is desired and approved by the patient. The small time frame for a person to get to a cryonics lab is necessary to ensure that the brain will remain fully functional when the person is injected. If too much time passes, the brain will start to diminish and if the person is revived, their brain may not function correctly, making the revival pointless. Scientists have been working for decades, and continue working today, to preserve these humans in a way that will leave them unharmed by the time a revival process is discovered. The topic of cryonics has become much more serious to scientists and whose who wish to be preserved. People who plan to preserve their bodies try to ensure a comfortable life in the future. It is important to make sure that the person will not have to worry about living in a different time after they are revived. These individuals create a plan for themselves so they will have everything they need once they are revived. They set up financial plans, ensure that their money will be available to them in the future, and some even seek the help of insurance companies to make sure they are covered for the future. There are some insurance companies that will even cover the cost of the cryonic suspension process.

So why choose cryonic suspension?

Cryonics could specifically be beneficial to individuals who are sick with disease or fatal injuries. It is hopeful that cryonics will give these individuals a second chance at life. For those who may have died at a young age, cryonic suspension could allow them to continue living after not having the chance to fully experience life. For others who died from disease or illness, cryonics is fundamentally trying to preserve their bodies until the future can find a cure. Scientists are hopeful that if a person chooses to suspend their bodies because they are sick or diseased, the future will have a means of curing them to rid them of their illness. Many scientists believe that cryonic suspension will be prosperous in the future based on other scientific analyses. More recently, microscope sized computers and cell repair machines have shown that revival is likely to be a success. This nanotechnology circulates the body and looks for problems and ways to prevent or improve them. With the growing help from technology, scientists believe cryonics will prove to be successful in the future.

The picture above displays the processofcryonicsuspension beng performedas atrial runon a dummy for cryonicsworkers topracticethe procedure stepby step. It iscrucialthatcryonics workershave plenty ofexperiencewith the procedure to avoid anymalfunctionsor damgage to the individual.

There are currently thousands of bodies in line for cryonic suspension. Over the next few decades, it is possible that there could potentially be hundreds of thousands of people suspended in liquid nitrogen. In the future, it is highly unlikely that scientists will have the time or effort to unfreeze that many people. Realistically, only the first few people will be interesting to converse with and the rest after that will be repetitive and unexciting. Scientists are worried that this process could also cause potential problems for the futuristic world. If the world is already overpopulated, why would scientists unfreeze a few hundred thousand more? The future is bound to be different from the current world in many ways. Impending problems such as overpopulation, war and scarcity of natural resources, arise when looking toward the future. It may also be hard for the unfrozen individuals to adapt to life in the future. Other scientists are skeptical of the amount of damage that could possibly be done to the frozen bodies since they are frozen at such low temperatures. Cryonics labs freeze bodies initially at negative eighty degrees and later cool them to around negative two hundred degrees. There are no known species that can survive at temperatures that low, which makes cryonics seem senseless. Ken Storey, a professor of biochemistry at Canadas Carleton University, explains that cryonics practitioners freeze bodies so slowly all the cells would be dead from lack of oxygen long before they freeze (Luntz 2009). If cells cannot withstand the temperatures at which they are frozen, then revival will be nearly impossible. If it is possible for scientists to discover a method of preserving the cells without damage, cryonic suspension will not only be feasible but could prove to be one of the greatest scientific breakthroughs of all time.

advancements in brain tissue damage

Before 1992, when going through the process of cryonic suspension, the amount of damage to the brain tissue was very large and uncontrollable. There was little advancement in technology to prevent damage to the tissue, so the formation of ice crystals and freezing damage were simple unavoidable.

Today, the amount of damage done to the braintissue is almost nonexistent when going throughthe process of cryonic suspension. There havebeen many advancements in technology toprevent the formation of icecrystals in thebrain.The cryonic suspensionprocess cannowbe donewith the assurance oflittle to no freezing damageto the brain.

a closer look at cryonic suspension...

There are currently over a hundred bodies in cryonic suspension and there are a few thousand more in line to preserve their bodies at the time of their death. Scientists are working hard and aiming toward advancements in discovering a revival technique to return these preserved individuals to their living state with as minimal damage as possible. Cryonics researchers are hopeful that once a revival process is discovered, the individuals who have been preserved will be cured of their illnesses due to the future advancements in technology and medicine. The revived patients would then be able to begin their new lives and settle themselves in a new, future environment. As the future becomes a reality, cryonics is becoming more pertinent to individuals who are seeking life extension.

For more information on cryonics visit:

University of the Sciences in PhiladelphiaWriting 102 -04Amanda Martillotti

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Cryonics - Transhumanism

Cryonics – H+Pedia –

Cryonics is a controversial life extension technique that aims to preserve neural activity and life typically of a recently deceased person through use of preservation techniques and low temperatures so that resurrection may be possible in the future when technologies have improved.

and with strange aeons even death may die.

Cryonics is the preservation of dead persons at temperatures low enough to practically stop decomposition, with the intent of future revival. While there is experimental evidence attesting to the conservation of vitrified tissue and the possibilities of repair; the decision to undergo cryonic preservation after death is an act of faith, not of science.

The two main ideas behind cryonics are Information-Theoretic Death and the technology vitrification. The first idea is the idea that our criteria for death has changed as our technology and our understanding of biology has changed. In the 1800s, a person who drowned was considered dead. Information-theoretic death is the 'ultimate' death, the one that we know as fact is irreversible, and does not depend upon a changing understanding of nature. Information theoretic death is reached when the body (Especially the brain) has been damaged to the point that it is beyond repair; where repair means having enough structure and contextual information to bring the brain, along with the personality, memories and attitudes that it contains, back to a functioning state. If tissues have been properly preserved, this revival could be accomplished through a variety of ways, but even the best methods leave behind irreparable damage, which means memory loss and personality changes, and other neurological (Motor control) damage. The latter is sufficiently generic to be repaired when that kind of technology arrives, the former is unique to each person and impossible to recover.

The second idea, vitrification, is a process through which tissue is lowered to cryogenic temperatures without freezing or forming ice. The most widely believed myth about cryonics is that when people are frozen, ice inside their cells bursts and destroys tissue irreparably. This is false on two points: Modern cryonics uses cryoprotectants which prevent ice damage by vitrifying instead of freezing, and the water that forms ice is mostly outside the cells. A common argument against cryoprotectants is that they are toxic: While true, this only affects the prospects of suspended animation through vitrification, since cryonics patients would probably be revived through more complicated means than just thawing them and applying CPR once a cure for what killed them is found.

To whom it may concern,

Cryonics is a legitimate science-based endeavor that seeks to preserve human beings, especially the human brain, by the best technology available. Future technologies for resuscitation can be envisioned that involve molecular repair by nanomedicine, highly advanced computation, detailed control of cell growth, and tissue regeneration.

With a view toward these developments, there is a credible possibility that cryonics performed under the best conditions achievable today can preserve sufficient neurological information to permit eventual restoration of a person to full health.

The rights of people who choose cryonics are important, and should be respected.

Most criticism of cryonics arises from fundamental misconceptions (For example, that cryonics involves freezing) and ignorance of current cryopreservation techniques and procedures.

While definitely great progress from most cryonics 'criticism' to date, the paper seems to address the well-known fact that reanimation from cryopreservation is impossible (Or nearly so) due to the toxicity of cryoprotectant solutions. The most discussed methods of revival, Molecular Nanotechnology and Whole Brain Emulation are not discussed.

While it's sad that people focus on philosophical issues instead of the myriad technical and social problems that plague cryonics, along with its attachment to a history of failure and incompetence, philosophical concerns should still be addressed.

By far the biggest philosophical concern people put forward against cryonics is the issue of continuity of consciousness. In these debates, people can easily talk past each other by using different definitions of what constitutes consciousness and how this relates to personal identity. In general, we have two definitions of consciousness:

But what is relevant is not the definition of consciousness, but how this matters to personal identity. Again, here we have two opinions:

Under Definition 1, cryonics patients will be the same person ( brain damage). Under the second definition, when they are repaired, the patients are fundamentally different people who claim to be the same as the original and only shre personality and memories.

The Prospect of Immortality by Robert Ettinger, 1962

The First Immortal: A Novel Of The Future by James L. Halperin, 1998

Man into Superman: The Startling Potential of Human Evolution -- And How To Be Part of It by Robert Ettinger, 1972

Connectome: How the Brain's Wiring Makes Us Who We Are by Sebastian Seung, 2012

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Cryonics | Halo Nation | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Though often mistaken for cryogenics, which is merely the study of cold on materials, Cryonics is the science of cryo-preservation, using a mixture of factors to preserve a Human or other organism in stasis for periods of time.

Essentially, extremely low temperatures are created, preserving the human body almost indefinitely. Preserving the human brain is more problematic, but UNSC technology has apparently overcome the obstacles of neural tissue damage and resuscitation, but with tissue damage still being a problem, causing what is colloquially called "Freezer burn."[1] However as stated in Halo: Contact Harvest, the UNSC seems to use certain types of drugs to prevent "Freezer burn."

