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Archive for the ‘Bone Marrow Stem Cells’ Category

Bone marrow or stem cell transplants for ALL | Cancer …

Having someone elses marrow or stem cells is called a donor transplant, or an allogeneic transplant. This is pronounced a-low-gen-ay-ik.

The donors bone marrow cells must match your own as closely as possible. The most suitable donor is usually a close relative, such as a brother or sister. It is sometimes possible to find a match in an unrelated donor. Doctors call this a matched unrelated donor (MUD). To find out if there is a suitable donor for you, your doctor will contact The Anthony Nolan Bone Marrow Register.

To make sure that your donors cells match, you and the donor will have blood tests. These are to see how many of the proteins on the surface of their blood cells match yours. This is called tissue typing or HLA matching. HLA stands for human leucocyte antigen.

Once you have a donor and are in remission, you have your high dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A week later the donor comes into hospital and their stem cells or marrow are collected.

You then have the stem cells or bone marrow as a drip through your central line.

If you’ve had a transplant from a donor, there is a risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD). This happens because the transplanted stem cells or bone marrow contain cells from your donor’s immune system. These cells can sometimes recognise your own tissues as being foreign and attack them. This can be an advantage as the immune cells may also attack cancer cells left after your treatment.

Acute GVHD starts within 100 days of the transplant and can cause

If you develop GVHD after your transplant, your doctor will prescribe drugs to damp down this immune reaction. These are called immunosuppressants.

Chronic GVHD starts more than 100 days after the transplant and you may have skin rashes, diarrhoea, sore joints and dry eyes. Your doctor is likely to suggest that you stay out of the sun because GVHD skin rashes can often get worse in the sun.

There is more detailed information about graft versus host disease.

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Bone marrow or stem cell transplants for ALL | Cancer …

WSC’s first-ever Bone Marrow Drive – The Wayne Stater


The National Bone Marrow registry took place in the Bluestem Room last Friday. This donor drive was hosted by Love Your Melon and Cardinal Key, with Gail Chism and Mary Kelly acting as representatives from Be The Match as well. On average, one person in 430 is called to donate, but the likelihood of being called also depends on the race of the donor. In total, 57 donors were added to the registry by the end of the event.

Thadd Simpson

Thadd Simpson

The National Bone Marrow registry took place in the Bluestem Room last Friday. This donor drive was hosted by Love Your Melon and Cardinal Key, with Gail Chism and Mary Kelly acting as representatives from Be The Match as well. On average, one person in 430 is called to donate, but the likelihood of being called also depends on the race of the donor. In total, 57 donors were added to the registry by the end of the event.

March 29, 2017 Filed under News

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Fifty-seven students registered to give DNA at the first-ever Bone Marrow Drive at Wayne State College. The drive was in the Bluestem Room of the Kanter Student Center on Friday. That puts WSC at 279 students on the bone marrow registry when combined with MAZE. The drive was put on by Be The Match, a nonprofit organization that helps people diagnosed with diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma to get them the blood that could save their life. Be The Match is operated by the National Marrow Donor Program. We want to get Wayne State on the bone marrow registry, said student Kelsi Anderson said, who runs the Love Your Melon group on campus. A donor can give someone battling blood cancer a second chance. Its crucial for them to have a donor. Those who registered simply gave a cheek swab of their DNA, which will be analyzed to determine if it matches with someone who needs a bone marrow transplant. Its all about the DNA makeup, said Gail Chism of Be The Match. The DNA needs to be as close as possible. A donor could have closer DNA to the patient than a family member. If a match is made, the donor will be sent somewhere local for the bone marrow transplant. A courier will then take the bone marrow to the patient, who could be anywhere in the country. Eighty percent of the time it is like giving plasma, Chism said. Anderson said that in other cases a needle is injected into the pelvic bone todraw the marrow out. Blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma produce abnormal blood cells, other than the normal red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood cells develop from stem cells in bone marrow. A bone marrow transplant helps the patient produce more normal blood cells that help the body with functions such as fightingoff infections or preventing serious bleeding. Anderson said the drive was a shared idea between herself and Jaelyn Lewis, the leader of Cardinal Key. They hope it will become an annual event in the future. I really appreciate what Kelsi has done, Chism said. Shes really been on it. It takes great leadership to put this together. What we get out of here today is priceless.

Thadd Simpson WSC student Lily Roberts swabs her mouth in order to join the National Bone Marrow registry in the Bluestem Room last Friday.

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WSC’s first-ever Bone Marrow Drive – The Wayne Stater

Donating the umbilical cord could save someone’s life – WNDU-TV

After a baby is born and the umbilical cord is cut, ever wonder where that umbilical cord ends up?

Most of the time, it becomes waste but that cord still has some valuable resources that can save a life.

The blood that is found in it is called umbilical cord blood or cord blood for short.

It contains all the normal elements of blood, such as red and white blood cells. It is also jam packed with stem cells, similar to the ones found in bone marrow.

Birth is pretty exciting, its pretty dramatic. A lot of things are happening, says James E. Baumgartner, M.D., Pediatric Surgeon.

One of those things that people rarely hear about is the option to donate cord blood. Bone marrow and cord blood contain the same type of stem cells, but those from cord blood have more advantages. Since stem cells from cord blood are less mature than stem cells from an adult’s bone marrow, a recipient’s body is less likely to reject them.

Another benefit is that taking cord blood is less invasive than a bone marrow transplant. Once an umbilical cord is clamped, it is wiped with antiseptic and a needle is inserted into one of the veins to withdraw a few ounces of blood. The procedure takes just a few minutes and is painless.

We all collect prospective data to look for risk for, you know, lung damage, kidney damage, liver damage, heart damage. Were looking at the nervous system pretty carefully and we found nothing. So that we really believe that its safe, explains Baumgartner.

About 70% of patients who need a stem cell transplant dont have a matching donor in their own family, which leads to the main advantage of cord blood. Stem cells from cord blood dont need to be exactly matched to the patient like bone marrow transplants from adult donors. One drawback to cord blood though is that the number of stem cells available is relatively small. This means young children will benefit because they need less.

Families can either save cord blood for themselves or donate it to a bank.

You need to talk to your doctor at least three months before your due date to find out if you are eligible to donate cord blood.


BACKGROUND: A stem cell transplant is a treatment that is used to treat cancers that affect blood and immune system like leukemia, multiple myeloma, and some types of lymphoma. Stem cell transplants are used to treat these types of cancer since the stem cells that the body naturally produces most often die due to treatments like radiation and chemotherapy. Human beings need stem cells to survive, therefore, a stem cell transplant gives patients blood cells that they cant produce anymore. Furthermore, donated cells can often find and kill the cancerous cells better than the patients own cells. Stem cells include:

* Red blood cells (RBCs) * White Blood cells (WBCs) * Platelets (Source: &

CORD BLOOD: In the past, the only location where stem cells could be taken for a transplant was in the bone marrow. In recent years cord blood, the blood that is found in the umbilical cord, has been used for stem cell transplants. They possess the same quantity of stem cells as the bone marrow, and they come with more advantages. To start off, no surgery is needed like with bone marrow. Since the umbilical cord is natural in every birth, the mother can choose to donate her cord around three months before she is due. Once the cord is clamped, it is cleaned with antiseptic. Later, a needle is inserted into one of the veins in order to gather the necessary blood. Furthermore, since the cord blood stem cells are less mature than those stem cells from an adults bone marrow, the recipients body is less likely to reject the transplant. This is very important for people with ethnic backgrounds. With bone marrows stem cells, the match between the donor and the recipient has to be 8/8; with cord blood cells, on the other hand, the match can be partial. For recipients that come from an ethnic background, a perfect match can be harder to find. (Source:

PROS & CONS: Other advantages that come with core blood cells are the association of lower incidence of GvHD (Graft vs. Host Disease), and the lower risk of viral infections. Nevertheless, the cord blood cells have a drawback: the amount of stem cells found in them is very small. Because of the low number, children benefit from this transplant procedure more than adults. Since childrens bodies are smaller, they need fewer cells for their body to start reproducing them naturally. On the other hand, adults naturally need more cells than the ones the cord blood produces because of their size. (Source:

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Donating the umbilical cord could save someone’s life – WNDU-TV

Cellect Announces Successful First Cancer Patient Stem Cell Transplant – GlobeNewswire (press release)

March 27, 2017 07:02 ET | Source: Cellect Biotechnology Ltd.

Cellects technology, ApoGraft, aims to become a game changerin stem cells transplantations for cancer treatments

Company gets green light from DSMB Board for enrolling additional 2 cancer patients for ApoGraft transplantation treatments

TEL AVIV, Israel, March 27, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Cellect Biotechnology Ltd. (Nasdaq:APOP) (TASE:APOP), a developer of stem cell selection technology, announced today that the first stem cell transplant procedure has been successfully performed using its ApoGraft technology in the Companys Phase I/II clinical trial in a blood cancer patient.

Up to 50 percent of stem cell transplant procedures, such as bone marrow transplants, result in life-threatening rejection disease, known as Graft-versus-Host-Disease (GvHD). Cellects ApoGraft technology is aiming to turn stem cell transplants into a simple, safe and cost effective process, reducing the associated severe side effects, such as rejection and many other risks.

