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Archive for the ‘Gene Therapy Research’ Category

Inheritance: How "Rare" Diseases Unlock Cures for Everyone – Video


Inheritance: How "Rare" Diseases Unlock Cures for Everyone
Order here: http://amzn.to/1dIUAOa Adapted from -- Inheritance: How Our Genes Change Our Lives--and Our Lives Change Our Genes by Sharon Moalem Text: "Today,...

By: Sharon Moalem

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Inheritance: How "Rare" Diseases Unlock Cures for Everyone - Video

Genetics of Color Adaptation – Hopi Hoekstra – Video


Genetics of Color Adaptation - Hopi Hoekstra
Source - http://serious-science.org/videos/718 Harvard Prof. Hopi Hoekstra on beneficial mutations, wild mice as a model system, and patterns of genetic vari...

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Genetics of Color Adaptation - Hopi Hoekstra - Video

Timothytrespas:Morgellons microwaves genetics virus stress is killing me – Video


Timothytrespas:Morgellons microwaves genetics virus stress is killing me
Targeted individual timothytrespas: Morgellons microwaves genetic stress Eating my face Boy do I look like shit! and I feel like shit most of the time. I was...

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Timothytrespas:Morgellons microwaves genetics virus stress is killing me - Video

BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Mutation: Dr. Peter Hulick (Medical Genetics) – Video


BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Mutation: Dr. Peter Hulick (Medical Genetics)
Peter Hulick, MD, MMsc, Medical Geneticist at NorthShore, discusses the increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer in women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 g...

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BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Mutation: Dr. Peter Hulick (Medical Genetics) - Video

ABT: Episode 1: Advanced Genetics! – Video


ABT: Episode 1: Advanced Genetics!
Today I am starting a new series called the completely original ABT or Attack of the B Team!!! Today we are working on some advanced genetics mod!!! Sorry ab...

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ABT: Episode 1: Advanced Genetics! - Video

VaderVision – How basic Genetics concepts relate to Cannabis Breeding – Video


VaderVision - How basic Genetics concepts relate to Cannabis Breeding
Genetics? This is a basic look at breeding potential of cannabis. We are going to jump right in to phenotypes and genotypes. So for every characteristic that...

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VaderVision - How basic Genetics concepts relate to Cannabis Breeding - Video

F215 xenotransplantation & gene therapy – Video


F215 xenotransplantation gene therapy
f215 xenotransplantation gene therapy njlm.

By: Neil Moore

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F215 xenotransplantation & gene therapy - Video

Stem Cell Therapy | Stem cells from osteoarthritis patients as good as controls? – Video


Stem Cell Therapy | Stem cells from osteoarthritis patients as good as controls?
http://wwwarthritistreatmentcenter.com Stem cells from patients with osteoarthritis are as good as normal controls Alwin Scharstuhl and colleagues, in an art...

By: Nathan Wei

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Stem Cell Therapy | Stem cells from osteoarthritis patients as good as controls? - Video

Annie – Before Stem Cell – Video


Annie - Before Stem Cell
Here are some REAL results from stem cell therapy. This is Annie before her stem cell therapy treatment.

By: Stacey Ragsdale

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Annie - Before Stem Cell - Video

GOODIE MOB – Cell Therapy (Official Music Video) – Video


GOODIE MOB - Cell Therapy (Official Music Video)
From the album "Soul Food" iTunes: http://www.smarturl.it/GoodieMob_SoulFood Connect with Goodie Mob: Website: http://www.GoodieMobMusic.com Facebook: https:...

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GOODIE MOB - Cell Therapy (Official Music Video) - Video

Interaction Between RNA And DNA Of Fragile X Gene Causes The Disease

February 28, 2014

Brett Smith for redOrbit.com Your Universe Online

New research from a team of American researchers has found a genetic mechanism that shuts off the gene associated with fragile X syndrome which causes developmental disorders such as mental retardation and autism.

According to the teams report in the journal Science, they were successfully able to a test drug that blocks this blocking mechanism.

While it has been known that the syndrome is driven by the excessive repetition of the certain portion of the genetic code, geneticists havent known why these repetitions set off the disease.

