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Archive for the ‘Gene Therapy Research’ Category

Why and how anti-retroviral therapy works even against HIV cell-to-cell transmission

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

27-Feb-2014

Contact: Walter Mothes walther.mothes@yale.edu 203-737-2203 PLOS

The discovery of direct cell-to-cell transmission of HIV, and the finding that some anti-HIV drugs don't seem active against virus that spreads that way, have caused questions and concern. A study published on February 27th in PLOS Pathogens tested a panel of anti-HIV drugs for their ability to suppress cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. The results reveal differences between different drugs, explain why and how anti-retroviral therapy (ART) does work, and have implications for the prevention of drug resistance as well as the development of new effective anti-HIV drugs.

Luis Agosto, Walther Mothes, and colleagues, from Yale University, New Haven, USA, established an experimental system that can measure the efficiency of cell-free and direct cell-to-cell transmission of HIV and directly compare the two modes of transmission. Cell-free transmission means new virus particles bud from one cell and then travel through inter-cellular space to find a target cell to which they bind to and subsequently infect. Direct cell-to-cell transmission involves close contact of an infected and an uninfected cell through a so-called virological synapsean organized contact area which concentrates virus particles and cellular HIV entry points.

The researchers systematically tested the efficiency of anti-HIV drugs, including 6 different nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 4 non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 4 entry inhibitors (ENT-Is), and 4 proteinase inhibitors (PIs), in both transmission situations. They found that while some NRTIs were unable to efficiently inhibit virus during cell-to-cell transmission, NNRTIs, ENT-Is, and PIs remained highly effective. And when they combined two inactive NRTIs, they regained potent antiretroviral activity during cell-to-cell transmission.

There are many more infectious virus particles near a target cell during cell-to-cell transmission, raising the "multiplicity of infection", or MOI, the ratio of the number of infectious particles to the number of target cells present in a defined space. When the scientists changed the MOI in their experimental system by adding more viruses to a space for cell-free transmission, they found that the different drugs behaved just like when added to cell-to-cell transmission, i.e. some NRTIs were, by themselves, ineffective in suppressing the virus. In these cases, a higher drug concentration was required to suppress an elevated number of particles. However, when two such drugs were combined, they became effective again.

These results explain how ART regimens, which are all combination therapies (e.g. of 2 NRTIs plus 1 NNRTI or PI) are capable of suppressing HIV, even if some or most of the viral transmission occurs through direct cell-to-cell contact. However, they also warn that cell-to-cell transmission could contribute to the rise of drug-resistant virus if patients don't take all their drugs as prescribed.

Because all drugs that could suppress HIV during cell-to-cell transmission were effective because they could efficiently suppress the high local MOI at virological synapses, the authors suggest that "highly effective drug regimens, either single or in-combination therapies, must exhibit MOI independence." They go on to propose that, "testing the effectiveness of antiretroviral inhibitors against increasing MOI provides a simple assay and a valuable tool for screening existing and novel drugs and future drug combinations prior to clinical testing."

###

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Why and how anti-retroviral therapy works even against HIV cell-to-cell transmission

One gene influences recovery from traumatic brain injury

Researchers report that one tiny variation in the sequence of a gene may cause some people to be more impaired by traumatic brain injury (TBI) than others with comparable wounds.

The study, described in the journal PLOS ONE, measured general intelligence in a group of 156 Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head injuries during the war. All of the study subjects had damage to the prefrontal cortex, a brain region behind the forehead that is important to cognitive tasks such as planning, problem-solving, self-restraint and complex thought.

The researchers controlled for the size and location of subjects' brain injuries and other factors, such as intelligence prior to injury, which might have contributed to differences in cognitive function. (Prior to combat, the veterans had completed the Armed Forces Qualifications Test, which included measures of intelligence that provided a baseline for the new analysis.)

"We administered a large, cognitive battery of tests to investigate how they performed after their injury," said study leader Aron Barbey, a professor of speech and hearing science, of psychology and of neuroscience at the University of Illinois. "And we had a team of neurologists who helped characterize the nature and scope of the patients' brain injuries."

The researchers also collected blood for a genetic analysis, focusing on a gene known as BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor).

The team found that a single polymorphism (a difference in one "letter" of the sequence) in the BDNF gene accounted for significant differences in intelligence among those with similar injuries and comparable intelligence before being injured.

