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Archive for the ‘Arthritis’ Category

Foods and Arthritis | The Physicians Committee

Millions of people suffer from painful and swollen joints associated with arthritis. In the past, many doctors told arthritis patients that dietary changes would not help them. However, this conclusion was based on older research with diets that included dairy products, oil, poultry, or meat.1,2 New research shows that foods may be a more frequent contributor to arthritis than is commonly recognized. It is clear that, at least for some people, a healthier menu is the answer.

Arthritis is actually a group of different diseases. Osteoarthritis is a gradual loss of cartilage and overgrowth of bone in the joints, especially the knees, hips, spine, and fingertips. Over 20 million Americans, mostly over age 45, suffer from osteoarthritis, which seems to be the result of accumulated wear and tear. Although it can cause painful episodes, it is characterized by only transient stiffness and does not cause major interference with the use of the hands.

Rheumatoid arthritis, which affects over 2 million people, is a more aggressive form of the disease. It causes painful, inflamed joints, which sometimes become damaged.

Rheumatoid arthritis is one of medicine's mysteries. There were no medical reports of the disease until the early 1800s. Some have suspected that a virus or bacterium may play a role, perhaps by setting off an autoimmune reaction. Genetics may also be a factor, in that it may influence susceptibility to the disease.

For years people have suspected that foods are an important factor in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Many notice an improvement in their condition when they avoid dairy products, citrus fruits, tomatoes, eggplant and certain other foods.

Initially, the evidence was anecdotal. A woman from the Midwest once suffered from painful arthritis. Today she is a picture of health, thin and athletic, and her arthritis is totally gone. It seemed that dairy products were to blame for her arthritis, for when she eliminated them from her diet, the arthritis disappeared completely.

Another woman, from Wisconsin, also found that her arthritis was clearly linked to dairy products. Although she had been raised on a dairy farm, she learned that staying away from dairy products was the key to relieving her symptoms.

A 1989 survey of over one thousand arthritis patients revealed that the foods most commonly believed to worsen the condition were red meat, sugar, fats, salt, caffeine, and nightshade plants (e.g., tomatoes, eggplant).3 Once the offending food is eliminated completely, improvement usually comes within a few weeks. Dairy foods are one of the principle offenders, and the problem is the dairy protein, rather than the fat, so skim products are as much a problem as whole milk.4

An increasing volume of research shows that certain dietary changes do in fact help. For example, polyunsaturated oils and omega-3 supplements have a mild beneficial effect, and researchers have found that vegan diets are beneficial.5 One 2002 study looked at the influence of a very low-fat vegan diet on subjects with moderate-to-severe RA. After only four weeks on the diet, almost all measures of RA symptoms decreased significantly.6 The journal Rheumatology published a study that found a gluten-free vegan diet improved the signs and symptoms of RA.7 An uncooked vegan diet, rich in antioxidants and fiber was shown in another study to decrease joint stiffness and pain in patients with RA.8 Some research studies have looked at fasting followed by a vegetarian or vegan diet. A review of multiple research studies concluded that this dietary treatment might be useful in the treatment of RA.9

Vegan diets dramatically reduce the overall amount of fat in the diet, and alter the composition of fats. This in turn can affect the immune processes that influence arthritis. The omega-3 fatty acids in vegetables may be a key factor, along with the near absence of saturated fat. The fact that patients also lose weight on a vegan diet contributes to the improvement.

In addition, vegetables are rich in antioxidants, which can neutralize free radicals. Oxygen free radicals attack many parts of the body and contribute to heart disease and cancer, and intensify the aging processes generally, including of the joints.

Iron acts as a catalyst, encouraging the production of these dangerous molecules. Vitamins C and E, which are plentiful in a diet made of vegetables and grains, help neutralize free radicals. Meats supply an overload of iron, no vitamin C, and very little vitamin E, whereas vegetables contain more controlled amounts of iron, and generous quantities of antioxidant vitamins.

As well as being helpful in preventing arthritis, antioxidants may also have a role in reducing its symptoms. Some arthritis treatments, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, work at least in part by neutralizing free radicals. For the most part, however, vitamins and other antioxidants will be of more use in preventing damage before it occurs, rather than in treating an inflamed joint.10

A diet drawn from fruits, vegetables, grains, and beans therefore appears to be helpful in preventing and, in some cases, ameliorating arthritis.

For four weeks, include generous amounts of foods from the pain-safe list in your routine.

At the same time, scrupulously avoid the major triggers.

It is important to avoid these foods completely, as even a small amount can cause symptoms.

Foods that are not on either list can be consumed, so long as you are emphasizing the arthritis-safe foods and scrupulously avoiding the major triggers.

You may well experience benefits earlier than four weeks, but for some people it can take this long for chronically inflamed joints to cool down.

Pain-safe foods virtually never contribute to arthritis or other painful conditions. These include

After four weeks, if your symptoms have improved or disappeared, the next step is to nail down which one or more of the trigger foods has been causing your problem. Simply reintroduce the foods you have eliminated back into your diet one at a time, every two days.

Have a generous amount of each newly reintroduced food, and see whether your joints flare up again. If so, eliminate the food that seems to have caused the problem, and let your joints cool down again. Then continue to reintroduce the other foods. Wait at least two weeks before trying a problem food a second time. Many people have more than one food trigger.

It is not recommended to bring meats, dairy products, or eggs back into your diet. Not only are they major triggers, but they also encourage hormone imbalances that may contribute to joint pain, and also lead to many other health problems.