Dr. Shai Yarkoni, Cellects CEO said, After 15 years of research, this is the first time we have used our technology on a cancer patient suffering from life-threatening conditions. It is a first good step on a road that we hope will lead to stem cell based regenerative medicine becoming a safe commodity treatment at every hospital in the world.

Based on the successful transplantation results, the independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) approved the enrollment of 2 additional patients for ApoGraft treatment to complete the first study cohort as planned.

About GvHD

Despite improved prophylactic regimens, acute GvHD disease still occurs in 25% to 50% of recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of GvHD in recipients of allogeneic stem cells transplantation is increasing due to the increased number of allogeneic transplantations survivors, older recipient age, use of alternative donor grafts and use of peripheral blood stem cells. GvHD accounts for 15% of deaths after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and is considered the leading cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

About ApoGraft01 study

The ApoGraft01 study ( identifier: NCT02828878), is an open label, staggered four-cohort, Phase I/II, safety and proof-of-concept study of ApoGraft process in the prevention of acute GvHD. The study, which will enroll 12 patients, aims to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the ApoGraft process in patients suffering from hematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a matched related donor.

About Cellect Biotechnology Ltd.

Cellect Biotechnology is traded on both the NASDAQ and Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (NASDAQ:APOP)(NASDAQ:APOPW)(TASE:APOP). The Company has developed a breakthrough technology for the isolation of stem cells from any given tissue that aims to improve a variety of stem cell applications.

The Companys technology is expected to provide pharma companies, medical research centers and hospitals with the tools to rapidly isolate stem cells in quantity and quality that will allow stem cell related treatments and procedures. Cellects technology is applicable to a wide variety of stem cell related treatments in regenerative medicine and that current clinical trials are aimed at the cancer treatment of bone marrow transplantations.

Forward Looking Statements This press release contains forward-looking statements about the Companys expectations, beliefs and intentions. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as believe, expect, intend, plan, may, should, could, might, seek, target, will, project, forecast, continue or anticipate or their negatives or variations of these words or other comparable words or by the fact that these statements do not relate strictly to historical matters. For example, forward-looking statements are used in this press release when we discuss Cellects aim to make its ApoGraft technology a game changer in stem cell transplantations for cancer treatments and procedures, Cellects Apograft technology aiming to turn stem cell transplants into a simple, safe and cost effective process, reducing the associated severe side effects, such as rejection and many other risks, Cellects hope that stem cell based regenerative medicine will become a safe commodity treatment at every hospital in the world and that Cellects technology is expected to provide pharma companies, medical research centers and hospitals with the tools to rapidly isolate stem cells in quantity and quality that will allow stem cell related treatments and procedures. These forward-looking statements and their implications are based on the current expectations of the management of the Company only, and are subject to a number of factors and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. In addition, historical results or conclusions from procedures, scientific research and clinical studies do not guarantee that future results would suggest similar conclusions or that historical results referred to herein would be interpreted similarly in light of additional research or otherwise. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements: changes in technology and market requirements; we may encounter delays or obstacles in launching and/or successfully completing our clinical trials; our products may not be approved by regulatory agencies, our technology may not be validated as we progress further and our methods may not be accepted by the scientific community; we may be unable to retain or attract key employees whose knowledge is essential to the development of our products; unforeseen scientific difficulties may develop with our process; our products may wind up being more expensive than we anticipate; results in the laboratory may not translate to equally good results in real clinical settings; results of preclinical studies may not correlate with the results of human clinical trials; our patents may not be sufficient; our products may harm recipients; changes in legislation; inability to timely develop and introduce new technologies, products and applications, which could cause the actual results or performance of the Company to differ materially from those contemplated in such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement in this press release speaks only as of the date of this press release. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as may be required by any applicable securities laws. More detailed information about the risks and uncertainties affecting the Company is contained under the heading Risk Factors in Cellect Biotechnology Ltd.’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, which is available on the SEC’s website, and in the Companys period filings with the SEC and the Tel-Aviv Stock Exchange.

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Cellect Announces Successful First Cancer Patient Stem Cell Transplant – GlobeNewswire (press release)

The life-saving treatment that’s being thrown in the trash – – CNN

During a check-up, on his 43rd birthday, his doctor named summertime flu the most likely culprit.

Then the same thing happened again, and it settled into a disturbing pattern: midweek chills and an escalating fever that would break on Sunday. By Monday, Chris would feel fine, only to have the sequence repeat itself.

He joked about it with colleagues at T-Mobile, where he works in software development, “Well, I hope it’s not cancer!”

On alternating weekends from May to October, Chris would volunteer as a back country ranger for the US Forest Service — a physically demanding role that involves patrolling Washington’s Cascade Mountain forests and hiking along high-altitude trails with a backpack that can weigh up to 32 kilograms.

But now, even at sea level, he was getting winded just walking his two dogs around the block. What was going on?

A medical appointment revealed a heart murmur and suspicions of endocarditis, an infection of the heart’s inner lining. The scare triggered another series of tests that led Chris and his husband, Bill Sechter, to Emergency Room 4 at the University of Washington Medical Center.

A whiteboard checklist documented his Saturday morning: insertion of a large-bore IV as a potential conduit for antibiotics, a round of blood draws, and discussions with the ER doctor.

Then the phone rang and the nurse answered, listened and responded to multiple questions in quick succession: “Yes. Yes. Oh, OK. OK. Yeah.” He excused himself from the room and soon returned in a “full hazmat suit”, as Chris describes it. Yellow.

“And that’s when we were like, ‘Oh s***, it’s on. Something is seriously bad.'”

Chris learned that his level of infection-fighting neutrophil cells, normally churned out by the bone marrow, had fallen so low that his defenses were in tatters. He was also severely anemic, with roughly half the normal amount of red blood cells in his blood.

It wasn’t endocarditis. And when one of his doctors performed a blood smear, she saw something on the microscope slide that shouldn’t be there: blasts.

These leukemic cells, stuck in adolescence, were the harbingers of the coming horde that had so astonished 19th-century surgeons.

The doctor apologetically broke the news and Chris and his sister dissolved into tears. In an emotional Facebook post later that day, he attached a picture of himself in a hospital gown and pink face mask and wrote: “this avowed agnostic could actually go for your good juju / positive thoughts or even your (gasp) prayers.”

More tests, including a bone marrow biopsy of his pelvic bone, painted an increasingly disturbing picture. He had acute myeloid leukaemia, a fast-progressing cancer.

The biopsy suggested that an astonishing 80 per cent of his bone marrow cells were cancerous. Strike one.

Other results suggested that chemotherapy wouldn’t be as effective on his form of leukemia. Strike two.

And genetic tests put him in the unfavorable risk category by revealing that his cancer cells carried only one copy of chromosome 21, a rare anomaly associated with “dismal” outcomes, according to recent studies. Strike three.

Chris needed to start chemotherapy immediately.

But first, he had his sperm banked. Then, with family and a close friend at his side, he celebrated his impending treatment with prime rib and cheap champagne smuggled into his hospital room.

Over three days, he received multiple doses of the anticancer drugs cladribine, cytarabine and mitoxantrone, the last a dark blue concoction often dubbed “Blue Thunder.” The drug turned his urine a shade he describes as “Seahawks green” in honor of Seattle’s football team. Other patients have had the whites of their eyes temporarily turn blue.

On the third night of his drug infusion, a sudden back pain grew into an intense pressure in his chest that felt like he was being stabbed. A heart attack? An emergency CAT scan instead revealed two newly formed blood clots: one in his right leg and another in his right lung — not uncommon consequences of chemotherapy.

Over the next six months, Chris would need transfusions of blood-clotting platelets whenever his level of them dipped too low, and daily injections of a blood-thinning drug whenever it rose too high.

Thirteen days after being admitted into the hospital, he posted a more hopeful Facebook entry: “And I’m finally going home! Now the real adventure begins.”

Based on his leukemia classification, Chris was braced for multiple rounds of chemotherapy. He and his husband were overjoyed when a second bone marrow biopsy suggested that the leukemia had become undetectable after only a single round.

Because of his high-risk classification, however, Chris’s doctors said that the cancer was likely to return without a bone marrow transplant.

But Chris discovered that he had inherited an extremely rare set of cell-identifying protein tags. Only one bone marrow donor on the worldwide registry matched his genetic tags, and that person was unable to donate.

An umbilical cord blood transplant, Chris and his doctors agreed, was his best hope.

Like bone marrow, cord blood is unusually rich in hematopoietic stem cells — which can give rise to every type of blood cell — and their more developed descendants, progenitor cells, which are more limited in what they can become. But, unlike bone marrow, cord blood can be collected in advance and stored for decades in liquid nitrogen.

First, Chris would need to spend another five days in the hospital for a standard follow-up round of chemotherapy to pick off any hidden cancer cells. Chris marked the occasion with a Facebook post of himself in a grey felt Viking helmet and attached braids. “Round 2… And FIGHT!” This time, the chemo went off without a hitch.

He was a familiar face at the medical center, though, with three additional hospitalizations: twice for bacteremia, a bacterial blood infection marked by high fevers, and once so doctors could tame an allergic reaction to a transfusion of platelets, which always reminded Chris of chicken broth.

He had to steel himself again on Christmas Eve for the arrival of the “big guns”: two days of conditioning chemotherapy, headlined by a derivative of mustard gas. Its name is cyclophosphamide, and it works by sabotaging the machinery that copies DNA in rapidly dividing cells. As it does this, it breaks down to form toxic chemicals, including a pungent one called acrolein, which can destroy the lining of the bladder.