To reach their findings, the team used donated stem cells from human embryos that tested positive for fragile X syndrome.

These stem cells were critical to the success of this research, because they alone allowed us to mimic what happens to the fragile X gene during embryonic development, said study author Dilek Colak, a postdoctoral scientist at Cornell Universitys Weill Cornell Medical College.

The stem cells were stimulated to become brain cells and at an early point in their development about 50 days protein-producing messenger RNA (mRNA) in the cells was seen sticking to the syndrome-causing DNA. This joining made the gene inactive and not able to produce an important protein that facilitates signaling between brain cells.

Until 11 weeks of gestation, the fragile X syndrome gene is active it produces its messenger RNA and protein normally. Then, all of a sudden it turns off, and stays off for the rest of the patients lifetime, causing fragile X syndrome. But scientists have not understood why this gene gets shut off, said study author Samie Jaffrey, a professor of pharmacology at Weill Cornell Medical College. We discovered that the messenger RNA can jam up one strand of the genes DNA, shutting down the gene which was not known before.

This is new biology an interaction between the RNA and the DNA of the fragile X syndrome gene causes disease, he added. We are coming to understand that RNAs are powerful molecules that can regulate gene expression, but this mechanism is completely novel and very exciting.

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Interaction Between RNA And DNA Of Fragile X Gene Causes The Disease

Genetic Engineering Pushback Against GMO Foods

Demand for food free of genetically modified organisms is growing fast and nowhere stronger than in British Columbia.

North American retail sales of Non-GMO Project verified foods have grown more than 300 per cent in three years, from $1.3 billion in 2011 to $5 billion today.

Products that display both an organic and non-GMO certification are out-selling their competitors five to one at Whole Foods Markets, company spokesman Joe Kennedy recently told a conference organized by the B.C. Food Processors Association.

The market share for organic groceries in B.C. is already double that of the rest of Canada, according to the Canada Organic Trade Association. Its 2013 market report found that two thirds of British Columbians buy organic foods each week and more than half of those surveyed said they want to avoid GMOs in their food.

A recent Ipsos Reid poll of 1,200 Canadians conducted for BioAccess Commercialization Centre, a non-profit organization that supports the natural foods industry, suggests that British Columbians are more likely to look for a non-GMO label than other Canadians.

But the Ipsos Reid survey also found widespread confusion about which crops, fruit and vegetables are likely to be the product of genetic engineering.

More than 60 per cent of respondents identified strawberries as a product of genetic engineering, but there are no commercially grown GE strawberries. Only 42 per cent identified tofu as a GMO product, despite the fact that more than 90 per cent of soybeans grown in North America are genetically engineered.

So many shoppers are convinced that perfect, red hothouse tomatoes are the result of genetic engineering that B.C.-based grower Houweling's Tomatoes obtained Non-GMO Project verification. There are no GE tomatoes on store shelves in Canada.

Explaining GMOs Genetically engineered or GE lifeforms - popularly known as genetically modified organisms or GMOs - are created when the genetic code of an organism is altered to express a desirable trait or when code containing undesirable traits is silenced or removed. Much of the opposition to genetic engineering of foods is focused on the practice of inserting genetic code from one organism into another, which cannot occur under natural circumstances. At its heart, genetic engineering is a short cut that scientists devised to speed up the work of selective breeding of plants into more useful and productive forms and to resist threats from the environment. Such selective breeding has been going on for most of human history and nearly every food crop grown today has been genetically modified through this older process.

What could have been a public relations coup for biotechnology with the promise to provide the world more nutritious, less expensive food using fewer resources has become a nasty fight driven by dislike of corporate power and fears of uncontrolled environmental and health effects. Companies such as Monsanto, Syngenta, Dupont and Bayer CropScience, which dominate the biotechnology landscape with billions of dollars in sales, are fighting allegations that they are using intellectual property law to monopolize the world's seeds and by extension the world's food supply.

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Genetic Engineering Pushback Against GMO Foods

What are GMOs and why are they here?

What are GMOs?