1. Dairy products* 2. Corn 3. Meats** 4. Wheat, oats, rye 5. Eggs 6. Citrus fruits 7. Potatoes 8. Tomatoes 9. Nuts 10. Coffee *All dairy products should be avoided: skim or whole cows milk, goats milk, cheese, yogurt, etc. **All meats should be avoided: beef, pork, chicken, turkey, fish, etc.

For some arthritis patients, supplements of certain essential fatty acids have been helpful. They should be thought of as a medicine, rather than a food. A typical regimen would include a tablespoon of flaxseed oil with 500 mg of blackcurrant oil (or three capsules of evening primrose oil) twice each day. If it is helpful, it should be reduced to the lowest effective dose. Some people also benefit from an herb called feverfew, taken two to three times per day. (Caution: Do not take feverfew if you are pregnant.)

These supplements are available in health food stores.

References 1. Panush RS, Carter RL, Katz P, Kowsari B, Longley S, Finnie S. Diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1983;26:462-471. 2. Lithell H, Bruce A, Gustafsson IB, et al. A fasting and vegetarian diet treatment trial on chronic inflammatory disorders. Acta Derm Venereol. 1983;63:397-403. 3. Sobel D. Arthritis: What Works. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1989. 4. Skoldstam L, Larsson L, Lindstrom FD. Effects of fasting and lactovegetarian diet on rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. 1979;8:249-255. 5. Skoldstam L. Fasting and vegan diet in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. 1986;15:219-223. 6. McDougall J, Bruce B, Spiller G, Westerdahl J, McDougall M. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(1):71-75. 7. Hafstrom I, Ringertz B, Spangberg A, von Zweigbergk L, Brannemark S, Nylander I, Ronnelid J, Laasonen L, Klareskog L. A vegan diet free of gluten improves the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: the effects on arthritis correlate with a reduction in antibodies to food antigens. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40(10):1175-1179. 8. Hanninen, Kaartinen K, Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Torronen R, Hakkinen AS, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J. Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology. 2000;155(1-3):45-53. 9. Muller H, de Toledo FW, Resch KL. Fasting followed by vegetarian diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. Scand J Rheumatol. 2001;30(1):1-10. 10. Merry P, Grootveld M, Lunec J, Blake DR. Oxidative damage to lipids within the inflamed human joint provides evidence of radical-mediated hypoxic-reperfusion injury. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:362S-369S.

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Foods and Arthritis | The Physicians Committee

Knee Arthritis – Diagnosis and Treatment of Wear and Tear

Arthritis is a common cause of knee pain. J. M. Horrillo / Getty Images

Updated December 20, 2014.

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

Arthritis of the knee joint is one of the most common causes of knee pain. There are different types of arthritis that can affect the knee joint, and the treatments may vary depending on the condition that is causing the symptoms.

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of knee arthritis. Also called wear-and-tear arthritis or degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis is characterized by progressive wearing away of the cartilage in the joint. As the protective cartilage is worn away, bone is exposed, the knee becomes swollen and painful, and activities become increasingly painful.

Knee arthritis typically affects patients as they get older. Symptoms are more common in patients who are overweight, and weight loss tends to reduce the severity of pain associated with knee arthritis.

There is also a genetic component, meaning knee arthritis can be passed down within a family. Other factors that can contribute to developing knee arthritis include injuries to the knee, torn cartilage, and fractures to the bone around the joint.

Knee arthritis symptoms tend to gradually progress as the condition worsens, however, symptoms may suddenly worsen with minor injury or overuse. Some patients report long episodes of mild symptoms, with sudden changes that increase the severity of their symptoms. Often patients report good months and bad months, or symptoms that fluctuate with the weather. This is important to understand because comparing the symptoms of arthritis on one particular day may not accurately represent the overall progression of the condition. Since there is not a cure for arthritis, learning ways to slow the progression of arthritis is also important.

The most common symptoms of knee arthritis include:

BJ Cole and CD Harner "Degenerative arthritis of the knee in active patients: evaluation and management" J. Am. Acad. Ortho. Surg., Nov 1999; 7: 389 - 402.

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Knee Arthritis - Diagnosis and Treatment of Wear and Tear

Arthritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

The goal of treatment is to reduce pain, improve function, and prevent further joint damage. The underlying cause often cannot be cured.

LIFESTYLE CHANGES

Lifestyle changes are the preferred treatment for osteoarthritis and other types of joint swelling. Exercise can help relieve stiffness, reduce pain and fatigue, and improve muscle and bone strength. Your health care team can help you design an exercise program that is best for you.

Exercise programs may include:

Your health care provider may suggest physical therapy. This might include:

Other things you can do include:

MEDICINES

Medicines may be prescribed along with lifestyle changes. All medicines have some risks. You should be closely followed by a doctor when taking arthritis medicines.

Over-the-counter medicines:

Prescription medicines:

It is very important to take your medicines as directed by your doctor. If you are having problems doing so (for example, because of side effects), you should talk to your doctor. Also make sure your doctor knows about all the medicines you are taking, including vitamins and supplements bought without a prescription.

SURGERY AND OTHER TREATMENTS

In some cases, surgery may be done if other treatments have not worked. This may include:

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Arthritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Arthritis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments – Medical News Today

Although the word "arthritis" means joint inflammation, the term is used to describe around 200 rheumatic diseases and conditions that affect joints, the tissues that surround the joint, and other connective tissue.5

The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis. Other common rheumatic conditions include gout, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.4

You will also see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT's news stories. Also look out for links to information about related conditions.