The UNSC uses cryonic storage pods in long-range warships, storing personnel for long periods to prevent aging during the journey and to preserve life-vital systems, maintaining only skeleton crews until nearing their target zone.[2] A bronchial surfactant is ingested, intended to replace nutrients lost during the journey, but the process is unpleasant and often induces vomiting.[3]

It is unknown whether the Covenant use a version of this technology. Given the dramatically higher speeds their warships can achieve, though, it is unlikely that it is necessary. The Forerunners used a system similar in practice, but using slipspace to store the personnel within the pod instead of merely freezing them.[4]In some cases UNSC marines can be placed in cryostasis to help ration food and oxygen as they don't need it if they are frozen.

Cytoprethaline, a drug used by the UNSC during cryo-sleep, prevents damage to the occupants cell membranes caused by ice crystal formation.

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Cryonics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cryonics (often mistakenly called "cryogenics") is the practice of cryopreserving humans or animals that can no longer be sustained by contemporary medicine until resuscitation may be possible in the future. The largest current practitioners are two member-owned, non-profit organizations, the Alcor Life Extension Foundation in Scottsdale, Arizona, with 74 frozen patients and the Cryonics Institute in Clinton Township, Michigan with 75.

The process is not currently reversible. Cryonics can only be performed on humans after clinical death, and a legal determination that further medical care is not appropriate (legal death). The rationale for cryonics is that the process may be reversible in the future if performed soon enough, and that cryopreserved people may not really be dead by standards of future medicine (see information theoretic death).

Cryonics is viewed with skepticism by many scientists and doctors today. However, there is a high representation of scientists among cryonics supporters.[1] Scientific support for cryonics is based on projections of future technology, especially molecular nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Some scientists believe that future medicine[2] will enable molecular-level repair and regeneration of damaged tissues and organs decades or centuries in the future. Disease and aging are also assumed to be reversible.

The central premise of cryonics is that memory, personality, and identity are stored in the structure and chemistry of the brain. While this view is widely accepted in medicine, and brain activity is known to stop and later resume under certain conditions, it is not generally accepted that current methods preserve the brain well enough to permit revival in the future. Cryonics advocates point to studies showing that high concentrations of cryoprotectant circulated through the brain before cooling can largely prevent freezing injury, preserving the fine cell structures of the brain in which memory and identity presumably reside.[3]

To its detractors, the justification for the actual practice of cryonics is unclear, given present limitations of preservation technology. Currently cells, tissues, blood vessels, and some small animal organs can be reversibly cryopreserved. Some frogs can survive for a few months in a partially frozen state a few degrees below freezing, but this is not true cryopreservation. Cryonics advocates counter that demonstrably reversible preservation is not necessary to achieve the present-day goal of cryonics, which is preservation of basic brain information that encodes memory and personal identity. Preservation of this information is said to be sufficient to prevent information theoretic death until future repairs might be possible.

Probably the most famous cryopreserved patient is Ted Williams. The popular urban legend that Walt Disney was cryopreserved is false; he was cremated, and interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery. Robert A. Heinlein, who wrote enthusiastically of the concept, was cremated and his ashes distributed over the Pacific Ocean. Timothy Leary was a long-time cryonics advocate, and signed up with a major cryonics provider. He changed his mind, however, shortly before his death, and so was not cryopreserved.

Cryonics has traditionally been dismissed by mainstream cryobiology, of which it is arguably a part. The reason generally given for this dismissal is that the freezing process creates ice crystals, which some scientists have claimed damage cells and cellular structures so as to render any future repair impossible. Cryonicists have long argued, however, that the extent of this damage was greatly exaggerated by the critics, presuming that some reasonable attempt is made to perfuse the body with cryoprotectant chemicals (traditionally glycerol) that inhibit ice crystal formation.

According to cryonicists, the ice crystal damage objection became moot around the turn of the millennium, when cryobiologists Greg Fahy and Brian Wowk, of Twenty-First Century Medicine, developed major improvements in cryopreservation technology, including new cryoprotectants and new cryoprotectant mixtures, greatly improving the feasibility of vitrification, and resulting in the near-elimination of ice crystal formation in the brain. Vitrification preserves tissue in a glassy rather than frozen state. In glass, molecules do not rearrange themselves into grainy crystals as they are cooled, but instead become locked together while still randomly arranged as in a fluid, forming a "solid liquid" as the temperature falls below the glass transition temperature. Alcor Life Extension Foundation has since been researching the use of these cryoprotectants, along with a new, faster cooling method, to vitrify whole human brains (neurovitrification). The Cryonics Institute (CI), uses a vitrification solution developed by its in-house cryobiologist, Dr. Yuri Pichugin. CI has developed computer-controlled cooling boxes to ensure that cooling is rapid above Tg (glass transition temperature, solidification temperature) and slow below Tg (to reduce fracturing due to thermal stress).

Current solutions being used for vitrification are stable enough to avoid crystallization even when a vitrified brain is warmed up. This has recently allowed brains to be vitrified, warmed back up, and examined for ice damage using light and electron microscopy. No ice crystal damage was found.[4][5][6] However, if the complete circulation of the protectant in the brain is compromised, protective chemicals may not be able to reach all parts of the brain, and freezing may occur either during cooling or during rewarming. Cryonicists argue, however, that injury caused during cooling might, in the future, be repairable before the vitrified brain is warmed back up, and that damage during rewarming might be prevented by adding more cryoprotectant in the solid state, or by improving rewarming methods. But even given the best vitrification that current technology allows, rewarming still does not allow revival, even if crystallization is avoided, due to the toxic effects of the cryoprotectants. Again, however, cryonicists counter that future technology might be able to overcome this difficulty, and find a way to combat the toxicity after rewarming. If, for example, the toxicity is due to denatured proteins, those proteins could be repaired or replaced.

Some critics have speculated that because a cryonics patient has been declared legally dead, their organs must be dead, and thus unable to allow cryoprotectants to reach the majority of cells. Cryonicists respond that it has been empirically demonstrated that, so long as the cryopreservation process begins immediately after legal death is declared, the individual organs (and perhaps even the patient as a whole) remain biologically alive, and vitrification (particularly of the brain) is quite feasible. This same principle is what allows organs, such as hearts, to be transplanted, even though they come from dead donors.

Cryonics procedures cannot begin until legal pronouncement of death has occurred, and pronouncement is usually based on cessation of heartbeat (only very rarely on brain activity measurements). When the heart stops beating and blood flow ceases, ischemic damage begins. Deprived of oxygen and nutrient, cells, tissues and organs begin to deteriorate. If the heart is restarted after too many minutes have passed, the reintroduced oxygen can cause even more damage due to oxidative stress, a phenomenon known as reperfusion injury. Cryonicists try to minimize ischemic and reperfusion injury by beginning cardio-pulmonary support (much like CPR) and cooling as soon as possible after pronouncement of death. Anti-clotting agents like heparin and antioxidants may be administered. Suspended Animation, Inc is a Florida company that specializes in research into, and implementation of, optimal procedures for minimizing ischemic injury in cryonics rescue.

It is universally agreed by scientists and cryonics advocates that reversing human cryopreservation is not possible with any near-term technology.[7] Those who believe that revival may someday be possible generally look toward advanced bioengineering, molecular nanotechnology, or nanomedicine as key technologies. Revival requires repairing damage from lack of oxygen, cryoprotectant toxicity, thermal stress (fracturing), and freezing in tissues that do not successfully vitrify. In many cases extensive tissue regeneration will be necessary. Hypothetical revival scenarios generally envision repairs being performed by vast numbers of microscopic organisms or devices.[8][9][10][11] These devices would restore healthy cell structure and chemistry at the molecular level, ideally before warming. More radically, mind transfer has also been suggested as a possible revival approach if and when technology is ever developed to scan the memory contents of a preserved brain.

It has often been written that cryonics revival will be a last-in-first-out (LIFO) process. In this view, preservation methods will get progressively better until eventually they are demonstrably reversible, after which medicine will begin to reach back and revive people cryopreserved by more primitive methods. Revival of people cryopreserved by the current combination of neurovitrification and deep-cooling (technically not "freezing", as cryoprotectant inhibits ice crystallization) may require centuries, if it is possible at all.

It has been claimed that if technologies for general molecular analysis and repair are ever developed, then theoretically any damaged body could be revived. Survival would then depend on whether preserved brain information was sufficient to permit restoration of all or part of the personal identity of the original person, with amnesia being the final dividing line between life and death.

Even if cryonics were scientifically certain to work, there are social obstacles that make success uncertain. The most obvious social obstacle is the prevailing belief that cryonics cannot work, and that cryonics subjects are dead. Although a legal determination of death by contemporary medicine is necessary to implement cryonics, this determination carries with it the implication of futility. By custom and law, dead bodies are objects, not persons with rights or protections. This removal of personhood is a cultural obstacle not faced by living people with even the poorest prognosis. For this reason, cryonics advocates call cryonics subjects patients and argue that morally they shouldnt be considered dead, even though that is their status under present law.

A related question is why future society would want to care for or revive dead people. Cryonicists note that a subset of society already cares for cryonics patients, and has done so for decades. It is assumed that should revival ever become possible, that same subset of society (the advocates who maintained patients long enough for revival to become possible) would pursue revival. They also believe that a future society with technology advanced enough to reverse cryopreservation would necessarily have views of life and death different from society today. They generally reject the idea that they are trying to "raise the dead", viewing cryonics instead as a highly experimental medical procedure. It has also been suggested that future society may have an interest in revival of cryonics patients for intellectual or historical value, although cryonicists tend to argue that healing and recovering sick people is an ethical imperative regardless of value to society at large.

