IPS Cell Therapy – Page 5423 IPS Cell Therapy

Posted: May 31, 2017 at 8:41 pm

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Stem Cell Research is an amazing field right now, and promises to be a powerful and potent tool to help us live longer and healthier lives. Just last month, for example, Stem Cell Therapy was used to restore sight in patients with severe retinal deterioration, allowing them to see clearer than they had in years, or even decades.

Now, there is another form of Stem Cell Treatment on the horizonthis one of a very different form. Stem Cells have now been used as a mechanism to deliver medical treatment designed to eliminate cancer cells, even in hard to reach places. One issue with current cancer treatments is that, treatments that are effective at treating tumors on the surface of the brain cannot be performed safely when the tumor is deeper within the brains tissues.

Stem Cells have the fantastic ability to transform into any other kind of cell within the human body, given the appropriate stimulation. As of today, most of these cells come from Embryonic Lines, but researchers are learning how to backwards engineer cells in the human body, reverting them back to their embryonic state. These cells are known as Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

How Does This Stem Cell Cancer Treatment Work?

Using genetic engineering, it is possible to create stem cells that are designed to release a chemical known as Pseudomonas Exotoxin, which has the ability to destroy certain tumor cells in the human brain.

What is Pseudomonas Exotoxin?

Pseudomonas Exotoxin is a compound that is naturally released by a form of bacteria known as Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. This chemical is toxic to brain tumor cells because it prevents polypeptides from growing longer, essentially preventing the polypeptides from growing and reproducing. When used in a specific manner, this toxin has the ability to destroy cancerous and malignant tissue without negatively impacting healthy tissue. In addition to its potential as a cancer treatment, there is also evidence that the therapy could be used for the treatment of Hepatitis B.

PE and Similar Toxins Have been Used Therapeutically in the Past

As of now, this chemical, which we will refer to for the rest of the article as PE, has been used as a cancer treatment before, but there are major limitations regarding the use of PE for particular cancers, not because of the risks of the treatment, but because of the lack of an effective method to deliver the medication to where it is needed.

For example, similar chemicals have been highly effective in the treatment of a large number of blood cancers, but havent been nearly as effective in larger, more inaccessible tumors. The chemicals break down or become metabolized before they can fully do their job.

How do Stem Cells Increase the Effectiveness of PE Cancer Treatment

Right now, PE has to be created in a laboratory before it is administered, which is not very effective for these embedded cancers. By using Stem Cells as an intermediary, it is possible to deliver the medication to deeper areas of the brain more effectively, theoretically highly increasing the efficacy of the treatment.

The leader of this Stem Cell Research is Harvard researcher Dr. Khalis Shah. His goal was to find an effective means to treat these deep brain tumors which are not easily treated by methods available today. In utilizing Stem Cells, Dr. Shah has potentially found a means by which the stem cells can constantly deliver this Cancer Toxin to the tumor area. The cells remain active and are fed by the body, which allows them to provide a steady stream of treatment that is impossible to provide via any other known method.

This research is still in its early stages, and has not yet reached human trials, but in mice, the PE Toxin worked exactly as hypothesized and was able to starve out tumors by preventing them from replicating effectively.

Perhaps this might seem a bit less complicated than it actually is. One of the major hurdles that had to be overcome was that this Toxin would normally be strong enough to kill the cell that hosted it. In order for the Stem Cells to release the cancer, they had to be able to withstand the effects of PE, themselves. Using genetic engineering, Dr. Shah and his associates were able to create a cell that is capable of both producing and withstanding the effects of the toxin.

Stem Cell delivered medical therapy is a 21st century form of medical treatment that researchers are just beginning to learn how to effectively utilize. Essentially, this treatment takes a stem cell and converts it into a unique symbiotic tool capable of feeding off of the host for energy in order to perform a potentially life-saving function. Its really quite fascinating.

How Does PE Not Damage or Kill Brain Cells Indiscriminately?

You might be concerned about the idea of a patient having a toxin injected into the brain to cure a disease. It sounds almost like a dangerous, tribal, homeopathic remedy. In reality, the researchers have been able to harness the destructive power of the toxin and re-engineer it so that it directly targets cancer cells while having limited negative effects on healthy, non-cancerous tissue.