"BDNF is a basic growth factor and it's related to neurogenesis, the production of new neurons," Barbey said. "What we found is that if people have a specific polymorphism in the BDNF gene, they recovered to a greater extent than those with a different variant of the gene."

The change in the gene alters the BDNF protein: The amino acid methionine (Met) is incorporated at a specific site in the protein instead of valine (Val). Since people inherit two versions of each gene, one from each parent, they have either Val/Val, Val/Met or Met/Met variants of the gene.

"The effects of this difference were large -- very large," Barbey said. "If an individual had the Val/Val combination, then their performance on a battery of cognitive tests (conducted long after the injury occurred) was remarkably lower than that of individuals who had the Val/Met or Met/Met combination."

On average, those with the Val/Val polymorphism scored about eight IQ points lower on tests of general intelligence than those with the Val/Met or Met/Met variants, Barbey said. Those with the Val/Val variant also were significantly more impaired in "specific competencies for intelligence like verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory and processing speed," he said.

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One gene influences recovery from traumatic brain injury

Gene Expression Analysis Market DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing) Worth $4.3 Billion by 2018 …

(PRWEB) February 28, 2014

According to the new market research report, Gene Expression Analysis Market by Technology (DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing), Consumables (DNA Chips, Reagents), Services (Gene Profiling, Bioinformatics, Data Analysis Software) & Applications - Global Forecast to 2018, global gene expression analysis market estimated at $2.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $4.3 billion by 2018, growing at a CAGR of 10.4% from 2013 to 2018.

Browse 72 market data tables and 20 figures spread through 227 pages and in-depth TOC on Gene Expression Analysis Market" http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/gene-expression-analysis-market-156613968.html

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The Global Gene Expression Analysis Market (2013-2018) analyzes and studies the major market drivers and restraints in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World (RoW).

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This report covers the definition, description, and forecast of the global gene expression analysis market in terms of instrumentation, consumables, services, and applications. Based on technology, the gene expression analysis instrumentation market comprises DNA microarrays, real-time PCR, next-generation sequencing, and others. The consumables market is categorized into DNA chips and reagents, while the services market is further sub-segmented into gene expression profiling services, bioinformatics solutions, data analysis software, and others.

Over the years, gene expression analysis has evolved significantly and is widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders like cancer, Alzheimers, and Parkinsons, among others. In the past few years, the market has witnessed significant technological advancements, as companies have introduced newer sequencing and analysis platforms. This has aided in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Increasing number of cancer patients, growth in the number of funding activities, technological advancements, and increased interest in gene expression for research and discovery are the major factors driving the growth of this market. Moreover, various government bodies have extended their help in the form of investments, funds, and grants, which has further stimulated the growth of the gene expression analysis market.

Ask for Free PDF Brochure at http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/pdfdownload.asp?id=156613968.

North America dominated the global gene expression analysis market, followed by Europe and Asia. The continued developments in the North American market are triggered by the increase in funding, to address the growth in the number of cancer patients. Asia is expected to grow at the highest CAGR. This can be attributed to the presence of high-growth markets such as India and China, improved funding scenario in this region, increasing number of conferences and exhibitions on gene expression, and increased focus on cancer research.

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Gene Expression Analysis Market DNA Microarray, Real-Time PCR, Next Generation Sequencing) Worth $4.3 Billion by 2018 ...

Genetic Engineering 1 – Video


Genetic Engineering 1

By: Mary Jefferson

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Genetic Engineering 1 - Video

Enviornment ministry green light for gene modification field trials: Veerappa Moily

Environment Minister M Veerappa Moily has cleared a Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) decision to allow gene modification field trials for certain food crops after the same was put on hold for about a year by his predecessor, Jayanthi Natarajan.

Environment Minister M Veerappa Moily has cleared a Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) decision to allow gene modification field trials for certain food crops after the same was put on hold for about a year by his predecessor, Jayanthi Natarajan.

While giving his nod, Moily, however, sought to downplay the approval row, saying there was some "misunderstanding" over the issue and there was no "embargo" from Supreme Court on such trials. The minister's nod will pave the way for GM field trails for rice, wheat, maize and cotton.

Moily, however, made it clear that the trials are subject to approval by state governments and fulfilment of certain conditions.