Neuropreservation is cryopreservation of the brain, usually within the head, with surgical removal and disposal of the rest of the body. Neuropreservation, sometimes called neuro, is one of two distinct preservation options in cryonics, the other being "whole body" preservation.

Neuropreservation is motivated by the fact that the brain is the primary repository of memory and personal identity. (For instance, spinal cord injury victims, organ transplant patients, and amputees appear to retain their personal identity.) It is also motivated by the belief that reversing any type of cryonic preservation is so difficult and complex that any future technology capable of it must by its nature be capable of generalized tissue regeneration, including regrowth of a new body around a repaired brain. Some suggested revival scenarios for whole body patients even involve discarding the original body and regenerating a new one because tissues are so badly damaged by the preservation process. These considerations, along with lower costs, easier transportation in emergencies, and the specific focus on brain preservation quality, have motivated many cryonicists to choose neuropreservation.

The advantages and disadvantages of neuropreservation are often debated among cryonics advocates. Critics of neuropreservation note that the body is a record of much life experience, including learned motor skills. While few cryonicists doubt that a revived neuro patient would be the same person, there are wider questions about how a regenerated body might feel different from the original.[12] Partly for these reasons (as well as for better public relations), the Cryonics Institute preserves only whole bodies. Some proponents of neuropreservation agree with these concerns, but still feel that lower costs and better brain preservation justify preserving only the brain. About three-quarters of the patients stored at Alcor are "neuros".

Although media sometimes report that cloning is expected to regrow new bodies, cryonics experts generally dismiss cloning as a primitive technology that will be long obsolete before any kind of revival becomes possible. Similarly, although neurosurgeon Robert J. White proved[13] that body transplants were possible in primates, transplantation is dismissed in favor of tissue regeneration as the preferred method for treating neuropreservation and other trauma in future medicine.

Costs of cryonics vary greatly, ranging from $28,000 for whole body cryopreservation by the Cryonics Institute, to $80,000 for neuropreservation by Alcor, or $150,000 for whole body cryopreservation by Alcor or the American Cryonics Society. To some extent these cost differences reflect differences in how fees are quoted. The Cryonics Institute fee doesnt include standby (a team that begins procedures at bedside), transportation costs, or funeral director expenses outside of Michigan, which must be purchased as extras. CI Members wanting Standby and Transport from cryonics professionals can contract for additional payment to the Florida-based company Suspended Animation, Inc.

While cryonics is sometimes suspected of being greatly profitable, the high expenses of doing cryonics are well documented.[14] The expenses are comparable to major transplant surgeries. The largest single expense, especially for whole body cases, is the money that must be set aside to generate interest to pay for maintenance in perpetuity.

The most common method of paying for cryonics is life insurance, which spreads the cost over many years. Cryonics advocates are quick to point out that such insurance is especially affordable for young people. It has been claimed that cryonics is affordable for the vast majority of people in the industrialized world who really want it and plan for it.

Cryonics is based on a view of dying as a process that can be stopped in the minutes, and perhaps hours, following clinical death. If death is not an event that happens suddenly when the heart stops, this raises philosophical questions about what exactly death is. In 2005 an ethics debate in the medical journal, Critical Care, noted few if any patients pronounced dead by todays physicians are in fact truly dead by any scientifically rigorous criteria.[15] Cryonics proponent Thomas Donaldson has argued that death based on cardiac arrest or resuscitation failure is a purely social construction used to justify terminating care of dying patients.[16] In this view, legal death and its aftermath are a form of euthanasia in which sick people are abandoned. Philosopher Max More suggested a distinction between death associated with circumstances and intention versus death that is absolutely irreversible.[17] Absolutely irreversible death has also been called information-theoretic death. Bioethicist James Hughes has written that increasing rights will accrue to cryonics patients as prospects for revival become clearer, noting that recovery of legally dead persons has precedent in the discovery of missing persons.[18]

Ethical and theological opinions of cryonics tend to pivot on the issue of whether cryonics is regarded as interment or medicine. If cryonics is interment, then religious beliefs about death and afterlife may come into consideration. Resuscitation may be deemed impossible by those with religious beliefs because the soul is gone, and according to most religions only God can resurrect the dead. Expensive interment is seen as a waste of resources. If cryonics is regarded as medicine, with legal death as a mere enabling mechanism, then cryonics is a long-term coma with uncertain prognosis. It is continuing to care for sick people when others have given up, and a legitimate use of resources to sustain human life. Cryonics advocates complain that theological dismissal of cryonics because it is interment is a circular argument because calling cryonics "interment" presumes that cryonics cannot work.[19] They believe future technical advances will validate their view that cryonics patients are recoverable, and therefore never really dead.

Alcor has published a vigorous Christian defense of cryonics,[20] including excerpts of a sermon by Lutheran Reverend Kay Glaesner. Noted Christian apologist John Warwick Montgomery has defended cryonics.[21] In 1969, a Roman Catholic priest consecrated the cryonics capsule of Ann DeBlasio, one of the first cryonics patients. In 2002, a Muslim cleric indicated in a media interview that cryonics would be compatible with Islam if it were medicine.

Benjamin Franklin suggested in a famous 1773 letter[22] that it might be possible to preserve human life in a suspended state for centuries. However, the modern era of cryonics began in 1962 when Michigan college physics teacher Robert Ettinger proposed in a privately published book, The Prospect of Immortality,[23] that freezing people may be a way to reach future medical technology. Even though freezing a person is apparently fatal, Ettinger argued that what appears to be fatal today may be reversible in the future. He applied the same argument to the process of dying itself, saying that the early stages of clinical death may be reversible in the future. Combining these two ideas, he suggested that freezing recently deceased people may be a way to save lives.

Slightly before Ettingers book was complete, Evan Cooper[24] (writing as Nathan Duhring) privately published a book called Immortality: Physically, Scientifically, Now that independently suggested the same idea. Cooper founded the Life Extension Society in 1965 to promote freezing people. Ettinger came to be credited as the originator of cryonics, perhaps because his book was republished by Doubleday in 1964 on recommendation of Isaac Asimov and Fred Pohl, and received more publicity. Ettinger also stayed with the movement longer. Nevertheless, cryonics historian R. Michael Perry has written Evan Cooper deserves the principal credit for forming an organized cryonics movement.[25]

The actual word cryonics was invented by Karl Werner in 1965 in conjunction with the founding of the Cryonics Society of New York (CSNY) by Curtis Henderson and Saul Kent that same year. This was followed by the founding of the Cryonics Society of Michigan (CSM) and Cryonics Society of California (CSC) in 1966, and Bay Area Cryonics Society (BACS) in 1969 (renamed the American Cryonics Society, or ACS, in 1985). CSM eventually became the Immortalist Society, a non-profit affiliate of the Cryonics Institute (CI), a cryonics service organization founded by Robert Ettinger in 1976, now the second-largest cryonics organization.

Although there was at least one earlier aborted case, it is generally accepted that the first person frozen with intent of future resuscitation was Dr. James Bedford, a 73-year-old psychology professor frozen under crude conditions by CSC on January 12, 1967. The case made the cover of a limited print run of Life Magazine before the presses were stopped to report the death of three astronauts in the Apollo 1 fire instead.

Cryonics suffered a major setback in 1979 when it was discovered that nine bodies stored by CSC in a cemetery in Chatsworth, California, thawed due to depletion of funds.[26] Some of the bodies had apparently thawed years earlier without notification. The head of CSC was sued, and negative publicity slowed cryonics growth for years afterward. Of seventeen documented cryonics cases between 1967 and 1973, only James Bedford remains cryopreserved today. Strict financial controls and requirements adopted in response to the Chatsworth scandal have resulted in the successful maintenance of almost all cryonics cases since that era.

The largest cryonics organization today was established by Fred and Linda Chamberlain in 1972 as the Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia (ALCOR). In 1977 the name was changed to the Alcor Life Extension Foundation. In 1982, the Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) founded by Mike Darwin and Steve Bridge in Indiana merged with Alcor. By combining Darwins technical and communications skills with those of medical scientist Jerry Leaf, this merger is generally regarded as a key event that allowed Alcor to attract a critical mass of knowledgeable people, eventually moving Alcor to a leading position in the field.

During the 1980s Darwin worked with UCLA cardiothoracic surgery researcher Jerry Leaf at Alcor to develop a medical model for cryonics procedures. Prior to Leaf and Darwin, cryonics preparation was little more than a mortuary procedure in which cryoprotectant chemicals were substituted for embalming fluid. Leaf and Darwin showed that CPR and medications applied immediately after cardiac arrest, followed by cardiopulmonary bypass and thoracic surgery for access to major blood vessels, could greatly reduce ischemic injury (injury caused by stopped blood flow) in cryonics patients. They pioneered the cryonics procedure now known as a standby, in which a stabilization team stands by to institute life support procedures at the bedside of a cryonics patient as soon as possible after the heart stops. While supporting blood circulation and oxygenation of cryonics patients was first proposed by Ettinger, and the Cryonics Society of Michigan had a Westinghouse Iron Heart for this purpose as early as the late 1960s, the first consistent documented use of such procedures was in the 1980s.