Genetically modified organisms - or more precisely genetically engineered organisms - are created when the genetic code of a life form is altered in a way that is not possible by natural processes. Genetic code may be removed, silenced or replaced by genetic code from another organism to promote the expression of desirable traits such as resistance to pests, or eliminate undesirable traits, such as susceptibility to disease. One of the first widely used GE crops was created by fusing a gene derived from a bacteria into the DNA of soybeans, making them resistant to the herbicide Roundup.

Bt corn was made resistant to insects by inserting a gene from a naturally occurring soil bacterium that produces a protein toxic to insect larvae, but harmless to mammals. A spray version of Bt toxin has been in use for more than 50 years. New technologies allow scientists to rewrite specic sections of genetic code without introducing outside genetic material, a technique recently used with success on monkeys.

Are certified organic and Non-GMO Project-verified foods GMO-free?

No. In the real world, pollen drifts, supply chains are shared and a low-level presence of GMOs in much of our food is a fact of life. This is why the Canadian government does not allow products to be labelled "GE free" or "GMO free."

But certified foods almost certainly contain less GE material than foods that do not carry certifi-cation. Products certified as organic may not be grown from GE seed nor can they contain ingredients derived from GMOs. However, organic certification is process-based, meaning that growers and processors must adhere to certain practices, which may not include testing for the low-level presence of GMOs. Detectable residue from GMOs does not necessarily constitute a violation of certification standards. Non-GMO Project verification does require testing for ingredients such as corn or soy, which have widely grown GE versions. Supply chain segregation, traceability and quality controls are employed to reduce risk that GMOs are present in the final product. The Non-GMO Project uses an "action threshold" of 0.9 per cent GMO. At or below is OK, above is not. The European Union employs the same threshold for food imports.

Are farmers starting to abandon GE crops?

Maybe, maybe not. It seems as if every anti-GMO activist has heard of farmers turning away from GE crops. So far, acreage numbers and biotech companies' balance sheets suggest otherwise. In 2012, more than 97 per cent of canola grown in Canada was GE, according to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. Global acreage under biotech crops rose six per cent, reaching a record 170 million acres in 2012, 52 per cent of that in the developing world. Global GE acreage increases in 2012 over the previous year include canola (+5%), maize (+4%), cotton (+7%) and soybeans (+8%).

Where are the GMOs hiding?

In plain sight. A handful of genetically engineered foods are in plain sight. Many thousands of ready-to-eat and processed foods contain ingredients such as oil, sugar, starch and protein made from the main GE commodity crops: corn, soy, sugar beets, canola and cottonseed. None of the genetically engineered whole foods or foods containing ingredients derived from GE commodity crops is required to be labelled in the United States or Canada.

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What are GMOs and why are they here?

Gene Study Offers Clues to Why Autism Strikes More Males

By Mary Brophy Marcus HealthDay Reporter

THURSDAY, Feb. 27, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new DNA study begins to explain why girls are less likely than boys to have an autism spectrum disorder.

It turns out that girls tend not to develop autism when only mild genetic abnormalities exist, the researchers said. But when they are diagnosed with the disorder, they are more likely to have more extreme genetic mutations than boys who show the same symptoms.

"Girls tolerate neurodevelopmental mutations more than boys do. This is really what the study shows," said study author Sebastien Jacquemont, an assistant professor of genetic medicine at the University Hospital of Lausanne, in Switzerland.

"To push a girl over the threshold for autism or any of these neurodevelopmental disorders, it takes more of these mutations," Jacquemont added. "It's about resilience to genetic insult."

The dilemma is that the researchers don't really know why this is so. "It's more of an observation at a molecular level," Jacquemont noted.

In the study, the Swiss researchers collaborated with scientists from the University of Washington School of Medicine to analyze about 16,000 DNA samples and sequencing data sets from people with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders.

The investigators also analyzed genetic data from almost 800 families affected by autism for the study, which was released online Feb. 27 in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

The researchers analyzed copy-number variants (CNVs), which are individual variations in the number of copies of a particular gene. They also looked at single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), which are DNA sequence variations affecting a single nucleotide. Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of DNA.

The study found that females diagnosed with any neurodevelopmental disorder, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability, had more harmful CNVs than males who were diagnosed with the same disorder. Females with autism also had more harmful SNVs than males with the condition.