To neutralize its effects, patients must take another drug, called mesna, and drink plenty of water.

After a day of rest, Chris began a radiation therapy regimen so intense that it would have killed him if delivered in a single dose. Instead, his radiologists used a particle accelerator to fire X-rays at him in multiple bursts during morning and evening sessions over four days.

“You basically get into a tanning booth made out of clear Plexiglas,” he said.

Wearing nothing but a paper gown, Chris had to stay completely still behind two metal shielding blocks, each the size of a brick, positioned to protect his lungs from irreversible radiation-induced scarring. He did get a mild tan, he says, along with damaged skin that still resembles crepe paper.

Another absurdity still makes him laugh: while he requested punk rock for one of the sessions, he was instead blasted with the tune of Prince’s ‘Erotic City’.

When he finished the final round of total body irradiation on 30 December, the radiology team gathered for a final tribute and let Chris hit a small ceremonial gong.

The morning of New Year’s Eve, Chris wrote on Facebook, “I’m as nervous as an expectant father!” An hour and a half later, he marked the delivery of his “zero birthday” with a small chocolate cake and a decorative “0” candle: the day when his own bone marrow cells, erased by radiation and chemotherapy, were replaced by roughly four tablespoons of a life-granting elixir from the cord blood of two baby girls.

Even with some of the best help that medicine can offer, transplant recipients face a daunting few weeks without functional bone marrow when nearly anything can kill them.

Chris and Bill have nicknamed the donors Amelia and Olivia based on their blood types, A-negative and O-positive. In a later post, Chris marveled at the new arrivals reseeding his bone marrow: “I use more vanilla flavoring creamer in my coffee than the volume of cells that are rebuilding my entire blood and immune system.”

Four hours after the initial infusions, he received his protective bridge of blood-forming stem cells, collected and expanded from the cord blood of a third baby, a boy he and Bill have nicknamed Eddie.

Less than three weeks after the transplant, Chris’s neutrophils had fully engrafted and genetic tests suggested that Amelia had decisively won the fight to form his new blood and bone marrow. He progressed so rapidly, in fact, that he had to stay in the hospital for two days after he was fit to leave, so that Bill could finish preparing the apartment.

28 January: discharge day. As his family packed up his hospital room, Chris was taking a shower when a wall of exhaustion hit him. He could no longer stand or even dry himself off and sat dripping on the shower bench until Bill heard his calls for help.

He had survived, but life had fundamentally changed.

At home, every surface had to be disinfected daily with a bleach solution. At first, Chris couldn’t walk 100 feet down the apartment hallway without leaning on his brother. Until he hit the 100-day milestone after his transplant, the end of the most vulnerable period for recipients, he returned to the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance every other day for blood tests and checkups.

On the 97th day, Chris and his family celebrated a hard-fought victory when he was officially declared cancer-free: a leukemia survivor.

Despite dozens of studies documenting its curative powers, cord blood is saved after only 5 per cent of all US births. The rest is simply thrown away.

Michael Boo, chief strategy officer for the National Marrow Donor Program, estimates that only one in ten of those retained units passes the required screening tests and has enough volume to merit long-term storage.

Cord blood is also notoriously expensive, ranging from $22,000 to $45,000 per unit. Due to the relatively low demand from doctors, Boo says, public banks — at least in the US — are collecting as much as they can afford to keep. Beyond persuading new parents to donate, then, lowering the cost of cord blood transplants may depend upon persuading more doctors to use the cells and more insurers to cover them.

One potential use has attracted the avid interest of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, part of the US Department of Health and Human Services. As part of Project BioShield, the federal agency has been on the lookout for medical interventions that could treat acute radiation syndrome after a dirty bomb or nuclear disaster.

Cord blood transplants in adults, still an option of last resort in the early 2000s, nearly slammed to a halt over the quandary of how to keep patients alive until their new bone marrow cells could kick in.

Some researchers reasoned that they could boost the transplant volume by giving adults two cord blood units instead of one. John Wagner and colleagues at the University of Minnesota performed the first double transplant in 2000, using cells from two infant donors.

The tactic dramatically reduced the rate of graft failure, in which the recipient’s body rejects the new cells. But it barely changed the time needed to regenerate the bone marrow, and some critics have questioned whether a double cord blood transplant offers any significant benefits.

Wagner says his research suggested that transplanting enough blood-forming cells was necessary but likely not sufficient for better results. Improved patient survival, in fact, seemed to depend more upon a revised roster of drugs given pre-transplant.

To their surprise, researchers also discovered that the donors in a double cord blood transplant seem to battle for dominance, a curious “graft-versus-graft” phenomenon that almost always results in the victor dominating the recipient’s new bone marrow and blood cells.

Filippo Milano, associate director of the Cord Blood Program at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, compares it to a pivotal scene in the 1986 movie Highlander, when the antagonist exclaims, “There can be only one!”

On a sunny morning nearly a year after Chris’s transplant, he and I meet the Italian-born doctor in his lab so he can greet one of his star patients and explain the science behind the therapy that saved Chris’s life. Milano is passionate about coaching soccer and cooking. On the side, he jokes, he conducts research on cord blood transplants.

Upon his arrival to “The Hutch” in 2009, Milano teamed up with Colleen Delaney, founder and director of the Cord Blood Program, to test and refine a treatment strategy that may yet prove a better option than a bone marrow transplant for people with leukemia who are at high risk of relapsing.

Based on collaborations and discussions with other experts in the field, Delaney pioneered a method to minimize the risk of infection and bleeding after a cord blood transplant by reducing the time needed for the new blood cells to kick in. The strategy relies on what she and Milano call an “expanded” blood unit.

Starting with an extra batch of cord blood, they separate out the minuscule fraction of blood-forming stem cells and their early descendants and expand that population in the lab.

The hundreds of millions — even billions — of resulting stem and progenitor cells can jump start the generation of protective blood cells in the recipient. When infused along with a more traditional transplant, they can act like a temporary bridge until the replacement bone marrow takes over. “The net gain was that you didn’t have those very prolonged periods of recovery,” Wagner said.

One crucial component, Delaney discovered, is a protein called Notch ligand.

When added to the blood-forming stem cells, Notch ligand lets them divide quickly in the lab but temporarily pauses their development by preventing them from maturing into the normal range of cell types. Critically, they never give rise to T or B immune cells, which would seek out and destroy any perceived threats lacking the proper “self” ID tags.

Putting a donor’s T cells into an unmatched recipient, Delaney says, would trigger fatal graft-versus-host disease. “That’s the key: we get rid of all those bad parts of the immune system that need to be matched or they can kill you.”

The “bridge of recovery” lasts only so long before the full contingents of other donor cells begin attacking and dismantling it. But, with no cells checking IDs initially, the early flood of blood-forming stem cells need not be matched to the recipient at all, meaning that the “expanded” cord blood unit could be created well ahead of time and used whenever needed as a universal donor.

Other researchers are working on strategies toward the same end, and Mary Laughlin describes the overall progress as “very exciting”.

Delaney’s work, she says, “is very important, saving lives and improving the tolerability of these transplants and the success of these transplants”.

This is an edited extract from an article first published by Wellcome on Mosaic. It is republished here under a Creative Commons license.

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The life-saving treatment that’s being thrown in the trash – – CNN

Lungs Play Previously Unknown Role in Blood Production –

Using video microscopy in a living mouse lung, a team of researchers at the Universities of California, San Francisco (UCSF) & Los Angeles (UCLA), has revealed that the lungs play a previously unrecognized role in blood production.

Visualization of resident megakaryocytes in the lungs. Image credit: Emma Lefranais et al, doi: 10.1038/nature21706.

The team, headed by UCSF Professor Mark R. Looney, found that the lungs produced more than half of the platelets blood components required for the clotting that stanches bleeding in the mouse circulation.

In another finding, the team also identified a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells capable of restoring blood production when the stem cells of the bone marrow, previously thought to be the principal site of blood production, are depleted.

This finding definitely suggests a more sophisticated view of the lungs that theyre not just for respiration but also a key partner in formation of crucial aspects of the blood, Prof. Looney said.

What weve observed here in mice strongly suggests the lung may play a key role in blood formation in humans as well.

The study was made possible by a refinement of a technique known as two-photon intravital imaging.

The authors were using this technique to examine interactions between the immune system and circulating platelets in the lungs, using a mouse strain engineered so that platelets emit bright green fluorescence, when they noticed a surprisingly large population of platelet-producing cells called megakaryocytes in the lung vasculature.

When we discovered this massive population of megakaryocytes that appeared to be living in the lung, we realized we had to follow this up, said team member Dr. Emma Lefranais, from the UCSF Department of Medicine.

More detailed imaging sessions soon revealed megakaryocytes in the act of producing more than 10 million platelets per hour within the lung vasculature, suggesting that more than half of a mouses total platelet production occurs in the lung, not the bone marrow, as researchers had long presumed.

Video microscopy experiments also revealed a wide variety of previously overlooked megakaryocyte progenitor cells and blood stem cells sitting quietly outside the lung vasculature estimated at 1 million per mouse lung.