Fast facts on arthritis

Here are some key points about arthritis. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

Typically, pain, aching, stiffness and swelling in and around one or more joints characterize rheumatic conditions. The symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly. Certain rheumatic conditions can also involve the immune system and various internal organs of the body.6

Some forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, can affect multiple organs and cause widespread symptoms.

Arthritis is more common among adults aged 65 years or older, but people of all ages (including children) can be affected.

There are 52.5 million adults in the US, equating to 22.7% of the population, reported to have a form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus or fibromyalgia.1

With people living longer in the US, the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis is expected to increase. It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 67 million, 25% of the projected total adult population aged 18 years and older, will have doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Arthritis has a significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence in women (23.9%) than men (18.6%), with the prevalence increasing with age and higher among women than men in every age group.

An estimated 294,000 children under the age of 18 have some form of arthritis or rheumatic condition; this represents approximately 1 in every 250 children in the US.4

Arthritis has a significant impact on individuals, for example:1

Impairment in the ability of people with arthritis to perform essential daily tasks may interfere with their work, their purpose in their community, or the care they can provide for their family.

Around 18% of total disabilities are caused by arthritis or rheumatism, making it the most common cause of disability in the US.

Arthritis has a strong association with major depression, with a risk of 18.1%. This could be due to its role in creating functional limitation. Around 6.6% of adults with arthritis report severe psychological distress.

Prevalence of arthritis increases with body mass index (BMI). Prevalence increases from 16.3% among underweight and normal adults to 20.3% of overweight adults and 28.9% of obese adults.

Reports among adults by BMI show the following groups express activity limitations:

Physical activity and exercise have been shown to benefit people with arthritis by improving pain, function and mental health. However, around 24% of adults with arthritis report being physically inactive compared with 18.6% of adults without arthritis.

By partaking in low levels of exercise, individuals with arthritis face placing themselves at risk of conditions associated with lack of activity such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and functional limitations.

Certain factors have been shown to be associated with a greater risk of arthritis. Some of these risk factors are modifiable while others are not.

Non-modifiable risk factors:

Modifiable risk factors:

Cost attributable to arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (AORC) in the US in 2003 was approximately:2

The CDC reports that 47% of US adults with arthritis also have at least one comorbid condition (the presence of more than one disease or condition in the same person at the same time).3

Among people with arthritis the most common comorbidities are:

Risk factors for other chronic conditions are common among US adults with arthritis, such as:

More than half (53%) of US adult with arthritis report high blood pressure. High blood pressure is associated with heart disease - the most common comorbidity among adults with arthritis.

Approximately 1 in 5 (19%) of US adults with arthritis are smokers. Smoking is associated with chronic respiratory conditions - the second most common comorbidity among adults with arthritis.

In 2004, there were an estimated:4

In 2004, joint replacements for arthritis included:4

Between the years of 1979-1998, the AORC deaths increased from 5,537 to 9,367.4 The approximate death rate from AORC in 1979 was 2.46 per 100,000 population and 3.48 per 100,000 population in 1998. Both rates age-standardized to the year 2000 population were 2.75 and 3.51, respectively.

Using 10 categories of AORC, just three categories accounted for almost 80% of deaths:9

There is no one cause for arthritis; the cause depends on the type or form of arthritis. Potential causes for arthritis may include:

For many arthritis conditions, there is a strong element of chance involved as to what is the main cause. However, for most types of arthritis, the cause is a combination of many factors working together.

A person may naturally be more susceptible to certain conditions due to genetic makeup. If more susceptible, external factors such as previous injury, infection, smoking and physically demanding occupations could play a part.

There are some foods that appear to exacerbate arthritis, although diet or food sensitivity or intolerance is unlikely to cause arthritis.

Cartilage is a flexible, connective tissue in joints that absorb the pressure and shock created from movement like running and walking. It also protects the joints and allows for smooth movement.34

Some types of arthritis are caused by a reduction in the normal amount of cartilage tissue through wear and tear throughout life, such as osteoarthritis.

RA, on the other hand, occurs when the body's immune system attacks the tissues of the body.

On the next two pages we look at the types of arthritis, the signs and symptoms and the possible treatment options for arthritis.

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Arthritis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments - Medical News Today

Rheumatoid Arthritis Center – Eldersburg, MD

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Florin I. Niculescu Eldersburg Arthritis 6190 Georgetown Blvd Ste 110 Sykesville, MD 21784 (410) 795-9700

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Teodora M. Niculescu Eldersburg Arthritis 6190 Georgetown Blvd Ste 110 Sykesville, MD 21784 (410) 795-9700

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Deepak Gupta Carroll Arthritis 412 Malcolm Dr Ste 306 Westminster, MD 21157 (410) 848-0364

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Rosemarie A. Shaw Carroll Arthritis 412 Malcolm Dr Ste 306 Westminster, MD 21157 (410) 848-0364

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Robert A. Shaw Carroll Arthritis 412 Malcolm Dr Ste 306 Westminster, MD 21157 (410) 848-0364

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Melanie Chatterji Carroll Arthritis 412 Malcolm Dr Ste 306 Westminster, MD 21157 (410) 848-0364

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Margret A. Fountain Gakuba & Fountain MDs 2 Reservoir Cir Ste 105 Pikesville, MD 21208 (410) 653-1822

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Paul A. Gertler Arthritis Care Specialists Of Maryland 4801 Dorsey Hall Dr Ste 226 Ellicott City, MD 21042 (410) 992-7440

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Moe Zan Arthritis Care Specialists Of Maryland 4801 Dorsey Hall Dr Ste 226 Ellicott City, MD 21042 (410) 992-7440