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Gene Study Offers Clues to Why Autism Strikes More Males

Seattle Genetics Presents Data on Adcetris – Analyst Blog

Seattle Genetics ( SGEN ) presented positive data on Adcetris at the 2014 Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Tandem Meeting. Shares rose 2.4% on the news.

Adcetris is approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). Seattle Genetics is looking to expand Adcetris' label. Interim data was presented from a phase I/II study to evaluate Adcetris in combination with Treanda for HL patients after first relapse.

The single-arm, open-label study is divided into two cohorts. The cohorts' primary endpoint is to find the recommended dosing level of Treanda in combination with Adcetris and evaluate the safety and tolerability of this combination.

The study revealed that after a median of two cycles of therapy, 92% of patients who were evaluated for response achieved an objective response. Data showed that 77% achieved complete remission while 15% showed partial remission.

Seattle Genetics also completed the treatment of all patients in a phase III study, AETHERA. The study is evaluating HL patients following autologous stem cell transplant. Patient demographics from this study were also presented at the meeting.

The primary endpoint of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is progression-free survival. In response to salvage therapy, 38% of patients achieved complete remission while 34% showed partial remission. In response relating to frontline therapy, 60% of patients were refractory and 33% relapsed in less than 12 months. The primary efficacy results will be out in the second half of 2014.

Seattle Genetics carries a Zacks Rank #3 (Hold). Adcetris is at present approved in 39 countries. Adcetris' revenues in the year 2013 were $144.7 million. We expect investor focus to remain on the sales ramp up of the drug and further label expansion.

Investors looking for better-ranked stocks in the pharma sector may consider companies like Forest Laboratories Inc. ( FRX ), Actavis plc ( ACT ) and Lannett Co., Inc. ( LCI ). Actavis carries a Zacks Rank #2 (Buy) while Lannett and Forest Labs carry a Zacks Rank #1 (Strong Buy).

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Seattle Genetics Presents Data on Adcetris - Analyst Blog

The Maasai of Kenya

Kevin Borland posted a photo:

The Maasai of Kenya

The Maasai are an ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known of African ethnic groups, due to their distinctive customs and dress and residence near the many game parks of East Africa. I came across these four Maasai tribesmen in Nairobi National Park, Keyna.

Maasai DNA
Recent studies of Maasai DNA reveal a complex history of the Maasai people. In 2005, Elizabeth Wood, et al., sampled the Y-DNA of 26 Maasai tribesmen, and from this sample determined that 50% of the individuals had Y-DNA of Haplogroup E1b1b1 (M35), 27% had A3b2 (M13), 16% had E1b1a1 (M2), and 8% B2a (M150). An explanation of each, in the context of the history of the Maasai, follows.

Eastern Sudanic Ancestry
The largest Y-DNA found among the Maasai sample, E1b1b1, represents Eastern Sudanic ancestry (although it is also associated with certain other "Nilo-Saharan" populations). One would expect to see a high percentage of this haplogroup based on the fact that the Maasai speak a Nilotic (Eastern Sudanic) language. However, based on the fact that only 50% of their DNA is Eastern Sudanic, it would appear that the Maasai are remnants of an older culture whose language went extinct after prolonged contact and interbreeding with Nilotic peoples. Examining the other components of their Y-DNA is the key to understanding the origin of the Maasai.

Niger-Congo Ancestry
Haplogroup E1b1a1 represents a component of the Masaai ancestry common among most Sub-Saharan populations, indicating Niger-Congo ancestry. The most likely source of this haplogroup is the Bantu expansion, whereby Bantu-speaking peoples spread across Sub-Saharan Africa from East to West, generally. However, this haplogroup does not reveal the ancient origin of the Masaai people.