Proposed schema of lung involvement in platelet biogenesis. The role of the lungs in platelet biogenesis is twofold and occurs in two different compartments: (a) platelet production in the lung vasculature; after being released from the bone marrow or the spleen, proplatelets (a1) and megakaryocytes (a2) are retained in the lung vasculature, the first capillary bed encountered by any cell leaving the bone marrow, where proplatelet formation and extension and final platelet release are observed; (b) mature and immature megakaryocytes along with hematopoietic progenitors are found in the lung interstitium; in thrombocytopenic environments, hematopoietic progenitors from the lung migrate and restore bone marrow hematopoietic deficiencies. Image credit: Emma Lefranais et al, doi: 10.1038/nature21706.

The discovery of megakaryocytes and blood stem cells in the lung raised questions about how these cells move back and forth between the lung and bone marrow.

To address these questions, Prof. Looney, Dr. Lefranais and their colleagues conducted a clever set of lung transplant studies.

First, they transplanted lungs from normal donor mice into recipient mice with fluorescent megakaryocytes, and found that fluorescent megakaryocytes from the recipient mice soon began turning up in the lung vasculature.

This suggested that the platelet-producing megakaryocytes in the lung originate in the bone marrow.

In another experiment, the team transplanted lungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cells into mutant mice with low platelet counts.

The transplants produced a large burst of fluorescent platelets that quickly restored normal levels, an effect that persisted over several months of observation much longer than the lifespan of individual megakaryocytes or platelets.

This indicated that resident megakaryocyte progenitor cells in the transplanted lungs had become activated by the recipient mouses low platelet counts and had produced healthy new megakaryocyte cells to restore proper platelet production.

Finally, the researchers transplanted healthy lungs in which all cells were fluorescently tagged into mutant mice whose bone marrow lacked normal blood stem cells.

Analysis of the bone marrow of recipient mice showed that fluorescent cells originating from the transplanted lungs soon traveled to the damaged bone marrow and contributed to the production not just of platelets, but of a wide variety of blood cells, including immune cells such as neutrophils, B cells and T cells.

These experiments suggest that the lungs play host to a wide variety of blood progenitor cells and stem cells capable of restocking damaged bone marrow and restoring production of many components of the blood.

To our knowledge this is the first description of blood progenitors resident in the lung, and it raises a lot of questions with clinical relevance for the millions of people who suffer from thrombocytopenia, Prof. Looney said.

The findings were published online March 22, 2017 in the journal Nature.


Emma Lefranais et al. The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors. Nature, published online March 22, 2017; doi: 10.1038/nature21706

This article is based on text provided by the University of California, San Francisco.

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Lungs Play Previously Unknown Role in Blood Production –

Protein Found in Young Blood Could Be The Key To Fight Aging – Wall Street Pit

As people age, so does their blood. The question is: what exactly is in the blood of older people that makes it age? And in the same light, what is in the blood of younger people that can help rejuvenate old blood?

The idea of using young blood to rejuvenate old blood was not an automatic conclusion, of course. While it does seem logical, it remained a theory until tests that involved conjoining (i.e. stitching together) of old and young mice for the purpose of swapping blood revealed that the concept did have merit. With shared blood, the health of younger mice deteriorated while the health of older mice improved.

Another kind of experiment done was non-invasive blood swapping using tubes. The results were similar, though different explanations emerged for the change in health conditions of both old and young mice. When conjoined, the mice shared more than just blood; their organs got affected too. In non-invasive blood swapping, the old blood got diluted.

While these experiments were done on mice, theres a chance they might work in people as well. However, this involves blood donation from young people, which might mean the supply will be limited when it comes to fulfill demand.

As an alternative, a research team at Germanys University of Ulm led by Hartmut Geiger turned to stem cells, specifically, what are being referred to as mother stem cells those stem cells in the bone marrow that produce red and white blood cells, and whose number become fewer and fewer as a person ages. With fewer of these cell-generating cells, older people become more susceptible to conditions like anemia and heart disease. They become less capable of fighting infection as well.

By examining mice bone marrow, Geigers team discovered that older mice have considerably lower levels of a protein known as osteopontin. To check the effect of this protein on blood stem cells, they injected stem cells into mice that had low levels of osteopontin. What happened was, the cells aged much quicker.

However, when they mixed older stem cells with osteopontin and a protein that activates osteopontin, the old stem cells started producing white blood cells as if they were young stem cells. This suggests that osteopontin might indeed have a hand in rejuvenating old stem cells and making them behave as if they were young again.

While majority of blood rejuvenation efforts focus on the liquid part of blood (or plasma), Geiger believes blood cells might also play a vital role since cells can move better in the bodys tissues.

Following the initial results of their experiments, the team is now working on developing a drug that contains osteopontin and its corresponding protein activator. The hope is that this drug can promote youthful behavior in blood stem cells and boost the number of mother stem cells. Ultimately, this can help in the treatment of age-related blood disorders, and possibly boost the immune system of the elderly too so they dont get sick as easily.

Details of the study have been reported in The EMBO Journal.

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Protein Found in Young Blood Could Be The Key To Fight Aging – Wall Street Pit

Bone marrow transplants up: Jipmer – The Hindu

The Hindu
Bone marrow transplants up: Jipmer
The Hindu
Dr. Biswajit of the Department of Medical Oncology said the hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), commonly known as bone marrow transplant or blood marrow transplant (BMT) programme, was started in Jipmer in January 2013. The current BMT unit …

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Bone marrow transplants up: Jipmer – The Hindu

Cellect Succeeds In First Stem Cell Transplant (APOP) – Investopedia

Cellect Succeeds In First Stem Cell Transplant (APOP)
It includes more than half the stem cell transplant procedures, including bone marrow transplant, resulting in a serious rejection disease called Graft-versus-Host-Disease (GvHD). GvHD is a medical disorder which results from receipt of transplanted
Cellect Announces Successful First Cancer Patient Stem Cell TransplantP&T Community
Why Cellect Biotechnology Ltd. (APOP) Stock Is Soaring
Cellect Biotechnology Ltd. (NASDAQ:APOP) Surges 22.76% Monday's Pre-SessionBenchmark Monitor

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Cellect Succeeds In First Stem Cell Transplant (APOP) – Investopedia

How Big Data is Being Mobilized in the Fight Against Leukemia – Drug Discovery & Development

Healthy cell function relies on well orchestrated gene activity. Via a fantastically complex network of interactions, around 30,000 genes cooperate to maintain this delicate balance in each of the37.2 trillion cellsin the human body.

Broadly speaking, cancer is a disruption of this balance by genetic changes, or mutations. Mutations can trigger over-activation of genes that normally instruct cells to divide, or inactivation of genes that suppress the development of cancer. When a mutated cell divides, it passes the mutation down to its daughter cells. This leads to the accumulation of non-functioning, abnormal cells that we recognise as cancer.

Our laboratoryis focused on understanding how one particular cancer chronic myeloid leukaemiaor CML works. Each year more than 700 patients in the UK andover 100,000worldwide are diagnosed with CML. After recent advances,almost 90%of patients under the age of 65 now survive for more than five years.

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But in the vast majority of patients CML is currently incurable and lifelong treatment means that patients must live with side effects and the chance of drug resistance arising. With increasing numbers of CML patients surviving (and treatment costing between 40,000 and 70,000 per patient a year), increasing strain is being placed on health services.

A single mutation

CML is perhaps unique in cancers in that a single mutation, namedBCR-ABL, underlies the disease biology. This mutation originates in a singleleukaemic stem cell, but is then propagated throughout the blood and bone marrow as leukaemia cells take over and block the healthy process of blood production. The presence of BCR-ABL affects the activity of thousands of genes, in turn preventing these cells from fulfilling their normal function as blood cells.

Drugsthat specifically neutralise the aberrant effects of this mutation were introduced to the clinic from the early 2000s. These drugs have revolutionised CML patient care. Many are now able to live relatively normal lives with their leukaemia under good control.

But while these drugs kill the more mature daughter cells of the originally mutated leukaemia stem cell, they have not fully lived up to their initial billing as magic bullets in the fight against cancer. This is because the original seed population of leukaemic stem cellsevade therapy,lying dormant in the bone marrowto stimulate new cancer growth when treatment is withdrawn.

To truly cure CML we must expose, understand the inner workings of, and uproot the leukaemia stem cells. And to do this, we need to learn more about them. How do they survive the treatment that so readily kills their more mature counterparts? Which overactive or inactivated genes protect them?

We believe that the answers to these questions lie in the analysis of biological big data. Genome-scale technologies now allow scientists to measure the activity (or expression) of every gene in the genome simultaneously, in any given population of cells, or even at the level of a single cell. Comparison of expression data generated from leukaemia stem cells with the same data generated from healthy blood stem cells will reveal single genes or networks of genes potentially targetable in the fight against leukaemia.

Big data to the rescue

In a project funded by Bloodwise and the Scottish Cancer Foundation, we have createdLEUKomics. This online data portal brings together a wealth of CML gene expression data from specialised laboratories across the globe, including our own at the University of Glasgow.

Our intention is to eliminate the bottleneck surrounding big data analysis in CML. Each dataset is subjected to manual quality checks, and all the necessarycomputational processingto extract information on gene expression. This enables immediate access to and interpretation of data that previously would not have been easily accessible to academics or clinicians without training in specialised computational approaches.