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Thomas J. Lang Arthritis Care Specialists Of Maryland 4801 Dorsey Hall Dr Ste 226 Ellicott City, MD 21042 (410) 992-7440

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Stephen W. George Arthritis Care Specialists Of Maryland 4801 Dorsey Hall Dr Ste 226 Ellicott City, MD 21042 (410) 992-7440

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Melissa L. Hawkins-Holt Arthritis Care Specialists Of Maryland 4801 Dorsey Hall Dr Ste 226 Ellicott City, MD 21042 (410) 992-7440

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David B. Arconti Arthritis Care Specialists Of Maryland 4801 Dorsey Hall Dr Ste 226 Ellicott City, MD 21042 (410) 992-7440

15

Jeffrey T. Landis Nasseri Clinic Arthritic & Rheumatology Diseases 700 Geipe Rd Ste 266 Catonsville, MD 21228 (410) 744-0661

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Sharon D. Crum Nasseri Clinic Arthritic & Rheumatology Diseases 700 Geipe Rd Ste 266 Catonsville, MD 21228 (410) 744-0661

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Leili Parsa Nasseri Clinic Arthritic & Rheumatology Diseases 700 Geipe Rd Ste 266 Catonsville, MD 21228 (410) 744-0661

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Nasser Nasseri Nasseri Clinic Arthritic & Rheumatology Diseases 700 Geipe Rd Ste 266 Catonsville, MD 21228 (410) 744-0661

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James R. Bellor Jr Columbia Medical Practice 610 Solarex Ct Frederick, MD 21703 (410) 964-6139

20

Chaim B. Mond Chaim B Mond MD 2835 Smith Ave Ste 207 Baltimore, MD 21209 (410) 580-1330

21

Rida A. Frayha Rida A Frayha MD 3640 Fords Ln Apt E Baltimore, MD 21215 (410) 358-2741

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Raymond H. Flores Kernan Hospital Rheumatology 2200 Kernan Dr Gwynn Oak, MD 21207 (410) 448-6398

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Violeta Rus Kernan Hospital Rheumatology 2200 Kernan Dr Gwynn Oak, MD 21207 (410) 448-6398

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Jamal A. Mikdashi Kernan Hospital Rheumatology 2200 Kernan Dr Gwynn Oak, MD 21207 (410) 448-6398

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Bernadette C. Siaton Kernan Hospital Rheumatology 2200 Kernan Dr Gwynn Oak, MD 21207 (410) 448-6398

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Grace Ahn Falls Medical Specialists 10753 Falls Rd Ste 225 Lutherville-Timonium, MD 21093 (410) 583-2848

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David E. McGinnis Falls Medical Specialists 10753 Falls Rd Ste 225 Lutherville-Timonium, MD 21093 (410) 583-2848

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Ira T. Fine Falls Medical Specialists 10753 Falls Rd Ste 225 Lutherville-Timonium, MD 21093 (410) 583-2848

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John O. Meyerhoff Sinai Hospital Rheumatology 2411 W Belvedere Ave Ste 401 Baltimore, MD 21215 (410) 601-8389

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Primal K. Bhatia Arthritis & Osteoporosis Center 716 Maiden Choice Ln Ste 301 Baltimore, MD 21228 (410) 788-2000

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Abdollah Shams-Pirzadeh Arthritis & Osteoporosis Center 716 Maiden Choice Ln Ste 301 Baltimore, MD 21228 (410) 788-2000

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William L. Yap Cueto Miller & Yap MDs 724 Maiden Choice Ln Ste 204 Catonsville, MD 21228 (410) 744-6566

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Andrea S. Marx Rheumatology Associates At Lutherville 1734 York Rd Lutherville, MD 21093 (410) 337-7780

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Oliver J. Lawless Center For Arthritis Immunology & Enviornmental Diseases 18111 Prince Philip Dr Ste 310 Olney, MD 20832 (301) 774-2886

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Anuradha D. Reddy Anuradha D Reddy MD 821 N Eutaw St Ste 303 Baltimore, MD 21201 (410) 225-8153

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Mohammed Esfahani University Maryland Mid Town Campus Internal Medicine 827 Linden Ave Baltimore, MD 21201 (410) 225-8800

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Marc Hochberg University Of Maryland Rheumatology 10 S Pine St MSTF 8-34 Baltimore, MD 21201 (410) 706-6474

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Lawrence D. Weber Baltimore VA Medical Center Internal Medicine 10 N Greene St Baltimore, MD 21201 (410) 605-7000

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Marlyn Lorenzo Rheumatology Associates 301 Saint Paul St Ste 411 Baltimore, MD 21202 (410) 332-9346

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Peter A. Holt Peter A Holt Md 5601 Loch Raven Blvd Ste 509 Baltimore, MD 21239 (410) 734-4290

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Gregory D. McCormack Rheumatology Associates 301 Saint Paul St Ste 411 Baltimore, MD 21202 (410) 332-9346

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Nazi Farsi Rheumatology Associates 301 Saint Paul St Ste 411 Baltimore, MD 21202 (410) 332-9346

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Lynn M. Ludmer Rheumatology Associates 1220B E Joppa Rd Ste 310 Towson, MD 21286 (410) 494-1888

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Howard W. Hauptman Rheumatology Associates 1220B E Joppa Rd Ste 310 Towson, MD 21286 (410) 494-1888

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Rebecca F. Marsden Rheumatology Associates 1220B E Joppa Rd Ste 310 Towson, MD 21286 (410) 494-1888