Pygmy and Khoisan Ancestry
It would appear that prior to the Bantu expansion and the southward migration of the Nilotic peoples, the Maasai were a combination of Pygmy and Khoisan people, assuming that haplogroup B is the African Pygmy modal haplogroup and A3b is the Khoisan or "Bushman" modal haplogroup. The deep components of Masaai DNA suggest an admixture between the most divergent branch of the Pygmies and the most divergent branch of the Khoisan. Most Pygmy populations exhibit a significant percent of the B2b clade, whereas the Maasai exhibit the B2a sister clade. Most Khoisan peoples exhibit a significant percent of the A3b1 clade, whereas the Maasai exhibit the A3b2 sister clade. It would appear that the distant ancestors of the early Maasai (excluding recent Supra-Saharan admixture) were a mixture of members of two ancient African hunter-gatherer cultures. The spread of Nilotic and Bantu culture wiped out the entire language families of the component populations, although the Maasai maintained much of their ancient nomadic culture.

Maasai DNA Reveals Origins of Sandawe People
Until recently, the Sandawe people, although living in Tanzania, were considered to be closely related to the Khoisan ethnicities of the Kalahari desert. Much of this presumption was based on the fact that like the Kalahari Bushmen, the Sandawe speak a click language. However, in 2007, Sarah Tishkoff, et al., conducted a study on the Y-DNA of 68 Sandawe people. The results were more complicated than even the Maasai. However, excluding the 56 individuals who tested for Supra-Saharan Y-DNA (Eastern Sudanic and Niger-Congo haplogroups described above), the remaining 12 individuals exhibited 72% haplogroup B2b (M112), 22% haplogroup A3b2 (M13) and 6% B2a (M150). Note the 22:6 ratio of A3b2 to B2a, comprared with the nearly identical 27:8 ratio among the Maasai. This suggests that the Sandawe were originally B2b pygmies, with subsequent admixtures from (not necessarily in this order) the Maasai, Bantus and Nilotics. Unlike the Maasai, however, the Sandawe retained their ancient click language. Since the Hadza people of Tanzania are the nearest B2b click-speaking tribe, one could presume that the language of the Sandawe is distantly related to the Hadza language, both languages perhaps descending from a common language spoken by the original Pygmy who underwent the B2b Y-DNA mutation. That would mean that the only extant "true" A3b1 Khoisan languages are those click-languages spoken in and around the Kalahari desert.

Implications Beyond Sub-Saharan Africa
According to the most recently accepted version of the mt-DNA phylogenetic tree, it is believed that the first split occurred separating the Khoisan L0 clade from the L1-6 superclade (representing the founding populations of the speakers of all non-Khoisan languages). In the non-Khoisan superclade (represented by haplogroup BT in the Y-DNA phylogenetic tree), the first node appears to separate the African Pygmies from the ancestor of the speakers of all non-Khoisan and non-pygmy languages. This split corresponds to the split between B and CT in the Y-DNA tree. It is interesting that both the haplogroup A Khoisan languages and the haplogroup B Pygmy languages are click languages, and that CT (which is downstream from BT) is the only clade originating in this time period not dominated by click languages. This is some evidence, although not conclusive, that there may have been at one time a Proto-World language that had clicks among its sound inventory, ancestral to all modern languages, including the CT languages (including Enlgish, for example). That is to say, perhaps around 75,000-100,000 years ago, all languages had clicks, and the Supra-Saharan CT branch lost its clicks. An analogy would be the English language having lost grammatical gender despite its Indo-European origin.

References
*History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Tishkoff, Sarah A. et al 2007.
*Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. Wood, Elizabeth T et al 2005.

Photo, research and analysis by Kevin Borland.

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The Maasai of Kenya

Why and how anti-retroviral therapy works even against HIV cell-to-cell transmission

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

27-Feb-2014

Contact: Walter Mothes walther.mothes@yale.edu 203-737-2203 PLOS

The discovery of direct cell-to-cell transmission of HIV, and the finding that some anti-HIV drugs don't seem active against virus that spreads that way, have caused questions and concern. A study published on February 27th in PLOS Pathogens tested a panel of anti-HIV drugs for their ability to suppress cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. The results reveal differences between different drugs, explain why and how anti-retroviral therapy (ART) does work, and have implications for the prevention of drug resistance as well as the development of new effective anti-HIV drugs.