Consolidating these data into a single resource also allows large-scale, computationally-intensive research efforts by bioinformaticians (specialists in the analysis of big data in biology). From a computational perspective, the fact that CML is caused by a single mutation makes it an attractive disease model for cancer stem cells. However, existing datasets tend to have small sample numbers, which can limit their potential.

The more samples available, the higher the power to detect subtle changes that may be crucial to the biology of the cancer stem cells. By bringing all the globally available CML datasets together, we have significantly increased the sample size, from two to six per dataset to more than 100 altogether. This offers an unprecedented opportunity to analyse gene expression data to expose underlying mechanisms of this disease.

As of March 2017, theportalis up and running in the public domain. We are planning to tour Scotland and present at international conferences, aiming to train researchers in how best to exploit this new resource. Ultimately, we hope that this tool will lead to new ideas and approaches, and attract more funding, in the fight against CML. And while we continue to expand our representation of CML data in real time from research centres all over the world, we also plan to begin incorporating data from other types of leukaemia.

In recent years, targeted therapies have becomehugely importantin cancer research. By providing these data to the CML research community withinLEUKomics, we hope to mobilise new research into cancer-causing leukaemic stem cells, and ultimately design treatments to target them without affecting healthy cells. Our database provides a critical stepping stone in this process.

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How Big Data is Being Mobilized in the Fight Against Leukemia – Drug Discovery & Development

What are mesenchymal stem cells? – Palm Beach Post

In the United States alone, more than 400,000 lumbar discectomies and 500,000 spinal fusions are performed each year for symptoms related to lumbar disc degeneration. The ability to get these to heal without surgery has been a long-term goal of many patients and physicians alike. The Spine Center continues to be on the forefront of treatment options and is proud to offer stem cell therapy treatments for patients as part of our comprehensive non-operative treatment options.

Adult stem cells are divided into different categories. For example, the types of adult stem cells Dr. Theofilos uses to treat musculoskeletal issues are known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into bone cells, cartilage cells, or fat cells.

The human body has multiple storage sites for stem cells to repair degenerated and injured structures. Dr. Theofilos has found that obtaining stem cells from the hip bone (iliac bone) is easily performed within minutes and, in most cases, is a fairly painless procedure for the patient. The stem cells are obtained from bone marrow; just minutes later, they are used for treatment.

This procedure is done in our office and after the procedure, the syringe of stem cells is taken to the lab and placed in a specialized machine called a centrifuge. The centrifuge spins the bone marrow solution and stem cells are separated from the non-useful cells. Now, the stem cells are ready for the treatment.

For those whom are ideal candidates, this provides great hope with reduction in pain and improved quality of life without the need for major surgery.

Voted as one of Americas Top Surgeons, Charles S. Theofilos, MD, Neurosurgeon and Founder of The Spine Center is a leading provider of the state-of-the-art, most comfortable and effective surgical, minimally invasive and non-surgical treatment options for a full range of cervical and spinal ailments, including stem cell therapy and artificial disc replacement. He was among a field of 20 top neuro and orthopedic surgeons in the U.S. chosen to participate in the groundbreaking Artificial Disc Study, which compared the clinical outcome of disc replacement versus traditional spinal fusion. A widely sought after educator and lecturer, Dr. Theofilos has offices in Palm Beach Gardens and Port St. Lucie. In an effort to maintain and honor the commitment to our patients, we will continue to accept Medicare and Medicare Advantage insurance plans for all new and follow up appointments.

11621 Kew Gardens Ave., Suite 101;Palm Beach Gardens

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What are mesenchymal stem cells? – Palm Beach Post

Stem cell treatments can go wrong – Jamaica Observer

Stem cells are the foundation of all our body cells before they differentiate to become specialised cells that grow into our tissues and organs, such as kidney cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, and so on.

They commonly come from two sources: The embryo (embryonic stem cells formed in early development after the human egg is fertilised by a sperm); and adult tissue (adult stem cells, such as those existing in bone marrow to later differentiate to form red blood cells, white blood cells and other components of the blood).

The use of human embryonic stems cells for treatment or research is often frowned upon by some people, as they regard the human embryo as a person that should not be discarded after such endeavours. Consequently, much scientific work has recently been focused on the use of adult stem cells.


Stem cells may be beneficial in treating diseases that are amenable to cell replacement. However, this is still a young science, and belief that a particular treatment helps two or three people does not convince the scientific community or the whole society that the treatment will work for everyone so afflicted.

Scientific proof comes from conducting clinical trials, the international gold standard often involving hundreds of people so afflicted and comparing them with an equivalent number of people not afflicted to determine whether a treatment really works for those who receive it.

Whilst many stem cell research projects are currently being conducted in various centres around the world to determine whether they produce benefits, and what may be the possible risks involved, there are also medical clinics that are using stem cells not in a registered research project, but rather in the actual treatment of affected people.


A recent report in the highly respected New England Journal of Medicine informed that three elderly women in Florida had been blinded by an unproven treatment.

They had signed up for a purported clinical trial in 2015 for which they had to pay US$5,000 each. Before surgery, the vision in their eyes varied from 20/30 to 20/200, but within one week after surgery, they experienced a variety of complications, including vision loss, detached retinas and bleeding into their eyes, resulting in total blindness.

The authors of the article from the Standard University School of Medicine sought to make patients, doctors and the various regulatory agencies aware of the risks of such a minimally regulated, patient-funded research. It stated that some clinics appeal to patients that are desperate for care and who hope that stem cells will be their answer, but as in the case of these women, some of these current enterprises are very dangerous.

At this particular clinic, fat cells were taken from the patients abdomens and processed to obtain stem cells which were then injected into their eyes. The patients reported that the entire process took less than one hour. The patients had both eyes treated at once, even though most doctors would opt for a conservative approach to observe how the first eye responds.


The article stated that while there is a lot of well-founded evidence for the positive potential of stem cell treatment for many human diseases, such treatments should be conducted in a well-designed clinical trial based on pre-clinical research.

The treatment done for the women lacked nearly all the components of a properly designed clinical trial, including a hypothesis based on laboratory experiments, the involvement of a control group of people and a treatment group, the safe collection of data, the masking of clinical and patient groups, and plans for follow-up.

Clinics offering stem cell treatments exist in Jamaica, The Bahamas and Cuba. However, while both The Bahamas and Cuba have developed regulations that stipulate in law the conditions to be met for stem cell treatments and research within their jurisdictions, Jamaica has developed no such regulation.


The Medical Act of Jamaica was passed in 1976, but does not mention or provide any guidance or protection regarding research with human participants.

Its focus was to: Register medical practitioners; appoint examiners to conduct exams for people applying for registration, and ensure the maintenance of proper professional conduct by practitioners.An amendment in 2004 added the requirement of continuing medical education for practitioners.

Guyana and St Lucia are the only countries in the Caribbean that have joined the progressive countries who all have legislation governing research with human participants within their borders. Regulations should stipulate the requisite conditions, including that treatment and research be monitored by an appropriate ethics committee to meet all international standards.

Without this, vulnerable people seeking health benefits will unknowingly continue to subject themselves to risks of harm without the protection that proper regulations can provide.

Derrick Aarons MD, PhD is a consultant bioethicist/family physician, a specialist in ethical issues in medicine, the life sciences and research, and is the Ethicist at the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). (The views expressed here are not written on behalf of CARPHA)

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Stem cell treatments can go wrong – Jamaica Observer

‘If that was my little girl I’d want someone to step up’: Stem cell donor on lifesaving transplant – ChronicleLive

Selfless Ray Noble may never meet the stranger whose life he saved.

The 29-year-old registered as a stem cell and bone marrow donor four years ago after a young girl his wife knew was diagnosed with cancer.

If that was my little girl Id want someone to be there for her, he said.

Ive been a blood donor for a while, so I thought why not sign up to the stem cell register as well.

And last year dad-of-one Ray, from Wallsend, made a life-saving donation after being told he was a match for an unknown patient in urgent need of a transplant.

Now blood cancer charity Anthony Nolan have urged more people to follow Rays example after a survey revealed that 50% of young men from the North East could not be encouraged to sign up to a blood stem cell or bone marrow register for any reason.

Every year there are 2,000 people in the UK in need of a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. This is usually their last chance of survival.

For Ray, the path to becoming a blood cancer patients last hope started when a relative of his wifes friend was diagnosed with the disease.

The process was pretty simple, he said.

I followed the instructions on the Anthony Nolan website about how to sign up.

Within a week or two they sent me a spit test, where I basically had to spit into a tube and send it off so it could be analysed.

I then got a card a few weeks later saying I was on the register.

Since signing up, Ray has been identified as a potential match for two patients.

About two years ago Anthony Nolan got in touch to say that I was a potential match for someone and I had to go and give some samples.

On that one they managed to find a closer match – I was eight out of 10 and they found a 10 out of 10, which was obviously better for the patient.

Then around Christmas last year they confirmed that I was a match for someone.

After undergoing several health checks and injections to stimulate the stem cells in his blood, Ray travelled down to Sheffield in April last year to make the donation.

All in all it took about four or five hours, he said. Id been aching a bit before the procedure because of the injections but afterwards I felt totally fine.

Ray, who is dad to two-year-old Ariana, has since convinced several friends and relatives to sign up.

For me its a question of, why not?, he said.

Its not that likely that youre ever going to be asked to donate – its just a case of being on there for someone if they need it.

