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Archive for the ‘Female Genetics’ Category

Female idol members who inherited their beauty from their mother – allkpop

Genetics is the most mysterious wonders of nature. Also, a mother carrying a baby for nine months tocreate a new life is a miracle in itself.

When a baby is born, the baby carries the genes from the father and mother. At times, the child resembles their father more, and sometimes they resemble their mother more.

These girl group idols received their genes from their parents and seem to receive most of their genes from their mother - these girl group members look exactly like their mother as they inherited their beauty from them.

Without further ado, here are some girl group members who look exactly like their mother. Please note, that the list is not in any particular order.

IZ* ONE - Kang Hye Won

IZ *ONE - Kim Chae Won

via Gfycat

IZ* ONE - Sakura

Note: Theabove photo is of Sakura and her mother's face swap

IOI - Kim So Hye

TWICE - Nayeon

TWICE - Mina

TWICE - Sana

TWICE - Tzuyu



IZ*ONE - Chaeyeon and ITZY - Chaeryung

A Pink - Eunji


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Female idol members who inherited their beauty from their mother - allkpop

Hair loss treatment: The herbal cream that showed positive results within one month – Express

Hair loss is a complex phenomenon because it can be attributed to both genetic and environmental causes. These causes are not so easily teased apart, which makes finding a tailored solution tricky. The complexity of hair loss is neatly summed up by alopecia areata - a common autoimmune skin disease, causing hair loss on the scalp, face and sometimes on other areas of the body.

As the National Areata Foundation (NAF) explains, alopecia areata is known as a polygenic disease".

This means that, unlike a single-gene disease, both parents must contribute a number of specific genes in order for a child to develop it, says the NAF.

Because of this, most parents will not pass alopecia areata along to their children, explains the hair research body.

With identical twins who share all of the same genes theres only a 55 percent chance that if one has alopecia areata, the other will, too, however.

READ MORE:Hair loss warning: The food you eat every day could be accelerating hair loss

"This is why scientists believe that it takes more than just genetics to cause the disease and that other environmental factors also contribute to people developing alopecia areata," notes the NAF.

Putting aside the complex causes of alopecia areata, research has found effective ways of addressing it.

In one study, entitled "Clinical Evaluation of herbal hair loss cream in management of Alopecia Areata," researchers tested the effects of a topical formulation using extracts of Butea Monosperma, Butea Parviflora and Butea Frondosa.

Butea Parviflora, scientifically known as Butea Monosperma, is a flowering tree that grows in India and South East Asia.

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Butea Frondosa is a closely related species.

Twenty subjects (15 men and five women) with varying levels of hair loss, were enrolled in this six month study.

The study indicated that the herbal hair loss cream can have a decisive impact on hair loss.

Fifty four percent of the male and 52 percent of the female participants reported a noticeable decrease in hair loss after one month of treatment.

What's more, 67 percent of men and 63 percent of women reported significant fall in hair loss after three months of treatment.

By the end of the study the majority of men and women reported new growth of hair.

A study limitation is that the effect seemed to be more pronounced in men and women under the age of 40 years, who are expected to have normal hair growth cycles.

According to the NHS, finasteride and minoxidil are the main treatments for male pattern baldness.

"Minoxidil can also be used to treat female pattern baldness. Women shouldn't use finasteride," warns the health body.

Some wigs are available on the NHS, but you may have to pay unless you qualify for financial help.

Other hair loss treatments include:

Some of these treatments may not be available on the NHS so may be costly.

If your hair loss is causing you distress, you may benefit from joining a support group, or speaking to other people in the same situation on online forums.

Try these online support groups:

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Hair loss treatment: The herbal cream that showed positive results within one month - Express

Illuminating Womens Hidden Contribution … –


While productivity in academia is measured through authorship, not all scientific contributors have been recognized as authors. We consider nonauthor acknowledged programmers (APs), who developed, ran, and sometimes analyzed the results of computer programs. We identified APs in Theoretical Population Biology articles published between 1970 and 1990, finding that APs were disproportionately women (P = 4.0 1010). We note recurrent APs who contributed to several highly-cited manuscripts. The occurrence of APs decreased over time, corresponding to the masculinization of computer programming and the shift of programming responsibilities to individuals credited as authors. We conclude that, while previously overlooked, historically, women have made substantial contributions to computational biology. For a video of this abstract, see:

PLENTIFUL evidence shows a historic and continuing gender gap in participation and success in scientific research (Beede et al. 2011; Shen 2013). However, less attention has been directed at clarifying obscured contributions of women to science. The lack of visible women role models (particularly in quantitative fields) contributes to a reduced sense of belonging and retention among women (Steele 1997; Cheryan et al. 2017). We seek to counteract this cycle by illuminating the historical contribution of women programmers to our own fields, population and evolutionary genetics.

To do so, we consider computational population genetics in the 1970s. In this era, leaders in molecular evolution developed innovative methods to test evolutionary hypotheses (Ewens 1972; Felsenstein 1974; Watterson 1975). Many of these methods were designed for protein variation data, and continue to be widely applied today on DNA sequence data. This work relied on extensive simulations and numerical approaches that were made possible by advances in computation. However, programming these computations required a detailed understanding of computational hardware, as well as a strong foundation in mathematics. Based on authorship at the time, it seems that this research was conducted by a relatively small number of independent individual scientists, nearly all of whom were men.

However, in some of the seminal papers from this time, we noticed that nonauthor computer programmers are thanked in the acknowledgments. Due to authorship norms at the time, these programmers were credited in the acknowledgments sections of manuscripts, rather than being recognized as authors. While this practice was typical at the time, these contributions might well have resulted in authorship today. For example, one acknowledgment reads I thank Mrs. M. Wu for help with the numerical work, and in particular for computing table I. (Watterson 1975).

We are now in a cultural moment when the historical scientific contributions of women and people of color are being increasingly revealed to popular audiences (e.g., Hidden Figures) (Shetterly 2016; Evans 2018). In that context, we performed a gender analysis of the scientific contribution of these acknowledged programmers (APs).

We identified APs in Theoretical Population Biology (TPB) articles published between 1970 and 1990. Using these data, we analyzed the gender representation among authors and APs, and trends over time. We use citation data to assess the impact of AP-supported manuscripts, relative to manuscripts without AP support. Finally, we note recurrent APs who contributed to several manuscripts.

We selected the journal TPB because of its high density of population genetics articles that involved programming. We manually collected the author names, institutional affiliations, acknowledgments text, and APs for all articles published in TPB from 1970 to 1990. While work in computational population genetics began before 1970, our TPB-based analysis begins when the journal was first published. We classified both authors and APs into binary gender categories (men and women, see Supplemental Materials).

Cumulatively, over 883 articles, of individuals with classifiable binary gender, significantly more APs were women (43.2%) as compared to authors (7.4%) (Table 1) (two-tailed Fishers exact test, P = 4.0 1010). This difference is even more striking when considering just the 1970s, when 7.0% of authors were women and 58.6% of APs were women (Table 1).

The acknowledgment of women programmers peaks in the mid-1970s, after which the proportion of APs who are women decreases significantly (Figure 1 and Supplemental Material, Figures S1 and S2, and Table S1, one-tailed Fishers exact test, P = 4.3 103). This parallels the broader cultural shift, which moved computer programming from pink collar work (where women workers are overrepresented and pay is typically low) to a respected male-dominated field (Vogel 2017). Between the 1970s and 1980s, the practice of acknowledging programmers declined as programming duties were likely transferred to graduate students, postdocs, and faculty who received authorship (Table S1, two-tailed Fishers exact test, P = 0.034) (W. Hill, personal communication). Over the same time, we see a nonsignificant increase in the proportion of women authors (two-tailed Fishers exact test, P = 0.64).

Total number of programmers acknowledged per year in Theoretical Population Biology. Each bar indicates the total number of acknowledged programmers broken down by binary gender. Purple, women; yellow, men; and green, ambiguous.

In our data, three APs were acknowledged more than once over the years analyzed. When Barbara McCann worked as a research assistant at Brown University (Matter 1970), she was an AP for two articles in TPB, as well as an author of two papers (Tables S1 and S2). Jennifer Smith was acknowledged for programming and numerical analysis in three articles in TPB, as well as at least three additional articles in Biometrics when she was a computing assistant at the University of Edinburgh (Tables S1 and S2). Lastly, Margaret Wu, a research assistant in the Department of Mathematics at Monash University, was acknowledged in two papers in TPB, one of which has been cited over 3400 times as it established a widely used estimator of genetic diversity (known as Wattersons estimator) (Table S1). She was an AP in at least three additional manuscripts (Table S2). She went on to earn a PhD and hold a faculty position at the University of Melbourne, where she developed statistical methods to analyze educational data (Wu 2011).

The specific technical contribution of an AP likely varied over projects. However, the fact that authors repeatedly chose to work with some APs suggests that these recurrent APs contributed particular expertise. Specifically, in addition to programming and numerical work, Jennifer Smith developed algorithms to carry out verbally specified analyses (W. Hill, personal communication). Margaret Wu performed a variety of statistical work including developing estimators for parameter values, devising algorithms for statistical tasks, and sometimes creating numerical methodology (M. Wu, personal communication). Overall, womens contributions were substantial in terms of the high proportion of contributions from women APs, as well as in quality.

To begin to assess if papers with AP contributors had a disproportionate impact on the field, we compared the number of citations for AP-supported vs. non-AP papers. The support of an AP is nonsignificantly correlated with the number of citations (Pearsons correlation test P = 0.06). A more powerful analysis of broader data may clarify this relationship.

Our retrospective analysis has shed light on the contributions of women to computational genetics research. These womens contributions were previously obscured by being relegated to footnote acknowledgments due to authorship norms. We showed that womens contributions were substantial when measured by volume (the high proportion of contributions from women APs), as well as by quality when we consider that some women APs were involved in seminal papers and the development of cutting edge approaches.

Our findings raise questions about how our current norms of scientific credit may favor certain individuals or groups. For instance, the bibliometric h index (h such that a scholar authored h papers that have been cited at least h times) has gained popularity, in part due to its correlation with other indicators of academic success such as National Academy membership or Nobel prize laureateship (Hirsch 2005). However, this concordance may reflect that the h index is consistent with biases in scientific recognition processes (Kelly and Jennions 2007). Furthermore, in the present age of highly collaborative science, authorship can be difficult to interpret. Noncontributor authors (authors who may have provided data, materials, or funding, but made no intellectual or practical contribution) are presented in an estimated 35% of publications in biology, while nonauthors, particularly technicians, are estimated to contribute to 56% of publications in biology (Jabbehdari and Walsh 2017). Because scientific roles (e.g., technician, student, or principal investigator) are related to social factors (e.g., gender, race, class background, and nationality), contributions from particular groups likely remain obscured.

In the two cases where we have specific information, without a clear path to persist in science, women APs left science to care for children and spouses (W. Hill, personal communication and M. Wu, personal communication). Today, the path for graduate students to advance still tends to favor men (Blickenstaff 2005; Martinez et al. 2007). It is fitting that our analysis is in computational population genetics because, while womens representation in evolutionary biology has dramatically improved in the past decades (Wellenreuther and Otto 2016), women are still underrepresented in population genetics (Telis 2017) and computational biology (Bonham and Stefan 2017).

The field of population genetics that we have studied here was chosen because it is our own field, not because we had a prior expectation that this particular field would reveal significant hidden contributions by women. Since we do find that women scientists contributions to this field were often obscured, we speculate that, rather than being rare, this may be a general trend. It would therefore be interesting to test this further in other scientific fields. When contributions are hidden, this exaggerates perceptions that women are minor participants in work in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Because perceiving underrepresentation in the field can impact a womans performance (Steele 1997; Cheryan et al. 2015), improving awareness of womens contributions may play a role in improving gender equity.

We thank Michael DeGiorgio, Tracey Heath, Emily Jane McTavish, Fergal Casey, Rasmus Nielsen, and Pleuni Pennings for constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript; Michael Turelli, Jim Harner, and Michael Rose for helping identify the genders of ambiguously named acknowledged programmers; and Margaret Wu and Bill Hill for information that shaped our research. This work was funded by San Francisco Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity National Institutes of Health grant number 1UL1-GM-118985, National Institutes of Health grant 1R35GM128946-01, and E.H.-S. was supported by National Science Foundation grant NSF-DEB-1557151. The authors declare no competing interests.

Author contributions: conceptualization: E.H.-S. and R.V.R.; methodology: E.H.-S. and R.V.R.; data curation: E.C., F.C., S.K.D., A.L., E.L.B., R.-J.R., and R.T.; investigation: S.K.D., A.L., E.L.B., R.-J.R., R.V.R., and R.T.; writing: S.K.D., E.H.-S., A.L., E.L.B., R.-J.R., R.V.R., and R.T.; and supervision: E.H.-S. and R.V.R.

Available freely online through the author-supported open access option.

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Illuminating Womens Hidden Contribution ... -

Mitochondrial Eve – Wikipedia

In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all living humans. In other words, she is defined as the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.

In terms of mitochondrial haplogroups, the mt-MRCA is situated at the divergence of macro-haplogroup L into L0 and L16. As of 2013, estimates on the age of this split ranged at around 150,000 years ago,[note 3] consistent with a date later than the speciation of Homo sapiens but earlier than the recent out-of-Africa dispersal.[4][1][5]

The male analog to the "Mitochondrial Eve" is the "Y-chromosomal Adam" (or Y-MRCA), the individual from whom all living humans are patrilineally descended. As the identity of both matrilineal and patrilineal MRCAs is dependent on genealogical history (pedigree collapse), they need not have lived at the same time. As of 2013, estimates for the age Y-MRCA are subject to substantial uncertainty, with a wide range of times from 180,000 to 580,000 years ago[6][7][8] (with an estimated age of between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago, roughly consistent with the estimate for mt-MRCA.).[2][9]

The name "Mitochondrial Eve" alludes to biblical Eve, which has led to repeated misrepresentations or misconceptions in journalistic accounts on the topic. Popular science presentations of the topic usually point out such possible misconceptions by emphasizing the fact that the position of mt-MRCA is neither fixed in time (as the position of mt-MRCA moves forward in time as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages become extinct), nor does it refer to a "first woman", nor the only living female of her time, nor the first member of a "new species".[note 4]












Early research using molecular clock methods was done during the late 1970s to early 1980s. Allan Wilson, Mark Stoneking, Rebecca L. Cann and Wesley Brown found that mutation in human mtDNA was unexpectedly fast, at 0.02 substitution per base (1%) in a million years, which is 510 times faster than in nuclear DNA.[11] Related work allowed for an analysis of the evolutionary relationships among gorillas, chimpanzees (common chimpanzee and bonobo) and humans.[12] With data from 21 human individuals, Brown published the first estimate on the age of the mt-MRCA at 180,000 years ago in 1980.[13] A statistical analysis published in 1982 was taken as evidence for recent African origin (a hypothesis which at the time was competing with Asian origin of H. sapiens).[14][15][16]

By 1985, data from the mtDNA of 145 women of different populations, and of two cell lines, HeLa and GM 3043, derived from a Black American and a !Kung respectively, was available. After more than 40 revisions of the draft, the manuscript was submitted to Nature in late 1985 or early 1986[16] and published on 1 January 1987. The published conclusion was that all current human mtDNA originated from a single population from Africa, at the time dated to between 140,000 and 200,000 years ago.[17]

The dating for "Eve" was a blow to the multiregional hypothesis, which was debated at the time, and a boost to the theory of the recent origin model.[18]

Cann, Stoneking and Wilson did not use the term "Mitochondrial Eve" or even the name "Eve" in their original paper; it appears to originate with a 1987 article in Science by Roger Lewin, headlined "The Unmasking of Mitochondrial Eve."[19] The biblical connotation was very clear from the start. The accompanying research news in Nature had the title "Out of the garden of Eden."[20] Wilson himself preferred the term "Lucky Mother"[21] and thought the use of the name Eve "regrettable."[19][22] But the concept of Eve caught on with the public and was repeated in a Newsweek cover story (11 January 1988 issue featured a depiction of Adam and Eve on the cover, with the title "The Search for Adam and Eve"),[23] and a cover story in Time on 26 January 1987.[24]

Shortly after the 1987 publication, criticism of its methodology and secondary conclusions was published.[25] Both the dating of mt-Eve and the relevance of the age of the purely matrilineal descent for population replacement were subjects of controversy during the 1990s;[26][27][28][29] Alan Templeton (1997) asserted that the study did "not support the hypothesis of a recent African origin for all of humanity following a split between Africans and non-Africans 100,000 years ago" and also did "not support the hypothesis of a recent global replacement of humans coming out of Africa."[30]

Cann, Stoneking & Wilson (1987) harvtxt error: multiple targets (2): CITEREFCannStonekingWilson1987 (help)'s placement of a relatively small population of humans in sub-Saharan Africa was consistent with the hypothesis of Cann (1982) and lent considerable support for the "recent out-of-Africa" scenario.