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Tazeen Rehman Rheumatology Associates 1220B E Joppa Rd Ste 310 Towson, MD 21286 (410) 494-1888

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Pamela Lentz Rheumatology Associates 1220B E Joppa Rd Ste 310 Towson, MD 21286 (410) 494-1888

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Bansari Gujarat Rheumatology Associates 1220B E Joppa Rd Ste 310 Towson, MD 21286 (410) 494-1888

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Michelle A. Petri Johns Hopkins Outpatient 601 N Caroline St FL 7 Baltimore, MD 21287 (410) 955-5268

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Jazibeh A. Qureshi Harbour Hospital Arthritis Center 2900 S Hanover St Ste 100 Brooklyn, MD 21225 (410) 350-8280

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Alan Baer John Hopkins University Rheumatology 4940 Eastern Ave Mason Lord Ste 1201 Baltimore, MD 21224 (410) 550-1887

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Rheumatoid Arthritis Center - Eldersburg, MD

CDC – Arthritis – Basics – Definition – Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the entire joint involving the cartilage, joint lining, ligaments, and underlying bone. The breakdown of these tissues eventually leads to pain and joint stiffness. The joints most commonly affected are the knees, hips, and those in the hands and spine. The specific causes of OA are unknown, but are believed to be a result of both mechanical and molecular events in the affected joint. Disease onset is gradual and usually begins after the age of 40. There is currently no cure for OA. Treatment for OA focuses on relieving symptoms and improving function, and can include a combination of patient education, physical therapy, weight control, use of medications, and eventually total joint replacement.

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CDC - Arthritis - Basics - Definition - Osteoarthritis

Arthritis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.[1][2] There are over 100 different forms of arthritis.[3][4] The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection.

The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often a constant and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue.

There are several diseases where joint pain is primary, and is considered the main feature. Generally when a person has "arthritis" it means that they have one of these diseases, which include:

Joint pain can also be a symptom of other diseases. In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease; these include:

An undifferentiated arthritis is an arthritis that does not fit into well-known clinical disease categories, possibly being an early stage of a definite rheumatic disease.[5]

Pain, which can vary in severity, is a common symptom in virtually all types of arthritis. Other symptoms include swelling, joint stiffness and aching around the joint(s). Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect other organs in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms.[7] Symptoms may include:

It is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur. For example, arthritic symptoms might make it difficult for a person to move around and/or exercise, which can lead to secondary effects, such as:

These changes, in addition to the primary symptoms, can have a huge impact on quality of life.

Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the USA. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis.[8]Absenteeism and frequent visits to the physician are common in individuals who have arthritis. Arthritis can make it very difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become home bound.

It is estimated that the total cost of arthritis cases is close to $100 billion of which almost 50% is from lost earnings. Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers.[9]

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Arthritis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Osteoarthritis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthrosis, is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.[1] The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the problems come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis, only the joints are typically affected.[2]

Causes include previous joint injury, abnormal joint or limb development, and inherited factors. Risk is greater in those who are overweight, have one leg of a different length, and have jobs that result in high levels of joint stress.[2][3] Osteoarthritis is believed to be caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low grade inflammatory processes.[4] It develops as cartilage is lost with eventually the underlying bone becoming affected.[2] As pain may make it difficult to exercise, muscle loss may occur.[3][5] Diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptom with medical imaging and other tests occasionally used to either support or rule out other problems. Unlike in rheumatoid arthritis, which is primarily an inflammatory condition, the joints do not typically become hot or red.[2]

Treatment includes exercise, efforts to decrease joint stress, support groups, and pain medications. Efforts to decrease joint stress include resting, the use of a cane, and braces. Weight loss may help in those who are overweight. Pain medications may include paracetamol (acetaminophen). If this does not work NSAIDs such as naproxen may be used but these medications are associated with greater side effects. Opioids if used are generally only recommended short term due to the risk of addiction.[2] If pain interferes with normal life despite other treatments, joint replacement surgery may help. An artificial joint, however, only lasts a limited amount of time.[3] Outcomes for most people with osteoarthritis are good.[2]

OA is the most common form of arthritis with disease of the knee and hip affecting about 3.8% of people as of 2010.[2][6] Among those over 60 years old about 10% of males and 18% of females are affected.[3] It is the cause of about 2% of years lived with disability.[6] In Australia about 1.9 million people are affected,[7] and in the United States about 27 million people are affected.[2] Before 45 years of age it is more common in men, while after 45 years of age it is more common in women. It becomes more common in both sexes as people become older.[2]

The main symptom is pain, causing loss of ability and often stiffness. "Pain" is generally described as a sharp ache or a burning sensation in the associated muscles and tendons. OA can cause a crackling noise (called "crepitus") when the affected joint is moved or touched and people may experience muscle spasms and contractions in the tendons. Occasionally, the joints may also be filled with fluid.[8] Some people report increased pain associated with cold temperature, high humidity, and/or a drop in barometric pressure, but studies have had mixed results.[9]

OA commonly affects the hands, feet, spine, and the large weight bearing joints, such as the hips and knees, although in theory, any joint in the body can be affected. As OA progresses, the affected joints appear larger, are stiff and painful, and usually feel better with gentle use but worse with excessive or prolonged use, thus distinguishing it from rheumatoid arthritis.

In smaller joints, such as at the fingers, hard bony enlargements, called Heberden's nodes (on the distal interphalangeal joints) and/or Bouchard's nodes (on the proximal interphalangeal joints), may form, and though they are not necessarily painful, they do limit the movement of the fingers significantly. OA at the toes leads to the formation of bunions, rendering them red or swollen. Some people notice these physical changes before they experience any pain.