Cryonics received new support in the 1980s when MIT engineer Eric Drexler started publishing papers and books foreseeing the new field of molecular nanotechnology. His 1986 book, Engines of Creation, included an entire chapter on cryonics applications.[27] Cryonics advocates saw the nascent field of nanotechnology as vindication of their long held view that molecular repair of injured tissue was theoretically possible.[28]

Nanotechnology has also been the cause of controversy within the cryonics field, with some cryonics advocates arguing that sophisticated preservation methods arent necessary because nanotechnology is necessary and sufficient for cryonics to work. Critics countered that believing nanotechnology is necessary and sufficient without regard to preservation quality is more religion than science. The simultaneous advent of Leaf and Darwins medical model of cryonics, and the nanotechnology repair paradigm, polarized cryonics into two schools of thought that persist to the present day.[29] One school tends to believe that simple inexpensive procedures administered by morticians are sufficient, while the other advocates monitoring and maintaining viability by contemporary medical methods as far as possible into the procedure, with reversible suspended animation as an ultimate goal.

In the late 1980s a nexus of favorable circumstances, including technical progress, support from nanotechnology experts, and effective communications, led to a period of rapid growth, especially of Alcor. Alcors membership expanded ten-fold within a decade, with a 30% annual growth rate between 1988 and 1992.

Alcor was disrupted by political turmoil in 1993 when a group of activists left to start the CryoCare Foundation,[30] and associated for-profit companies CryoSpan, Inc. (headed by Paul Wakfer) and BioPreservation, Inc.[31] (headed by Mike Darwin). Darwin and collaborators made many technical advances during this time period, including a landmark study documenting high quality brain preservation by freezing with high concentrations of glycerol.[32] CryoCare ceased operations in 1999 when they were unable to renew their service contract with BioPreservation. CryoCares two patients stored at CryoSpan were transferred to Alcor. Several ACS patients stored at CryoSpan were transferred to CI.

There have been numerous, often transient, for-profit companies involved in cryonics. For-profit companies were often paired or affiliated with non-profit groups they served. Some of these companies, with non-profits they served in parentheses, were Cryonic Interment, Inc. (CSC), Cryo-Span Corporation (CSNY), Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation (CSC and CSNY), Manrise Corporation (Alcor), CryoVita, Inc. (Alcor), BioTransport, Inc. (Alcor), Trans Time, Inc.[33] (BACS), Soma, Inc. (IABS), CryoSpan, Inc. (CryoCare and ACS), BioPreservation, Inc. (CryoCare and ACS), Kryos, Inc. (ACS), Suspended Animation, Inc.[34] (CI, ACS, and Alcor). Only Trans Time and Suspended Animation still exist. Apparently none of the companies were ever profitable. The cryonics field seems to have largely consolidated around three non-profit groups, Alcor, Cryonics Institute (CI), and the American Cryonics Society (ACS) all deriving significant income from bequests and donations.

As research in the 1990s revealed in greater detail the damaging effects of freezing, there was a trend to use higher concentrations of glycerol cryoprotectant to prevent freezing injury. In 2001 Alcor began using vitrification (a technology borrowed from mainstream organ preservation research) in an attempt to completely prevent ice formation during cold preservation. Because vitrification technology could then only be applied to the head, heads and bodies were sometimes separated to optimize preservation of the brain, causing much public confusion.

In 2005 Alcor began applying vitrification (or attempted vitrification[35]) treatment to the whole body simultaneously without removal of the head. In the same year, the Cryonics Institute began using a new procedure in which the head was vitrified while still attached to the body, which was frozen without any cryoprotectant.[36] A year later the Cryonics Institute began perfusing the body with ethylene glycol.[37]

When the baseball star Ted Williams was cryopreserved by Alcor in 2002 a family dispute arose as to whether Ted had really wanted to be cryopreserved. Following a July, 2003 Sports Illustrated article claiming that Alcor had mishandled Ted Williams,[38][39][40] Alcor had to fight for its existence in the Arizona legislature.[41] At minimum, Alcor could have been denied use of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, which could have impaired its ability to gain rapid access to cryonics patients. Despite not being responsible for Ted Williams, the media blitz resulted in the Cryonics Institute (CI) being placed under a "Cease and Desist" order by the State of Michigan for six months. Finally the Michigan government decided to regulate CI as a cemetery.

Alcor currently maintains about 75 cryonics patients in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Cryonics Institute also maintains about 75 human patients (along with about 40 pets) at its Clinton Township, Michigan facility. There are support groups in Europe, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia. There is also a small cryonics facility reported to exist in Russia storing two neuropatients called KrioRus, and plans for a facility in Australia.

Procedures similar to cryonics have been featured in innumerable science fiction stories to aid space travel, or as means to transport a character from the past into the future. In addition to accomplishing whatever the character's primary task is in the future, he or she must cope with the strangeness of a new world, which may contain only traces of their previous surroundings. This prospect of alienation is often cited as a major reason for the unpopularity of cryonics.

Relatively few stories have been published concerning the primary objective and definition of cryonics, which is medical time travel. Novels with this theme include the national best-seller The First Immortal by James Halperin, The Age of the Pussyfoot by Fred Pohl, Tomorrow and Tomorrow by Charles Sheffield, Chiller by Sterling Blake (aka Gregory Benford), Ralphs Journey by David Pizer, and Formerly Brandewyne by Jude Liebermann. The novel Fiasco by Stanisaw Lem raised the question of whether a person cryopreserved for centuries and then revived with amnesia is still the same person. A 1931 short story by Neil R. Jones called The Jameson Satellite has been credited with giving Robert Ettinger the seed of the idea of cryonics when he was a teenager.

Movies featuring cryonics for medical purposes include the Woody Allen comedy, Sleeper, and the films Late for Dinner and Abre los Ojos (remade as Vanilla Sky). The Austin Powers series of films use cryonics as a humorous effect and as one of the main basis in the storyline . One of the most famous movies regarding a cryonics-like process was 1992's Forever Young, starring Mel Gibson. Although not about cryonics per se, the Ron Howard film Cocoon has been hailed by cryonics advocates as expressing the values motivating cryonics better than any other film.[42]

On television, producer David E. Kelley wrote well-researched and essentially accurate portrayals of cryonics for the T.V. shows L.A. Law (1990 episode[43]), Picket Fences (1994 episode[44]), and Boston Legal (2005 episode[45]). In each case, there was a dying plaintiff petitioning a court for the right to elective cryopreservation. The episode "The Neutral Zone" from the first season of Star Trek: The Next Generation also featured three cryopreserved people in an ancient spacecraft. They had legally died in the 20th century, but were viable and recoverable by 24th century technology. The 1987 episode of Miami Vice "The Big Thaw" featured a cryopreserved reggae singer whose wife wants his revival stopped so she can inherit his estate. The episode "When We Dead Awaken" of seaQuest DSV features Lieutenant James Brody's mother having been placed in cryonic stasis following a terminal infection. Cryonics was also satirized by the comedy cartoon series Futurama, in which the character, Philip J. Fry, is accidentally cryopreserved at the turn of the millennium on December 31st 1999, and revived on December 31st 2999, a thousand years later.

Comic books also feature characters that have been affected by cryonics. Jean Grey, a superheroine from Uncanny X-Men, had been revived after her body was cryonically stored due to a fatal attack from Sentinels. The future society depicted in Warren Ellis's series Transmetropolitan includes 'revivals,' that is, individuals who had been cryonically preserved in centuries past and then revived. Many revivals are psychologically unprepared for a society so radically different from the one they had known and are consequently unable to care for themselves.

Songs about cryonics include "Crionics" by Slayer (from the album Show No Mercy) and "Gelid Remains" by Demolition Hammer (from the album "Tortured Existence").

Cryonicists have been able to form cryonics societies in highly populated areas (see history section), have regular meetings, publish magazines and hold conferences. Saul Kent and Evan Cooper as well as Fred and Linda Chamberlain were active in organizing cryonics conferences in the early years of cryonics. The magazines of the cryonics organizations have also helped keep members of the cryonics community informed about events and common problems. On July 24, 1988 a Ph.D. in computer science named Kevin Brown started an electronic mailing list called CryoNet[46] that became a powerful tool of communication for the cryonics community. Numerous other mailing lists and web forums for discussing cryonics and the affairs of particular organizations have since appeared, but CryoNet remains a central point of contact for cryonicists.

Cryonicists have also had a common jargon, including their use of the words patient, death, deanimation and suspension. The phrase cryonic suspension to describe cryopreservation is falling into disfavor, partly because cryopreservation is not really suspended animation and human bodies or heads are not buoyant enough in liquid nitrogen to be suspended. As in other subcultures, some members of the community can have strong feelings about the use of "politically correct" cryonics language.

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Cryonics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cryonics: Putting Death on Ice – Visual Capitalist

There is a potent thread winding its way through generations of human culture. From Ancient Egyptian rituals to Kurzweils Singularity, many paths have sprung up leading to the same elusive destination: immortality.