Luis Agosto, Walther Mothes, and colleagues, from Yale University, New Haven, USA, established an experimental system that can measure the efficiency of cell-free and direct cell-to-cell transmission of HIV and directly compare the two modes of transmission. Cell-free transmission means new virus particles bud from one cell and then travel through inter-cellular space to find a target cell to which they bind to and subsequently infect. Direct cell-to-cell transmission involves close contact of an infected and an uninfected cell through a so-called virological synapsean organized contact area which concentrates virus particles and cellular HIV entry points.

The researchers systematically tested the efficiency of anti-HIV drugs, including 6 different nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 4 non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 4 entry inhibitors (ENT-Is), and 4 proteinase inhibitors (PIs), in both transmission situations. They found that while some NRTIs were unable to efficiently inhibit virus during cell-to-cell transmission, NNRTIs, ENT-Is, and PIs remained highly effective. And when they combined two inactive NRTIs, they regained potent antiretroviral activity during cell-to-cell transmission.

There are many more infectious virus particles near a target cell during cell-to-cell transmission, raising the "multiplicity of infection", or MOI, the ratio of the number of infectious particles to the number of target cells present in a defined space. When the scientists changed the MOI in their experimental system by adding more viruses to a space for cell-free transmission, they found that the different drugs behaved just like when added to cell-to-cell transmission, i.e. some NRTIs were, by themselves, ineffective in suppressing the virus. In these cases, a higher drug concentration was required to suppress an elevated number of particles. However, when two such drugs were combined, they became effective again.

These results explain how ART regimens, which are all combination therapies (e.g. of 2 NRTIs plus 1 NNRTI or PI) are capable of suppressing HIV, even if some or most of the viral transmission occurs through direct cell-to-cell contact. However, they also warn that cell-to-cell transmission could contribute to the rise of drug-resistant virus if patients don't take all their drugs as prescribed.

Because all drugs that could suppress HIV during cell-to-cell transmission were effective because they could efficiently suppress the high local MOI at virological synapses, the authors suggest that "highly effective drug regimens, either single or in-combination therapies, must exhibit MOI independence." They go on to propose that, "testing the effectiveness of antiretroviral inhibitors against increasing MOI provides a simple assay and a valuable tool for screening existing and novel drugs and future drug combinations prior to clinical testing."

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Why and how anti-retroviral therapy works even against HIV cell-to-cell transmission

One gene influences recovery from traumatic brain injury

Researchers report that one tiny variation in the sequence of a gene may cause some people to be more impaired by traumatic brain injury (TBI) than others with comparable wounds.

The study, described in the journal PLOS ONE, measured general intelligence in a group of 156 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head injuries during the war. All of the study subjects had damage to the prefrontal cortex, a brain region behind the forehead that is important to cognitive tasks such as planning, problem-solving, self-restraint and complex thought.

The researchers controlled for the size and location of subjects' brain injuries and other factors, such as intelligence prior to injury, which might have contributed to differences in cognitive function. (Prior to combat, the veterans had completed the Armed Forces Qualifications Test, which included measures of intelligence that provided a baseline for the new analysis.)

"We administered a large, cognitive battery of tests to investigate how they performed after their injury," said study leader Aron Barbey, a professor of speech and hearing science, of psychology and of neuroscience at the University of Illinois. "And we had a team of neurologists who helped characterize the nature and scope of the patients' brain injuries."

The researchers also collected blood for a genetic analysis, focusing on a gene known as BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor).

The team found that a single polymorphism (a difference in one "letter" of the sequence) in the BDNF gene accounted for significant differences in intelligence among those with similar injuries and comparable intelligence before being injured.

"BDNF is a basic growth factor and it's related to neurogenesis, the production of new neurons," Barbey said. "What we found is that if people have a specific polymorphism in the BDNF gene, they recovered to a greater extent than those with a different variant of the gene."

The change in the gene alters the BDNF protein: The amino acid methionine (Met) is incorporated at a specific site in the protein instead of valine (Val). Since people inherit two versions of each gene, one from each parent, they have either Val/Val, Val/Met or Met/Met variants of the gene.

"The effects of this difference were large -- very large," Barbey said. "If an individual had the Val/Val combination, then their performance on a battery of cognitive tests (conducted long after the injury occurred) was remarkably lower than that of individuals who had the Val/Met or Met/Met combination."