In 1999 Krings et al. eliminated problems in molecular clocking postulated by Nei (1992)[citation needed] when it was found that the mtDNA sequence for the same region was substantially different from the MRCA relative to any human sequence.

In 1997, Parsons et al. (1997) published a study of mtDNA mutation rates in a single, well-documented family (the Romanov family of Russian royalty). In this study, they calculated a mutation rate upwards of twenty times higher than previous results.[31] This study has been cited by Creationists to justify the emergence of "Eve" only 6,000 years ago.[32] As Donald Chittick pointed out, the "6000 year date for Eve brings to mind the Biblical time scale and is an uncomfortable result for evolutionism."[33]

Although the original research did have analytical limitations, the estimate on the age of the mt-MRCA has proven robust.[34][35] More recent age estimates have remained consistent with the 140200 kya estimate published in 1987: A 2013 estimate dated Mitochondrial Eve to about 160 kya (within the reserved estimate of the original research) and Out of Africa II to about 95 kya.[3] Another 2013 study (based on genome sequencing of 69 people from 9 different populations) reported the age of Mitochondrial Eve between 99 and 148 kya and that of the Y-MRCA between 120 and 156 kya.[2]

Without a DNA sample, it is not possible to reconstruct the complete genetic makeup (genome) of any individual who died very long ago. By analysing descendants' DNA, however, parts of ancestral genomes are estimated by scientists. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome DNA are commonly used to trace ancestry in this manner. mtDNA is generally passed un-mixed from mothers to children of both sexes, along the maternal line, or matrilineally.[36][37] Matrilineal descent goes back to our mothers, to their mothers, until all female lineages converge.

Branches are identified by one or more unique markers which give a mitochondrial "DNA signature" or "haplotype" (e.g. the CRS is a haplotype). Each marker is a DNA base-pair that has resulted from an SNP mutation. Scientists sort mitochondrial DNA results into more or less related groups, with more or less recent common ancestors. This leads to the construction of a DNA family tree where the branches are in biological terms clades, and the common ancestors such as Mitochondrial Eve sit at branching points in this tree. Major branches are said to define a haplogroup (e.g. CRS belongs to haplogroup H), and large branches containing several haplogroups are called "macro-haplogroups".

The mitochondrial clade which Mitochondrial Eve defines is the species Homo sapiens sapiens itself, or at least the current population or "chronospecies" as it exists today. In principle, earlier Eves can also be defined going beyond the species, for example one who is ancestral to both modern humanity and Neanderthals, or, further back, an "Eve" ancestral to all members of genus Homo and chimpanzees in genus Pan. According to current nomenclature, Mitochondrial Eve's haplogroup was within mitochondrial haplogroup L because this macro-haplogroup contains all surviving human mitochondrial lineages today, and she must predate the emergence of L0.

The variation of mitochondrial DNA between different people can be used to estimate the time back to a common ancestor, such as Mitochondrial Eve. This works because, along any particular line of descent, mitochondrial DNA accumulates mutations at the rate of approximately one every 3,500 years per nucleotide.[1][38][note 5] A certain number of these new variants will survive into modern times and be identifiable as distinct lineages. At the same time some branches, including even very old ones, come to an end when the last family in a distinct branch has no daughters.

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor for all modern humans. Whenever one of the two most ancient branch lines dies out, the MRCA will move to a more recent female ancestor, always the most recent mother to have more than one daughter with living maternal line descendants alive today. The number of mutations that can be found distinguishing modern people is determined by two criteria: firstly and most obviously, the time back to her, but secondly and less obviously by the varying rates at which new branches have come into existence and old branches have become extinct. By looking at the number of mutations which have been accumulated in different branches of this family tree, and looking at which geographical regions have the widest range of least related branches, the region where Eve lived can be proposed.

Newsweek reported on Mitochondrial Eve based on the Cann et al. study in January 1988, under a heading of "Scientists Explore a Controversial Theory About Man's Origins". The edition sold a record number of copies.[39]

The popular name "mitochondrial Eve", of 1980s coinage,[19] has contributed to a number of popular misconceptions. At first, the announcement of a "mitochondrial Eve" was even greeted with endorsement from young earth creationists, who viewed the theory as a validation of the biblical creation story.[40][41][42][non-primary source needed]

Due to such misunderstandings, authors of popular science publications since the 1990s have been emphatic in pointing out that the name is merely a popular convention, and that the mt-MRCA was not in any way the "first woman".[43] Her position is purely the result of genealogical history of human populations later, and as matrilineal lineages die out, the position of mt-MRCA keeps moving forward to younger individuals over time.

In River Out of Eden (1995), Richard Dawkins discussed human ancestry in the context of a "river of genes", including an explanation of the concept of Mitochondrial Eve.[44] The Seven Daughters of Eve (2002) presented the topic of human mitochondrial genetics to a general audience.[45] The Real Eve: Modern Man's Journey Out of Africa by Stephen Oppenheimer (2003)[39] was adapted into a Discovery Channel documentary.[46]

One common misconception surrounding Mitochondrial Eve is that since all women alive today descended in a direct unbroken female line from her, she must have been the only woman alive at the time.[43][47] However, nuclear DNA studies indicate that the size of the ancient human population never dropped below tens of thousands. Other women living during Eve's time may have descendants alive today but not in a direct female line.[citation needed]

The definition of Mitochondrial Eve is fixed, but the woman in prehistory who fits this definition can change. That is, not only can our knowledge of when and where Mitochondrial Eve lived change due to new discoveries, but the actual Mitochondrial Eve can change. The Mitochondrial Eve can change, when a mother-daughter line comes to an end. It follows from the definition of Mitochondrial Eve that she had at least two daughters who both have unbroken female lineages that have survived to the present day. In every generation mitochondrial lineages end when a woman with unique mtDNA dies with no daughters. When the mitochondrial lineages of daughters of Mitochondrial Eve die out, then the title of "Mitochondrial Eve" shifts forward from the remaining daughter through her matrilineal descendants, until the first descendant is reached who had two or more daughters who together have all living humans as their matrilineal descendants. Once a lineage has died out it is irretrievably lost and this mechanism can thus only shift the title of "Mitochondrial Eve" forward in time.[citation needed]

Because mtDNA mapping of humans is very incomplete, the discovery of living mtDNA lines which predate our current concept of "Mitochondrial Eve" could result in the title moving to an earlier woman. This happened to her male counterpart, "Y-chromosomal Adam," when older Y lines from Africa were discovered.[citation needed]

Sometimes Mitochondrial Eve is assumed to have lived at the same time as Y-chromosomal Adam (from whom all living people are descended patrilineally), and perhaps even met and mated with him. Even if this were true, which is currently regarded as highly unlikely, this would only be a coincidence. Like Mitochondrial "Eve", Y-chromosomal "Adam" probably lived in Africa. A recent study (March 2013) concluded however that "Eve" lived much later than "Adam" some 140,000 years later.[7] (Earlier studies considered, conversely, that "Eve" lived earlier than "Adam".)[48] More recent studies indicate that Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam may indeed have lived around the same time.[49]

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor. Since the mtDNA is inherited maternally and recombination is either rare or absent, it is relatively easy to track the ancestry of the lineages back to a MRCA; however, this MRCA is valid only when discussing mitochondrial DNA. An approximate sequence from newest to oldest can list various important points in the ancestry of modern human populations:

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Mitochondrial Eve - Wikipedia

Fears over feminising antioxidants in fish feeds – The Fish Site

While the feminisation is not necessarily undesirable in the production of many species, as females tend to grow faster, its a disaster for tilapia producers, who prefer all-male stock. It could also have negative consequences for broodstock producers across a wide range of species, as feminisation of male broodstock is likely to have a very negative impact on fertility levels and rates of reproduction.

Til-Aqua International, a Dutch genetics company, has developed a strain of YY males over the past 25 years, using manual genetic selection rather than hormone treatment to produce 99.7 percent male offspring, which are sold for ongrowing.

However, in mid-2019 the company noticed a dramatic increase in the proportion of females in its juveniles, prompting them to start an investigation.

Our customers began to complain about the proportion of females in the fish wed sold them. We thought that it might be something they were doing wrong with their diagnostics, but site visits showed that there really were a high proportion of females. So we started to investigate our own operations and procedures, explains Hanneke van den Dop, the companys experienced fish vet.

But our internal investigation showed that nothing had changed in our own procedures, so we started to look into other variables as external variables can have an impact on the sex ratio of tilapia. The investigation was very time-consuming and lasted from July 2019 until May 2020, as it takes time to produce a sufficient amount of test groups and repeat the tests several times, she adds.

Their investigation uncovered that there had been a change in formulations of the feed by a well-known commercial aquafeed producer that they were using.

We finally worked out that the change in the proportion of females coincided with a change in the antioxidants used in the feeds. And one of our customers, in Africa, who was using the same feeds had noticed the same affects, while other customers, using different feeds, did not have problems, says van den Dop.

The feed manufacturer had, it transpired, replaced E321 and E324 with two other antioxidants. Van den Dops follow-up research showed that one of these is considered to be an endocrine disrupter, while the other is considered a weak oestrogen. As a result, Til-Aqua initiated a series of feed trails to investigate whether the change in antioxidants could have been responsible for the oestrogenic effects and changed sex ratios in their fish.

In order to achieve this, juvenile offspring of different genetic lines were tested with several feeds in the first weeks of their life the time when tilapia gender is determined. Thousands of fingerlings were dissected, and their gonads were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and the trials found that in various cases only 8 percent of the tilapia were males from broodstock that initially produced more than 99 percent males. They also discovered large numbers of individuals that contained gonads or gonadal tissue of both sexes. Meanwhile their trials showed deteriorated gonads in the broodstock.

Til-Aqua flagged up the results of their trials with the feed provider.

It was a brand we had used for 30 years with great satisfaction and in excellent cooperation, but this changed dramatically when they changed their feeds and we confronted them with our findings, says van den Dop.

When we brought it up they said they were using the antioxidants at levels within the limits of EU legislation and were therefore not responsible for any undesirable side-effects, she continues.

Given that the change in ingredients and its results had proved incredibly stressful to the staff at Til- Aqua, and could have dramatically undermined the trust of their customers, van den Dop was appalled.

Til-Aqua is now in the process of providing compensation to their customers. They also have to flush out each of the biofilters in their own production site.

In our trials, using very high water refreshment rates, just like in a flow-through system, produced higher male ratios up to the normal 99 percent we had been getting with the old feeds. It was clear that RAS led to an accumulation of the antioxidants, so were now having to flush each of the biofilters in our system to ensure that theres no residual feminising effect, van den Dop explains.

Meanwhile, according to van den Dop, the producer continues to use the antioxidants in its feeds. While this may have an upside for some farmers in species such as trout, carp and sturgeon the females grow faster, she points out there may also be some widespread negative trade-offs.

Because the fish are under oestrogenic influence, they are more susceptible to parasites and disease using the feeds that lowered the ratio of males produced fry that were weaker, which is an issue both in terms of animal welfare and sustainability, she says.

And there could be more tangible drawbacks for broodstock producers, particularly those using RAS.

We saw a degeneration of the gonads of our broodstock, and the use of RAS worsened these symptoms by accumulating these additives, van den Dop reflects.

In the meantime she is hopeful that the EU will ban the use of these two antioxidants, which can potentially have such a disruptive influence on the hormones of fish.

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Fears over feminising antioxidants in fish feeds - The Fish Site

Genes take side in the battle of the sexes – Science News – Deadline News

Men may have a surprising genetic advantage over women, according to new research carried out at the University of St Andrews.

The study, published today inProceedings of the Royal Society Series B Biological Sciences, focused on genes that are present on the X chromosome.

These are carried by individuals of both sexes but with females typically having a double dose.

Traditionally, the over-representation of the X chromosome among females has been thought to lead to it favouring a genetic blueprint that benefits females at the expense of males.

But the St Andrews team have shown that, in many cases, the X chromosome instead sides with males in the battle of the sexes.

The research didnt specifically focus on human genetics and instead applies to all creatures that exhibit sex differences.

Across the animal kingdom males and females of the same species can differ remarkably in their size, shape, life-history and behaviour.

Males of the blanket octopus, for instance, are barely the size of the females eye, and males of the rusty tussock moth grow large ochre wings while females have tiny vestigial ones.

However, despite these striking differences, the two sexes generally share the same genome the set of genetic instructions that act as a blueprint for building an organism.

This can lead to problems, as the genome that encodes the best male might not be the one that encodes the best female, and any evolutionary advance that better serves the interests of males is likely to come at the expense of females.

This all depends on where in the genome they are found and on aspects of the species lifestyles, such as whether mums tend to be younger than dads.

Thomas Hitchcock said: The average ages of mothers and fathers in the population can also tilt the balance of genes interests in favour of one sex. If, as in humans, the average father is older than the average mother, then our model shows that this will lead almost all genes to shift their interests towards what works best for males.

Professor Andy Gardner, added: In general, these different parts of the genome will disagree about how best to balance the fitness of females against males.

This can lead to an interesting intragenomic conflict, where an individuals own genes can go to war against each other, and the fallout from that is expected to be harmful for both females and males.

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Genes take side in the battle of the sexes - Science News - Deadline News

Eldridge Earns Conference-Level NCAA Woman of the Year Nomination –

The NCAA Woman of the Year program is rooted in Title IX and has recognized graduating female college athletes for excellence in academics & athletics

COLLEGE STATION, Texas Raena Eldridge of the Texas A&M women's swimming and diving team earned a conference-level nomination for NCAA Woman of the Year, as announced by the NCAA Tuesday afternoon. While 161 female student-athletes in total were nominated, Eldridgeis one of 59 student-athletes nominated from the Division I level. She is joined by Kentuckys Asia Seidt as the Southeastern Conferences nominees.

The NCAA Woman of the Year program is rooted in Title IX and has recognized graduating female college athletes for excellence in academics, athletics, community service and leadership since its inception in 1991.

Eldridge graduated from A&M in May with degrees in animal science and genetics, while also earning a business minor. She boasted a 3.979 cumulative GPA through her five years in Aggielandand has begun Vet School at NC State. Eldridge wasnamed the Arthur Ashe, Jr., Female Sports Scholar of the Year, awarded to one male and one femalestudent-athlete each year that exhibit academic excellence as well as community activism in addition to their athletic contributions.The Rockwall, Texas, native was A&M's female nominee for the H. Boyd McWhorter Scholar-Athlete Post-Graduate Scholarship, and for the second year in a row, was named the Bill Erwin Female Scholar-Athlete of the Year at A&M's annual Building Champions Awards. She earned College Swimming and Diving Coaches Association of America (CSCAA) Academic All-America honorable mention accolades as a sophomore and garnered first team honors as a junior and senior.

A team captain for her final two seasons, Eldridge was a part of four consecutive SEC Team Championships throughout her career. She was a two-time CSCAA All-American and earned All-SEC Second Team honors as a sophomore. Eldridge helped earn big points for the Aggies at SEC Championships as a sophomore, helping the 200 medley relay team reach the podium with a second-place finish, while adding a fifth-place finish with the 200 free relay squad. Individually at SEC Championships, she contributed a pair of top 16 finishes in the 100 back and 50 free that season. Eldridge also swam on winning teams in the 400 free relay and 400 medley relay to help the Aggies win the team title at the 2017 U.S. Open.