OA is the most common cause of a joint effusion of the knee.[10]

Damage from mechanical stress with insufficient self repair by joints is believed to be the primary cause of osteoarthritis.[11] Sources of this stress may include misalignments of bones caused by congenital or pathogenic causes; mechanical injury; excess body weight; loss of strength in the muscles supporting a joint; and impairment of peripheral nerves, leading to sudden or uncoordinated movements.[11] However exercise, including running in the absence of injury, has not been found to increase the risk.[12] Nor has cracking one's knuckles been found to play a role.[13]

A number of studies have shown that there is a greater prevalence of the disease among siblings and especially identical twins, indicating a hereditary basis.[14] Although a single factor is not generally sufficient to cause the disease, about half of the variation in susceptibility has been assigned to genetic factors.[15]

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Osteoarthritis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CDC – Arthritis – Data and Statistics – Arthritis Related …

Note: There are different data sources for some of the arthritis-related statistics therefore; case definitions and terminology will also vary. Read more.

Nearly 1 in 2 people may develop symptomatic knee OA by age 85 years.

Two in three people who are obese may develop symptomatic knee OA in their lifetime.

1 in 4 people may develop painful hip arthritis in their lifetime.

Note: There are different data sources for some of the arthritis-related statistics therefore; case definitions and terminology will also vary. Read more.

An estimated 52.5 million adults in the United States reported being told by a doctor that they have some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia.

One in five (22.7%) adults in the United States report having doctor diagnosed arthritis.

In 2010-2012, 49.7% of adults 65 years or older reported an arthritis diagnosis.

By 2030, an estimated 67 million Americans ages 18 years or older are projected to have doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Arthritis & Rheumatism 2006;54(1):226-229 [Data Source: 2003 NHIS]

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Arthritis : Causes, Signs & Diagnosis – Healthline

What Is Arthritis?

Arthritis is inflammation of the joints (the points where bones meet) in one or more areas of the body. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis, all of which have different causes and treatment methods. The symptoms of arthritis usually appear gradually but they may also occur suddenly. Arthritis is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 65 but it can also develop in children and teens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, arthritis is more common in women than men and in those that are overweight (CDC).

Cartilage is a flexible, connective tissue in joints that absorbs the pressure and shock created from movement like running and walking. It also protects the joints and allows for smooth movement.

Some forms of arthritis are caused by a reduction in the normal amount of this cartilage tissue. Osteoarthritis, one of the most common forms of arthritis, is caused by normal wear and tear throughout life; this natural breakdown of cartilage tissue can be exacerbated by an infection or injury to the joints.

The risk of developing osteoarthritis may be higher if you have a family history of the disease.

Another common form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, occurs when your bodys immune system attacks the tissues of the body. These attacks affect the synovium, which secretes a fluid that nourishes the cartilage and lubricates the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis can eventually lead to the destruction of both bone and cartilage inside the joint. The exact cause of the immune systems attacks has not yet been discovered, but scientists have discovered genetic markers that increase your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis tenfold.

The most common symptoms of arthritis involve the joints. Joint pain and stiffness, mostly in the morning, are typical signs, along with swelling of the joints. You may also experience a decrease in range of motion of your joints or redness of the skin around the joint.

In the case of rheumatoid arthritis you may feel tired or experience a loss of appetite because of the inflammation caused by your bodys attacking immune system. You may also become anemic (experience decreased red blood cells) or have a slight fever. Severe rheumatoid arthritis can cause joint deformity if left untreated.

Diagnosis of arthritis will start with your physician performing a physical exam, during which he or she will check for limited range of motion in the joint, the feeling of fluid around joints, or warm or red joints. Extraction and analysis of your bodily fluids like blood and joint fluid can help your doctor determine what kind of arthritis you have by checking for inflammation levels. Imaging scans such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans are commonly used to produce an image of your bones and cartilage so your doctor can better determine whether something like a bone spur is the cause of your symptoms.

The main goal of treatment is to reduce the amount of pain youre experiencing and prevent any additional damage to the joints. Improving your joint function is also important, and you may be prescribed a combination of treatment methods to achieve the best results.

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Arthritis : Causes, Signs & Diagnosis - Healthline

CDC – Arthritis – Basics – Definition – Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes premature mortality, disability and compromised quality of life in the industrialized and developing world (1). Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease which manifests itself in multiple joints of the body. The inflammatory process primarily affects the lining of the joints (synovial membrane), but can also affect other organs. The inflamed synovium leads to erosions of the cartilage and bone and sometimes joint deformity. Pain, swelling, and redness are common joint manifestations. Although the causes are unknown, RA is believed to be the result of a faulty immune response. RA can begin at any age and is associated with fatigue and prolonged stiffness after rest. There is no cure for RA, but new effective drugs are increasingly available to treat the disease and prevent deformed joints. In addition to medications and surgery, good self-management, including exercise, are known to reduce pain and disability.

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The etiology, or cause, of RA is unknown. Many cases are believed to result from an interaction between genetic factors and environmental exposures.

Socio-demographics: The incidence of RA is typically two to three times higher in women than men. The onset of RA, in both women and men, is highest among those in their sixties(2)

Genetics: There is longstanding evidence that specific HLA class II genotypes are associated with increased risk. Most attention has been given to the DR4 and DRB1 molecules of the major histocompatability complex HLA class II genes. The strongest associations have been found between RA and the DRB1*0401 and DRB1*0404 alleles (12). More recent investigations indicate that of the more than 30 genes studied, the strongest candidate gene is PTPN22, a gene that has been linked to several autoimmune conditions(12).