The clearance will enable companies such as Bayer Bioscience, Mahyco and BASF and Monsanto India to carry out field trials for the crops. Bayer Bioscience, for example, has been given clearance to test GM rice across the country.

Earlier, Natarajan had blocked the approval obtained by GEAC in March of last year, reportedly because the issue was pending in the apex court.

But Moily said he had examined the case with officials and found that there was no embargo on the clearance by Supreme Court, Moily said.

"It is a report from a statutory committee. I don't think a ministry or a minister will have any business holding it back. We can't do that. We have to work with the rules... and the law of the land is same for everyone. That is why, as a law-abiding minister, I approved it," Moily told reporters here.

The minister also said that the Environment Ministry, Agriculture Ministry and the Department of Biotechnology had a "common position" on the issue, which would be placed before Supreme Court. Natarajan had, in fact, not "disagreed" with the decision of the GEAC, he further stated.

The next meeting of GEAC has been called on March 21 to discuss some more issues, he said.

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Enviornment ministry green light for gene modification field trials: Veerappa Moily

Environment Min Nod for Gene Modification Field Trials

Environment Minister M Veerappa Moily has cleared a Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) decision to allow gene modification field trials for certain food crops after the same was put on hold for about a year by his predecessor, Jayanthi Natarajan.

While giving his nod, Moily, however, sought to downplay the approval row, saying there was some "misunderstanding" over the issue and there was no "embargo" from Supreme Court on such trials.

The minister's nod will pave the way for GM field trails for rice, wheat, maize and cotton.

Moily, however, made it clear that the trials are subject to approval by state governments and fulfilment of certain conditions.

The clearance will enable companies such as Bayer Bioscience, Mahyco and BASF and Monsanto India to carry out field trials for the crops. Bayer Bioscience, for example, has been given clearance to test GM rice across the country.

Earlier, Natarajan had blocked the approval obtained by GEAC in March of last year, reportedly because the issue was pending in the apex court.

But Moily said he had examined the case with officials and found that there was no embargo on the clearance by Supreme Court, Moily said.

"It is a report from a statutory committee. I don't think a ministry or a minister will have any business holding it back. We can't do that. We have to work with the rules... And the law of the land is same for everyone. That is why, as a law-abiding minister, I approved it," Moily told reporters here.

The minister also said that the Environment Ministry, Agriculture Ministry and the Department of Biotechnology had a "common position" on the issue, which would be placed before Supreme Court.

Natarajan had, in fact, not "disagreed" with the decision of the GEAC, he further stated.

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Environment Min Nod for Gene Modification Field Trials

Cushing's syndrome: Genetic basis for cortisol excess

An international team of researchers led by an endocrinologist at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich has identified genetic mutations that result in uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of the stress hormone cortisol.

Cortisol is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland in response to stressful events, and modulates a whole spectrum of physiological processes. An international research collaboration has now identified genetic mutations that lead to the production and secretion of cortisol in the absence of an underlying stressor.

The discovery emerged from the genetic characterization of benign tumors of the adrenal gland which produce cortisol in excess amounts. Patients who develop such tumors suffer from weight gain, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypertension. This condition, known as Cushing's syndrome, can be successfully treated by surgical removal of the affected adrenal gland.

Overproduction of cortisol

The team, which included researchers from Germany, France and the US and was led by Professors Felix Beuschlein and Martin Fassnacht of the LMU Medical Center, were able to show that in one-third of a patient population with such adrenal tumors, a mutation in the gene for the enzyme phosphokinase A was specifically associated with the continuous production of cortisol. This mutation had occurred in the adrenal gland and is therefore restricted to the tumor cells. The results have just appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine.

"The gene for phosphokinase

A plays a key role in the regulation of adrenal gland function, and the newly identified mutation causes it to become irreversibly activated, which results in the unrestrained production of cortisol," says Felix Beuschlein. In collaboration with a group at the US National Institutes of Health, the team was also able to identify patients who carry similar genetic alterations in their germline DNA. In these families, Cushing's syndrome occurs as a heritable genetic disease.