The toxin does its damage after it has been absorbed by a cell. By retooling the toxin so that it does not readily absorb into healthy cells, the dangers associated with having such a potentially dangerous toxin in the brain are seriously and significantly mitigated.

Beyond that, Dr. Shah and his associates have been able to take steps to effectively turn off PE while it is inside the host stem cell, and only activates when it has entered the cancerous tissue. Dr. Shah explains that, although this research has only been conducted in animal subjects, there is no known reason why the effectiveness and safety of the treatment would not be applicable to human patients.

In this treatment, surgeons remove as much of the tumor as possible from the brain, and insert the engineered Stem Cells submerged in a sterile gel in the area where the tumor was removed or partially still exists. Researchers found that, when they used this treatment on laboratory rats, they could tell through imaging and analysis that the modified PE toxin effectively killed the cancer cells, and that this cancer treatment effectively lengthened the life of the rat, as compared to control subjects.

Whats the Next Step?

Of course, cancer treatment is far more complex than a single treatment, no matter how effective that treatment may be. Because human cancer treatment is a comprehensive therapy approach, the end goal of this research is to create a form of therapy in which the method used in animal subjects is combined with other existing approaches, increasing and maximizing the effectiveness of the comprehensive treatment.

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A recent change in how well we understand stem cells may make it easier for scientists and researchers to gather stem cells for use in scientific research as well as medical application. A new study was released in the research publication, Cell, which was performed by representatives from the University of California San Francisco.

One of the issues which hinder the use of stem cells as a more widespread treatment or field of research is that researchers and patients have a bottleneck of available healthy stem cell lines which can be used for research. Researchers hope that this new discovery will allow future scientific discoveries and applications in the areas of creating new and healthy tissue for patients with kidney failure or any other form of organ tissue failure. The future of medical therapy lies with Stem Cell Research, but many other forms of treatment, including Hormone Replacement Therapy, are already in practice today.

Researchers have discovered that it is possible to essentially flip a switch in an adult cell, reverting it back to the preliminary state at which cells existed in one of the earliest stages of developmentthe embryonic stem cell. Medical researchers hypothesize that Stem Cell treatments could be used for a variety of medical health issues which plague the world today, including kidney failure, liver disease, and Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes.

Use of Embryonic Stem Cells Contentious

There is an ethical issue in Stem Cell Research today. Many Pro-Life Advocates are vociferously against the use of Embryonic Stem Cells harvested from procedures such as fertility treatments designed for conception. They believe that the use of embryonic stem cells harvested from donors and couples looking to conceive is unethical.

Using current research, it may be possible to bypass this ethical quandary completely by using adult cells and converting them into embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, because these stem cells are genetic derivatives of the patient from which the adult cells were harvested, this potentially paves the way for patient-specific medical treatments using stem cells.

After adult cells have been converted back into Embryonic Stem Cells, it will be possible to convert them into any possible cell that the patient needs or would benefit from.

Hijacking the Blueprint of the Cell Allows Scientists to Revert Adult Cells to their Earliest State

Researchers have increased the capacity to produce Embryonic Stem Cells by identifying previously unrecognized biochemical processes which tell human cells how to develop. In essence, researchers have discovered how the body blueprints cells, and can change the blueprints so that a new cell is made.

By utilizing these newly recognized pathways, it is possible to create new stem cells more quickly than ever before. One of the researchers explains the implications of this research. Dr. Miguel Ramalho-Santos is an associate professor of obstetrics, medicine, and cancer research at the University of California San Francisco. Dr. Ramalho-Santos is also a member of the Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research.

He explains that these stem cell discoveries have the ability to alter the way that the medical sciences can take advantage of stem cells with regard to both cancer research and regenerative medicine. Dr. Ramalho-Santos was the lead researcher for this study, and the research was largely funded by the Director of the National Institutes of Health New Innovator Award, granted to promising young researchers which are leading highly innovative and promising medical research studies.

Dr. Ramalho-Santos research builds off of earlier research which discovered that it was possible to take adult cells and turn them back into embryonic stem cells. These stem cells dont have any inherent aging processes, and they can be turned into any other kind of tissue. In the process of this conversion, the adult cells lose all of their unique characteristics, leaving them in an ultimately immature and malleable state.