Modifiable: Several modifiable risk factors have been studied in association with RA including reproductive hormonal exposures, tobacco use, dietary factors, and microbial exposures.

Smoking Among these risk factors, the strongest and most consistent evidence is for an association between smoking and RA. A history of smoking is associated with a modest to moderate (1.3 to 2.4 times) increased risk of RA onset (2). This relationship between smoking and RA is strongest among people who are ACPA-positive (anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies), a marker of auto-immune activity (12).

Reproductive and breastfeeding history Hormones related to reproduction have been studied extensively as potential risk factors for RA:

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CDC - Arthritis - Basics - Definition - Rheumatoid Arthritis

Share Club hosts arthritis informational event

Anyone suffering with arthritis knows how painful and difficult getting around can be. Last Tuesday, at the North Fort Myers Recreation Center, people who suffer from it got an opportunity to learn about treatments and the role exercise plays in minimizing its impact.

"Arthritis: It's No Walk in the Park" was sponsored by the Share Club and featured guest speakers, more than a dozen vendors, and even lunch and door prizes for the nearly 100 people who jammed into the meeting room.

The event, which was held at Lakes Park last year, was intended to inform people of the resources available to those who have arthritis, as well as treatment options.

Scott Strachan, a nurse at Abby's Services, a main sponsor that provides home care for those with arthritis, said the event was a replacement for the Jingle Bell Run, which was discontinued.

"We had guarded optimism the first year and it went over real well for an event of this nature," Strachan said. "We're supporting the folks who need the help and they're getting the information they want."

Among the guest speakers were Dr. David Eichten of Joint Implant Surgeons of Florida, who discussed and answered questions regarding the non-surgical treatments such as ibuprofen and other anti-inflammatory medications, glucosamine chondroitin, which he said was gentler on the liver and kidneys, though results were mixed, and injections, which lubricate joints and do not regrow cartilage.

When all that fails, Eichten discussed partial and full knee and hip replacements which he said can be done with minimal invasion, as well as advances being made in stem-cell research, which he said there has been plenty, although it's too expensive currently for most people to use that therapy.

Dr. Kath Kinross, a physical therapist with Lee Memorial Health System Outpatient Therapy, discussed ways to alleviate the pain of arthritis, as well as having those in attendance do some exercises such as sitting the standing and asking them to turn their seats toward her to reduce strain on the spine.

"I like to step a step back and talk about what we do before we get to that point. Arthritis is inflammation of the joints, and we can do a lot to help. The sooner we do it the less likely we end up needing surgery," Kinross said, adding that an initial injury that doesn't heal properly often begins the onset of arthritis.

Those in attendance found the event very informative, even if they didn't suffer much from arthritis.

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Share Club hosts arthritis informational event

Blood stem cells, Degenerative arthritis in a dog. – Video


Blood stem cells, Degenerative arthritis in a dog.
Degenerative arthritis in a dog. This Rottweiler was taken from the dog pound when he was 11. He was brought to me because of his serious arthritis. Even when his owners were having a barbecue...

By: Marco Polettini

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Blood stem cells, Degenerative arthritis in a dog. - Video

Arthritis | Treatment for arthritis | www.stemrx.in – Video


Arthritis | Treatment for arthritis | http://www.stemrx.in
Dr.P V Mahajan giving brief about arthritis diesease and symptoms of it. How we can use stem cell therapy to cure arthritis.For more details please +91-99872...

By: StemRx BioScience

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Arthritis | Treatment for arthritis | http://www.stemrx.in - Video

Dog’s arthritis greatly helped by stem cell treatment – Video


Dog's arthritis greatly helped by stem cell treatment
Lab with arthritis that made it hard to get up and go out to relieve himself received stem cell treatment at age of 9. Now 11, he keeps up with dogs half his age.

By: Parkview Veterinary Hospital, Boonton NJ

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Dog's arthritis greatly helped by stem cell treatment - Video

Kids get arthritis – Video


Kids get arthritis
http://www.anthonynolan.org/8-ways-you-could-save-life/donate-your-stem-cells/apply-join-our-register for people who might want to join the register to help adults and children like Alex.

By: LyndaM85

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Kids get arthritis - Video

Celltex supports Arthritis Foundation in annual Joints in Action Golf Tournament

Celltex Therapeutics Corporation (Celltex) helped sponsor the Ninth Annual Joints in Action Golf Tournament, which invites golf enthusiasts to play a round for a good cause.

The Tournament, founded by Dr. Bill Bryan and co-chaired by James Dumler and Lee Hollmann, took place on Thursday, Aug. 28 at the Kingwood Country Club in Kingwood and honored Dr. Stanley Jones, chief medical officer at Celltex, as this years medical honoree.

The annual charity event, which raises more than $200,000 every year for the Arthritis Foundation, helps to bring awareness to arthritis, the leading cause of disability in the United States.

One out of every five adults is stricken with arthritis and in Houston this number is even higher, where nearly one in every four adults is impacted. Adults are not the only ones living with arthritis; more than 300,000 children in the United States are affected and over 6,500 of these children are living in the Houston area.

Celltex, formed in 2011 by David G. Eller and Dr. Stanley Jones to spearhead breakthroughs in regenerative medicine through the use of adult, autologous, adipose-derived, mesenchymal stem cells, was invited to be this years presenting sponsor of the Joints in Action Golf Tournament. The Arthritis Foundation has remained committed to funding research to find cures for this debilitating disease and for over 60 years has provided support to those living with arthritis.