The elucidation of the genetic mechanism responsible for a significant fraction of cases of Cushing's syndrome provides a new diagnostic tool, and may also lead to new approaches to treatment. To enable further investigations towards this end, the German Cushing Register, which is maintained by Professor Martin Reincke at the LMU Medical Center, has received a grant of 400,000 euros from the Else Krner-Fresenius Foundation. A recently initiated European research consortium devoted to the study of Cushing's syndrome, of which Professors Beuschlein and Fassnacht are members is supported by a grant of 700,000 euros from the ERA-NET program administered by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Cushing's syndrome: Genetic basis for cortisol excess

D$ternetics ,Redline Genetics and Old school Northern light Flowering update – Video


D$ternetics ,Redline Genetics and Old school Northern light Flowering update
D$ternetics Lemon Cancer Killer Redline Genetics Cheese Berry And my Old School Northern Light flowering Update for yall.

By: D Stern

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D$ternetics ,Redline Genetics and Old school Northern light Flowering update - Video

Genetics Review Simple Dominance – Video


Genetics Review Simple Dominance
Fruit Fly Dominant / Recessive Eye color.

By: Jim Pierson

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Laser Genetics ND-3 SubZero Laser Designator – OpticsPlanet.com – Video


Laser Genetics ND-3 SubZero Laser Designator - OpticsPlanet.com
Find the Laser Genetics ND-3 SubZero Laser Designator at OpticsPlanet.com: http://www.opticsplanet.com/laser-genetics-nd-3-subzero-laser-designator-w-scope-m...

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Biology 30: Tools of Genetics 1 (Punnett Squares) – Video


Biology 30: Tools of Genetics 1 (Punnett Squares)
Bow Valley College Lesson. Made with Camtasia.

By: Laura Slade

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Genetics May Explain Why Autism Is More Common in Boys

When it comes to developmental disorders of the brain, men and women are not created equal.

Decades of research have shown that males are at far greater risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than females. Boys, on average, are five times more likely to have autismthan girls.What causes this disparity has largely remained unknown.

Now scientists haveuncovered compelling genetic evidence to explain why the biological scales arent balanced.

According to a team of geneticists in the U.S. and Switzerland,it all boils down to whats called the female protective model. This suggests that girls have a higher tolerance for harmful genetic mutations and therefore require a larger number ofthem than boys to reach the diagnostic threshold of a developmental disorder. With identical genetic mutations, then, a boy could show symptoms of ASD while a girl could show none.

But because the female mutation threshold is higher, when girls are diagnosed with ASD, they tend to fall on the more severe end of the spectrum.

Researchers believe the same dynamic could explain why more boys are diagnosed withADHD, intellectual disabilities and schizophrenia. The findings were published Thursday in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

Geneticists analyzed DNA samples from 16,000 boys and girls with neurodevelopmental disorders.They found that, on average, females diagnosed with ASD had 1.3 to 3 times more harmful genetic alterations than males diagnosed with the disorder.

The findings suggest that as the male brain develops, smaller and more subtle genetic changes can trigger autism spectrum disorders. Female brains require a greater number or severity of mutations before showing symptoms, so their symptoms tend to be worse.

Theres no application in terms of treatment, said study author Sbastien Jacquemont of University Hospital of Lausanne in Switzerland, but it does help understand the inheritance dynamics in families.

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Genetics May Explain Why Autism Is More Common in Boys

Right Supraspinatus SVF Injection Shoulder | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cell Injection – Video


Right Supraspinatus SVF Injection Shoulder | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cell Injection
Eterna MD specializes in stem cell therapy and treatment. This particular case stem cells were injected into the right Supraspinatus shoulder through an ultr...

By: Eterna MD Regenerative Medicine

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Right Supraspinatus SVF Injection Shoulder | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cell Injection - Video

Paul Niehans cell therapy center – Video


Paul Niehans cell therapy center

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Stem Cell Replacement Therapy for Common Foot Injuries Provides Rapid Healing

New York, New York (PRWEB) February 26, 2014

Adler Footcare of Greater New York is offering an advanced treatment option for chronic foot problems like plantar fasciitis, as well as common foot problems like Osteoarthritis, Achilles tendonitis and torn soft tissue.

In the past these conditions have been treated by physical therapy or orthotic therapy, but the results have often been poor, leaving patients continuing to struggle with the pain. With stem cell replacement therapy, the treatment of these conditions is proving far more effective and long lasting than traditional treatments.

At Adler Footcare we use live birth stem cells which are introduced into the affected area. Stem cells are used by many physicians to treat a broad variety of conditions because of their ability to either replicate themselves, or change into the cell type that is needed to repair the tissue that has been damaged. When a patient comes in for stem cell therapy, the affected area is carefully measured so the stem cells can be delivered directly to the area that needs the treatment.