Today, the concept is as popular as its ever been, and technological advances are giving people hope that immortality, or at very least radical life extension, may be within reach. Is modern technology advanced enough to give people a second chance through cryonics?

Todays infographic, courtesy of Futurism, tackles our growing fascination with putting death on ice.

Robert C. W. Ettingers seminal work, The Prospect Of Immortality, detailed many of the scientific, moral, and economic implications of cryogenically freezing humans for later reanimation. It was after that book was published in 1962 that the idea of freezing ones body after death began to take hold.

One of the most pressing questions is, even if were able to revive a person who has been cryogenically preserved, will the persons memories and personality remain intact? Ettinger posits that long-term memory is stored in the brain as a long-lasting structural modification. Basically, those memories will remain, even if the brains power is turned off.


There are three main steps in the cryogenic process:

1) Immediately after a patient dies, the body is cooled with ice packs and transported to the freezing location.

2) Next, blood is drained from the patients body and replaced with a cryoprotectant (basically the same antifreeze solution used to transport organs destined for transplant).

3) Finally, once the body arrives at the cryonic preservation facility, the body is cooled to -196C (-320.8F) over the course of two weeks. Bodies are generally stored upside-down in a tank of liquid nitrogen.

At prices ranging from about $30,000 to $200,000, cryopreservation may sound like an option reserved for the wealthy, but many people fund the procedure by naming a cryonics company as the primary benefactor of their life insurance policy. Meanwhile, in the event of a death that doesnt allow for preservation of the body, the money goes to secondary beneficiaries.

Even if we do eventually find a way to reanimate frozen humans, another important consideration is how those people would take care of themselves financially. Thats where a cryonics or personal revival trust comes into play. A twist on a traditional dynastic trust, this arrangement ensures that there are funds to cover costs of the cryopreservation, as well as ensure the grantor would have assets when theyre unthawed. Of course, there are risks involved beyond the slim possibility of reanimation. The legal code in hundreds of years could be vastly different than today.

If you created a trust for specific purposes in 1711, it is unlikely it would function in the same way today.

Kris Knaplund, Law Professor, Pepperdine University

At last count, there are already 346 people in the deep freeze, with thousands more on the waiting list. As technology improves, those numbers are sure to continue rising.

Time will tell whether cryonically preserved people are able to cheat death. In the meantime? The cryonics industry is alive and well.

Interested in more infographics on future technology?Help us make the first Visual Capitalist book a reality on Kickstarter.

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Cryonics: Putting Death on Ice - Visual Capitalist

Freeze Yourself To Live Forever? The Truth About Cryonics …

If death was imminent, would you consider cryogenically freezing yourself, with the hopes that one day future technology would bring you back to life? Battling with brain cancer, thats what 22 year old Kim Suozzi did, and there are others just like her! But does this have any basis in science? Trace has the answers!

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Freeze Yourself To Live Forever? The Truth About Cryonics ...

Is That What Love is? The Hostile Wife Phenomenon in …

by Michael G. Darwin, Chana de Wolf, and Aschwin de Wolf

Note: A PDF version of this article with images and appendixes is available here.

A Literal Death Sentence

One unpleasant issue in cryonics is the hostile wife phenomenon. The authors of this article know of a number of high profile cryonicists who need to hide their cryonics activities from their wives and ex-high profile cryonicists who had to choose between cryonics and their relationship. We also know of men who would like to make cryonics arrangements but have not been able to do so because of resistance from their wives or girlfriends. In such cases, the female partner can be described as nothing less than hostile toward cryonics. As a result, these men face certain death as a consequence of their partners hostility.

While it is not unusual for any two people to have differing points of view regarding cryonics, men are more interested in making cryonics arrangements. A recent membership update from the Alcor Life Extension Foundation reports that 667 males and 198 females have made cryonics arrangements. Although no formal data are available, it is common knowledge that a substantial number of these female cryonicists signed up after being persuaded by their husbands or boyfriends. For whatever reason, males are more interested in cryonics than females. These issues raise an obvious question: are women more hostile to cryonics than men?

There is no direct answer to this question since the requisite data have not been collected. However, both the gravity and magnitude of the problem, as we are about to detail, suggests this as a fertile, if not urgent, area for future research. One consequence of men being more interested in cryonics than women is that heterosexual men are more often faced with hostile wives and girlfriends than the other way round. While this may sound alarming, such disagreements can easily be overcome if the love and trust in a relationship is strong enough that the disagreeing party can still cede the right to make (and keep) cryonics arrangements to the other individual. However, even formerly amenable wives can become increasingly hostile, frequently in accordance with their husbands increasingly personal and active involvement in cryonics.

An Historical Overview

From its inception in 1964, cryonics has been known to frequently produce intense hostility from spouses who are not cryonicists. While this phenomenon, as previously noted, is mostly confined to hostility from wives or girlfriends, rather than husbands or boyfriends of cryonicists, there are exceptions. One of us (Darwin) knows of two divorces resulting from hostile husbands, and several cases where the husband has delivered an ultimatum to his wife to either cease involvement with cryonics or face dissolution of the marriage(1). An example of male spousal hostility to cryonics is the case of a pioneering female cryonicist who first signed up at the start of the cryonics movement in 1964 and who had a 30+ year history of intense cryonics activism, including serving as an Officer or Director of two early cryonics organizations. When she became incapacitated by Alzheimers disease, her husband, (who had long been unhappy with her involvement in cryonics) cancelled her cryonics and cryonics funding arrangements, and declined to allow her to be cryopreserved. Another co-author (Aschwin de Wolf) was involved in helping out in a situation where the ex-husband of a female friend would not approve cryonics arrangements for his minor children, despite a strong desire from the mother and the children to make such arrangements.

Dating this phenomenon to the earliest days of cryonics is not difficult. In 1968 Robert Ettinger, the father of the cryonics movement, wrote:

This is not a hobby or conversation piece: it is the principal activity of this phase of our lives; it is the struggle for survival. Drive a used car if the cost of a new one interferes. Divorce your wife if she will not cooperate. Save your money; get another job and save more money. Sometimes a fool will blunder through, but dont count on it. The universe has no malice, but neither has it mercy, and a miss is as good as a mile.

It is notable, and by no means accidental, that Ettinger uses the words, Divorce your wife if she will not cooperate, as opposed to divorce your husband or the gender neutral divorce your spouse. Notwithstanding the few cases of hostile husbands or boyfriends, the phenomenon of the hostile spouse is almost exclusively a female phenomenon. There is no reason to be surprised about the fact that only one partner in a relationship has made cryonics arrangements. What needs explanation is why partners are actively hostile to the other partners cryonics arrangements or activities.

Over the 40 years of his active involvement, one of us (Darwin) has kept a log of the instances where, in his personal experience, hostile spouses or girlfriends have prevented, reduced or reversed the involvement of their male partner in cryonics. This list (see appendix) is restricted to situations where Darwin had direct knowledge of the conflict and was an Officer, Director or employee of the cryonics organization under whose auspices the incident took place. This log spans the years 1978 to 1986, an 8 year period. The motivating events for keeping such a log were the intense hostility he experienced from Diane Henderson, the wife of Curtis Henderson, then President of the Cryonics Society of New York (CSNY)) during visits he made to CSNY as a teenager. While this hostility was to cryonics in general, it had as its focus anyone perceived to be facilitating her husbands continued involvement in cryonics. The primary targets were thus Henderson, Darwin and the Vice President of CSNY Gillian Cummings (nee Beverly Greenburg). Curtis Henderson has stated that he believes this antipathy materially contributed to the death of Gillian Cummings in 1972:

Because the (Cryo-Span) facility was not heated and it was bitterly cold at night in the winter on Long Island, Beverly (Gillian) used to spend the night at my home in Sayville on the couch in the CSNY office. Dianes increasingly hostility to Beverly, and to anything or anyone involved in cryonics, put an end to that. A few days before Beverlys death the situation between Diane and I had reached a breaking point. She demanded that I cease involvement in cryonics and close the facility. When I refused, she took our son and went to stay at her mothers home. This is a hard thing to bear and the one thing I didnt want to do was to further antagonize Diane or provide any basis for claims of infidelity in the event she returned home and found Beverly in the house. So, that night I told Beverly she could not spend the night at 9 Holmes Court. Instead, she spent the night in the unheated facility. She was found dead the next day, her keys in her car ignition and the gas tank empty. She was in the habit of running the engine briefly in the closed storage bay to warm up the car enough so she could get back to sleep. She probably dozed off and left the engine running. The only things I can say about that incident is that it has left me with gnawing guilt and a great deal of anger. It was senseless; senseless and irrational.(2)

The second incident that influenced Darwin to keep this record was an experience he had during the start-up of the Indiana cryonics organization the Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS). Desperate for competent and energetic members and administrators, both Darwin and IABS President Steve Bridge experienced intense frustration when two enthusiastic and talented young men withdrew from involvement in IABS and cryonics because of the extreme hostility to cryonics on the part of their wives. This was one of many such incidents, but these two were especially significant because they deprived the nascent cryonics organization of a skilled businessman and potential leader, and of a competent engineer who had assisted with the fabrication of perfusion and cool-down equipment.

While neither objective nor rigorously scientific, the results of Darwins log are nevertheless instructive. The results are summarized in Table 1 (see appendix).