On average, those with the Val/Val polymorphism scored about eight IQ points lower on tests of general intelligence than those with the Val/Met or Met/Met variants, Barbey said. Those with the Val/Val variant also were significantly more impaired in "specific competencies for intelligence like verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory and processing speed," he said.

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One gene influences recovery from traumatic brain injury

Gene Expression Analysis Market DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing) Worth $4.3 Billion by 2018 …

(PRWEB) February 28, 2014

According to the new market research report, Gene Expression Analysis Market by Technology (DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing), Consumables (DNA Chips, Reagents), Services (Gene Profiling, Bioinformatics, Data Analysis Software) & Applications - Global Forecast to 2018, global gene expression analysis market estimated at $2.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $4.3 billion by 2018, growing at a CAGR of 10.4% from 2013 to 2018.

Browse 72 market data tables and 20 figures spread through 227 pages and in-depth TOC on Gene Expression Analysis Market" http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/gene-expression-analysis-market-156613968.html

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The Global Gene Expression Analysis Market (2013-2018) analyzes and studies the major market drivers and restraints in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World (RoW).

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This report covers the definition, description, and forecast of the global gene expression analysis market in terms of instrumentation, consumables, services, and applications. Based on technology, the gene expression analysis instrumentation market comprises DNA microarrays, real-time PCR, next-generation sequencing, and others. The consumables market is categorized into DNA chips and reagents, while the services market is further sub-segmented into gene expression profiling services, bioinformatics solutions, data analysis software, and others.

Over the years, gene expression analysis has evolved significantly and is widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders like cancer, Alzheimers, and Parkinsons, among others. In the past few years, the market has witnessed significant technological advancements, as companies have introduced newer sequencing and analysis platforms. This has aided in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Increasing number of cancer patients, growth in the number of funding activities, technological advancements, and increased interest in gene expression for research and discovery are the major factors driving the growth of this market. Moreover, various government bodies have extended their help in the form of investments, funds, and grants, which has further stimulated the growth of the gene expression analysis market.

Ask for Free PDF Brochure at http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/pdfdownload.asp?id=156613968.

North America dominated the global gene expression analysis market, followed by Europe and Asia. The continued developments in the North American market are triggered by the increase in funding, to address the growth in the number of cancer patients. Asia is expected to grow at the highest CAGR. This can be attributed to the presence of high-growth markets such as India and China, improved funding scenario in this region, increasing number of conferences and exhibitions on gene expression, and increased focus on cancer research.

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Gene Expression Analysis Market DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing) Worth $4.3 Billion by 2018 ...

Genetic Engineering 1 – Video


Genetic Engineering 1

By: Mary Jefferson

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Genetic Engineering 1 - Video

Enviornment ministry green light for gene modification field trials: Veerappa Moily

Environment Minister M Veerappa Moily has cleared a Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) decision to allow gene modification field trials for certain food crops after the same was put on hold for about a year by his predecessor, Jayanthi Natarajan.

Environment Minister M Veerappa Moily has cleared a Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) decision to allow gene modification field trials for certain food crops after the same was put on hold for about a year by his predecessor, Jayanthi Natarajan.

While giving his nod, Moily, however, sought to downplay the approval row, saying there was some "misunderstanding" over the issue and there was no "embargo" from Supreme Court on such trials. The minister's nod will pave the way for GM field trails for rice, wheat, maize and cotton.

Moily, however, made it clear that the trials are subject to approval by state governments and fulfilment of certain conditions.

The clearance will enable companies such as Bayer Bioscience, Mahyco and BASF and Monsanto India to carry out field trials for the crops. Bayer Bioscience, for example, has been given clearance to test GM rice across the country.

Earlier, Natarajan had blocked the approval obtained by GEAC in March of last year, reportedly because the issue was pending in the apex court.

But Moily said he had examined the case with officials and found that there was no embargo on the clearance by Supreme Court, Moily said.