The Joint Commission accredited Podiatric OR of Midtown Manhattan housed within Adler Footcare is designed to facilitate advanced treatments such as Stem Cell Replacement Therapy to all their patients.

With stem cell treatment we are finding that patients heal much faster and are able to return to their normal activities much sooner than with traditional treatment options, said Dr. Darline Kulhan, podiatric surgeon at Adler Footcare. Recovery time depends on each individual patients medical diagnosis and overall general health.

Treatments using stem cells have been used by physicians for over 100 years. Stem Cell Replacement Therapy is covered by commercial insurance and Medicare, and is approved and regulated by the FDA. The product is tested and screened by medical professionals to eliminate the potential of any communicable diseases.

To learn more about Stem Cell Replacement Therapy or to schedule a consultation with a New York podiatrist at Adler Footcare, call (212) 704-4310 or visit http://www.mynycpodiatrist.com.

About Adler Footcare New York

Dr. Jeffrey L. Adler, Medical/Surgical Director and owner of Adler Footcare New York has been practicing podiatric medicine since 1979 and has performed thousands of foot and ankle surgeries. Dr. Adler is board certified in Podiatric Surgery and Primary Podiatric Medicine by the American Board of Multiple Specialties in Podiatry. Dr. Adler is also a Professor of Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery for the Academy of Ambulatory Foot and Ankle Surgeons. As one of only several in the country who perform minimally invasive podiatric surgery, Dr. Adlers patients enjoy significantly reduced recovery times.

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Stem Cell Replacement Therapy for Common Foot Injuries Provides Rapid Healing

New risk gene illuminates Alzheimer's disease

A team of international scientists, including a researcher from Simon Fraser University, has isolated a gene thought to play a causal role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences recently published the team's study.

The newly identified gene affects accumulation of amyloid-beta, a protein believed to be one of the main causes of the damage that underpins this brain disease in humans.

The gene encodes a protein that is important for intracellular transportation. Each brain cell relies on an internal highway system that transports molecular signals needed for the development, communication, and survival of the cell.

This system's impairment can disrupt amyloid-beta processing, causing its eventual accumulation. This contributes to the development of amyloid plaques, which are a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

Teasing out contributing disease factors, whether genetic or environmental, has long posed a challenge for Alzheimer's researchers.

"Alzheimer's is a multifactorial disease where a build-up of subtle problems develop in the nervous system over a span of decades," says Michael Silverman, an SFU biology associate professor. He worked on the study with a team of Japanese scientists led by Dr. Takashi Morihara at Osaka University.

Identifying these subtle, yet perhaps critical genetic contributions is challenging. "Alzheimer's, like many human disorders, has a genetic component, yet many environmental and lifestyle factors contribute to the disease as well," says Silverman. "In a sense, it is like looking for a needle in a complex genetic haystack."

Only a small fraction of cases have a strong hereditary component, for example early-onset Alzheimer's.

This breakthrough in Alzheimer's research could open new avenues for the design of therapeutics and pave the way for early detection by helping healthcare professionals identify those who are predisposed to the disease.

"One possibility is that a genetic test for a particular variant of this newly discovered gene, along with other variants of genes that contribute to Alzheimer's, will help to give a person their overall risk for the disease. Lifestyle changes, such as improved diet, exercise, and an increase in cognitive stimulation may then help to slow the progression of Alzheimer's," says Silverman.

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New risk gene illuminates Alzheimer's disease

How Synthetic Biology Is Exploring Biological Complexity: Sean Ward at TEDxVilnius – Video


How Synthetic Biology Is Exploring Biological Complexity: Sean Ward at TEDxVilnius
Before founding Synthace, Sean was a Research Associate in Bioinformatics at University College London, where he conducted research into protein folding, pro...

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Opinion: Three-Parent Babies Are an Ethical Choice

Perhaps the biggest fear raised by advances in genetic engineering like the ability to create a baby with three parents is that we are heading straight down a road that leads to eugenics the attempt to create perfect "designer" babies.

From "Star Trek" to "Star Wars" to many more films like "Gattaca" and "The Boys from Brazil," Hollywood has warned us time and again that genetic engineering of animals or people is nothing but bad news.