Away from the pool and the classroom, Eldridge served as a Student Technician at the Genetics Research Lab and as a member of the Pre-Vet Society. She was a project leader for the Aggie Research Scholars Program and started SPLASH, a non-profit organization that teaches swimming and swim safety. Eldridge also contributed her time at Save Our Streets Ministries in Bryan since 2016, mentoring elementary school girls.

The Woman of the Year Selection Committee, made up of representatives from the NCAA membership, will now choose the Top 30 honorees 10 from each division from the conference-level nominees. The Top 30 honorees will be announced in September. From there, the selection committee will narrow the pool to three finalists from each division. The NCAA Committee on Women's Athletics will select the 2020 Woman of the Year from the nine finalists.

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Eldridge Earns Conference-Level NCAA Woman of the Year Nomination -

Edited Transcript of AWH.OQ earnings conference call or presentation 13-Aug-20 8:30pm GMT – Yahoo Finance

AUSTIN Aug 14, 2020 (Thomson StreetEvents) -- Edited Transcript of Aspira Women's Health Inc earnings conference call or presentation Thursday, August 13, 2020 at 8:30:00pm GMT

Aspira Women's Health Inc. - Global Medical Director of Genetic Services

Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CFO

Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CEO, President & Director

Good afternoon, and welcome to Aspira Women's Health Second Quarter 2020 Conference Call. My name is Jessie, and I will be your coordinator for the call today. (Operator Instructions) As a reminder, this conference is being recorded today.

Leading the call today are Valerie Palmieri, President and Chief Executive Officer; Bob Beechey, Chief Financial Officer; and Dr. Lesley Northrop, Global Head of Innovation and Clinical Development. After the prepared remarks, we will open the call for Q&A.

Before we begin, I'd like to remind everyone that some statements made during the prepared remarks and the Q&A session, including statements relating to Aspira Women's Health expected future performance, future business prospects or future events or plans are forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Although the company believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, actual outcomes and results are subject to risks and uncertainties and could differ materially from those anticipated due to the impact of many factors beyond the control of Aspira Women's Health. The company assumes no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Participants are directed to the cautionary note in today's press release as well as the risk factors set forth in Aspira Women's Health annual report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC for factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements.

At this time, I would like to turn the call over to Valerie Palmieri, President and Chief Executive Officer. Valerie?

Valerie Barber Palmieri, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CEO, President & Director [2]

Thank you, operator. Good afternoon, everyone, and thank you for joining us today. This afternoon, we will review our second quarter 2020 accomplishments and financial performance. I'll also provide an update on our strategy to manage the near-term COVID-19 disruption as well as our longer-term plans to emerge stronger when the pandemic is behind us.

We firmly believe that our strategy is the right one and that our technology and pipeline will be vital to lowering the overall health care burden and reducing significant inefficiencies in the care pathway. It's all about getting the right patient to the right doctor and finding cancer at the earliest stage. This mission is the core of our company.

Let me first start with our new company name Aspira Women's Health, which now better reflects our organization's mission and vision. We have already established ourselves as a market leader for ovarian cancer risk assessment. But with this new name, we are also elevating our brand and highlighting our key focus on women's health. Women's health, or known as Femtech, is one of the fastest-growing sectors in health care. Through our data-driven approach, we aim to deliver solutions that help women aspire to take control of their gynecologic health and empower providers to deliver optimal care.

Keep in mind that our CLIA lab's name has always been ASPiRA LABS. So we already have a well-respected brand recognition with this name, and this was simply a matter of synchronizing our corporate name. Our website domain has been changed to Aspira Women's Health, and we have launched a new company logo and brand, CUSIP and stock symbol AWH. In summary, our team is very excited about this long overdue change to better reflect our vision to help globally transform women's health.

I am now moving on to the business update. I will focus first on the pandemic's impact on our company and what we've seen so far in the third quarter.

As I mentioned on our Q1 call, we continue to execute on our 4-part COVID strategy. Number one, first and foremost is our focus to ensure employee safety and business continuity. All office-based employees nationwide as well as on average, 60% of our sales team are still working remotely. While keeping their health and safety paramount, our sales team is able to enter the field on a limited targeted basis in accordance with local guidelines. We continue to expect limitations on the number of face-to-face customer calls for a period of time relative to specific geographies. We have also developed protocols and training for instances where physical visits are allowed to ensure both employee, customer and patient safety.

I'm now moving on to business continuity. Our lab operations requires on-site essential employees. As previously discussed, we have put in place staffing and reagent contingency plans to ensure 0 downtime.

The second part of our strategy is focused on cash preservation and liquidity management. We continue our efforts to reduce costs, such as travel, entertainment and discretionary spend while we are maintaining our commitment to critical product development. Bob will discuss our balance sheet and how we were able to strengthen it over the quarter in detail.

The third part of our plan is maximizing productive use of employee time and emerging from this crisis even stronger. In terms of productivity, our sales team is focused on maintaining close relationships with existing customers remotely, so that we can resume our sales trajectory upon return to normalcy. We developed a virtual territory management process using a number of tools. These tools include virtual sales rep visits, digital marketing, social media and a new provider/patient ordering portal. Regarding telehealth, we are also developing a process for our genetics offering, which will allow patients to access genetic testing directly.

The last part of our plan is to help our communities while continuing to work on our product pipeline development. Regarding community support, in the second quarter of 2020, we began offering COVID-19 antibody testing and began preparations for offering COVID-19 antigen testing. This testing is part of our presurgical risk assessment program as well as preparing for potential Connecticut State support. On June 10, we announced the completion of our laboratory validation of COVID antibody test as well as a laboratory validation of several additional oncology biomarkers, which we will also add to our presurgical risk test offering. We are offering the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay, which has a 99.81% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The current turnaround time for this assay for a test is 24 to 48 hours. Our planned offering of COVID-19 antigen testing has been postponed due to manufacturer instrumentation delays. We are now planning to offer this test in late Q3 or early Q4 2020.

Regarding our product pipeline development, we've made several significant strides in the pipeline. And as a result, on the call today, we have Dr. Lesley Northrop, our Global Head of Innovation and Clinical Development. Dr. Northrop has been with the organization just over a year and has been leading all of our clinical trial and product development efforts. On the call today, she will provide a comprehensive update on our product development pipeline.

As you remember, our core focus last year was commercial adoption. For 2020, we are continuing our focus on commercialization, but we are also in-sourcing many of our development capabilities. Coupling our strong customer base, internalizing our development team, we are now looking to expedite trial enrollment. In fact, during COVID, we have seen improvements in enrollment with this approach.

The 2019 and 2028 advancements we have made in our protein technology, our genetic technology and now with a strong base of clinical practices will pave the way to build a strong portfolio of proprietary solutions which Dr. Northrop will discuss in detail.

Before I turn the call to Dr. Northrop, I would also like to discuss our commercial performance in Q2. As you know, we have a 2-pronged commercialization approach, direct sales and a platform strategy. We continue to believe that our platform strategy to penetrate large IDNs and OB/GYN super groups will pay off with accelerated adoption of our overall product pipeline.

The decentralized arrangement should help our products integrate into the care pathway of the respective institutions and super groups. These large deals have a significant lead time. And with the COVID-19 pandemic, it may slow down our efforts to finalize these deals. That being said, our partners continue to engage and are excited about the prospect of internalizing our technology. We will continue to work on this model as we seek to drive wider adoption of OVA1Plus in our expanded portfolio pipeline.

I am now moving on to our direct sales channel. We hit our low point in volume during the third week of April, as previously discussed. The volume is tracking at 40% to 50% of pre-COVID volume. This volume decrease was driven by 2 major factors. First, most hospital facilities eliminated all elective surgeries, and in the case of suspected late-stage ovarian cancer, biopsies were only performed to confirm malignancy and chemotherapy was administered without surgery. This allowed deferring primary surgery to reduce disease to a later safer time.

The second major factor affecting volume was deferral of annual visits. Relative to the scarcity of limited operating room capacity based on a survey of 124 customers, we saw that the majority of customers were using OVA1Plus to determine who needs surgery immediately or determine who can postpone surgery. In fact, based on the survey, 82% of these patients were high-risk or symptomatic, they needed to be seen with a high sense of urgency or post an ER visit.

After April's low point, we have seen a steady increase of volume. In fact, in May, the volume was at 60% of pre-COVID run rate; in June, it was at 74%; and in July and August, it is holding in the low 80% range. Keep in mind, this is during a time when major states such as Texas, Arizona and Florida, are experiencing a second wave of COVID, so we are encouraged by the rate of volume pickup that we are seeing with OVA1Plus.

In terms of total ordering physicians for the quarter, 1,789 physicians ordered OVA1Plus with 85% of these customers being repeat customers. The repeat customer rate of Q2 2019 was 73%. So even with the majority of our reps having limited face-to-face visits, we experienced a 16% improvement in the rate of repeat business year-over-year. This clearly illustrates the impact of our technology has on patient care, the stickiness of the technology and the overall retention and growth opportunity we have with our expanded portfolio with this customer base.

We have also activated our commercial organization to transform and perform in a virtual environment. As we expand our sales force, we do anticipate a change in the mix of our sales force to put a higher emphasis on inside sales personnel to maximize the effectiveness of those reps in the field.

In summary, we have 3 fundamental commercial pillars, which we are critically and acutely focused on. We are leading a virtual and nonvirtual commercial strategy together to expedite impact in the following ways. Number one, we are strategically magnifying our newly redesigned brand and its impact to the entire patient life cycle for the short term and the long term to drive clinical trial enrollment. We are also listing the awareness of this devastating nature of the disease of ovarian cancer, and the importance of the focus on women's health, coupled with the ovarian cancer awareness month, which occurs in September. And third, we are illuminating health care disparity awareness to advance clinical care pathways to earlier and more effective diagnosis.

Embodied in all 3 pillars are awareness and adoption-driving strategies, encompassing digital marketing, search engine optimization, social media, website initiatives, telehealth, and the construction of deep and wide virtual and nonvirtual clinical KOL teams across North America.

Overall COVID initially had a major impact on doctors' visits and elective surgeries. Despite these headwinds, we continue to execute on our 4-point strategy, which included stabilizing the business, managing our balance sheet, maximizing sales productivity and driving innovation to address a very large market opportunity.

At this point, I'll turn the call over to Dr. Lesley Northrop to share the progress on our innovation pipeline. Dr. Northrop.


Lesley Northrop, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - Global Medical Director of Genetic Services [3]


Thank you for the introduction, Valerie. I'm pleased to be on the call and look forward to meeting you all at future investor conferences. By way of background, I'm a molecular trained Ph. D., clinically boarded molecular geneticist and licensed laboratory director working in women's reproductive health diagnostics for the past 15 years.

Being on the forefront and changing clinical management, diagnostics and IVF and now oncology, I have landed the perfect position at Aspira Women's Health, and I'm excited to continue my life passion in bettering women's health at a company with an established foundation. I've been in Aspira Women's Health for the past year immediately diving into the company goals of taking study design concepts to launching trials, active recruitment and building upon our 10 years of R&D and clinical foundation as a pelvic mass and ovarian cancer expert. I've assembled a team of experts, moved Aspira Women's Health from an outsourced model to an in-source model and believe this will improve our ability to execute our new product pipeline.

The team includes bioinformatic scientists, clinical trial coordinator, data scientists and clinical research scientists to develop new technology with a goal of developing personalized medicine for some of the most significant gynecological diseases.

Let me now provide an update on our innovation pipeline and product enhancement. As despite the pandemic, we've been able to make progress on expanding our site selection from 2 sites pre-COVID up to 9 sites with continued enrollment.

Health care quality has been a core value of our company as we lead the charge for bringing ovarian cancer risk assessment disparity to the forefront. Health care disparity is becoming more recognized during COVID. As a result, we have added 3 additional sites to our study. Our #1 goal is to remove CA125 as a standard of care for all women at risk for ovarian cancer. As stated previously, we are enriching our 2 previously published studies to expand our published disparity evidence to support and to change the standard of care. We have not only engaged site initiation with Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia, but we have also enrolled 3 additional sites in ethnically diverse population. The goal of this study is to validate OVA1 as there is disparity in cancer detection when testing across ethnically enriched population outside of Caucasian women as compared to CA125.

Based on our initial published data, OVA1 is 2.3x more sensitive in detecting ovarian cancer in African-American women than in CA125 or 79.2% versus 33.3% sensitivity using the 2007 ACOG cutoff metric. Second, I would like to update everyone on our third-generation ovarian cancer risk assessment test, which is now branded as OVANEX. Our last call, we briefly reviewed our IRB-approved prospective trial on OVANEX. OVANEX is designed to address the market 3x that of OVA1. Specifically, it is for women who have a benign mass and are currently monitored 2 to 4 times per year with CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound. We believe that this test will help clinicians and patients to better understand the risk of malignancy and if surgery can be delayed by monitoring the patient over time.

We have enrolled 7 practices to date which is up from 1 site in Q1 and are continuing our enrollment to allow us large adoption under the confines of this pandemic. We are tracking to launch of the product in phases, projecting the end of 2021 to early 2022.

OVANEX will be the protein foundation of our high-risk early detection solution of OvaInherit. The study is designed across 2 separate cohorts. Those asymptomatic women with a genetic predisposition and symptomatic women who are at risk due to being observed with a pelvic mass. This, coupled with OVA1, provides a solution for monitoring as well as a solution for surgical triage risk assessment.

Our next study is focused on OvaInherit. It's a real-time, multi-site study being performed with our current OVA and genetics commercial testing sites that are also established clinical research institutions. The name of this study is OVA360, providing us a 360 view in combining the established prevalence of protein with molecular targets of gynecological cancers. This study will explore specific genomic targets with the potential to define the key driver of female gynecological cancer, starting with ovarian cancer. We are developing a cell-free cell tumor, DNA-based test to identify early cancer development. This test is being developed as a multimodal, risk-based assessment test in combination with our already established 7 protein biomarkers plus molecular profiling, including transcriptomic and epigenomic patterns, RNA and methylation. This new test will interrogate bioinformatic solutions, such as machine learning, to monitor those who are genetically predisposed due to carriers of pathogenic variants and high prevalent genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer, for instance, BRCA1 and 2.

OvaInherit will have a new algorithm developed on symptomatic women first and then trained for cancer detection in the asymptomatic, high-risk predisposed population without a pelvic mass. Currently, clinicians can order CA125 in conjunction with ultrasound to assess risk of developing cancer. However, there is a lack of clinical utility and significant concerns on false positive/negative rates using the standard method that warrants a new biomarker surveillance test for early detection of ovarian cancer.

We believe that our algorithm will outperform this current standard of care and provide a precise measurement of tissue-specific type cancer as an early detection test. We will be partnering with key thought leaders in the genomics community to support the OvaInherit product.

Finally, we mentioned in our previous call, we are working on developing a future test which is in aid in detection of endometriosis, the brand name is ENDOCHECK. With the high clinical demand for a less-invasive test for early assessment of endometriosis, ENDOCHECK will address a total addressable market in the U.S. of a roughly 6 million to 7 million women. This is a large unmet need in the OB/GYN and IVF community as endometriosis is treated based on symptoms and may take up to 10 years to diagnose, sometimes with multiple surgeries.

We have leveraged our 10 years of research and rich biorepository of benign disease and have proven proficiency in being able to decipher endometriosis from nonendometriosis. Our end goal is to develop a test with sensitivity and specificity greater than laparoscopic biopsy. We are in the early phases of assay test validations and plan to launch our prospective clinical trial by the end of the year. We will be working with well-established pharmaceutical and academic institutions in collecting enriched sample cohorts to validate and perform our prospective trials. Our goal is to bring a noninvasive endometriosis detection solutions to the market to provide proactive management of this debilitating disease.

In summary, the goal of our research and clinical efforts is to launch new products that impact a woman's entire life cycle starting at puberty with ENDOCHECK, to her hereditary risk for cancer with genetics including high-risk screening with OvaInherit, to premenopausal benign mass monitoring with OVANEX and lastly, our ovarian surgical risk assessment, OVA1Plus.

I would like to now turn the call over to Bob for a review of our financial results. Bob?