Over 20 teams participated in the tournament, all of which were invited to attend a celebratory dinner at the Kingwood Country Club, where Dr. Jones thanked everyone for their participation and support.

I am humbled and honored to join the remarkable honorees of this years Joints in Action Golf Tournament, says Dr. Jones, medical honoree of this years tournament. As someone whose career was nearly ended after an onset of autoimmune psoriatic arthritis, I was fortunate enough to find relief after receiving my own adult stem cells. My personal experience with medical breakthroughs like stem cell therapy is why I will continue to support this focused organization and its mission to find a cure for arthritis in all of its forms.

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Celltex supports Arthritis Foundation in annual Joints in Action Golf Tournament

Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

A small protein named GILZ appears to protect against the bone loss that often accompanies arthritis and its treatment, researchers report.

Arthritis as well as aging prompt the body to make more fat than bone, and the researchers have previously shown GILZ can restore a more youthful, healthy mix. It also tamps down inflammation, a major factor in arthritis.

Now they have early evidence that GILZ might one day be a better treatment option for arthritis patients than widely used synthetic glucocorticoids, which actually increase bone loss, said Dr. Xingming Shi, bone biologist at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University.

Their research is being presented at The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 2014 Annual Meeting Sept. 12-15 in Houston.

In addition to bone loss, glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, produce other side effects, including diabetes. While GILZ is induced by glucocorticoids, directly overexpressing the protein appears to better target sources of bone loss and inflammation and avoid these serious side effects. .

For this study, the focus was tumor necrosis factor alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine that helps regulate immune cells and is a major player in arthritis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha primarily works though promoting inflammation, which is great if the target is cancer. However, when tumor necrosis factor alpha becomes dysregulated, it can also cause diseases like arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

To look specifically at the impact on bone loss, the researchers crossed mice bred to overexpress tumor necrosis factor alpha throughout the body with mice that overexpressed GILZ in just their mesenchymal stem cells. These stem cells produce the osteoblasts, which make bone. They also make fat, and when the cells stop making as much bone, they tend to make more of it. Shi's lab has shown that GILZ can coax mesenchymal stem cells back to making more bone and less fat.

While the mice that overexpressed only tumor necrosis factor alpha quickly developed arthritis along with significant bone and weight loss, those that also overexpressed GILZ had significantly less bone loss, Shi said.

"Our previous studies have shown that the GILZ transgenic mouse can make more bone," said Dr. Nianlan Yang, MCG postdoctoral fellow. "We wanted to see if GILZ would still have a bone protective effect in an inflammatory environment similar to arthritis."

Next steps include developing an oral medication, a peptide specifically, that increases GILZ expression rather than the genetic alterations the researchers have used in animal models, said Yang. She just completed a National Arthritis Foundation fellowship, which helped support that effort. They also want to see if GILZ can prevent arthritis from developing in the face of inflammation.

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Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

Knee arthritis one year after bone marrow stem cells by Harry Adelson, N.D. – Video


Knee arthritis one year after bone marrow stem cells by Harry Adelson, N.D.
Christine discusses her results of her stem cell injection by Dr Harry Adelson for her arthritic knees http://www.docereclinics.com.

By: Harry Adelson, N.D.

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Knee arthritis one year after bone marrow stem cells by Harry Adelson, N.D. - Video

New knee op using stem cells could stop arthritis and extend sporting careers

Surgeons at the University Hospital Southampton have designed the new procedure to coat damaged cartilage with stem cells taken from the hip If successful, it will regenerate the remaining tissue, creating a permanent 'like-for-like' replacement for the first time Cartilage is a tough tissue covering the surface of joints and enables bones to slide over one another, reducing friction and acting as a shock absorber

By Lizzie Parry

Published: 07:05 EST, 23 July 2014 | Updated: 07:21 EST, 23 July 2014

Surgeons have designed a new operation which they hope could prevent the development of arthritis and extend sporting careers.

The procedure, which is currently being trialled at Southampton General Hospital, involves coating damaged cartilage with stem cells, taken from a patients own hip, and surgical glue.

If successful, it will regenerate the remaining tissue and create a permanent 'like-for-like' replacement for the first time.

Surgeons at University Hospital Southampton have pioneered a new operation to treat knee injuries, which they hope will extend sporting careers. Argentinian striker Luis Suarez had an operation to remove his damaged meniscus, part of the cartilage in the knee, prior to the World Cup

Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that covers the surface of joints and enables bones to slide over one another while reducing friction and acting as a shock absorber.

Damage to the tissue in the knee is common and occurs mainly following sudden twists or direct blows, such as falls or heavy tackles playing sports such as football and rugby, but can also develop over time through gradual wear and tear.

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New knee op using stem cells could stop arthritis and extend sporting careers

Knee arthritis six months after stem cell injection by Dr Harry Adelson – Video


Knee arthritis six months after stem cell injection by Dr Harry Adelson
Donald and Emma discuss their results six months after their stem cell injection into their arthritic knees by Dr Harry Adelson.

By: Harry Adelson, N.D.

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Knee arthritis six months after stem cell injection by Dr Harry Adelson - Video

Rheumatoid arthritis | umbilical cord stem cells for ra – Video


Rheumatoid arthritis | umbilical cord stem cells for ra
http://www.arthritistreatmentcenter.com Another type of stem cell that could hold potential for rheumatoid arthritis treatment... next Umbilical cord stem cells may be useful in the treatment...

By: Nathan Wei

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Rheumatoid arthritis | umbilical cord stem cells for ra - Video

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