I always ask people: How would you feel if it was your child or parent or cousin, if they needed a donor and you werent a match – would you want someone to step up and help them?

Every 20 minutes someone in the UK finds out they have a blood cancer.

Around 2,000 people in the UK in need of a bone marrow or stem cell transplant every year. This is usually their last chance of survival.

75% of UK patients wont find a matching donor in their families. So they turn to Anthony Nolan to find them an unrelated donor.

Healthy adults aged between 16 and 30 can sign up for a simple, pain-free test through the Anthony Nolan Trust.

The charity particularly need more young men to sign up. They produce more stem cells than women and are six times more likely to donate, but make up just 15% of the register. They also need more donors from black and minority ethnic backgrounds as they often struggle to find matches for people in these groups.

Check the list of criteria to make sure youre eligible to join and fill in an application form, either online or at an Anthony Nolan recruitment event.

If you come to a recruitment event and your application is OK, you can give your saliva sample there. If you apply online, youll be sent spit kit in the post. All you need to do is spit into a small tube and post it back.

The sample will be tested and the results put in the charitys database. Every time someone needs a transplant, theyll automatically compare their tissue to yours and the 620,000 other individuals on the register.

You can donate your stem cells in two ways.

Nearly 90% of people donate their stem cells quickly and easily in a process similar to giving blood, called peripheral blood stem cell collection.

The other 10% donate through bone marrow, where they give cells from the bone marrow in their pelvis.

If youre on the register, you must be happy to donate stem cells in either way.

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‘If that was my little girl I’d want someone to step up’: Stem cell donor on lifesaving transplant – ChronicleLive

Lungs make platelets, store blood stem cells: Study – The San Diego … – The San Diego Union-Tribune

Challenging a long-held model about how blood is formed, a study led by UC San Francisco researchers has found that the lungs play a crucial role in the process, producing half of blood platelets and also storing blood-forming stem cells.

The study, performed in mice, also found that blood stem cells and progenitor cells travel freely between the lungs and bone marrow, long considered the primary source of blood production.

If found to occur in humans, this discovery about the lungs role in blood production could provide new approaches for treating blood diseases, pulmonologist Mark R. Looney, M.D., senior author of the study, said in a statement.

Moreover, the success of lung transplantation might be increased by better understanding this process. Immune reaction between donor blood cells in the lungs and the host could contribute to transplant rejection, the study stated.

The study was published Wednesday in the journal Nature. When placed online, the study can be found at

“This finding definitely suggests a more sophisticated view of the lungs — that they’re not just for respiration but also a key partner in formation of crucial aspects of the blood,” Looney said. “What we’ve observed here in mice strongly suggests the lung may play a key role in blood formation in humans as well.”

“Dr. Looney and his team have disrupted some traditional ideas about the pulmonary role in platelet-related hematopoiesis, paving the way for further scientific exploration of this integrated biology,” said Traci Mondoro, of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, in the statement.

While it has been known for decades that platelets can be made in the lungs, the study indicates that lung production is a more important factor than previously thought, said Mondoro, project officer at the Translational Blood Science and Resources Branch of the NHLBI, a division of the National Institutes of Health.

Researchers studied the lungs of mice genetically engineered to make a green fluorescent protein in platelets and platelet-making cells called megakaryocytes. They found a larger than expected number of these cells.

Megakaryocytes that release platelets in the lungs originate from extrapulmonary sites such as the bone marrow; we observed large megakaryocytes migrating out of the bone marrow space, the study said. The contribution of the lungs to platelet biogenesis is substantial,accounting for approximately 50% of total platelet production or 10 million platelets per hour.

After discovering this process, the researchers looked for more signs of blood cells residing in the lungs. They found progenitor cells that turn into megakaryocytes, along with blood-forming, or hematopoietic, stem cells. a total of 1 million per mouse lung.

These cells constitute a reservoir that can replenish the bone marrow, the study said.

Under conditions of thrombocytopenia (platelet deficiency) and relative stem cell deficiency in the bone marrow, these progenitors can migrate out of the lungs, repopulate the bone marrow, completely reconstitute blood platelet counts, and contribute to multiple hematopoietic lineages, the study stated. These results identify the lungs as a primary site of terminal platelet production and an organ with considerable hematopoietic potential.

The studys co-first authors are Emma Lefranais and Guadalupe Ortiz-Muoz, both of UCSF. It was supported by the UCSF Nina Ireland Program in Lung Health; the UCSF Program for Breakthrough Biomedical Research, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

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Lungs make platelets, store blood stem cells: Study – The San Diego … – The San Diego Union-Tribune

Injection with own stem cells alleviates chest pains, angina, study finds – Genetic Literacy Project

A non-surgical treatment that uses a patients own bone marrow stem cells to treat chest pain or angina improved both symptoms and the length of time treated patients could be physically active, according to recent research.

We injected a catalyst molecule that caused bone marrow stem cells to enter the patients blood, then harvested them to re-inject into the patient,said Hadyanto Lim, Ph.D., study senior author.

Thirty minutes after the cell separation procedure finished, the collected stem cells were injected back into the patient through an IV.

Four weeks after receiving the treatment, patients experienced significantly fewer angina-related symptoms, and they were able to exercise at a higher intensity and for a longer period of time.

The studys limitations are the small number of patients and absence of a control group. Because no control group was used, the placebo effect cannot be ruled out, Lim noted.

Although this treatment is currently used to treat some cancers multiple myeloma and lymphoma it will need more investigation before it can be made available to the general public to treat angina, according to Lim.

The GLP aggregated and excerpted this blog/article to reflect the diversity of news, opinion, and analysis. Read full, original post:Hard to treat chest pain may be improved with a patients own stem cells

For more background on the Genetic Literacy Project, read GLP on Wikipedia.

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Injection with own stem cells alleviates chest pains, angina, study finds – Genetic Literacy Project

An unexpected new lung function has been found – they make blood … – ScienceAlert

Researchers have discovered that the lungs play a far more complex role in mammalian bodies than we thought, with new evidence revealing that they don’t just facilitate respiration – they also play a key role in blood production.

In experiments involving mice, the team found that they produce more than 10 million platelets (tiny blood cells) per hour, equating to the majority of platelets in the animals’ circulation. This goes against the decades-long assumption that bone marrow produces all of our blood components.

Researchers from the University of California, San Francisco also discovered a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells that makes this happen inside the lung tissue – cells that were incorrectly assumed to mainly reside in bone marrow.

“This finding definitely suggests a more sophisticated view of the lungs – that they’re not just for respiration, but also a key partner in formation of crucial aspects of the blood,” says one of the researchers, Mark R. Looney.

“What we’ve observed here in mice strongly suggests the lung may play a key role in blood formation in humans as well.”

While the lungs have been known to produce a limited amount of platelets – platelet-forming cells called megakaryocytes have been identified in the lungs before – scientists have long assumed that most of the cells responsible for blood production are kept inside the bone marrow.

Here, aprocess called haematopoiesiswas thought tochurn out oxygen-laden red blood cells, infection-fighting white blood cells, and platelets – blood components required for the clotting that halts bleeding.

But scientists have now watched megakaryocytesfunctioning from within the lung tissue to produce not a few, but most of the body’s platelets.

So how did we miss such a crucial biological process this whole time?

The discovery was made possible by a new type of technology based on two-photon intravital imaging – a similar technique to one used by a separate team this week to discover a previously unidentified function of the brain’s cerebellum.

The process involves inserting a substance called green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the mouse genome – a protein that’s naturally produced by bioluminescent animals such as jellyfish, and is harmless to living cells.

The mouse platelets started to emit bright green fluorescence as they circulated around the body in real time, allowing the team to trace their paths like never before.

They noticed a surprisingly large population of platelet-producing megakaryocytes inside the lung tissue, which initially didn’t make much sense, seeing as they’re usually associated with bone marrow.

“When we discovered this massive population of megakaryocytes that appeared to be living in the lung, we realised we had to follow this up,” says one of the team, Emma Lefranais.

They found that this huge supply of megakaryocytes is actually producing more than 10 million platelets per hour in the lungs of mice, which means at least half of the body’s total platelet production is occurring in the lungs.

Here’s what it looks like:

Further experiments also revealed vast amounts of previously hidden blood stem cells and megakaryocyte progenitor cells (cells that give rise to megakaryocyte and red blood cells) sitting just outside the lung tissue – about 1 million per mouse lung.

When the researchers traced the entire ‘life cycle’ of the megakaryocytes, they found that they likely originate in the bone marrow, then make their way to the lungs, where they start platelet production.

“It’s fascinating that megakaryocytes travel all the way from the bone marrow to the lungs to produce platelets,” says one of the team, Guadalupe Ortiz-Muoz.

“It’s possible that the lung is an ideal bioreactor for platelet production because of the mechanical force of the blood, or perhaps because of some molecular signalling we don’t yet know about.”

The researchers wanted to investigate if their discovery could have an effect on how we treat disorders such aslung inflammation, bleeding, and transplantation in the future, by transplanting lungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cells into mice with low platelet counts.

The transplants produced a massive burst of platelets that quickly restored the depleted platelet counts to normal levels, and the effect lasted for several months.

Another experiment tested what would happen if the bone marrow wasn’t playing a role in blood production.