Robert Harry Beechey, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CFO [4]


Thank you, Dr. Northrop. Product revenue was $743,000 for the 3 months ended June 30, 2020, compared to $1.1 million for the same period in 2019. The 32% product revenue decrease is primarily due to a decrease in the number of our tests due to the impact of COVID. The number of OVA1Plus tests performed decreased 21% to approximately 2,458 OVA1Plus tests during the 3 months ended June 30, 2020 compared to approximately 3,129 OVA1Plus tests for the same period in 2019. The revenue per OVA1Plus tests performed decreased to approximately $295 compared to $324 for the first quarter. Included in the Q2 revenue and the average unit price were approximately $79,000 in onetime revenue adjustments related to prior periods, which account for $32 of the sequential decline. The slight increase after excluding onetime items was driven by realization of our new contract price from Cigna as of April 1, 2020, slightly offset by a decrease in the mix of Medicare patients who, given their demographic, had reduced visits to doctors as these older patients self-quarantined due to COVID. The decrease in the mix of Medicare patients was temporary as we have seen the mix of Medicare and Medicare Advantage patients revert back to historical pre-COVID mix in July.

Gross profit margin on OVA1 was 37% in the second quarter compared to 45% for the prior year period. Total operating expenses were approximately $4 million in the second quarter as compared to $4.2 million in the first quarter due to a decrease in nonrecurring expense items.

Our cash balance at June 30, 2020, was $10.9 million, not including the proceeds of our private placement which closed in the third quarter. Cash utilization for Q2 was $3.3 million compared to $3.8 million in the prior year. The cash utilization reflects the reduced volumes we experienced, primarily in April and May, offset by cost reductions we have taken during the pandemic.

Our cash position was impacted by 3 major factors: one, we received proceeds and warrants in the amount of approximately $5.1 million when our stock price maintained levels above $1.80 for 10 consecutive days on June 13, 2020. 100% of warrant holders exercised their warrants. Secondly, we were granted a loan, pursuant to the Payroll Protection Program, which was established under the CARES Act, which is being utilized primarily to fund payroll in the amount of approximately $1 million. We are using the proceeds alone in a manner that will qualify us for complete forgiveness of the loan under the terms of the CARES Act and the PPP. Third, we implemented cost controls and cash preservation measures to continue to curtail areas of natural savings, such as travel and entertainment. In addition, we curtailed the use of contractors and consultants and reviewed our entire vendor spend for savings. We're doing this while making modest, targeted investments in our digital and remote marketing capabilities.

As we previously announced, we also successfully amended the terms of our State of Connecticut financing with respect to the target employment levels in the state. We achieved the revised employment milestones during the second quarter and have submitted the requisite forms and are awaiting final approval and funding.

Lastly, subsequent to the end of the second quarter, we closed on our private placement for $11 million prior to transaction costs. This financing, together with cash on hand at the end of the second quarter and the expected financing from the State of Connecticut will enable us to execute on our product pipeline and continue to drive growth through targeted investments and refinement of our commercial team.

I'll now turn it back over to Valerie.


Valerie Barber Palmieri, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CEO, President & Director [5]


Thank you, Bob. Before we open up the call for Q&A, let me restate our focus on building the company for sustainable growth for the near term and the long term. Our goal is to strengthen our overall commercial position so we emerge stronger post pandemic. In parallel, we are executing quickly on our larger mission to serve the 20 million women in the U.S. starting with ovarian cancer risk assessment, serial pelvic mass monitoring and eventually tackling the largest disease, endometriosis. Keep in mind, the hereditary ovarian cancer monitoring test, OvaInherit, is incremental to this market, and this product will be for women with and without a mass.

Ovarian cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system and is the only gender-specific cancer with greater than a 50% mortality rate. Our work in products are at the forefront of changing the standards of care and detection of ovarian malignancies. We believe we are helping close the gap in detection and, more importantly, survival for women.

In the near term, we believe OVA1Plus, coupled with our disparity differentiation and genetics testing will become the standard of care in pelvic mass risk assessment for ovarian cancer. For the longer term, we are moving full steam ahead with our planned launches of OVANEX for pelvic mass monitoring, ENDOCHECK for endometriosis and lastly, OvaInherit for high-risk genetic predisposition monitoring.

We also believe in this new COVID era that health care disparities and the importance of diagnostic information might actually be further elevated to reduce disparate care and ensure that all women of every socioeconomic background receive the best possible care. Our end in mind is the incorporation of our current technology with precision-based modalities to allow for noninvasive, early detection of gynecologic disease over the entire patient life cycle. As with our brand, we aspire a woman to take control of her gynecologic health and empower providers to deliver optimal care. In order to dive more into our name change, our expanded portfolio, and our scientific leadership, we will be holding a KOL call in September during ovarian cancer awareness month.

We are now happy to open up the call for Q&A and answer any of your questions. Operator?


Questions and Answers


Operator [1]


(Operator Instructions) Our first question comes from the line of Brian Weinstein with William Blair.


Andrew Frederick Brackmann, William Blair & Company L.L.C., Research Division - Associate [2]


This is actually Andrew on for Brian. Thanks for all the details in the pipeline. Valerie, maybe to start. You spoke a little bit in your prepared remarks when discussing how the product was being used in the quarter. But as we think about longer term here, I'm curious what your thoughts are on how COVID-19 changes the value proposition of your core offering today. And then have you seen any evidence already which gives you the confidence that your products are going to be sort of net winners in a post-COVID world? And if so, could you maybe talk a little bit more about that?


Valerie Barber Palmieri, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CEO, President & Director [3]


Sure. Well, first off, thank you for the question, Andrew. And Brian sent me a note, so I knew that you were going to be on the call. So in terms of -- yes. So I think that when we first were told or we all were told nationwide that elective surgeries were on hold. And at first, we thought, wow, this is -- this could potentially be a major issue for us. And will they stop even utilizing OVA1 until elective surgeries are opened up. But what we saw was, and it was pretty quick when it bottomed out in middle of April -- middle of March to the middle of April, the middle April was the lowest point, we saw week-over-week volume coming back. And even with states, such as Florida, Arizona, California as well as Texas, which are big states for us, and we know they're already in a second wave of COVID, we're still seeing a lot of stickiness. And I think what's -- based on this 124 customer survey that we did, we saw that the test is being used at another level, meaning that the doctors -- there's pent-up demand right now for surgeries. There's pent-up demand in terms of just getting OR time and making sure you're taking the most-serious patient to the OR first. So we are seeing, is it a new application for the test? It's really it's on label use. But I think that now doctors are saying, I need just like going for a biopsy, whether it's a prostate biopsy or derm biopsy, I really need to assess this patient before I schedule the OR. So our goal is that it actually extends and that it actually -- as I said, we're looking at gathering the data and potentially writing a paper on how it's being used during COVID.


Andrew Frederick Brackmann, William Blair & Company L.L.C., Research Division - Associate [4]


Okay. Great. Thanks for the clarification on how it's being used. Maybe secondly, maybe for Dr. Northrop. You mentioned some potential biopharma and academic partnerships for the ENDOCHECK product and trial. Could you maybe give us an update on how those partnerships are intended to sort of assist in the development here? And then when should we be expecting to hear an update around any of those partnerships?


Valerie Barber Palmieri, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - CEO, President & Director [5]


Sure, Andrew. I'll start and then let Dr. Northrop fill in. So what you have seen and as everyone knows, if you read, whether it's pharma, whether it's any company, we have seen enrollment actually decline, right, because patients aren't going to the doctors. So I think there's a combination here is that the -- where we are starting these studies, we're starting them at large call points. And we already have very steep relationships due to some of the partnership things that we have in the queue. And so I think what you have here is as we laid the foundation last year and now when we're launching these studies, we're actually seeing quite an appetite to -- for these larger partners to join the study. So I'll let Lesley jump into some of the details, but it's actually been this -- I would say, this method at which we're gaining study partners has actually worked pretty well. Lesley?


Lesley Northrop, Aspira Women's Health Inc. - Global Medical Director of Genetic Services [6]


Yes. Thank you, Valerie. And nice to e-meet Andrew. Yes, we have some long-standing conversations, and we're in negotiation process with some large institutions that have enriched biorepository things where we're able to utilize their sample. And so right now, it's just more so hammering out the relationship, and how and when we'll get those samples. I can't give you a definitive date of when you could expect to hear an update, but there will definitely be something in the queue coming down the line here that we can hopefully make a formal announcement on where those samples are coming from and who are we receiving them from.


Andrew Frederick Brackmann, William Blair & Company L.L.C., Research Division - Associate [7]


Okay. Perfect. And then lastly, I know you referenced this in the past, but maybe for those a bit less familiar. Could you maybe talk a little bit more about the tech transfer product that you're developing? And then I guess as you go through that, could you maybe just describe the value that you think it brings to your customers?


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Edited Transcript of AWH.OQ earnings conference call or presentation 13-Aug-20 8:30pm GMT - Yahoo Finance

Veterinarians answer 8 questions about cats that you’ve always wanted to ask – Business Insider Australia

Whether you own a cat or not, there are probably a few things youve always wondered about them.

And so, Insider spoke with veterinarians to get answers to a few common cat questions that you might have.

Contrary to popular belief, cats cannot sniff out people who are allergic to them, Rover veterinarian Gary Richter told Insider.

He explained that if cats are paying extra attention to someone with allergies, its likely because they are responding to that persons body language.

People with allergies tend to ignore or avoid the cat in the room, which reduces the felines fear of an unfamiliar person. Cats are most likely to be drawn to someone who gives them their space and allows them to approach the human first, said Richter.

Some felines seem to lose control when they are around catnip. Fortunately, as Richter told Insider, the plant isnt harmful to or addictive for cats.

Some cats are drawn to catnip because it takes over their olfactory senses. There is no harm in letting your cat enjoy the scent should they be attracted to it catnip can be used for training or playtime, said Richter.

But keep in mind your cat might begin to feel nauseous or become irritated if you give them too much of it.

Veterinarian Megan Teiber said that its possible to train a cat to use a toilet but the drawbacks may outweigh the benefits of being able to flush your cats waste away.

A change in urine production is often the first sign of a serious medical condition, and if the cat is using the toilet as opposed to the litter box, this is more likely to be missed, said Teiber.

Its also worth noting that if a family member accidentally leaves the toilet lid down, closes the bathroom door, or is occupying the bathroom, the cat may have accidents around the house.

Some folklore holds that cats can tell if someone is pregnant and are drawn to people who are expecting but no, cats are not furry pregnancy tests.

Richter explained that cats just have an incredible sense of smell and are great at reading body language.

During pregnancy, women experience profound changes in their hormone levels which can affect their personal scent, so cats can understand that something is changing based on the new smell, said Richter.

Plus, a persons body temperature often rises in the first trimester of pregnancy. So if you notice a cat snuggling up to someone who is pregnant, they might just be enjoying the extra body heat.

Although male cats have a reputation for being more companionable than female cats, Teiber said there arent significant personality differences between the two.

A lot of people seem to think that male cats are generally more affectionate than female cats. I think there is simply a lot of individual variation and that there is no clear difference between male and female cats, said Teiber.

Some cats do fine when eating only dry food. However, wet cat foods are generally higher in protein and are always higher in moisture than dry foods, which more closely matches feline nutritional needs, said Jennifer Coates, veterinarian and advisor at Pet Life Today.

And as Jaimee Alsing, an animal nutritionist with PurringPal, previously told Insider, cats can actually avoid chronic dehydration by having wet food in their diet.

Chronic dehydration too often leads to tooth decay, bladder stones, and urinary tract infections. Many health issues can be prevented simply by adding a daily meal of wet food to your cats diet, said Alsing.

But Coates said if you still insist on feeding your cat only dry food, give it to them in several small, measured meals throughout the day rather than leaving a bowl of it out at all times.

Teiber said that sometimes female cats appear more affectionate to their owners after a spay, but spaying doesnt actually alter a cats personality.

Prior to being spayed, female cats frequently cycle in and out of heat, so their energy is often focused on mating. Once they are spayed, they may be able to relax and focus more attention on their human companions, said Teiber.

According to VCA Animal Hospitals, after they are neutered, male cats may behave less aggressively and spray less, though overall cat personality is still mainly a product of genetics and upbringing.

Carrying around extra fat can put felines in danger of developing chronic health conditions. Fortunately, it can be easy to tell if your cat is overweight.

When looking down on them from above, overweight cats lack a discernible waist. From the side, an overweight cats belly is closer to the ground than [it is to] the chest, said Coates.

Another sign that your cat is too plump is if you cannot feel their last few ribs by lightly running your hands over their sides, Coates added.

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Veterinarians answer 8 questions about cats that you've always wanted to ask - Business Insider Australia

Medical and neurobehavioural phenotypes in male and female carriers of Xp22.31 duplications in the UK Biobank. – Physician’s Weekly

Deletions spanning the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene at Xp22.31 are associated with X-linked ichthyosis, corneal opacities, testicular maldescent, cardiac arrhythmia, and higher rates of developmental and mood disorders/traits, possibly related to the smaller volume of some basal ganglia structures. The consequences of duplication of the same genomic region have not been systematically assessed in large or adult samples, although evidence from case reports/series has indicated high rates of developmental phenotypes. We compared multiple measures of physical and mental health, cognition and neuroanatomy in male (n=414) and female (n=938) carriers of 0.8-2.5Mb duplications spanning STS, and non-carrier male (n=192, 826) and female (n=227, 235) controls from the UK Biobank (recruited aged 40-69 from the UK general population). Clinical and self-reported diagnoses indicated a higher prevalence of inguinal hernia and mania/bipolar disorder respectively in male duplication carriers, and a higher prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and blistering/desquamating skin disorder respectively in female duplication carriers; duplication carriers also exhibited reductions in several depression-related measures, and greater happiness. Cognitive function and academic achievement did not differ between comparison groups. Neuroanatomical analysis suggested greater lateral ventricle and putamen volume in duplication carriers. In conclusion, Xp22.31 duplications appear largely benign, but could slightly increase the likelihood of specific phenotypes (although results were only nominally-significant). In contrast to deletions, duplications might protect against depressive symptoms, possibly via higher STS expression/activity (resulting in elevated endogenous free steroid levels), and through contributing towards an enlarged putamen volume. These results should enable better genetic counselling of individuals with Xp22.31 microduplications. The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press.


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Medical and neurobehavioural phenotypes in male and female carriers of Xp22.31 duplications in the UK Biobank. - Physician's Weekly

Sexual Parasites And Altered Immune Systems Help These Deep-Sea Fish Mate – Forbes

Female anglerfish with a parasitic male fused to the underside of her body

Deep-sea anglerfish are unique and unusual for many reasons. They have strangely shaped bodies with horrifying teeth, attract prey using a lure attached to their snouts, and reproduce by fusing their bodies with their mates. Now, a new study suggests that these anglerfish have modified immunity genes that make this form of sexual parasitism possible.

Deep-sea anglerfish are commonly found below depths of 1,000 feet. Light, food, and mates can be hard to come by in these environments, so anglerfish have adopted a unique strategy to produce offspring. Tiny male anglerfish, which can top out at 1 centimeter in length, will attach to female anglerfish that are many times larger than they are. This arrangement can be temporary or permanent, depending on the species. But, in some cases, the skin, veins, gills, and stomachs of the two fish will connect during the mating process and they will become fully enjoined.

Such an event should trigger an aggressive immune response, such as when the body rejects an organ transplant or detects a pathogen. That anglerfishes do not have such a response could suggest that male and female anglerfishes (1) share similar genetics that allow them to harmoniously connect or (2) are genetically adapted to suppress their immune responses when they mate.

Genetic analysis by the scientists involved indicated that there is a consistent difference in immunity genes between species that temporarily attach versus those that permanently attach. Specifically, when looking at a group of immunity genes known as MHC genes, temporarily associated pairs had a greater diversity of these MHC genes compared to those that become permanently affixed to one another. Additionally, species that do not form such attachments had aicada genes, whereas intertwined species lacked this aicada gene.