History sadly also shows the horror that eugenics programs have produced in Germany, Japan and many other nations when some people are deemed more desirable and others are seen as defective, burdensome or subhuman. Death camps, forced sterilization, restrictions on marriage, exile, concentration camps, prohibitions on immigration all have all been carried out in the name of eugenics.

But Hollywood is wrong. Not everything about genetic engineering is morally horrible. Nor is human genetic engineering always motivated by eugenic goals.

"Hollywood is wrong. Not everything about genetic engineering is morally horrible."

The FDA is considering approving an experiment to repair a genetic disease in humans by creating embryos with DNA from three parents. Genes would be transferred from a healthy human egg to one that has a disease and the "repaired" egg then fertilized in the hope that a healthy baby will result. The goal of the experiment in genetic engineering is not a perfect baby but a healthy baby.

One in 4,000 children inherit terrible diseases due to genetic mutations in their mitochondria. The mitochondria are the batteries of cells. They provide the energy that lets cells divide and grow. All mitochondria are inherited from the mother from her eggs. And, the mitochondria are separate, tiny units in the egg meaning you can pick them out and transplant them.

So if you know that a mitochondrial disease runs in your family, you might want to try getting pregnant using one of your eggs that has been genetically engineered to have mitochondria from a donor egg.

None of this should raise concerns about abortion. Only eggs, not embryos, would be involved. There are, however, safety concerns. We won't really know if mitochondrial transplants work until healthy young people exist who have been made using the technique. Studies in primates look promising but safety in humans is still a risk.

"How far we go in engineering future generations through genetic manipulations is up to us."

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Opinion: Three-Parent Babies Are an Ethical Choice

Is therapeutic hypothermia beneficial in all patients following cardiac arrest?

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

26-Feb-2014

Contact: Vicki Cohn vcohn@liebertpub.com 914-740-2100 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News

New Rochelle, NY, February 26, 2014Whole body cooling in comatose patients who have suffered a heart attack can limit the damage to brain tissue caused by the restoration of blood flow and oxygen. But new data indicate that in certain patients therapeutic hypothermia is less effective and may even worsen neurological outcomes, as described in an article in Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management website at http://www.liebertpub.com/ther.

Timothy Mader and coauthors representing the CARES Surveillance Group (Baystate Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield, MA; OptiStatim, LLC, Longmeadow, MA; Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA) conclude that while therapeutic hypothermia may be effective for certain patient subsets, "more uniform and rigid guidelines for application are needed to assure more appropriate application."

The authors measured neurological outcomes at hospital discharge among a large group of adults who suffered heart attacks out of the hospital. They compared the results among patients whose hearts resumed beating with or without the need to be shocked and report their findings in the article "Comparative Effectiveness of Therapeutic Hypothermia After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Insight from a Large Data Registry."

"This manuscript is important to the field of therapeutic hypothermia in that it points to a need for additional research to be conducted and guidelines developed to clarify specific patient populations that will most benefit from cooling strategies," says W. Dalton Dietrich, III, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal and Kinetic Concepts Distinguished Chair in Neurosurgery, Professor of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.

###

About the Journal

Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management provides a strong multidisciplinary forum to advance the understanding of therapeutic hypothermia. Novel findings from translational preclinical investigations as well as clinical studies and trials will be featured in articles, state-of-the-art reviews, provocative roundtable discussions, clinical protocols, and best practices. Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management is the journal of record, published online with Open Access options and in print. Tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management website at http://www.liebertpub.com/ther.

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Is therapeutic hypothermia beneficial in all patients following cardiac arrest?

Cushing's syndrome: A genetic basis for cortisol excess

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

27-Feb-2014

Contact: Luise Dirscherl presse@lmu.de 49-892-180-2706 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen

An international team of researchers led by an endocrinologist at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich has identified genetic mutations that result in uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of the stress hormone cortisol.

Cortisol is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland in response to stressful events, and modulates a whole spectrum of physiological processes. An international research collaboration has now identified genetic mutations that lead to the production and secretion of cortisol in the absence of an underlying stressor.

The discovery emerged from the genetic characterization of benign tumors of the adrenal gland which produce cortisol in excess amounts. Patients who develop such tumors suffer from weight gain, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypertension. This condition, known as Cushing's syndrome, can be successfully treated by surgical removal of the affected adrenal gland.