This earlier research was conducted by researchers from UC San Francisco in partnership with Dr. Shinya Yamanaka from Kyoto University and Gladstone Institutes. These entities all gained a piece of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine from their part in the study.

Pluripotent Stem Cells vs. Embryonic Stem Cells

Thus far, weve described these cells as Embryonic Stem Cells, but in fact, the more accurate term for these cells are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS). These cells are biologically and functionally similar to Embryonic Stem Cells, but have a different name because they are sourced from adult cells. The difference between Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Embryonic Stem Cells is that Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells do seem to retain some of the characteristics of their previous state, which appears to limit their ability to convert into any other type of cell. This new research identifies new pathways by which it may be possible to increase the number of cells that an individual IPS Cell can turn into, perhaps allowing them to convert into any other kind of human cell.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells are not explicitly considered an alternative to Embryonic Stem Cells, but are considered a different approach to produce similar cells. If researchers fully uncover the mechanisms of how to reprogram these cells, it will lower many barriers to stem cell research and the availability of stem cell treatments.

As of today, researchers have figured out how to make these Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, but the percentage of adult cells which are reverted successfully is quite low, and frequently, these cells still show some aspects of specialization, which limits their use.

How Do Scientists Make Stem Cells From Adult Cells?

There are genes within every cell which have the ability to induce pluripotency, reverting the cell to an earlier stage of specialization. The initial stage of this process is the result of activating Yamanaka Factors, specific genes that initiate this reversion process.

As of today, this process of de-maturation is not completely understood, and researchers realized from the start that the cells they created were not truly identical to Embryonic Stem Cells, because they still showed signs of their former lives, which often prevented them from being successfully reprogrammed.

The new research conducted by Dr. Ramalho-Santos appears to increase our knowledge regarding how these cells work, and how to program them more effectively. Dr. Ramalho-Santos and his team discovered more genes associated with these programming/reprogramming processes, and by manipulating them, they have increased the viability and range of particular stem cells.

It appears that these genetic impulses are constantly at play to maintain the structure and function of a cell, and that by systematically removing these safeguards, it is possible to increase the ability to alter these cells.

This research increases researchers ability to produce these stem cells, by increasing the ability of medical scientists to produce adequate numbers of stem cells, while also increasing the range of potential treatment options by more effectively inducing the total pluripotency which is available in Embryonic Stem Cells. This research may also help scientists treat certain forms of cancer which are the result of malfunctions of these genes.

Dr. Patrick W. Thomas Published 7:00 p.m. ET May 30, 2017 | Updated 9 hours ago

Dr. Patrick W. Thomas, chief of cardiology at New York-Presbyterian Hudson Valley Hospital, supports state legislation to raise the age for tobacco sales to 21. Dr. Thomas is also president of the Board of Directors for the Putnam County Division of the American Heart Association. Video by Nancy Cutler/lohud Wochit

Those who seek support to stop smoking are more likely to succeed.(Photo: AndreyPopov, Getty Images/iStockphoto)

I see it in my cardiology practice each day the deadly effects of smoking: The obvious health implications, the attempts to quitand the resignation that comes when those quitting attempts fail. Tobacco addiction causes heart disease, damage to arteries throughout the body, chronic and debilitating breathing issues, stroke, aneurysms, cancer. The list goes on.

I prescribe medications (such as nicotine replacement therapies) and offer information for group or individual counseling. Most patients who smoke want to quit but the addiction is just too strong.

As a health-care provider, it is my job to speak out to break the cycle of tobacco addiction, and thats exactly what legislation thats been proposed to raise the age of sale for tobacco products in New York would do and our lawmakers have just a few weeks to move on it.

WESTCHESTER: County mulls age change for tobacco sales

TOMPKINS COUNTY: Legislators raise tobacco age to 21

Sponsored in the Senate by Sen. Diane Savino (S03978) and in the Assembly by Assemblywoman Linda Rosenthal (A0273), the legislation will raise the legal sale age for tobacco products from 18 to 21 statewide.

I know that not one of my patients who smokes would say he or she is glad to have started smoking. Some admit they wont live their lives without it, and some have paid a high price for their addiction but its too hard for them to quit.

And any of those smokers, most of whom started when they were young, would say they dont want to see future generations become addicted to deadly tobacco. Not their kids, grandkids or neighbors. We know that 95 percent of smokers started before age 21. Young people are warned of the reality of tobaccos addiction, but thats not enough we need to do all that is possible to keep these deadly products away from our children.