Reduced genetic variation indicates that species whose mates fuse together may have evolved so that mating does not compromise their health or chances of successfully reproducing by triggering an immune response. It is unclear whether sexually parasitic mating itself has driven these changes in immunity genes or if there are other underlying causes. But, the multitude of unique adaptations that anglerfish possess means that there are many more questions waiting to be answered.

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Sexual Parasites And Altered Immune Systems Help These Deep-Sea Fish Mate - Forbes

Livestock owners in Ohio warned to be on guard after Asian Longhorned tick found – The Cincinnati Enquirer

Beth Burger, Columbus Dispatch Published 10:39 a.m. ET Aug. 8, 2020

An Asian Longhorned tick, which is potentially fatal to livestock, was found in May 2020 in Gallia County in southern Ohio. The invasive tick, which is now in 14 states, has the ability to self-reproduce, hatching up to 2,000 eggs. It is brown in color and about the size of a sesame seed.(Photo: File)

It has the capacity to wipe out livestock, cause anemia and transmit diseases.

The Asian Longhorned tick can wage a campaign of destruction even though its only the size of a sesame seed.

So far, only one of its kind has been documented in Ohio. But experts warn: One is all it takes to become established in a new habitat.

The female Asian Longhorned tick has the ability to reproduce without males. She can produce up to 2,000 eggs by herself, said Risa Pesapane, assistant professor of veterinary preventive medicine at Ohio State Universitys School of Environment and Natural Resources.

The Ohio tick was confirmed after a stray 7-year-old male beagle was found in late May along a road in Gallia County in southern Ohio as part of Pesapanes study.

Her study partners withGigis, a nonprofit that brings dogs from shelters to their campus in Canal Winchester, where veterinarians administer care to them.

Were using the dogs to get a better idea of the health of the dogs in the area as well as what ticks are out there. And then that can be extrapolated to other studies like public health studies, said Dr. Colleen Shocking, a veterinarian who is also the director of education, outreach, and the parvovirus treatment center at Gigis. Our role is we pull (ticks) off. We also pull some blood from the dogs, which doesnt hurt them at all. We do that anyway to check for tick diseases.

The dogs are then transferred to adoption agencies, which leads them to finding permanent homes.

Bucky the beagle, who had the Asian Longhorned tick partially engorged when he was found, now has a home.

The tick had been on the dog for a couple of days, at least. Its really impossible to know specifically where that dog was when it picked up the tick, said Pesapane, who suspects the tick likely came across the Ohio River border from West Virginia.

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The ticks can travel on wildlife, including deer and birds. While they can feed on humans, its not their preference, experts said.

There have been no documented cases of humans catching diseases from this variety of tick.

But in the laboratory, they have demonstrated that this tick can acquire and transmit Rickettsia, Pesapane said, and that can lead to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, a bacterial disease that can cause fevers and a severe rash in humans.

Cattle attacked by Asian Longhorned ticks are at risk of contracting Theileria, a blood-borne parasite that can cause anemia, which can be fatal.

Researchers are looking at a well-established population of Asian Longhorned ticks in Virginia where there was an outbreak. The two are likely linked, the U.S. Department of Agriculture said.

That is what causes severe anemia and illness in cattle. So we do have one instance where a natural population of this tick was vectoring disease, but not to dogs and not to people, Pesapane said.

Even without the tick transmitting diseases, cattle owners should be vigilant, she said.

You get these really heavy infestations and even in absence of a vector-borne disease, they still could cause substantial blood loss in cattle and stress, Pesapane said.

The tick, which is native to east Asia, has been in the U.S. since 2010, said Denise Bonilla, a veterinary services entomologist with the USDA.

There was no smoking gun, she said. We know that from some of the population genetics work being done by several different universities that there was definitely more than one introduction in the United States, but we dont know how those happened.

Ohio and Rhode Island are the latest states where the tick has been found. That brings the total to 14 states, which also includes Kentucky and Pennsylvania. There have been no reports in Indiana or Michigan yet.

I dont think that people should be scared of this. You keep a good eye on your animals, Bonillasaid. You make sure that you practice looking at yourself and your family for ticks when youve been out in the environment, and doing quick tickremoval.

The ticks are the size of a period at the end of a sentence when theyre born. They move quickly, similar to spiders. Experts recommend keeping grass cut and brush removed to keep ticks at bay.

Experts warn that Ohio will continue to see more types of ticks and the population will likely increase due to symptoms of climate change with warming temperatures.

This is definitely thought to be linked to climate change as the warming climate allows habitats to be more suitable for these ticks, and the winters arent as harsh. You have more calendar days of the year that are above 40 degrees when the ticks are out looking for hosts, Pesapane said. Youre getting more encounters with people who are out enjoying the weather.

If cattle producers spot unusual-looking ticks or large infestations, notify your veterinarian or contact the Ohio Department of Agricultures Division of Animal Health at 614-728-6220.

This report was provided by the Columbus Dispatch, part of the USA TODAY Network.

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Their study on intimate orientation ended up being one thing of an anomaly. Maybe perhaps perhaps Not which he had not seriously considered it in past…

Their study on intimate orientation ended up being one thing of an anomaly. Maybe perhaps perhaps Not which he had not seriously considered it in past times.

Exactly exactly What finally changed the way of their research, though, was a profoundly individual crisis. An emergency room physician, died after a four-year struggle with AIDS in 1990 LeVays partner, Richard. Richard and I also had invested 21 years together, he recalls, their sound nevertheless getting during the memory. It had been while searching after him that I made a decision i needed to complete different things with my entire life. You recognize life is quick, along with to consider what is very important for your requirements and what exactly isnt. Id a psychological need certainly to make a move more personal, one thing related to my homosexual identification.

LeVay had been pelted with concerns. Some critics questioned whether the AIDS virus could have skewed his results because his gay subjects had died of AIDS. LeVay believes that highly not likely. He would additionally a part of their study six heterosexuals whod died of AIDS and saw no huge huge difference in INAH3 size patterns between these clients and the ones that has died of other noteworthy causes. (however, to assuage their fascination, LeVay later examined mental performance of a HIV-negative man that is gay had died of lung cancer: I became extremely, extremely stressed once I decoded that test, he admits. Id have lost a large amount of faith during my information if it situation had contradicted it. Yet that brain, too, dropped in to the gay-typical range. )

Anne Fausto-Sterling, a developmental geneticist at Brown University and another of LeVays primary academic experts, ended up being those types of whom questioned the way in which he interpreted their information. He stated a wide variation in the dimensions of these mind nuclei in homosexual and right guys, she states, but there was clearly nevertheless a diverse overlap between right and gay. Exactly just What he really discovered had been a distributional distinction, with some larger-than-average nuclei at one end, several smaller-than-average nuclei in the other, therefore the the greater part dropping in between. Also when we could say many people at one extreme were straight, and a lot of during the other extreme were gay, that tells us small in regards to the bulk at the center in which the ranges overlap. If LeVay picked a size that is nucleus the center, he couldnt inform if it had been heterosexual or homosexual.

Fausto-Sterling also took problem with LeVay for reducing the numerous simple colors of peoples sex to a dichotomy that is gay-straight. there are numerous gradations in intimate orientation. Just just exactly What do you really call males who possess intercourse along with their spouses while fantasizing about guys? Or dudes who will be mostly right who pick up male prostitutes, or transsexuals, or serial bisexuals who may switch between solely homosexual and solely right relationships? How can you count intimate behavior that modifications with time in various circumstances? She described LeVays research as an element of a reification of sexualities into a binary scheme. It maps very badly onto truth and makes taking into consideration the biology extremely tricky.

The general publics reaction to LeVays research had been equally spirited. a number of it absolutely was stuff that is loony LeVay claims with a grin. crazy theories that it is all as a result of diet. Then there have been the letters from spiritual zealots, flatly stating that being homosexual is just a choice that is sinful since it states when you look at the Bible. Some people branded LeVay a biological bigot and called his work an expression of internalized homophobia in the gay community. One critic stated i desired to show its maybe not my fault i am homosexual, states LeVay, plainly pained. we thought their charging I happened to be a conflicted man that is gay a bit down- color; i have been available about being homosexual since I have ended up being a teen. LeVay additionally rejects another critique: Some state my work means homosexual guys are just straight males by having a gap within their hypothalamus, so it pathologizes homosexual guys. I do not purchase it. To express that, you had need certainly to contemplate it pathologizing to express that gay guys have one thing femalelike, that we do not see as real. I do not think there is any such thing pathological about being a female.

However the more response that is typical passion. Letters poured in from homosexual males and their loved ones. Many men that are gay my study with their moms and dads, especially if they certainly were significantly estranged from their website. And parents, in turn, composed to express the research assisted them comprehend their young ones. It really is obvious that LeVay takes pleasure in realizing that lots of people are finding their labors helpful.

Some moms and dads think about me because the individual fuckcams cams who took them from the hook, LeVay claims, smiling. They tend to see could work as evidence that being homosexual is hereditary. It is a blunder i will be sympathetic with, because We occur to think people that are gay probably are created homosexual. Since we think about might work going for the reason that way, he adds wryly, Im not completely uncomfortable with this response.

In reality, LeVay has very long suspected that homosexuality operates in families and it has an inherited componenta suspicion strengthened by present double studies done by psychologist Michael Bailey of Northwestern University and psychiatrist Richard Pillard of Boston University. The studies also show that identical twinswho share the exact same genesare about two times as very likely to both be homosexual or lesbian as are fraternal twins, who share only half their genes. Theyre also five times almost certainly going to both be homosexual than are used brothers who share an upbringing but no genes. That obviously shows that genetics is the reason an amazing small fraction for the causation that is total claims LeVay. As anecdotal proof, he showcases a grouped household snapshot of himself and their four brothers: Two. 5 of us are homosexual, he states. (One bro is bisexual. ) You understand, my dad has not been comfortable that i am gay. He does not accept. Since all of the children from their 2nd marriage are right, he insists it really is all inherited from our moms region of the family members.

LeVays disapproving daddy may be vindicated yet. Final July, LeVay points down, Dean Hamers group during the National Institutes of Health situated an area from the X chromosome of homosexual brothers that could end up in carry a gay gene or genes; the X chromosome is, most likely, constantly the caretakers hereditary share to her sons. So how a gene in this area might create some body homosexual stays anybodys guess: perhaps it influences just how intercourse- associated structures are formed within the hypothalamus. In terms of intimate attraction and behavior, LeVay suspects, people are mostly shaped in utero. Something different is going on as soon as the brain that is gay itself in fetal life, he claims. If we place my cash anywhere, it is in the discussion of intercourse hormones plus the brain. There might be differences that are genetic how a fetuss mind cellular receptors react to intercourse hormones such as for example testosterone.

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Their study on intimate orientation ended up being one thing of an anomaly. Maybe perhaps perhaps Not which he had not seriously considered it in past...

Helping Hands: Expert Care can Help with Hand Conditions – Baptist Health South Florida

Sketch pencil in her right hand, Laida Arcia Carro (pictured above) adds tiny details to complete her portrait of a strong Haitian woman. Ms. Carro cant imagine a day without drawing, yet at age 71 the osteoarthritis in her hands often forces her to end her sketch sessions sooner than shed like.

Four or five years ago I noticed that my graspwasnt as good as it had been, and I had pain with certain motions, likeopening a jar, said Ms. Carro, a retired elementary school art teacher. Itgot progressively worse and now the bone on the inner side of my wristprotrudes. Its in both hands, but my right is worse than my left.

Unfortunately, just being female places Ms. Carro at a higher risk for a hand or wrist problem. According to the National Institutes of Health, women are about three times more likely than men to suffer from rheumatoid arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome, and twice as likely to fracture a wrist or have osteoarthritis in their hands. The gender gap is true across all age groups, yet it widens as we age.

Genetics, hormones, anatomy and metabolism all play arole, said Elizabeth Anne Ouellette, M.D., chief of hand surgery at Miami Orthopedics & Sports MedicineInstitute. Inaddition, women often lack adequate levels of calcium and vitamin D, importantin forming and maintaining strong bones.

Although Dr. Ouellette is an orthopedic surgeon, sheisnt quick to take a patient to the operating room. Im going to talk you outof surgery if I can, she said. If you arent sleeping because of the pain oryour life is severely disrupted for example, you cant turn the key in yourfront door then we have a conversation about surgery.

Dr. Ouellette understands what her patients areexperiencing because early in her career, just after having her second child,she underwent carpal tunnel surgery on both wrists at the same time. I wasbeginning to lose finger sensation and I was not sleeping. This could havebrought an end to my career.

Because of the impact a hand problem may have on dailylife, its important to see a specialist if you have symptoms. The hand andwrist are delicate and complex, with 27 bones and many muscles, tendons,ligaments, arteries, veins and nerves. Many conditions can be addressed, andtechnology is constantly evolving to improve and expand treatment. Dr.Ouellette is involved in a wide range of research on everything from nerveinjuries to the use of tiny anchors in the wrist for tendon repairs. Inaddition to her role at Baptist Health, she is chief of hand surgery and aclinical professor of orthopedics at Florida International Universitys HerbertWertheim College of Medicine.

Although Ms. Carro is a candidate for surgery, she andDr. Ouellette discussed the options, and together, they decided to watch and wait.Her symptoms could improve with conservative treatment, Dr. Ouellette said.And sometimes patients have no pain after the cartilage has worn down and thejoint is bone on bone. Then we do nothing. Waiting could also mean thatmedical developments, such as tissue re-engineering, could move from theresearch setting to everyday use.

Occasionally, Ms. Carro wears asplint on her hand, takes anti-inflammatory medicines and rubs on a topicalnumbing cream. She hopes to avoid the disruption surgery would require. Whenshe can, she still teaches private art lessons and attends regular drawingclasses, and hopes those resume soon. Careful to maintain social distancingduring the pandemic, Ms. Carro has filled her days by continuing her sketching,except without live models.

My art is so important, she said.I dont want to stop. It keeps me alive.

Tips for handling the future:

Dr. Ouellette has 30 years of experience in researchand in treating athletes and people of all ages who need small jointreplacement or surgery for hand, wrist and joint injuries. She offers patientsplenty of advice when it comes to preventing or slowing problems that canbecome debilitating.

Some suggestions:

MAINTAIN A HEALTHY WEIGHT. Fat contributes to a higher level of the hormoneleptin, which leads to inflammation. Its not the extra weight on joints thatcauses problems, she explained. Inflammation can cause swelling, cartilageand bone damage, and pain. Leptin has been linked to arthritis, lupus,multiple sclerosis and even heart disease.

EXERCISE. It keeps bones strong, improves balance, buildsmuscle and has long-lasting health benefits for the whole body.

FEED YOUR BONES. Take a vitamin D supplement and eat plenty ofdark green, leafy vegetables to increase your calcium level.

CHOOSE ORGANIC. The fewer chemicals youabsorb from skin care products, makeup and food, the better. Apps such as EWGHealthy Living, Think Dirty and Detox Me can help you determine your toxicityexposure.

Tags: carpal tunnel syndrome, Miami Orthopedics & Sports Medicine Institute

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Helping Hands: Expert Care can Help with Hand Conditions - Baptist Health South Florida

Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Report 2020 (COVID-19 Impact Analysis) By Segmentations, Key Company Profiles & Demand Forecasts to 2020 2026…

The recent report on GlobalHormone Replacement Therapy Market Report 2020 by Key Players, Types, Applications, Countries, Market Size, Forecast to 2026 offered by Credible Markets, comprises of a comprehensive investigation into the geographical landscape, industry size along with the revenue estimation of the business. Additionally, the report also highlights the challenges impeding market growth and expansion strategies employed by leading companies in the Hormone Replacement Therapy Market.

Impact of Covid-19 in Hormone Replacement Therapy Market: Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost every country around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Hormone Replacement Therapy market in 2020. The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought effects on many aspects, like flight cancellations; travel bans and quarantines; restaurants closed; all indoor/outdoor events restricted; over forty countries state of emergency declared; massive slowing of the supply chain; stock market volatility; falling business confidence, growing panic among the population, and uncertainty about future.