The 91 people listed in this table include 3 whose deaths are directly attributable to hostility or active intervention on the part of women. This does not include the many instances since 1987 where wives, mothers, sisters, or female business partners have materially interfered with a patients cryopreservation(3) or actually caused the patient not to be cryopreserved or removed from cryopreservation(4). Nor does it reflect the doubtless many more cases where we had no idea that:

The wifes hostility/objections/commands/threats prevented the husband from inquiring in the first place.

The wifes hostility/objections/commands/threats prevented the husband from signing up but no one knew it.

The wifes hostility/objections/commands/threats prevented the husband who was a member from volunteering, attending meetings, or otherwise becoming more involved, including standing for directorship positions and participating in research.

The wifes hostility/objections/commands/threats resulted in lapse of membership.

Prospective patients did not inquire because they knew the wifes hostility/objections/commands/threats would cause loss of support, emotional turmoil, or make signing up futile.

Potential members and patients did not sign up because they were lied to by their female spouses about some important aspect of cryonics.

Why are Women Disproportionately Hostile to Cryonics?

The most immediate and straightforward reasons posited for the hostility of women to cryonics are financial. When the partner with cryonics arrangements dies, life insurance and inheritance funds will go to the cryonics organization instead of to the partner or their children. Some nasty battles have been fought over the inheritance of cryonics patients, including attempts of family members to delay informing the cryonics organization that the member had died, if an attempt was made at alll(5). On average, women live longer than men and can have a financial interest in their husbands forgoing cryonics arrangements. Many women also cite the social injustice of cryonics and profess to feel guilt and shame that their families money is being spent on a trivial, useless, and above all, selfish action when so many people who could be saved are dying of poverty and hunger now.

A more speculative reason is that cryonics can be seen to compete with having children or family life altogether. This argument posits that if death can be overcome by technological means, surrogate immortality in the form of reproducing genes becomes redundant. This argument could even explain why many cryonicists are single men (aside from the common sense observation that few women want to date the archetypical cryonics nerd).

Another reason, articulated by several religious female spouses of male cryonicists, is separation in the afterlife. This presumes not only that cryonics works, but that it results not merely in practical immortality, but in actual immortality; a state where death never occurs and the spouse survives an infinitely long time. This position also excludes the belief common to all sects of Christianity and Islam that temporal existence, even for the living, will end with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ or an imposed end to the Universe and time of judgment by Allah. Another, perhaps more credible, but unarguably more selfish, interpretation of this position is what one of us (Darwin) has termed post reanimation jealousy. When women with strong religious convictions who give separation in the afterlife as the reason they object to their husbands cryopreservation are closely questioned, it emerges that this is not, in fact, their primary concern. The concern that emerges from such discussion is that if cryonics is successful for the husband, he will not only resume living, he may well do so for a vast period of time during which he can reasonably be expected to form romantic attachments to other women, engage in purely sexual relationships or have sexual encounters with other women, or even marry another woman (or women), father children with them and start a new family. This prospect evokes obvious insecurity, jealousy and a nearly universal expression on the part of the wives that such a situation is unfair, wrong and unnatural. Interestingly, a few women who are neither religious nor believers in a metaphysical afterlife have voiced the same concerns. The message here may be If Ive got to die then youve got to die too! As La Rochefoucauld famously said, with a different meaning in mind, Jealousy is always born with love, but does not always die with it.

Getting More Specific

While these arguments may plausibly address the hostility so many women feel toward their husbands cryopreservation arrangements, they do not address the much more common and more immediate negative reaction women typically display to even the prospect of their spouse or boyfriend becoming involved in cryonics. In such instances it could, of course, be argued that in reality these women are in fact objecting to the act of cryopreservation itself, since that is the logical outcome of their husbands involvement. The problem with this objection is that it fails to consider the reasons women often voice as being material to their hostility to cryonics. A shortlist of these objections is as follows:

o Fear of social ostracism: Involvement with cryonics is not commonplace in any society on the planet and any unusual, atypical or nonconformist behaviour carries with it the risk of reduction in social status, gossip, doubts about good judgment and rationality, and in the worst case, ridicule and ostracism.

o Embarrassment and inadequacy: Even if there is no discernible negative social impact, the fact that her husband is involved with cryonics, or worse still, signed up for neuro-cryopreservation, is frequently perceived as a source of profound embarrassment. Many women are uncomfortable being singled out or made the center of attention because of nonconformist behaviour on the part of any member of their family whose behaviour they perceive they may be held accountable for. A closely related concern is that they will be put in the position of having to both explain and justify their husbands unconventional choice. Such explanations and justifications are often correctly perceived to require considerable understanding of the premises, underlying scientific arguments, and most troubling, a detailed explication of the biomedical procedures used to induce cryopreservation as well as the physical and financial aspects of long term cryogenic care. This leaves out the even more daunting mastery of the scientific, technological, social and philosophical arguments that address the issue of reanimation and reintegration of cryonics patients into society. Also unaddressed are the thorny issues of the theological and ethical issues cryonics raises.

o Resource drain: Women understand that their husbands and boyfriends have interests, hobbies and avocations which are not a part of their romantic or even day-to-day relationship. Preoccupation with sports, automobiles, fishing, boating, golfing, or costly or dangerous pursuits, such as scuba diving or sky diving are frequently sources of friction in marriages. These activities inevitably result in a drain of both time and money spent with the wife and children time and money that could clearly be spent improving the quality and quantity of martial life, as well as providing assets for education of the children and additional savings to serve as a reserve in hard economic times, or times of family crisis.

o The prospect of homosocial or ideologically-driven alienation: Many, if not most, women object to exclusively or strongly homosocial activity on the part of their spouses. The social structure in most of the world today is predominately homosocial, wherein heterosexual men engage heavily or even almost exclusively in social (not sexual) interaction with other men. In these societies women are excluded from discussion of ideas, politics, business, current events, and usually religion. Until the mid-20th Century the social fabric of the U.S. and Europe was predominately homosocial with women retiring to a separate area of the home while men discussed politics, philosophy, the arts and sciences, and other non-domestic issues. Heterosexual men, past and present, also like to engage in exclusively homosocial activities ranging from the informal boys night out to more structured ventures such as camping, hunting and participation in male-only fraternal organizations. That these activities can and do lead some men to spend large fractions of their non-working time involved in such activities is a well known and wholly justified source of concern to women. After even glancing contact with cryonics, women quickly perceive that cryonics, and particularly activist cryonics, is populated almost exclusively by men and therefore represents a homosocial threat. It should also be noted that after men marry it is typical that much or even all of their socializing with their single male friends stops.

An even more anxiety provoking prospect is that of ideological alienation of the husband from his wife and family. Regardless of whether or not cryonics is perceived as a cult, it is justifiably understood to embrace a world view and a value system that is radically different from both the social norm and from the philosophical and ideological perspective of the wife or that which the husband and wife shared before cryonics was introduced into the equation. Wives often express anxiety and concern that their husbands may change drastically in both beliefs and behavior as a result of involvement with cryonics and that this might result in alienation within the marriage or even divorce.

o Religious and childrearing concerns: Most people of faith, regardless of gender, will have questions over the compatibility of cryonics and religion, at least when they first seriously contemplate the idea. To the deeply religious, absent a clear statement from the understood authority in their faith (the Pope, minister or church council, rabbi, or one of the hojjatoleslam in Islam) cryonics may be the source of lasting anxiety and uncertainty about whether it really is compatible with their faith. Even absent concerns about the religious acceptability of cryonics per se, there are often concerns about its impact on the religiosity and adherence to cultural values on the part of the children. The majority of observant Jews in both the U.S. and Israel are agnostic or atheist, but still highly value and consider critical to their survival and identity observance of Jewish cultural practices and rituals. Cryonics is often perceived as contrary to or corrosive of these values and practices.

o Other women: While cryonics is mostly a male pursuit, there are women involved and active, and many of them are single. Wives (or girlfriends) justifiably worry that another woman who shares their husbands enthusiasm for cryonics, shares his newly acquired world view and offers the prospect of a truly durable relationship one that may last for centuries or millennia may win their husbands affections. This is by no means a theoretical fear because this has happened a number of times over the years in cryonics. Perhaps the first and most publicly acknowledged instance of this was the divorce of Fred Chamberlain from his wife (and separation from his two children) and the break-up of the long-term relationship between Linda McClintock (nee Linda Chamberlain) and her long-time significant other as a result of Fred and Linda working together on a committee to organize the Third National Conference On Cryonics (sponsored the Cryonics Society of California).

The Underlying Reason?

While few would argue that there are not large, statistically demonstrable differences between men and women in terms of temperament, exploratory and risk taking behaviour as well as religiosity and intellectual and recreational pursuits, there is intense controversy as to whether these differences are due to biology, or to cultural and social factors that both limit and warp womens innate intellectual and behavioral parity with men. Regardless of whether these observed differences are rooted in nature or nurture, biology or culture, they are certainly real and they have had enormous impact on society and on the dynamic between men and women.