The team implantedlungs with fluorescent megakaryocyte progenitor cellsinto mice that had been engineered to have no blood stem cells in their bone marrow.

As Michael Irving reports for New Atlas, they watched as the fluorescent cells from the transplanted lungs made their way to the bone marrow, where they not only helped to produce platelets, but also other key blood components, such as neutrophils, B cells and T cells.

The findings will need to be replicated in humans before we can know for sure that the same process is occurring within our own bodies, but the study makes a strong case for this hidden function in what could be one of our most underrated organs.

It will likely also prompt scientists to investigate further how the bone marrow and lungs work together to produce our blood supply.

“It has been known for decades that the lung can be a site of platelet production, but this study amplifies this idea by demonstrating that the [mouse] lung is a major participant in the process,” Traci Mondoro from the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, who was not involved in the study, said in a press statement.

“Looney and his team have disrupted some traditional ideas about the pulmonary role in platelet-related hematopoiesis, paving the way for further scientific exploration of this integrated biology.”

The research has been published in Nature.

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An unexpected new lung function has been found – they make blood … – ScienceAlert

Space wombs for stem cells: Satellites could help accelerate the discovery of disease cures – Salon

This week a very special delivery was made from space that will help further research that could eventually lead to a mind-blowing, futuristic way to cure diseases: shooting unmanned satellite wombs into orbit and then retrieving from them batches of stem cells that can be used to treat patients. Regardless of the outcome, the scientific experiment will still advance our knowledge of these unique cells.

On Thursday Dr. Abba Zubairat the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, received frozen stem cells grown at the International Space Station. The package was part of the 5,400 pounds of scientific samples and equipment that splashed down on Sunday off the coast of California inside a SpaceX Dragon-10 capsule completing a historic round-trip mission.

Up there, one of the astronauts helped us to image the cells, harvest the cells and freeze them in a way that we can use them here on Earth and compare them to cells we grew here in the lab, Zubair, the principal investigator of the stem cell experiment, told Salon.

Zubairs team will look to see if the culture grown in the near-zero gravity of low-space orbit, about 250 miles above the Earths surface, results in healthier cells than onesgrownin aterrestrial lab. If so then it would helpconfirm the theory that microgravity, which resembles the weightless-likebuoyancyof female womb, is best environment for growing stemscells.

Stem cells, from which all other types of cells originate, are the bodys raw materials, and as such offer immense potential to cure many diseases. Doctors already use stem cells forbone-marrow transplants and treating blood-related diseases like leukemia, as well asfor some eye-related disorders. Researchers believe were only in the very early stages of developing revolutionary stem cell therapiesto combat cancer, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, Type 1 diabetes, heart disease and strokes. In the future, stems cellscience could even lead to growing organs in a lab that can be transplanted into humans.

But stem cells are finicky. As they replicate in a lab, many of them develop imperfections and have to be discarded. It can take a month to grow the roughly 200,000 cells needed to treat one patient, Zubair said. Gravity might be the culprit.

In nature, these cells start their life after an egg is fertilized. Humans, right from conception, develop almost in a microgravity environment, Zubair said. Fetuses develop in amniotic fluid. Theyre buoyant, which cancels the effect of gravity because theyre suspended in a liquid. Thats how three-dimensional growth in a fluid environment is possible. We think gravity does play a role in the shape and development of the cells and how organs develop.

In other words, if the cells are suspended in fluid, they can grow and move in any direction, producing more of them, compared withhow they grow on a flat surface, like in a petri dish.

This is why stem cells are typically grown in a bioreactor, a common bioengineering tool that gently stirswater containing the seed cells and certain nutrients that promote growth. But because of the way gravity affectsfluids, many of the cells become damaged and cant be used for treatment. (In the language of physics, the problem has to do with something called shearing force.) By placing a bioreactor in the microgravity of orbit, the effects of gravity on liquid mechanics is virtually eliminated.

If growing stem cells in spaceproves to be efficient, thats when things get interesting. Growing stem cells at the International Space Station is anexperimental endeavor, so its not really a viable place to begin manufacturing themin great quantities. But theoretically, Zubair says, bioreactor satellites could be put into orbit and left there to grow cells until theyre remotely called back to Earth or sent wherever future interplanetary pilgrims wind up. As the cost of sending small satellites into low orbit falls, this system could be commercially viable.

There are companies that are interested in developing a floating lab in space to grow not only stem cells but also tissues and organs down the road for human use or for use elsewhere as we hopefully colonize other planets, like Mars, Zubair said.

This might seem out of this world, but the technology for growing stem cells remotely already exists. If space is the place to grow human parts and this research will help to determine that then designing systems and deploying these bioreactor space wombs might not be that far off in the future.

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Space wombs for stem cells: Satellites could help accelerate the discovery of disease cures – Salon

Scientists May Have Found A Way To Make Old Stem Cells Act … – Digital Trends

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Scientists May Have Found A Way To Make Old Stem Cells Act … – Digital Trends

Plasma and stem cells: The future of regenerative medicine | WEAR – WEAR

Plasma and stem cells: The future of regenerative medicine

Blood platelet injections and stem cell treatments may sound like the future, but physicians at the Andrews Institute are already practicing these forms of regenerative medicine.

Weight lifting mixed with normal wear and tear left Howie Webber in constant pain.

“I probably felt it about four months ago,” said Howie. “I did some stretching, thinking I could make it go away, but it just continued to get worse.”

That’s when Howie went to the doctor and found out he had two options: surgery or regenerative medicine; he picked the latter.

“I just added up the amount of time I’d be out of work and the cost of surgery, plus the copay and this whole thing just seemed like it would be a little faster and a little easier, and it ended up being just that,” said Howie.

Physicians at the Andrew’s Institute currently offer two different types of regenerative medicine, platelet rich plasma, or PRP and bone marrow aspirate concentrate, or BMAC.

With PRP, physicians take the patient’s blood, separate the platelets and inject those platelets back into the patient at the site of injury. The idea is that platelets carry growth factors and molecules to stimulate the healing process.

BMAC utilizes platelets too, but also the patient’s bone marrow harvested from the pelvis.

Both regenerative medicine methods have benefits, perhaps the biggest according to Dr. Brett Kindle, is avoiding invasive surgeries.

“If we need surgery, we need surgery, and that’s what it is, but if we can avoid it, that often times is very beneficial from a financial standpoint, missing less work, etc.,” said Dr. Kindle. “Also from a quality of life, to be able to get back to doing activities in a more timely manner.”

The main difference between the two is price and neither are covered by insurance. BMAC costs upwards of $3,000, while PRP costs anywhere from $600 to $800. Howie opted for PRP.

“It hurt for about three days, then within a week I was pain free,” said Howie. “Maybe a little discomfort that you would expect, but it wasn’t near as bad as it was before.”

Howie’s issue was with his hamstrings, but Dr. Kindle said both PRP and BMAC can be used to treat a variety of aches and pains.

“Anything in the limbs,” said Dr. Kindle. “Shoulders, elbows, hands, wrists, hips, knees, foot, ankle, all of those areas.”

Recovery for both PRP and BMAC procedures is typically one to two weeks. Full effects of the injections don’t usually kick in until six to eight weeks later. For more information about regenerative medicine or to schedule a consultation with an Andrews Institute physician, call (850) 916-8700.

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Plasma and stem cells: The future of regenerative medicine | WEAR – WEAR

‘Butterfly boy’ Jonathan Pitre cleared for second stem cell transplant – Ottawa Citizen

Jonathan Pitre readies for his second stem cell transplant, which will take place April 13th at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children’s Hospital. Tina Boileau / –

Fully recovered from a series of infections, Jonathan Pitre has received medical clearance to undergo a second stem cell transplant.

Pitre, 16, will check into hospital on the last day of March to begin eight days of high-dose chemotherapy and one day of radiation. His stem cell transplant what doctors call Day Zero is scheduled forApril 13 at the University of Minnesota Masonic Childrens Hospital.

The night before he goes into hospital, Pitre will attend the Ottawa Senators game against the Minnesota Wild at the Xcel Energy Centre in Saint Paul. It will be a good night of fun before it all starts again, said Pitres mother, Tina Boileau.

She shared the latest news on her Facebook page on Wednesday.

After many weeks of tests, procedures and appointments at the hospital, Jonathan got the green light to proceed with the second transplant, she said. He has completely recovered from his infections and his body is as strong as can be This time it will work!

Last September, Pitre suffered nausea, hair loss, fevers and exhaustion in the aftermath of his first transplant, which ultimately failed when his own stem cells recolonized his bone marrow.His second transplant has been delayed because of lung and blood infections.

In an interview earlier this month, Pitre told the Citizen hes staying positive even though he understands the physical test that he faces in hospital.

Its mostly thinking about sticking together with the people you care about, your family, he said . You have to stick to them very, very tightly and tell each other that, Its going to be OK, and that Were stronger than this. Were going through this together, not just alone.

Pitre suffers from a rare, painful and deadly form of epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a blistering skin disease.

Hes the first Canadian to take part in a clinical trial operated by the University of Minnesotas Dr. Jakub Tolar, a pediatric transplant specialist who has adapted stem-cell therapy as a treatment for the most severe forms of EB.Although the procedure comes with the potential for life-threatening complications, it has produced dramatic improvements in two-thirds of those EB patients who have survived the transplant: tougher skin, reduced blistering and better wound healing.