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Key players in the global Hormone Replacement Therapy market covered in Chapter 4:

Mithra PharmaceuticalsMerck KGaANovo Nordisk A/SAllerganAbbVie Inc.Endo Pharmaceuticals Solutions Inc.AmgenPfixer Inc.Eli Lilly and Company

In Chapter 11 and 13.3, on the basis of types, the Hormone Replacement Therapy market from 2015 to 2026 is primarily split into:

MenopauseHypothyroidismMale HypogonadismGrowth Hormone Deficiency

In Chapter 12 and 13.4, on the basis of applications, the Hormone Replacement Therapy market from 2015 to 2026 covers:

Estrogen and combinations ReplacementThyroid ReplacementGrowth ReplacementTestosterone

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2026) of the following regions are covered in Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13:

United States, Canada, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Spain, Russia, Netherlands, Turkey, Switzerland, Sweden, Poland, Belgium, China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, India, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Columbia, Chile, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa and Rest of the World

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Some Points from Table of Content

Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Report 2020 by Key Players, Types, Applications, Countries, Market Size, Forecast to 2026

Chapter 1 Report Overview

Chapter 2 Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter 3 Value Chain of Hormone Replacement Therapy Market

Chapter 4 Players Profiles

Chapter 5 Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter 6 North America Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 7 Europe Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 8 Asia-Pacific Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 9 Middle East and Africa Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 10 South America Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter 11 Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Segment by Types

Chapter 12 Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Segment by Applications

Chapter 13 Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2026)

Chapter 14 Appendix

The research provides answers to the following key questions:

What is the expected growth rate of the Hormone Replacement Therapy market? What will be the market size for the forecast period, 2020 2026?

What are the major driving forces responsible for transforming the trajectory of the industry?

Who are major vendors dominating the Hormone Replacement Therapy industry across different regions? What are their winning strategies to stay ahead in the competition?

What are the market trends business owners can rely upon in the coming years?

What are the threats and challenges expected to restrict the progress of the industry across different countries?

What are the key opportunities that business owners can bank on for the forecast period, 2020 2026?

Grab Maximum Discount on Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Research Report @

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Natural Connections: Oxymorons on the river | Free – Ashland Daily Press

I need a mental break, my friend Jamie told me. Shes an essential worker in a small city. Living in an apartment, feeling nervous to visit crowded city parks, dealing with rude customers, and being an extrovert in isolation, have all taken a toll on her mental health. Ive been realizing how privileged I am to have abundant access to uncrowded nature.

So, we hatched a plan for a socially distanced canoe trip on the Namekagon River.

The urge to give Jamie a hug as I pulled into the river landing was overwhelming, but our masks provided a constant reminder not to get too close. Unloading boats and organizing gear all took place as kind of an orbital dance. When we finally pushed off from shore, we got some odd looks.

Jamie, in my yellow kayak, looked as normal as she can ever look (yes, thats a poke at my veryuniquefriend). But then there was me, with my 16 foot canoe turned backwards so I could sit closer to the middle on what usually is the bow seat. This is a pretty common way for people to solo paddle a two person canoe. All of our camping gear nestled not touching in among the thwarts, with plenty of weight toward the front to balance me. At the last minute, Id thought to grab the paddle from my sea kayak, so I used its wooden blades to maneuver my loaded beast. It felt like I was paddling a tankor perhaps it could be better described as a party barge.

Hooting and hollering with joy, we swung out to the middle of the river and headed downstream.

Social distancing can seem like a pretty ludicrous oxymoron. Being social didnt used to mean keeping our distance. Its odd to feel anxious about getting together. Its odd to leave so much space between friends when we have conversations outdoors. Its odd to talk through a mask and leave half of our facial expressions covered when we (rarely) talk indoors at the office, coffee shop, or grocery store. Despite the incongruity, keeping our distance and wearing a mask are now the most caring ways we can be social.

Paddling side by side, instead of having Jamie breathing clouds of aerosols ahead of me in the canoe, is better for talking anyway. And for some reason, she was better at spotting wildlife from the kayak. Turtle! she shouted, and pointed across my bow (or was it my stern?) to a sunny rock. There, basking in the sun, was a very odd-looking reptile.

The tiny head, with a super pointy nose, faced upstream. The corners of the turtles wide mouth turned down at the corners like a grumpy Muppet. Her golden eye with a horizontal pupil gave the appearance of a perpetual squint. I could tell this turtle was female because of her large size and blotchy shell. Males are smaller, with spots. Her wide, flat body, like a lumpy old pillow with legs, was covered by an almost flat, brown shell, as if last Sundays burned pancake had been commandeered for use as a blanket.

And still, as you all knew I would, I squealed with delight, dug in my paddle to aim my course, and searched furiously for my camera. If only Jamie HAD been in the bow of my canoe to keep paddling while I photographed

Spiny softshell turtles are another foray into oxymorons. Who ever heard of a turtle having a soft shell? Isnt a hard shell kind of the point? And yet, there it was. Unlike the domed shelters of snapping turtles and painted turtles with their grid of protective, bony scutes softshell turtles have a leathery carapace. The flexible shell offers added maneuverability in open water, muddy lake bottoms, and on land, where they can move much faster than most turtles.

That pointy nose? Its a built-in snorkel on the end of a disproportionately long neck. It allows the turtles to breathe while the rest of their body is submerged in mud, sand, or water, a foot or more below the surface. In fact, they can exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide through many parts of their body, more than most turtles. That comes in handy as they lie in wait for prey like fish, frogs, and invertebrates to swim past. The same quick reflexes and powerful bite that help them catch prey can turn defensive in an instant so watch your fingers!

In a move thats odd for turtles, but common in other vertebrates, softshell turtles dont leave the sex of their babies up to the variation in nest temperature during egg development. Instead, males and females are determined by genetics.

As my canoe floated by and I snapped as many photos as I could, I finally saw the source of spiny softshells name. A fringe of pointy spines lined the edge of her carapace, just behind her head. From the other side of the river, Jamie admired her, too. I guess a softshell turtle can be spiny. And being social can be done from a distance. So much for oxymorons on the river. Our canoe trip was weirdly normal as we tried to act naturally and face the bittersweet new reality of traveling alone together.

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Natural Connections: Oxymorons on the river | Free - Ashland Daily Press

Psychology Around the Net: August 1, 2020 –

This weeks Psychology Around the Net takes a look at expert opinions on reopening schools for students mental health, new research on the impact of text messaging intervention as an add-on to existing mental health treatment plans, the differences in how female narcissists and male narcissists display narcissistic personality traits, and more.

Be well, friends!

Should Schools Reopen for Students Mental Health? Experts Weigh In: Mental health experts offer arguments for the importance of school for kids developmental health, with CDC Director Dr. Robert R. Redfield stressing, It is critically important for our public health to open schools this fall. However, others point out that while reopening schools might have some children feeling excited, it could have others feeling anxious and afraid and returning to school in person or virtually should be individualized. Says Dr. Avanti Bergquist, a child and adolescent psychiatrist and school board member: Whether we are sending students back for in-person school or not, we need to put emphasis on providing mental health support.

8 Women of Color on What Self-Care Looks Like in a Racist Society: 31-year-old Jasmine Purdie: As a Black photographer, I wanted to remind myself and my community that there is room for joy, peace, and rest in this workespecially in the middle of a global pandemic. I took a few road trips to visit, photograph, and interview (safely, of course!) some of the most important women in my life on how they are caring for themselves during this time. I hope these photos and anecdotes help us remember that while we are fighting and looking out for everyone, we also have to take time to care for ourselves.

Seven Secrets to Success: Patience, Purpose, Perseverance, Pain, Planning, Pep and Positivity: Find out how one woman used patience, purpose, perseverance, pain, planning, pep, and positivity to overcome obstacles and setbacks and make it to and through her first year of medical school.

Are Female Narcissists Different? Psychologists Weigh In: Narcissism doesnt have a favorite gender, but studies do show that men tend to display narcissistic personality traits more than women. Key word here: display. So, how can you spot a narcissistic behavior in women?

Text Messaging: The Next Gen of Therapy in Mental Health: Because of reasons like cost, difficulty accessing care, and limited hours, clinic-based services for mental health may fall short of meeting many patients needs. Researchers out of Dartmouth College studied what kind of impact a texting intervention as an add-on to a mental health treatment program would have compared to a program without a texting intervention and found that a texting intervention service can be a clinically promising, feasible tool for people with serious mental illness. This is the first randomized controlled trial of its kind.

What to Expect from Your Adopted Child: Insights from Behavioral Genetics: Professor Kay Trimberger explains why she found her studies of behavioral genetics so useful when writing Creole Son: An Adoptive Mother Untangles Nature and Nurture.

Image by from Pixabay.

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Psychology Around the Net: August 1, 2020 -

The NBA bubble is a grand experiment in epidemiology – The Undefeated

The NBA bubble is maybe the greatest public demonstration of a space where the science of epidemiology is as central to operations as the financial office.

As the United States continues to deal with the consequences of the largest pandemic in a century with roughly 4.25 million cases and nearly 150,000 deaths as of July 28, the NBA bubble is an important moment in modern epidemiology. It is a grand experiment in how technology, policy and human behavior influence an epidemic. And what we can do to stop it.

Milwaukee Bucks forward Giannis Antetokounmpo dribbles the ball during practice as part of the NBA restart on July 27 in Orlando, Florida.

Bill Baptist/NBAE via Getty Images

COVID-19 strikes as a protean disease, continuing to surprise and amaze even the most seasoned clinicians by its varied manifestations, said Dr. Andre Matthews, an assistant professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Emory University School of Medicine. A consensus taken amongst medical practitioners may very well declare COVID-19 the greatest masquerader that medicine has ever seen.

The science of epidemiology has done wonders for society, greatly improved the quality of life for billions of people and saved countless numbers of lives. For example, epidemiologists helped limit the spread of the 2014 Ebola epidemic, and have informed practices that contributed to declining rates of malaria around the world. Epidemiologists can track an outbreak of cholera, a contaminated water supply, or help to understand the spread of the mumps virus on a United States warship.

The NBA bubble refers to the tightly controlled setting where players live, practice and play in order to conclude the 2019-20 season. The players have been confined to a space resembling a luxury boarding school, with proctors and chaperones and rules. It contains quirky details: The teams with the eight best records stay at the newest of the hotels, the Gran Destino Tower in Orlando, Florida, while other teams stay at older hotels. Players are discouraged from spitting and licking their hands. Biometric devices are being used to monitor vital signs. No guests are allowed inside a players hotel room.

There are lots of rules. The policies governing the entry into and exit from the bubble are strictly enforced. Anyone entering the bubble (players, personnel or staff) is required to quarantine for up to 48 hours until they register two negative COVID-19 tests. Anyone who leaves the bubble must quarantine upon their return (for as long as 10 days) and will need to register two negative tests, as well as an antibody test. Face masks are a requirement in any common settings.

Lebron James of the Los Angeles Lakers might be one of the most famous athletes in the world, but in the bubble, he better not leave without proper notice.

Jesse D. Garrabrant/NBAE via Getty Images

The policies were developed as a collaborative endeavor between a range of experts, including epidemiologists who understand the latest science behind the spread of the coronavirus. These experts helped to create a set of policies that are based on interventions the wearing of masks, social distancing, frequent testing that have demonstrated their effectiveness in minimizing the spread of the coronavirus in many settings. But the NBA is constantly reevaluating and keeping up with the latest information on COVID-19 epidemiology so that the league can implement changes to the policy if necessary.

What makes epidemiology challenging in practice is the types of data that it often requires: Large data sets containing information on collections of people, their disease status and other information about them (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, residence, etc.). And because epidemics happen in the real world and not in the laboratory, ideal experiments can be hard to come by.

Epidemiology can thrive on well-organized large experiments in existence, situations where groups of people are carefully studied for periods of time so we can understand how a disease happens and why it occurs in some populations. Famous examples include the Framingham Heart Study that has monitored cardiovascular health for several generations, and the Nurses Health Study, which has focused on factors contributing to chronic disease in women.

The NBA bubble carries several features of a great epidemiology experiment that may facilitate a better understanding of how the coronavirus is spread:

Testing every day. One of the great barriers to a sophisticated understanding of COVID-19 has been the fact that tests have not been readily available. Early in the United States outbreak, individuals suspected of having the disease struggled to receive diagnoses. As testing will occur daily in the bubble, the NBA will be in the unique position of knowing the COVID-19 status of everyone who lives in the bubble. This will allow for rapid intervention, starting with quarantine.

Knowledge of all subjects. The NBA bubble is a rare setting where one can know a lot about the individuals in a physical space. This level of surveillance is uncomfortable to some, but in the case of an outbreak, detailed information on the individuals can be crucial. For example, some have begun to speculate that the widespread differences in the experience of disease between individuals may have a genetic component. That is, some individuals may carry a mutation that may make them more likely to experience a serious disease. Because the NBA bubble isnt inhabited by random individuals, it may be an opportunity to learn more about why some people have mild cases of the disease. This may include host genetics, or diet, preexisting conditions, or past medical history. While the NBA bubble will be dominated by high-performing athletes between the ages of 20 and 35, it still contains a diversity of players, coaches and staff that also span the age spectrum. Variation is an important feature, as it may help experts identify patterns.

Ideal data for contact tracing. Contact tracing has emerged as one of the buzz phrases surrounding COVID-19. It refers to a public health practice of informing the close contacts of an individual who tests positive that they might have been exposed to the disease, and should enter quarantine or undergo immediate testing. It is a tried and true method that has been used for decades to track epidemics ranging from Ebola to outbreaks of sexually transmitted diseases. It works best when it is widely adopted, and when professional contact tracers have detailed information on everyone that an individual who tested positive was close to. The NBA bubble offers a tremendous opportunity for accurate contact tracing, as many contact events will be televised. For example, not only would experts have access to where a player who tests positive in the bubble is residing (e.g., which hotel, and which room), theyd be able to study their physical contact patterns with players on another team.

With all of these features, what might we learn? The hypotheticals are too many to consider: Perhaps some teams will have cases, which will allow us to understand when they were infected, whom they infected, where they were when they were infected, how much time individuals spent with each other that caused an infection.

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We may learn that the ventilation in some hotels might be superior, which explains why there were fewer transmission events in that hotel, relative to the others. Will guarding another player in the paint be associated with a higher probability of transmission than with guarding on the perimeter? Questions like this might be answerable in the NBA bubble.

The hope is that there are no outbreaks, and that the NBA season goes on without a hitch, unlike in Major League Baseball. While this outcome would be the least eventful, and the one that offered the fewest opportunities to learn about the spread of the coronavirus, it may also be the most telling: No events would tell us that the bubble was a success, affirming the practices implemented by the league to promote safety.

And in many ways, this lesson would be the greatest of them all: In a dark summer, when COVID-19 cases continue to climb around the country, maybe the NBA will remind us that the pandemic is conquerable when we follow the science.

C. Brandon Ogbunu, a New York City native, is a computational biologist at Yale University. His popular writing takes place at the intersection between sports, data science, and culture.

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The NBA bubble is a grand experiment in epidemiology - The Undefeated

Everything You Need to Know About PCOS – FLARE

Chances are that if youre a person with ovaries, youve heard about Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; more commonly known as PCOS. Maybe it was from your BFF, whod gone for a check up only to find that she had cysts on her ovaries, maybe it was in the newslike when Dutch model Romee Strijd shared in a May 28 Instagram post that shes expecting a baby,two years after she was first diagnosed with PCOS. Or maybe its a condition that you personally have been diagnosed with. Regardless, there are likely very few degrees of separation between yourself and PCOSbecause its a pretty common disorder.

[PCOS] affects one in 10 reproductive-age girls, women or people with ovaries, and its across all ethnicities, says Dr. Yolanda Kirkham, an OBGYN and adolescent gynaecologist.So, its fairly common. And, Kirkham says, the numbers are actually rising. (More on that later.) But, as scary as it may sound, PCOS is actually a very treatable disorder. So, before you head down that Web MD rabbit hole, read up on what the experts we spoke to have to say about your reproductive and ovarian health.

First of all, although polycystic ovary syndrome sounds daunting, Kirkham stresses that people with ovaries shouldnt be too stressed about the name itself, especially that PCOS is classified as a syndrome.The syndrome just means certain things or certain symptoms that we see together as a group, Kirkham explains. So women shouldnt feel they have a disease, its just that they have this grouping thats associated with certain factors.