New York state lawmakers are considering an increase in the age to legally buy tobacco products from age 18 to 21. Joseph Spector, Albany Bureau

The Tobacco 21 bill, as it is known, will not totally prevent smoking. It will not help those who already have started smoking their addiction is likely already too strong. But it can help prevent others from starting. It is another tool for helping keep tobacco out of the hands of high school kids.

Kids tell us that its easy to get tobacco from older kids. Preventing the flow of products from older kids to younger kids is critical. Not many 21-year-olds are still in high school social circles, but plenty of 18- and 19-year-olds are and they supply the cigarettes, chew, and other products to those younger than them.

And the tobacco industry knows it. Theyve been on the record for years saying that laws such as this would gut their next generation of smokers.

As doctors, parents, lawmakers, isnt that exactly what we should be doing? Doing everything we can to prevent unnecessary deaths and illness caused by tobacco?

I commend the work thats been done across all corners of our state to drive this sort of regulation on the local level. From Tompkins County to New York City, and in nearby Orange and Sullivan counties, local leaders have taken this issue head on and have seen widespread support. In fact, to date, more than 55 percent of New Yorkers already livein an area covered by Tobacco 21 legislation. Its a good start, but a mishmash of town and county laws wont get the job done. We need statewide action on this public health crisis.

I urge the New York State Legislature to work to pass Tobacco 21 legislation this session.

The writer is chief of cardiology at New York-Presbyterian Hudson Valley Hospital and president of the Board of Directors for the Putnam County Division of the American Heart Association.

Dr. Patrick W. Thomas(Photo: SUBMITTED/Howard Copeland of Scotts Camera in Peekskill)

Read or Share this story: http://www.lohud.com/story/opinion/contributors/2017/05/30/cardiologist-tobacco-sales-21/354055001/

Original post: Take it from a cardiologist: Tobacco sales should be restricted to 21 and over The Journal News | LoHud.com

TAIPEI, Taiwan, May 30, 2017 /PRNewswire/ TaiGen Biotechnology Company, Limited (TaiGen) today announced that it has submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) for the intravenous formulation of Taigexyn (Nemonoxacin) to the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). Taigexyn is a novel non-fluorinated quinolone antibiotic.The NDA submission is supported by a pivotal Phase 3 trial comparing intravenous formulations of Taigexyn 500 mg to levofloxacin 500 mg in 518 patients with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia. The clinical success rates were 91.8% for Taigexyn vs. 85.7% for levofloxacin and Taigexyn was shown to be non-inferior to levofloxacin meeting the primary endpoint of the pivotal trial.

About Taigexyn Taigexyn is a novel broad spectrum antibiotic with excellent efficacy against drug-resistant bacteria available in both oral and intravenous formulations. The oral formulation is already approved for marketing and launched in Taiwan and mainland China. In addition, Taigexyn is also partnered in Russia, Commonwealth Independent States, Turkey, Mexico, Brazil and the Latin American territory for a total 32 countries worldwide.

Link: TaiGen Biotechnology Announces Submission of New Drug Application for Taigexyn Intravenous Formulation to the PR Newswire (press release)

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 8-K

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): May30, 2017 (May 24, 2017)

PUMA BIOTECHNOLOGY, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

10880 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 2150

Los Angeles, California 90024

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(424) 248-6500

(Registrants telephone number, including area code)

N/A

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (240.12b-2 of this chapter).

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

On May24, 2017, Puma Biotechnology, Inc. (the Company) announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) voted 12 to 4 to recommend approval of PB272 (neratinib) for the extended adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early stage breast cancer based on finding that the risk-benefit profile of neratinib is favorable. Neratinib is an investigational therapy for the extended adjuvant treatment of early stage HER2-positive breast cancer that has previously been treated with a trastuzumab containing regimen.

ODAC is an independent panel of experts that evaluates data concerning the efficacy and safety of marketed and investigational products for use in the treatment of cancer and makes appropriate recommendations to the FDA. Although the FDA will consider the recommendation of the panel, the final decision regarding the approval of the product is made by the FDA solely, and the recommendations by the panel are non-binding.

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IPS Cell Therapy – Page 5423 IPS Cell Therapy

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