Overproduction of cortisol

The team, which included researchers from Germany, France and the US and was led by Professors Felix Beuschlein and Martin Fassnacht of the LMU Medical Center, were able to show that in one-third of a patient population with such adrenal tumors, a mutation in the gene for the enzyme phosphokinase A was specifically associated with the continuous production of cortisol. This mutation had occurred in the adrenal gland and is therefore restricted to the tumor cells. The results have just appeared in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine.

"The gene for phosphokinase A plays a key role in the regulation of adrenal gland function, and the newly identified mutation causes it to become irreversibly activated, which results in the unrestrained production of cortisol," says Felix Beuschlein. In collaboration with a group at the US National Institutes of Health, the team was also able to identify patients who carry similar genetic alterations in their germline DNA. In these families, Cushing's syndrome occurs as a heritable genetic disease.

The elucidation of the genetic mechanism responsible for a significant fraction of cases of Cushing's syndrome provides a new diagnostic tool, and may also lead to new approaches to treatment. To enable further investigations towards this end, the German Cushing Register, which is maintained by Professor Martin Reincke at the LMU Medical Center, has received a grant of 400,000 euros from the Else Krner-Fresenius Foundation. A recently initiated European research consortium devoted to the study of Cushing's syndrome, of which Professors Beuschlein and Fassnacht are members is supported by a grant of 700,000 euros from the ERA-NET program administered by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research.

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Cushing's syndrome: A genetic basis for cortisol excess

Personalized medicine has finally arrived — or has it?

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

26-Feb-2014

Contact: Michael Bernstein m_bernstein@acs.org 202-872-6042 American Chemical Society

As the price for decoding a person's DNA keeps dropping, expectations for personalized medicine based on specific genetic profiling rise. But translating an individual's genetic data into finely tailored medical treatments still faces major challenges, explains a new article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly magazine of the American Chemical Society.

Rick Mullin, senior editor at C&EN, notes that advances in DNA sequencing have allowed researchers to design some therapies, particularly in the cancer realm, for patients with certain genetic traits. As the technology for reading people's genes improves and drops even further in cost, more progress is on the horizon. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the government body responsible for approving pharmaceuticals for commercialization, supports these efforts. With the stars seemingly aligned, some industry experts have declared that the age of personalized medicine has arrived. So why do others claim that victory is still a long way off?

The article points out that when pharmaceutical labs launched their search for new drugs based on genomics more than 15 years ago, the focus was almost exclusively on DNA sequences. But now researchers have realized that for personalized medicine to truly take hold, they need to also pay attention to individuals' health histories, their environments and how their genes actually translate into physical traits. This requires a shift in thinking, plus closer ties between the research and clinical sides, and ultimately, insurers. But perhaps the tallest barrier is cultural an attitude among some in the health care industry to simply continue business as usual.

###

The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 161,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.

To automatically receive news releases from the American Chemical Society, contact newsroom@acs.org.

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Population genetics – Video


Population genetics

By: Dale Soblo

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Population genetics - Video

Genetika Bonjaka (Genetics Bosniaks) – Video


Genetika Bonjaka (Genetics Bosniaks)
Potraite nas na facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Islamovickanal?ref=hl.

By: Islamovic kanal

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Genetika Bonjaka (Genetics Bosniaks) - Video

Codex Minecraft Attack of the B-Team | Episode 5: Advanced Advanced Genetics – Video


Codex Minecraft Attack of the B-Team | Episode 5: Advanced Advanced Genetics
CodexMC members ----------------------- BrhysH: https://www.youtube.com/user/Brhys1 Mr_Ging: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoK71ktgWpeKVc-ocW-E8kg Joe Bil...

By: DarkCloudSky7

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Codex Minecraft Attack of the B-Team | Episode 5: Advanced Advanced Genetics - Video

Clinical Genetics and Epigenetics: Precision Medicine for Age Management by Florence Comite, MD – Video


Clinical Genetics and Epigenetics: Precision Medicine for Age Management by Florence Comite, MD
This is a preview of a lecture given at the 2013 Age Management Medicine Conference in Las Vegas. The full lecture with video of the speaker and slides is av...

By: InstaTapesMedia

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Clinical Genetics and Epigenetics: Precision Medicine for Age Management by Florence Comite, MD - Video

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