While doctors dont know *exactly* what causes PCOS (its a multifactoral condition, meaning there are many symptoms that can contribute to someones diagnosis with PCOS), according to Womens Healthmost experts think several contributorsincluding geneticsplay a role. Some of thesefactors include an imbalance in the reproductive and metabolic hormones. Per Womens Health, individuals with PCOS may have higher than normal levels of androgens (AKA male hormones). While all women have levels of androgens, people with higher levels can face complications. For example, these imbalances can create problems in theovaries; and with PCOS a persons eggs may not develop as they should or may not be released duringovulation. We have thousands of hormones in our body, but its in particular the ones that can affect how often we get our periodsas periods are also based on the fluctuations of our hormonesthat can cause issues, Kirkham says. As higher than normal androgen levels can cause missed periods, this can lead to subfertility or the abnormal development of cysts (small, fluid-filled sacs) on the ovaries.

Read this next: Black Women Are More Likely to Suffer From Fibroids

In addition to high androgen levels, people with PCOS may have insulin resistancemeaning that their bodies are unable to break down sugar effectively. This can also lead to downstream consequences for people with PCOS, like diabetes, high cholesterol and uterine cancer.And, it seems to be increasing as instances of obesity increase, Kirkham says.

While PCOS and endometriosis are often conflated and mistaken for one another, they are *not* the same thing. Per a a report by John Hopkins Medicine, endometriosis refers to a medical condition in which people have irregular development of the tissue that typically lines their uterus (called endometrium). During an individuals regular menstrual cycle, endometrium tissue builds up inside the uterus and is then shed if the person does not get pregnant. But per the report by John Hopkins, women with endometriosis develop this outside of the uterus, on other reproductive organs inside the persons pelvis or abdominal cavity. Because the tissue follows the same menstrual cycle of building up and breaking down, but in a misplaced area, this results in small bleeding inside of the pelvis. This bleeding then leads to inflammation, swelling and scarring of the regular tissue in the abdominal cavity. Endometriosis can be incredibly painful and is considered one of the three major influences of female infertility, with symptoms running the gamut from pain during sex to excessive menstrual flow and extreme menstrual cramps.

According to Bustle, the misdiagnosis of endometriosis as other medical issues (including PCOS) is due in large part to the fact that many of the symptoms of endometriosis are also present in other conditions. And the conflation of the two conditions can even be made by health professionals, which can lead to misdiagnosis when doctors see cysts on a womens ovary (something all women havemore on this later) and surmise that the pain theyre experiencing must be a byproduct of PCOS. Women might show up [in the emergency room] because they have extreme pain and they might have endometriosis, but you cant see that on an ultrasound, Kirkham says. But they happen to have an ovarian cyst at that time because theyre about to release an egg, and then they get diagnosed, [with a Dr. saying] Well you have an ovarian cyst, theres the problem and thats why you have pain, but it isnt.

When it comes to determining whether or not you have PCOS, Kirkham says doctors look to the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis. This criteria mandates two of the three symptoms be present.The first one would be infrequent or missing periods, Kirkham says of one possible PCOS indicator (this means fewer than eight periods in a year). This is probably what usually would bring a woman or a person with ovaries to a doctors office, is that they start skipping their periods or they may be a teenager who is 15 or 16 and has never had a period, or anybody of reproductive age who starts missing three periods in a row. The second symptom is acne or unwanted hair (otherwise known as hyperandrogenism or high male hormones); meaning that you may have unusual hair on your chin, side of the face, chest, back or stomach. And the third [symptom], Kirkham says, is polycystic-looking ovaries on an ultrasound.

One common misconception associated with PCOS is that *anyone* who has cysts on their ovaries has PCOS. Which isnt true, because, in fact, everyone has cysts on their ovaries and they arent always cause for concern. This is why I dont like the terminology of PCOS. Kirkham says. As she explains it, anyone who has ovaries stores their eggs in cysts (a little fluid filled ballon). So we have cysts every month and then they pop or ovulate and then two weeks later we have a period if were not pregnant. Sometimes, these cysts can rupturewhich can be very painful and may take someone to the emergency room, she saysbut this popping happens every month and is not indicative of PCOS.

When it comes to PCOS, Kirkham says the main gynaecological basis for the period problems is due to an-ovulation, meaning people stop ovulating and cysts dont pop. And so thats why you end up with a lot of cysts on the ovary, she says (a.k.a polycystic). As opposed to your typical ovaries, when they do an ultrasound, it almost looks like a pearl necklace, where all of the little cysts are around the edge of the ovary.

Read this next: Everything to Know About STIs and the Pap Smear Test

One thing to be aware of is the fact that a lot of teens can have polycystic-looking ovaries and not suffer from PCOS. Theyre very hormonally active at that time, Kirkham says, so their ovaries are really ramped up and theres a lot of eggs there. Which is why its important to refer to the Rotterdam criteria, and not base assumptions or diagnoses of PCOS off of one symptom alone.

While doctors havent identified any specific genes that would indicate PCOS is hereditary (ie: passed along through familial lines), there are PCOS-specific susceptibility genes that are being investigated, Kirkham says.

If youve heard anyone talk about PCOS, chances are youve probably heard them talk about infertility. PCOS is often connected to infertility, because people with PCOS may have difficulty releasing eggs (thanks to an excess of androgen hormones). About25 to 30% of PCOS patients have fertility issues, Kirkham says. (In fact, she continues, some places say even up to 80% of individuals with PCOS can struggle with fertility). But, the good news is thatas opposed to other syndromes like untreated endometriosisthe rate for infertility is much lower and can be more easily corrected. Also, we definitely shouldnt refer to it as infertility.

I wish we would stop using the term infertility because it is usually subfertility, Kirkham says, meaning a lot of people with PCOS still get pregnant. In fact, Kirkham says, the type of subfertility with PCOS is probably the easiest one to treat, because its caused by an-ovulation. So usually all you need is a medication to trigger the release of the egg, she says. So people may not need IVF and all of the whole gamut and the expenses of fertility treatment. In fact, celebs who have PCOSlike model Romee Strijdhave spoken openly about their experiences with subfertility due to the syndrome. In a May 28 Instagram post, Strijd announced that two years after revealing her PCOS diagnosis, she was pregnant after making lifestyle changes. To the women trying to conceive, believe in yourself and be nice for yourself and your body and dont let those thoughts get to you too much, Strijd encouraged her followers in her post. (And FYI, according to Kirkham,70% of women with endometriosis do get pregnant).

While treatment for PCOS should be individualizedfor example, Kirkham says, for a teenager or a young person, they may be most affected by self esteem issues that they have with acne or unwanted hair; so in that case, that would be where we want to balance the higher androgens that cause those symptoms. So something as simple as a birth control pill that has female hormones in it will help balance out the antigen side effectsKirkham also says that lifestyle changes; eating well, exercising and weight loss is treatment number-one for PCOS. In fact, according to her, 10% weight loss has been shown to lead to spontaneous ovulation, which is why she advises that anyone looking to make lifestyle changes work in conjunction with a nutritionist.

Nutrition and lifestyle modifications are the primary treatment approaches for [people] with PCOS, says Trista Chan, a registered dietician and founder of The Good Life Dietician, who works with clients who have PCOS. While Chan says that theres nooptimal or gold-standard diet for PCOS treatment, and treatment varies greatly depending on the individual, she places a strong emphasison minimally processed, whole foods. This means whole grains, legumes, nuts, leafy greens, berries and fruit, seeds, fish and chicken, she says. As peoplewith PCOS typically have higher insulin and inflammatory markers, Chan advises incorporating more anti-inflammatory foods like fish, legumes, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds and low-fat dairy, which she says have been shown to reduce inflammation and potentially regulate menstruation. All of these interventions also usually lead to weight loss and improvement in metabolic and reproductive health, Chan says. Another important note from Chan? Exercise!

Its important to emphasize that advocating for a healthy lifestyle and exercise doesnt mean that you need to become thinner or look a certain way. PCOS can affect anyone at any body size. Its about figuring out what works best and is healthiest for your body.

And while theres no foolproof way to ensure you wont be diagnosed with PCOS, the only thing that you can do to decrease the chance of being diagnosed with it is living a healthy lifestyle, Kirkham says. Making sure that you keep your weight stable (with the help and advice of a doctor) and then also knowing your family history, because if its in your family and there is some predisposition to it, you would want to track your periods and make sure theyre happening regularly.

Its not something you can prevent, per se, Kirkham continues. You may be predisposed to it just like some people are predisposed to other diseases.

Read this next: STI Rates Are on the Rise, So Why Arent Dental Dams a Thing?

While PCOS can never be 100% completely cured, nutrition andlifestyle modifications can be very effective in balancing hormones and relieving symptoms, Chan says. And, its important to get diagnosed early so that you can increase fertility for those looking to conceive and prevent more long-term effects likediabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol problems, sleep apnea, depression and anxiety, and uterine cancer.

And for anyone looking to keep their ovaries healthy and in tip-top shape, whether or not you have PCOS, Chan has some recommendations: Filling your plate with inflammation-fighting foods is always a good idea, she advises. Berries are an antioxidant-rich, low-sugar fruit. (She recommends eating them three times a week.) In addition, low-fat yogurt, three to five times a week is also great source of calcium and probiotics to keep a healthy gut; fatty fishlike salmon or mackerelare rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which play large role in reducing inflammation, boosting heart health, and there is increasing research linking it to hormone balance.

Regardless of which route you take in treating PCOSor general reproductive healththe most important thing is to consult a doctor and do whats best for you and your body.

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Everything You Need to Know About PCOS - FLARE

How to identify and treat strange things that might be happening on your skin – Las Vegas Sun

By C. Moon Reed (contact)

Saturday, July 25, 2020 | 2 a.m.

Skin. Its our bodys biggest organ. Our protective envelope exists to keep the outside world out and the inside in. And yet its easy to ignore, up until the moment something goes wrong. Whats that weird rash? Who knows? Sure, you can use a phone filter to make your skin look great, but its better to address the problem and enjoy clear skin.

Weve rounded up info on some of the most common skin conditions that affect mankind, but this shouldnt replace professional medical advice. If you think something looks wrong, please consult a doctor.

Prevention is the best cure, so follow these simple steps to keep your skin healthy and happy.

Wash your hands.

Practice good hygiene.

Manage stress.

Eat a healthy diet.

Sleep enough.

Moisturize to prevent dry, cracked skin.

Dont share personal items like towels, razors and nail clippers.

Avoid touching your face.

Dont pick at, shave over, pop or scratch irritated skin, no matter how tempting.

Dont touch other peoples skin lesions.

Cover skin wounds, warts, etc. to speed healing and prevent cross-contamination.

Wear flip-flops around swimming pools and public showers.

Protect yourself from sun damage.


Its the bane of pubescence. But pimples can linger beyond the teenage years.

Who: Everybody. Its the most common skin issue in the United States.

Cause: Pores clogged by dead skin cells get infected by a common skin bacteria, P. acnes. Risk factors include genetics, hormones, being female.

Symptoms: From cysts to blackheads to pustules and whiteheads, these blemishes can plague the face, chest, back, arms and buttocksand lead to scarring and dark spots.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Start with over-the-counter topical treatments and see a dermatologist for prescription treatment if your acne is severe or not responding to other efforts. Do not pop pimples; it can make them worse and cause scarring.


A general term for the type of rash one gets when skin comes into contact with an irritant.

Who: Anybody, but allergies are a risk factor.

Cause: Seasonal allergies; allergies to cheap jewelry (generally with nickel), cosmetics, detergents, medications, tattoo pigments, etc.

Symptoms: Itching, redness, swelling.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Remove the irritant, and avoid future contact.


A type of dermatitis (seborrheic) that mainly affects the scalp.

Who: Mostly people with genetic predispositions, immune or nutrition issues.

Cause: Genetics, environmental factors, dry skin, stress.

Symptoms:Itching, flaking, discoloration of the skin.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Medicated dandruff shampoo; shampoo daily; eat a healthy diet; get some sun; apply tea tree oil. Seek prescription treatments if the above doesnt help.


Think of this chronic skin condition like asthma of the skin. Skin can be normal, and then suffer from outbreaks, like an allergic reaction.

Who: Anybody, but those with asthma or allergies are at higher risk.

Cause: Genetics, skin irritation or damage, immune issues.

Symptoms: Dryness, redness, itching, cracking, bleeding, infection.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Hydrocortisone, antihistamines, steroid creams, laser therapy, immunosuppressants.


An inherited skin condition that can make the upper arms, thighs, buttocks and/or cheeks appear to have goosebumps or whiteheads.

Cause: Genetics, worsened by dry environments.

Who: More common in children and young adults and generally resolves itself with age.

Symptoms: Painless, but can cause bumps and coarse skin.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Exfoliate and moisturize; salicylic acid, topical retinoids.


Mostly everybody has a mole somewhere or other. Generally, these pigmented skin growths are harmless, but some can be risk factors for melanoma (skin cancer).

Who: Almost everybody.

Cause: Irregular or clumpy growth of pigmented skin cells.

Symptoms: Beware of moles that are asymmetrical, oddly shaped, multicolored, larger than a pencil eraser and/or quickly changing, as these can be signs of melanoma.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: If your moles seem irregular, see a doctor immediately. Most moles dont require treatment, but if needed, they can be surgically removed by a dermatologist. In general, its a good idea to monitor your moles over time, just to make sure they dont turn against you.


This skin disease is caused by a poxvirus that lives in the upper layer of the skin.

Who: Anybody, but people with compromised immune systems are at higher risk.

Cause: Viral infection spread via physical contact (either skin-to-skin or via shared objects, such as towels or toys).

Symptoms: Itching, redness, small bumps with a pearly appearance.

Contagious? Yes, but your body can completely clear the infection.

Treatment: The disease typically clears on its own in six months to four years. A medical professional can help remove the lesions; do not attempt on your own.


Skin generally takes weeks to grow, but with this skin condition, it grows at hyperspeed, causing significant irritation.

Who: Genetics combined with triggering events such as stress, weather and/or medication.

Cause: An overactive immune system, generally.

Symptoms: Most people develop plaque psoriasis, which consists of scaly, raised patches that can look silver. They are very itchy, but scratching makes it worse. Other types of psoriasis include rashes and irritation on different parts of the body.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Prescription medication, including lotions, pills and injections.


Santa Claus is famous for his rosy cheeks. But what you took for Christmas cheer is most likely the skin condition rosacea.

Who: Older people, mostly women, with fair skin.

Cause: Genetics, acne is a risk factor, spicy foods, stress, sunlight.

Symptoms: Redness on the cheeks and nose, enlarged blood vessels, hot skin, irritated eyes, swollen nose.

Contagious? No.

Treatment: Antibiotics, laser therapy, surgery.


A skin growth caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Who: Anybody, but nail biting, hangnails, broken skin, shaving and weakened immune systems are risk factors.

Cause: Physical contact (skin-to-skin or with a contaminated object).

Symptoms: Depending on the type of wart, the growth can appear on the hands, fingers, feet, face, genitals and, really, anywhere.

Contagious? Yes.

Treatment: Can eventually resolve on its own; over-the-counter treatments available; dermatologist can treat with excision, electrosurgery, cryotherapy and more.

This story appeared in Las VegasWeekly.

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How to identify and treat strange things that might be happening on your skin - Las Vegas Sun

A.O.C. and the Daughter Defense – The New York Times

Brett Kavanaugh invoked it. Mitch McConnell used it too. Matt Damon and Ben Affleck have each talked about it, and this week, Representative Ted Yoho joined their ranks: he, too, is now a member of the having-a-daughter-makes-me-an-ally-to-women or at the very least, should-excuse-my-bad-behavior club.

Having been married for 45 years with two daughters, Im very cognizant of language, Representative Yoho said in a speech on the House floor this week, denying that he called Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, the freshman Congresswoman from New York, a fucking bitch after a confrontation on the steps of the Capitol.

Mr. Yoho later expressed regret for the abrupt manner of the conversation, in which he told Ms. Ocasio-Cortez that her statements about poverty and crime in New York City were disgusting. But, he noted, I cannot apologize for my passion or for loving my God, my family and my country.