In his remarkable book, Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950 (HarperCollins, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-06-019247-X) Charles Murray evaluates the origin and the creators of human artistic, scientific, technological and intellectual accomplishments over the span of what is essentially recorded history. Murray does this using the arguably objective procedure of calculating the amount of space allocated to these individuals in reference works, peer reviewed publications and other easily objectifiable measures of intellectual significance. Murray uses the well developed and widely accepted technique of historiometry, which is the historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics, using statistics to analyze references to famous people and their discoveries in relatively neutral texts. Historiometery traces its origins to the work of Adolphe Quetelet, a 19th Century Belgian mathematician, who primarily studied the relationship between age and intellectual or artistic achievement.

Murray found that nearly all scientific progress, and all important scientific and artistic ideas, were made by white Europeans or their descendants (such as white Americans, Australians, Canadians, and New Zealanders). With few exceptions these core innovators were also male.

A number of studies have evaluated risk-taking behavior in males as contrasted with females. These studies have predominately concluded that men are not only bigger risk-takers, but that they engage in much more dangerous risk taking(7). An elegant and objective evaluation of sex-related differences in the selection of a successful strategy when facing novelty is the work of Catherine Brandner, who used a simple visuo-spatial task to investigate exploratory behavior as a specific response to novelty. Brandner found that strategies used by women and men to solve an exploratory task that may be seen as involving a trading off of risk versus reward differed markedly by gender. Brandner concludes: This study has first shown that the searching strategies used by women and men to solve an exploratory task that may be seen as involving trading off of risk and reward differed according to sex. Women adopted a local searching strategy in which the metric distance between what is already known and what is unknown was reduced. Men adopted a global strategy based on an approximately uniform distribution of choices. These findings appear to be compatible with a female frame of mind expressing careful consideration of all circumstances and possible consequences before making a decision.

Unquestionably, cryonics can be classified as risk-taking activity and exploratory behavior (one-way time travel to the future!) and it is also dependent upon a global approach to problem solving as opposed to the more meticulous and incremental approach to problem solving favored by women. Cryonics also demands paradigm changing innovative thinking that is closely allied with, if not identical to, the kinds of scientific, artistic and cultural thought that Murray has demonstrated are almost exclusively the province of males, and white males at that (which also raises the issue of why so few people of color are involved in cryonics). Perhaps it is these fundamental differences between men and women that determine not only male preference for, and general lack of hostility to, cryonics (at least as regards spouses and other immediate family members choices), but also the existence of a subgroup of women who are virulently opposed to cryonics, or more accurately, to the involvement of their husbands in cryonics.


Although the hostility of some women to their partners cryonics arrangements and activism is disturbing, the phenomenon is real. One high profile cryonicist once said: You can get another wife, but you cant get another life. Such words of wisdom need to be heeded, but it is understandable that some cryonicists need to make a trade-off between cryonics and other values. Hopefully, the forgoing analysis will offer some concrete areas of potential conflict, perceived or real, that can be addressed by both emotional reassurance and reason. Identifying the problems is certainly a necessary first step to resolving them.


1. Brenda Peters, a long-time female cryonics activist, Alcor Board member and Founding President of CryoCare was married to a Hollywood screenwriter and producer and has stated, while by no means the sole reason for dissolution of her marriage, cryonics played an important role in the breakup. Former Alcor Treasurer and stalwart cryonicist Sherry Cosgrove faced a similar ultimatum in 1987 and chose to cease active involvement in cryonics and revoke her cryopreservation arrangements.

2. Interview of Curtis Henderson by Mike Darwin, 22 November, 2007, Ash Fork, AZ.

3. Alcor patient A-1036 suffered ~10 minutes of ischemic injury without cardiopulmonary support due to interference from his sister and female business partner. A-1049 suffered ~30 minutes of ischemic injury due to interference from his mother and sister.

4. Alcor patient A-1242 was removed from cryopreservation under court order as a result of litigation brought against Alcor and the patients husband by the patients sister, who objected to cryopreservation. Alcor patient A-2127 died while in the sign up process due to hostile female relatives. Alcor patient A-1099 suffered prolonged ischemia, embalming and straight freezing and was almost cremated due to the non-compliance of his sisters with his cryonics arrangements.

5. Alcor patient A-1242 was removed from cryopreservation under court order as a result of litigation brought against Alcor and the patients husband by the patients sister, who objected to cryopreservation. Alcor patient A-2127 died while in the sign up process due to hostile female relatives. Alcor patient A-1099 suffered prolonged ischemia, embalming and straight freezing and was almost cremated due to the non-compliance of his sisters with his cryonics arrangements.


7. Pyszczynski, Tom L. (Feb. 2002) Gender differences in the willingness to engage in risky behavior: A terror management perspective. Death Studies, 26, 117-142.

Risk taking influenced by sense of control, claims US psychology professor. (Nov. 2001). retrieved on Oct. 10, 2002.

Wagner, Mervyn K. (Jan./Feb. 2001). Behavioral characteristics related to substance abuse and risk-taking, sensation- seeking, anxiety sensitivity and self-reinforcement. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 115-120.

8. Brandnery, C Strategy selection during exploratory behavior: sex differences Judgment and Decision Making. Vol. 2, No. 5, October 2007, pp. 326332.

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Is That What Love is? The Hostile Wife Phenomenon in ...

Frozen Dead Guy

Frozen Dead GuyHome of The Frozen Dead Guy (AKA Bredo Morstoel)The Iceman's Chronicle...Contact the Iceman for information on where to get your copy...and for booksignings and special events.Get information on events for 2013 FDGDays>>>>Get Twitter Tweets from!!!What's the Frozen Dead Guy all about?It has a lot to do with Cryonics, which is pretty much freezing people who are about to die, in hopes that future technology will be able to "re-animate" them and cure what ailed them.It had a lot to do with the Town of Nederland and the Nederland Chamber of Commerce....and there's a year round Information Center in Ned for souvenirs of the Frozen Dead Guy Days festival (see below). The Chamber's site had all the information on upcoming FDGDaze.....but in 2011 they sold the festival to a private group who now has the only site with information on the upcoming festival. Frozen Dead Guy Days is their link.It has a big connection to Norway, as the Grandson of the FDG, Trygve, lives there with his Mother, Aud (FDG's Daughter). They are the ones responsible for maintaining the financials and micro-managing from afar. Trygve was deported in 1994 and has not set foot in the US since. Aud has visited...once. THere are long and curious tales about both of these situations, but suffice to say, neither is allowed back in the country at this time.There's some of that old history......Psychics and all, found in the Historical Archives of the Planetary Ecologists at....There's some history regarding the Great Unappearance on the Jay Leno Tonight Show..Here's some archived video of the days when Grandpa was persona non grata.....Although there is a wild and entertaining side to this story.....there is also a serious and scientific side, too.There's been some Press.......and some websites, like Dark DestinationsEven a local company who went National has played a part....Tuff Shed has made it all possible from a practical point of view.We celebrated Grandpa Bredo's 107th Birthday with an Ice Run Party at the old International Cryonics Institute, before it was dismantled.********Update.....September 2012******* In September of 2012, a labor dispute broke out and when overseas management and local labor couldn't agree on terms, a walkout ensued. The International Cryonics Institute was kicked out of it's offices and had to remove all their equipment. Scabs were hired and the fate of Grandpa Bredo now rests in the hands of some guy and a truck. The coming winter is predicted to be snowy and cold. Stay tuned for further info.... The Iceman's last day on the job...Here's a wordle from the book "Chronicles of the Colorado Iceman"....And then there's the Frozen Dead Guy Days Festival.....Frozen Dead Guy Days 2006 Frozen Dead Guy Daze of 2007.....a festival to remember!Frozen Dead guy Days of 2008...A picture GalleryFrozen Dead Guy Daze 2009...Frozen Dead Guy Daze 2010...Re-animated Tours!If, after perusing this evolving site, you have any questions or still just can't seem to figure out what the FDG is all about...Feel free to Send your query to The IcemanThis Page is deep in the throes of Creative Endeavour.......please be advised

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Frozen Dead Guy

This Company Freezes Your Body So That You Could One Day Be Resurrected – Billionaire BLLNR | Singapore (registration)

An estimated 2,500 bodies around the world have been frozen in the hope of some future resurrection.

Robert Ettinger, the father of cryogenics, who introduced the concept in 1962.

If you have around US$90,000 to spare and are of a gambling disposition, perhaps your final journey should be to Australia. A company called Southern Cryonics is looking to open a facility in New South Wales this year that will allow its customers to freeze their bodies after death in the hope of one day being resurrected. If it goes ahead, it will make Australia only the third country, after the US and Russia, where such a service is available.

But, especially for those of a futurist bent perhaps, its as valid a thing to do with ones body as burial or cremation. Last year, a terminally ill 14-year-old girl in the UK became the first and only child so far to undergo the cryonic process. This is technically not freezing but vitrification, in which the body is treated with chemicals and chilled to super-cold temperatures so that molecules are locked in place and a solid is formed. An estimated 2,500 bodies around the world are now stored in this condition.

Supporters concede that the technology to revive the infinitely complex interactions between those molecules may never exist, but are nonetheless hopeful, pointing to shifting conceptions of what irreversible death actually is. If, for example, cessation of a heartbeat used to define it, now hearts can be re-started todays corpse may be tomorrows patient. They point to experiments such as that announced last year by 21st Century Medicine, which claimed to have successfully vitrified and recovered an entire mammalian brain for the first time, with the thawed rabbits brain found to have all of its synapses, cell membranes and intracellular structures intact.