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‘Butterfly boy’ Jonathan Pitre cleared for second stem cell transplant – Ottawa Citizen

Old blood can be made young again and it might fight ageing | New … – New Scientist

Fresh young cells

Dennis Kunkle Microscopy/Science Photo Library

By Jessica Hamzelou

BLOOD from the young seems to have healing powers, but how can we harness them without relying on donors? The discovery of a protein that keeps blood stem cells youthful might help.

The rejuvenating properties of young blood came to light in macabre experiments that stitched young and old mice together to share a circulatory system. The health of the older mice improved, while that of the younger ones deteriorated. Other animal studies have since shown that injections of young or old blood have similar effects.

This may work in people too. Young blood is being trialled as a treatment for conditions like Alzheimers, and aged mice that received injections of blood from human teenagers showed improved cognition, memory and physical activity levels.

We think the drug will improve signs of ageing and boost the immune systems of older people

But these studies rely on young people donating their blood: if this became the go-to therapy for age-related disease it would be difficult to get enough donations to fulfil demand.

The stem cells in our blood could provide an alternative approach. Our red and white blood cells are made by stem cells that themselves come from mother stem cells in bone marrow. But as we age, the number of these mother stem cells declines. One of the worlds longest-lived women seemed to only have two left in her blood when she died at age 115.

The decline in mother stem cells causes people to have fewer red blood cells, and white blood cells called B and T lymphocytes. These declines can cause anaemia and weaken the immune system. Usually the immune system in the elderly is not prepared to fight infections very hard, says Hartmut Geiger at the University of Ulm in Germany.

When Geigers team examined the bone marrow in mice, they found that older animals have much lower levels of a protein called osteopontin. To see if this protein has an effect on blood stem cells, the team injected stem cells into mice that lacked osteopontin and found that the cells rapidly aged.

But when older stem cells were mixed in a dish with osteopontin and a protein that activates it, they began to produce white blood cells just as young stem cells do. This suggests osteopontin makes stem cells behave more youthfully (EMBO Journal, If we can translate this into a treatment, we can make old blood young again, Geiger says.

Its exciting, says Hanadie Yousef at Stanford University in California. But longer term studies are needed to see whether this approach can rejuvenate the whole blood system, she says.

Until now, most efforts to use blood as a rejuvenation agent have focused on plasma, the liquid component, as some believe it carries dissolved factors that help maintain youth. But Geiger thinks the cells in blood might play a key role, because they are better able to move into the bodys tissues.

Both soluble factors and blood cells are likely to be important, says Yousef. While injections of young plasma rejuvenate older animals, the treatment doesnt have as strong an effect as when young and old animals share a circulatory system, she says.

Geigers team is developing a drug containing osteopontin and the activating protein to encourage blood stem cells to behave more youthfully. It should boost the immune system of elderly people, he says.

Such a drug might have benefits beyond fighting infection and alleviating anaemia. The team also think the protein will boost levels of mother stem cells. Having only a small number of such cells has been linked to heart disease, so Geiger says there is a chance that boosting them may help prevent this.

Osteopontin might also be useful for treating age-linked blood disorders, such as myelodysplasias that involve dysfunctional cells, says Martin Pera of the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. It is possible that rejuvenating bone marrow stem cells could help with these conditions, he says.

This study provides more evidence that cells can be rejuvenated, says Ioakim Spyridopoulos at Newcastle University, UK. They have made old blood look young again, although whether it acts young or not will have to be shown in clinical trials.

This article appeared in print under the headline Old blood made young again

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Old blood can be made young again and it might fight ageing | New … – New Scientist

76 Javakhk Armenians Join ABMDR as Bone Marrow Donors … – Asbarez Armenian News

LOS ANGELESIn the course of March 3-4, the Armenian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABMDR) held unprecedented community-outreach and donor-recruitment events throughout Javakhk, in Western Georgia, led by an ABMDR team from Yerevan.

The historic recruitment campaign, which took place in Armenian communities in Akhaltskha, Akhalkalak, and Ninotsminda, was organized with the assistance of the Armenian Relief Society (ARS) of Javakhk, and the invaluable logistical support of Karine Tadevosyan, chairperson of the ARS Javakhk Region, and other local ARS members.

Throughout the recruitment and outreach events, ABMDR Executive Director Dr. Sevak Avagyan and Medical Director Mihran Nazaretyan delivered lectures and made presentations with regard to ABMDRs life-saving mission, to the great enthusiasm of hundreds of local Armenian-community members. Also addressing the community gatherings were Tadevosyan and other executive members of ARS Javakhk. By the conclusion of the recruitment campaign, 76 local Armenians had joined the ranks of ABMDR as potential bone marrow donors.

Words cannot describe our joy as we marvel at the support, excitement, and spirit of activism which our recruitment campaign was met with, in every single Javakhk community where we held events, said Dr. Frieda Jordan, President of ABMDR, and added, We convey our heartfelt gratitude to Karine Tadevosyan, all of her gracious ARS colleagues, other local community leaders, and the Armenian people of Javakhk as a whole, for joining our global family of bone marrow donors, toward our shared quest of saving lives.

About the Armenian Bone Marrow Donor Registry

Established in 1999, ABMDR, a nonprofit organization, helps Armenians and non-Armenians worldwide survive life-threatening blood-related illnesses by recruiting and matching donors to those requiring bone marrow stem cell transplants. To date, the registry has recruited over 28,000 donors in 42 countries across four continents, identified over 4,200 patients, and facilitated 27 bone marrow transplants. For more information, call (323) 663-3609 or visit

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76 Javakhk Armenians Join ABMDR as Bone Marrow Donors … – Asbarez Armenian News

Stem Cells Seem Speedier in Space – Space Daily

Growing significant numbers of human stem cells in a short time could lead to new treatments for stroke and other health issues. Scientists are sending stem cells to the International Space Station to test whether these cells proliferate faster in microgravity without suffering any side effects.

Therapeutic uses require hundreds of millions of stem cells and currently no efficient way exists to produce such quantities. Previous research suggests that microgravity could help, and the space station is home to the nation’s only national lab in microgravity.

Some types of stem cells grow faster in simulated microgravity, according to Abba Zubair, a researcher at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. Zubair is principal investigator for the Microgravity Expanded Stem Cells investigation, which is cultivating human stem cells aboard the space station for use in clinical trials back on Earth. He holds a doctor of medicine degree in transfusion medicine and cell therapy and a doctorate of philosophy in tumor immunology.

Human stem cells are cells that have not yet specialized in function and can divide into a spectrum of cell types, rejuvenating and repairing tissue throughout a person’s lifetime. Stem cells in every organ of the body, including skin and bones, maintain those organs and repair tissue by dividing and differentiating into specialized cells.

Harvesting a person’s stem cells and growing enough of them for use in therapies has proven difficult, though. Researchers have successfully grown mesenchymal stem cells, found in bone marrow, but growing sufficient quantities takes weeks. That could be too late for treatment of some conditions.

“Stem cells are inherently designed to remain at a constant number,” Zubair explains. “We need to grow them faster, but without changing their characteristics.”

The first phase of the investigation, he adds, is answering the question: “Do stem cells grow faster in space and can we grow them in such a manner that they are safe to use in patients?”

Investigators will examine the space-grown cells in an effort to understand the mechanism behind microgravity’s effects on them. The long-term goal is to learn how to mimic those effects and develop a safe and reliable way to produce stem cells in the quantities needed.

The second phase will involve testing clinical application of the cells in patients. Zubair has been studying treatment of stroke patients with lab-grown stem cells and plans to compare those results with use of the space-grown stem cells.

“What is unique about this investigation is that we are not only looking at the biology of the cells and how they grow, but focusing on application, how we can use them to treat patients,” he says.

The investigation expands existing knowledge of how microgravity affects stem cell growth and differentiation as well as advances future studies on how to produce large numbers of stem cells for treating stroke and other conditions.

The faster that happens, the better for those who could benefit from stem cell therapies.

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Stem Cells Seem Speedier in Space – Space Daily

First patient cured of rare blood disorder – Science Daily

Science Daily
First patient cured of rare blood disorder
Science Daily
The transplant technique is unique, because it allows a donor's cells to gradually take over a patient's bone marrow without using toxic agents to eliminate a patient's cells prior to the transplant. … treatment options have been limited because they
Doctors cure first patient with rare blood disorderIANS

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First patient cured of rare blood disorder – Science Daily

Blinded by science: Women go blind after stem-cell treatment at Florida clinic – Palm Beach Post (blog)

Palm Beach Post (blog)
Blinded by science: Women go blind after stemcell treatment at Florida clinic
Palm Beach Post (blog)
In 2010, for example, a woman with the autoimmune disease lupus died after her own bone marrow cells were injected into her kidneys at a clinic in Thailand. In 2013, the Florida Department of Health revoked the medical license of Zannos Grekos over the …
Borrowing from nature: UW-Madison scientists use plants to grow stem
Study shows stem cell therapy is safe for stroke patients; may aid …Medical Xpress
The Worst 'Healthcare': 'Stem Cell' Clinics Wrought with Red Flags, Insincerity and BlindnessAmerican Council on Science and Health
Medgadget (blog) –The Republic of East Vancouver
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Blinded by science: Women go blind after stem-cell treatment at Florida clinic – Palm Beach Post (blog)