"It is a report from a statutory committee. I don't think a ministry or a minister will have any business holding it back. We can't do that. We have to work with the rules... and the law of the land is same for everyone. That is why, as a law-abiding minister, I approved it," Moily told reporters here.

The minister also said that the Environment Ministry, Agriculture Ministry and the Department of Biotechnology had a "common position" on the issue, which would be placed before Supreme Court. Natarajan had, in fact, not "disagreed" with the decision of the GEAC, he further stated.

The next meeting of GEAC has been called on March 21 to discuss some more issues, he said.

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Enviornment ministry green light for gene modification field trials: Veerappa Moily

Environment Min Nod for Gene Modification Field Trials

Environment Minister M Veerappa Moily has cleared a Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) decision to allow gene modification field trials for certain food crops after the same was put on hold for about a year by his predecessor, Jayanthi Natarajan.

While giving his nod, Moily, however, sought to downplay the approval row, saying there was some "misunderstanding" over the issue and there was no "embargo" from Supreme Court on such trials.

The minister's nod will pave the way for GM field trails for rice, wheat, maize and cotton.

Moily, however, made it clear that the trials are subject to approval by state governments and fulfilment of certain conditions.

The clearance will enable companies such as Bayer Bioscience, Mahyco and BASF and Monsanto India to carry out field trials for the crops. Bayer Bioscience, for example, has been given clearance to test GM rice across the country.

Earlier, Natarajan had blocked the approval obtained by GEAC in March of last year, reportedly because the issue was pending in the apex court.

But Moily said he had examined the case with officials and found that there was no embargo on the clearance by Supreme Court, Moily said.

"It is a report from a statutory committee. I don't think a ministry or a minister will have any business holding it back. We can't do that. We have to work with the rules... And the law of the land is same for everyone. That is why, as a law-abiding minister, I approved it," Moily told reporters here.

The minister also said that the Environment Ministry, Agriculture Ministry and the Department of Biotechnology had a "common position" on the issue, which would be placed before Supreme Court.

Natarajan had, in fact, not "disagreed" with the decision of the GEAC, he further stated.

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Environment Min Nod for Gene Modification Field Trials

Cushing's syndrome: Genetic basis for cortisol excess

An international team of researchers led by an endocrinologist at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich has identified genetic mutations that result in uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of the stress hormone cortisol.

Cortisol is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland in response to stressful events, and modulates a whole spectrum of physiological processes. An international research collaboration has now identified genetic mutations that lead to the production and secretion of cortisol in the absence of an underlying stressor.

The discovery emerged from the genetic characterization of benign tumors of the adrenal gland which produce cortisol in excess amounts. Patients who develop such tumors suffer from weight gain, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypertension. This condition, known as Cushing's syndrome, can be successfully treated by surgical removal of the affected adrenal gland.

Overproduction of cortisol

The team, which included researchers from Germany, France and the US and was led by Professors Felix Beuschlein and Martin Fassnacht of the LMU Medical Center, were able to show that in one-third of a patient population with such adrenal tumors, a mutation in the gene for the enzyme phosphokinase A was specifically associated with the continuous production of cortisol. This mutation had occurred in the adrenal gland and is therefore restricted to the tumor cells. The results have just appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine.

"The gene for phosphokinase

A plays a key role in the regulation of adrenal gland function, and the newly identified mutation causes it to become irreversibly activated, which results in the unrestrained production of cortisol," says Felix Beuschlein. In collaboration with a group at the US National Institutes of Health, the team was also able to identify patients who carry similar genetic alterations in their germline DNA. In these families, Cushing's syndrome occurs as a heritable genetic disease.

The elucidation of the genetic mechanism responsible for a significant fraction of cases of Cushing's syndrome provides a new diagnostic tool, and may also lead to new approaches to treatment. To enable further investigations towards this end, the German Cushing Register, which is maintained by Professor Martin Reincke at the LMU Medical Center, has received a grant of 400,000 euros from the Else Krner-Fresenius Foundation. A recently initiated European research consortium devoted to the study of Cushing's syndrome, of which Professors Beuschlein and Fassnacht are members is supported by a grant of 700,000 euros from the ERA-NET program administered by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Cushing's syndrome: Genetic basis for cortisol excess

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