Its not just cryonics. Stem-cell research, nano-tech, cloning, the science just keeps plugging away towards a future [of reanimating] that may or may not come to exist, says an upfront Dennis Kowalski, president of the Michigan-based Cryonics Institute. His company was launched just over 40 years ago to provide cryostasis services. Lots of things considered impossible not long ago are possible today, so we just dont know how cryonics will work out. For people who use the service its really a case of theres nothing to lose.

Naturally, not everyone is hopeful that such processes will ever work out for those in the chiller. The problem with cryonics is that the perception of it is largely shaped by companies offering a service based on something completely unproven, says Joo Pedro De Magalhes, biologist and principal investigator into life extension at the University of Liverpool, UK, and co-founder of the UK Cryonics and Cryopreservation Network. Youre talking about a fairly eccentric procedure that only a few people have signed up to and into which little reported research is being done. That said, I think the people providing these services do believe theres a chance it may work one day, although I would have to say theyre optimistic.

But this is not to say that living longer wont, in time, prove possible as a result of some other method; just that arguably this is more likely to be based around preserving a life that has not experienced death, rather than the promise of reanimating one after its demise. The chasm between the two is all the more pronounced given neurosciences still scant ideas as to what consciousness or mind is, let alone how it might be saved and rebooted; would the warmed and reanimated you be the you that died, or a mere simulacrum? Your body may well not be the same: many of those opting for cryo-preservation go for the freezing of just their brains.

Certainly while cryonics specifically may remain a largely unexplored field, Google is now investing in anti-ageing science, an area that, as De Magalhes puts it, now has fewer crackpots and more reputable scientists working in it, with stronger science behind it too. Indeed, as Yuval Noah Harari argues in his best-selling book Homo Deus, humanisms status as contemporary societys new religion of choice, combined with technological advances, makes some form of greatly extended lifespan inevitable for some generation to come. Whether this will be by melding man and machine, by genetic manipulation, by a form of existence in cyberspace or some other fix can only be speculated at, but everything about our civilisations recent development points to it becoming a reality.

Advances in medicine, after all, have greatly extended average longevity over the last century alone. With this has come a shift in perspective that sees death less as the natural end point to a life so much as a process of disease that could, and perhaps should, be tackled like any other disease that threatens existence. De Magalhes points out that for many working in the field it is less about the pursuit of immortality as of improved health.

After all, its not self-evident that we all want to live forever, and there are philosophical arguments for the idea that death is good, that its necessary to appreciate life, he says. But it is self-evident that nobody wants Alzheimers, for example. If you focus on retarding the problems of ageing then inevitably were going to live longer. The longevity we have now isnt normal; its already better than what we had not long ago. Extrapolate that to the future and in a century the length of time we live now might be considered pretty bad. One can envisage a time when we might live, if not forever, then perhaps thousands of years so much longer than we live now that it might feel like forever.

That, naturally, would bring with it profound changes to the way in which we perceive ourselves and to how the world operates and all the more so if living considerably longer became a possibility faster than society was able to inculcate the notion. How would such a long lifespan affect our sense of self? Would institutions and mores such as lifelong marriage and monogamy remain the norm? When would we retire? How would our relationships with the many subsequent generations of our family be shaped? How would population growth be managed? How would such long lives be funded?

Such questions are, for sure, of no concern to those currently in cryostasis. These people tend to be into sci-fi, and into science too, suggests Kowalski, who has signed up himself, his wife and children for cryonic services when the time comes. I think for a lot of them its not necessarily about the fear of death. Its more a fascination with the future. Theyre optimistic about what it will bring. Theyre more Star Trek than Terminator.

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This Company Freezes Your Body So That You Could One Day Be Resurrected - Billionaire BLLNR | Singapore (registration)

Blast off into eternity: Russian company to send the dead into space – Russia Beyond the Headlines

The dead bodies of cryogenically frozen people and pets, DNA samples, and even organs, such as brains, might soon be sent to space. Russia's first and only cryonics company,KrioRus, announced an agreement with Space Technologies, a new science and tech consortium.

Satellites with cryo-capsules will be launched into orbit by Russian rockets, said Yulia Arkhipova, general director ofSpace Technologies.

Cryogenics facilities exist only in the U.S. and Russia. Since 2005,KrioRushas frozen the bodies and brains of 54 people, eight dogs, nine cats,three birds, and even one pet chinchilla. According to the company, many frozen individuals once had the aspiration to go to space.

Arkhipova didnt provide details on whether her company has partnerships with established Russian space organizations. Space Technologies was registered in 2016 and it doesnt have its own rocket fleet or launch vehicles. The company hasnt yet implemented a single space project but already announced ambitious plans, such as the creation ofRussia'sfirst private cosmodrome and a new orbital station,MIR-2.

The cryo-capsules wont be just hanging about in orbit, Arkipova promised. The company is planning to develop satellites for in-orbit repairs but, once again, Arkhipova didnt provide any details. The leading Russian space companies are developing these satellites, the technologies are unique and its classified information, Arkipova said.

The names of these leading space companies are classified, as well as the names of the organization's founders. Space Technologies declined to respond to these questions.

Freezing bodies and cryogenic experiments might be necessary for the future development of space travel to distant planets or galaxies.

Cryogenic freezing is the process of preserving a dead body with liquid nitrogen. Currently, it can only happen at the moment when someone has just been declared dead. The freezing process must begin as soon as the patient dies in order to preventbraindamage.

First, the body is cooled in an ice bath to gradually reduce its temperature, and then doctors drain the blood and replace it with an anti-freeze fluid to stop harmful ice crystals forming.

People who make the decision to freeze their bodies believe scientists will one day in the future figure out how to warm up the body and bring them back to life. Hopefully by that time doctors will be able to cure cancer and other illness.

According to KrioRus, the cost of preserving a body in space starts from $250,000. Space Technologies didnt clarify the costs of launching a body into orbit.

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For The First Time Ever, a Woman in China Has Been Cryogenically Frozen – ScienceAlert

Cryonics is the practice ofdeep-freezing recently deceased bodies(or even justthe brains of thosewho have recently died)in the hopes of one day reviving them.

It has been the subject of serious scientific exploration and study - as well as a fair share of pseudoscience, lore, and myth. Fictional accounts like Batman's Iceman, and the (untrue) rumours of Walt Disney being cryogenically frozen have cast a speculative shadow over the field of cryonics.

Butrecently, for the first time ever in China,a woman has been cryogenically frozen. Zhan Wenlian died at the age of 49 from lung cancer and her husband, Gui Junmin, "volunteered" her for the cryonic procedure.

Bothhe and his late wife wanted to donate her body to science to "give back to society." He told TheMirror UKthat hewas initially "pitched"the idea of cryonicswith it being described as a "life preservation project".

This procedure - which has Wenlian's body restingface downin 2,000 litres of liquid nitrogen - was completed at theYinfeng Biological Group in Jinan.

This project is the collaborative effortof the Yinfeng Biological Group, Qilu Hospital Shandong University and consultants fromAlcor Life Extension Foundation, a nonprofit cryonics company based in the United States.

Even with all the faith many have in the procedure, the question remains: how scientifically possible is a project like this? Is this just an experiment to allow us to better understand human biology, orcould cryonics one day become a feasible option?

Cryonics isall about timing.The bodies of the deceased arecryogenically frozenimmediately after the heartstops beating."Freezing" is a bit of a misleading term, because cryonic freezing is actually very specifically trying toavoidice crystal formation - which damages the cells of the body's tissues.

Rapid cooling, rather than freezing, is a more accuratedescription of the process.

A chemical cocktail of preservatives likeglycerol andpropandiol, in addition to antifreeze agents, are commonly used to get the body into a stable state where it won't be decaying, but also won't suffer damage from being stored at low temperatures for, conceivably, a very long time.

From there, the bodiesare given specific care that caters to the idea that death is a continuing process; one that can ultimately be reversed.

The aim of cryonic preservation would be to one day be able to thaw the bodies and reanimate them at a cellular level - preferably without too many epigenetic changes.

"I tend to believe in new and emerging technologies, so I think it will be completely possible to revive her."

With ourcurrent understanding and technology, this process of reversingdeath so completely is just not possible. The closest kind of revival we have are themoments after clinical death where patients are revived by something such as cardiac defibrillation.

Cryonics acts within this critical, albeit brief, period as well- but works within the belief that death is a grey area. More of a processrather than a definite, final, event.

Just because we haven't succeeded in reviving the dead yetdoesn't mean the field of cryonics isunnecessary or unimportant.This case inChina is a step forward for everyone researchingthe field of cryonics- and those of us who hope to benefit from advancements in it.

We may not be able to reverse death just yet,but it doesn't seem outof the realm of possibility to imagine that, withsuch wild scientific advancements underway, technology could one day allow it to be possible.

Whether or not it does in our lifetimes, this most recent development is certainly an interesting one.

This article was originally published by Futurism. Read the original article.

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For The First Time Ever, a Woman in China Has Been Cryogenically Frozen - ScienceAlert