On Thursday, in a speech on the House floor that has since gone viral in which she read the vulgarity into the Congressional record Ms. Ocasio-Cortez said, I am someones daughter too. She said shed planned to ignore the insults its just another day as a woman, she said but changed her mind after Mr. Yoho decided to bring his wife and daughters into the fray.

Our culture is full of platitudes about fathers and daughters: the Hallmark card, the weeping dad at the wedding. But invoking daughters and wives to deflect criticism is a particular kind of political trope and one thats been used throughout history to excuse a host of bad behavior, said the historian Barbara Berg.

The love a man has for the female members of his family, particularly his offspring, is presumed to have special power to humanize the other half of the population, to allow him to imagine the world his daughter will inhabit. Sometimes, in fact, this happens. Other times, the Daughter Excuse comes across mostly as cynical ploy.

As if familial affiliation alone equals enlightened attitudes towards women, said Susan Douglas, a professor of communication and media at the University of Michigan. Its like claiming I have a Black friend as if that makes you anti-racist.

There is social science thats shown there is something to being the father of a daughter.

In a study called The First-Daughter Effect, Elizabeth Sharrow, an associate professor of public policy and history at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and her colleagues, determined that fathering daughters and firstborn daughters, in particular indeed played a role in making mens attitudes toward gender equality more progressive, particularly when it came to policies like equal pay or sexual harassment protocols. The researchers also determined that those dads of firstborn daughters were, in 2016, more likely to support Hillary Clinton or a fictional female congressional candidate delivering a similar pitch.

Our argument is not that it is genetics or biology, but that it is proximity, said Dr. Sharrow. In other words: The daughters help the fathers see the problems they may have previously dismissed.

Witness basketball star Stephen Curry, who has written about how the idea of womens equality has become a little more personal for me, lately, and a little more real, since having a daughter.

Or Dick Cheney, whose views on same-sex marriage shifted earlier than many might have expected because of his daughter, who is gay.

And yet.

Daughters influencing fathers views for the better is far different from fathers using their daughters as shields and excuses for poor behavior, as Ms. Ocasio-Cortez described Mr. Yoho in her speech.

Its also different from fathers using them as props, as Dr. Berg puts it, to emphasize their alignment with womens causes or, by contrast, their disgust over behaviors perceived to be in opposition to them.

Consider Justice Kavanaugh, who during his testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee about allegations of sexual assault by Christine Blasey Ford spoke repeatedly of his daughters (as well as his wife and mother) and noted that coaching his daughters basketball team was what he loved more than anything Ive ever done in my whole life as if loving coaching and allegedly treating women badly as a teenager are mutually exclusive.

Men have often pointed to their relationships with and love for some women especially wives and daughters to combat claims that they have mistreated other women, said Kelly Dittmar, a scholar at the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University. We have seen this both inside and outside of politics, especially when men are subject to accusations of sexual harassment and assault.

In the wake of the 2016 reports on comments made by Donald Trump on the now-infamous Access Hollywood tape, a host of fathers-of-daughters came out to condemn the behavior. Mr. McConnell noted that as the father of three daughters he believed that Mr. Trump needs to apologize directly to women and girls everywhere, while Mitt Romney said that the comments demean our wives and daughters. (It is perhaps worth noting that Mr. Trump, too, has daughters.)

Similarly, in response to revelations of sexual misconduct by Harvey Weinstein, both Ben Affleck and Matt Damon, who had worked with the disgraced Hollywood producer, expressed their disgust on behalf of their female offspring. We need to do better at protecting our friends, sisters, co-workers and daughters, Mr. Affleck said on Twitter, while Mr. Damon explained that as the father of four daughters, this is the kind of sexual predation that keeps me up at night.

Women, too, have at times invoked mens daughters and other female relatives in trying to appeal to some men. When asked about Mr. Yohos behavior, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said: Whats so funny is, youd say to them, Do you not have a daughter? Do you not have a mother? Do you not have a sister? Do you not have a wife? What makes you think that you can be so and this is the word I use for them condescending, in addition to being disrespectful?

The caveat, of course, is the qualification. Qualifying your outrage against misogyny as due to your role as a father or husband implies that, absent those roles, you would be either unaware of or unconcerned, said Dr. Dittmar.

Or as Ms. Ocasio-Cortez put it: Having a daughter does not make a man decent. Having a wife does not make a decent man. Treating people with dignity and respect makes a decent man. Why should daughters still have to be a prerequisite to respect?

Jessica Bennett is a Times editor at large covering gender and culture. She is the author of Feminist Fight Club and This Is 18.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. Wed like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips. And heres our email:

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A.O.C. and the Daughter Defense - The New York Times

Female hair loss common and women shouldn’t be embarrassed to seek treatment, dermatologist says – ABC News

For most people, hair is not just about keeping their head warm and for protection from the sun; it is a mark of youth, vitality and how we present to the world.

Losing hair at any age can be very confronting, and for many women it can be hard to simply shave it off and embrace the bald look.

Dermatologist Clare Tait told Jessica Strutt on ABC Radio Perth that she has been seeing many female patients seeking hair loss treatment.

"Our appearance, and how we present to our family and our friends in the community, is very important and the head of hair is one of the most visible aspects," she said.

"Ever since I've been a dermatologist there's been a constant demand for women seeking help for hair loss."

Dr Tait said more women than ever have been seeking treatment when they noticed they were losing their hair, but that may be because they are increasingly aware that help is available.

"I think it is partly an awareness that that there are things that we can do, and that it is a very legitimate concern," she said.

"I think it's also that there is a greater emphasis in our society today on how we look and how we appear youthfulness is highly prized and a youthful look is often equated with a full head of hair."

While a person's appearance may be seen as a trivial concern, or the domain of late-night TV ads, Dr Tait said no one should feel uncomfortable about seeking medical treatment for hair loss.

"I think that it's quite common and that sometimes people are embarrassed and almost feel ashamed to be seeking help for something that they perceive is a cosmetic issue only," she said.

"If it's causing anxiety, if you feel it impacting on your quality of life, then that is the time to seek help."

Androgenic alopecia, often better known as male or female pattern hair loss, is fairly common, Dr Tait said.

"It is an interesting condition because it's almost statistically normal for women to develop this condition, particularly after the menopause, with a generalised thinning of hair and sometimes some increased shedding as well," she said.

"Probably about 40 to 45 per cent of women by the age of 50 are noticing some thinning."

Many people believe stress is the cause, but Dr Tait says that while stress can exacerbate female pattern hair loss it is unlikely to be the root cause.

Female listeners anonymously texted their hair loss stories to ABC Radio Perth:

"I'm 46 and lost all my hair to alopecia 5 years ago. I feel like I have a handle on wigs, though they'll always be a pain to wear. I really miss being able to tie my hair out of the way in a ponytail. What I really struggle with is doing make up without eyelashes I feel like I have no idea what I'm doing."

"My hair fell out at menopause. My hair was thick so my doctor didn't take me seriously. I started keeping the fallen hair in a bag and presented it to the doctor he finally took me seriously. Hair loss is cyclical; [it] happens every eight years or so. [My] last fall [was] about a year ago another bag of hair. It never quite grows back as thick."

"I am female in my 60s and have long, thick hair; [it's] always thick and shiny. Eighteen months ago it started falling out more than normal. Testing revealed severely low iron levels. Two infusions of iron, along with [the] removal of all caffeine from [my] diet, [and] six months later it [my hair] was back to normal."

While many women may lose hair due to their genetics, an iron-related condition called telogen effluvium can also be a commonplace cause.

"It is absolutely correct that iron deficiency is one of the commonest causes of this condition," Dr Tait said.

"I would routinely test iron levels as well as a number of other things to make sure there's nothing that's easily reversible and that will help the hair grow back."

In cases where it's not just hair but eyebrows and eyelashes that are falling out, Dr Tait said it was more likely a condition called alopecia areata.

"That's a completely different condition that requires different treatment," she said.

Dr Tait said it was not uncommon for patients to stop washing their hair as they attributed the washing to their hair loss.

"A lot of people that I see who are losing their hair to tell me that they have stopped washing it, or wash it much less frequently, because they're concerned that washing their hair makes it fall out more," she said.

"When we wash our hair we do lose more hair on that day but overall it balances itself out.

"I can reassure people; how often you wash your hair will not have any long-term effect on how quickly you're thinning or how much hair you're losing."

When you get older your hair and nails change. Will diet or supplements make a difference?

Dr Tait said the same was true for using hair dryers, hair straighteners and dying hair.

"If you're over-drying hair you may find that the shaft becomes more brittle," she said.

"It may break off more easily but neither of those things will stop the hair growing.

"Providing you're not having any reaction from your hair dye, and you're not getting an itchy, irritable scalp, it's perfectly safe to dye your hair with these conditions."

Dr Tait said she hoped more women would realise that it was possible to seek treatment if their hair loss was bothering them.

"I think that's really very appropriate that people do come and ask what can be done about it and let us know how it's distressing them."

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Female hair loss common and women shouldn't be embarrassed to seek treatment, dermatologist says - ABC News

Economic fallout from pandemic will hit women hardest – The Guardian

Even before the coronavirus pandemic, there were vast inequalities between men and women in the world of work. Despite chipping away at the glass ceiling over recent decades, in 2020 the gender pay gap still remains stubbornly high, while more men called Steve and Dave run FTSE 100 companies than women.

Four months from the launch of lockdown, and as Britain slips into the deepest recession for three centuries, it is increasingly clear the economic fallout from the pandemic is having a disproportionate impact on women.

Decades of progress although very much incomplete risk being unwound, in a crisis that has shone a light on a myriad of social and economic issues. Earlier this week the International Monetary Fund warned that if left unchecked, 30 years of gains for womens economic opportunities could be erased, and called for governments around the world to take immediate action to prevent longer-term damage.

Working mothers in particular are bearing the brunt. Centuries of structural social convention have ensured the tasks of childcare and homeschooling are more likely to fall on their shoulders, while the demographics of employment in the worst hit sectors of the economy such as hospitality and retail mean women are more likely to lose their jobs.

Given the scale of the economic shock, the governments economics forecaster, the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR), estimates that unemployment for both men and women will more than double by the end of this year to the highest levels since the 1980s.

The government is, however, preparing to scale back its emergency response to the economic shock from next month, as Boris Johnson attempts to secure a return to normality in time for Christmas, despite warnings over a second wave of Covid-19 infections and more job losses this winter.

To kickstart the recovery, billions of pounds in tax cuts and spending measures have been promised by the chancellor, Rishi Sunak. But experts say much of the money will miss the mark. The Womens Budget Group argues much more investment in social infrastructure including childcare and social care is also required to stimulate growth.

Since the onset of the pandemic, as many as 9.5m jobs at 1.2m companies have been furloughed on the Treasurys furlough scheme, which pays 80% of workers wages, up to 2,500 per month. A further 2.7 million claims have been made by the self-employed. Both schemes will, however, be closed by the end of October, with at least 10% of furloughed jobs expected to be made redundant.

Official figures show men are more likely to be furloughed, in part because women have typically continued working through the crisis in education, health and social care jobs sectors where they are over represented. The TUC estimates that out of 9.8 million key workers putting their health at risk on the frontline, nearly two-thirds are women. However, as many as 2.6 million female key workers earn less than 10 an hour.

Before Covid-19, there were signs of progress towards a more balanced, modern workplace as the number of women in work surged to a record high, including record numbers of working mothers. Despite this, official figures show men still earn 17.8% more than women on average across the whole economy. The Fawcett Society estimates it would take 60 years to eradicate the gender pay gap on pre-crisis trends. But given the scale of the economic shock for women currently unfolding, it expects parity to be delayed by three decades until the year 2110.

As unemployment begins to rise, experts warn job losses are likely to be disproportionately felt by women, given their prominence in sectors hardest hit by the crisis such as hospitality, leisure and retail. Globally, the International Labour Organization estimates that almost 510 million, or 40% of all employed women, work in the four most affected sectors, compared to 36.6% of men.

In Britain, young women in particular are overrepresented in these sectors: 36% compared with 25% of young men. Overall, 17% of women compared with 13% of men work in hospitality, leisure and retail, at a time when barely a week goes by without a big high street name announcing redundancies.

Combining these workforce demographics with longstanding social norms, experts believe mothers are one-and-a-half times more likely than fathers to have either lost their job or quit since lockdown began.

Working mothers in traditional nuclear families have taken up a greater share of domestic work and childcare in the hours usually occupied by employment. What with juggling Zoom meetings, home-schooling and lunch times, mothers in two-parent households have been doing a third of the uninterrupted paid-work of fathers on average, according to the Institute of Fiscal Studies. Mothers are doing two fewer hours of paid work each day than fathers, but two more hours of childcare and housework.

The closure of schools and nurseries further exacerbated the unequal distribution of unpaid care work before the pandemic. But experts warn these trends will persist when offices begin to reopen from 1 August, worsened by the anticipated closure of 10,000 childcare providers crushed by the coronavirus crisis.

This will inevitably create a two-tier recovery with men getting back in to the labour market at a faster rate than women, said Mary-Ann Stephenson, director of Womens Budget Group. If the government is committed to getting the workforce up and running, then care and women must be at the centre of any economic recovery plan.

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Economic fallout from pandemic will hit women hardest - The Guardian

Berkeley Talks transcript: Why racial equity belongs in the study of economics – UC Berkeley

Suresh Naidu: Okay. Ill get us started. Thanks everyone for showing up. Thanks a lot to our panelists for agreeing to do this. Just as a few words of background, my name is Suresh Naidu, the co-organizer of Economist for Inclusive Prosperity, which is a project Gabriel Zucman and Dani Rodrik and I started kind of trying to explore what economics looks like after neo-liberalism and what kind of a more inclusive, more egalitarian kind of economics looks like.

And this is kind of our attempt to sort of help economics grapple with its current moment by acknowledging that economics doesnt necessarily already have all the answers and doesnt already have the necessary conceptual toolkit. So, theres lots to say about this, and lots of people here that have thought about it more than me, and so Im just going to hand it off to someone whos thought about it a lot, Sandy Darity, who is going to be moderating the panel. So, take it away, Sandy.

Sandy Darity: Thank you, and thank you to you Suresh and to Dani for organizing this event. I think its very, very important for us as economists to learn from the other disciplines. Weve had an imperializing tendency towards the other disciplines, and in the process I think we have failed to really recognize many of the important contributions that have been delivered from other disciplines using their perspective rather than the perspective that we normally bring to these issues.

In particular, Im struck by the fact that an important tool that Ive used in much of my research, the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, really I believe was preceded by the Blau and Duncan decomposition in sociology, but I think frequently we have not been aware of that.

And similarly, when we talk about unobserved heterogeneity, it sometimes becomes a blockade for really understanding the phenomenon of discrimination. Or when we talk about the identification problem, it constitutes a blockade to thinking about some factors as being fundamental causes of phenomena rather than interactive causes of phenomena.

So, as a consequence, I think its really going to be valuable for us to hear from the scholars who are going to join us today. We have four speakers after they make their respective presentations, we will take questions from the floor, so to speak, and have an opportunity for the speakers to respond to those questions as well as engage with one another.

And our first speaker is going to be Daina Ramey Berry, who is the Oliver H. Radkey Regents Professor of History at the University of Texas at Austin. Her superb book The Price for Their Pound of Flesh, recovers the humanity or persons, Black persons specifically, whose lives were comprehensively commodified.

There are two additional dimensions of her book that I think merit deep attention. First, the extended commodification of Black bodies after life ends into death; and second, the significance of the effects of markets, markets in human beings on U.S. economic development. Her most recent book is A Black Womens History of the United States, co-authored with Kali Nicole Gross.

And Im hopeful, time permitting, that shell have an opportunity to tell us what we can learn from that book also. Our second speaker is Arjumand Siddiqi, who is an epidemiologist at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto. She is also the Canada Research Chair in Population Health Equity.

She has had brilliant insights about differences in social and policy structures across countries and how they affect not only health outcomes for the general population, but also the health disparities between ethnic and racial groups within those populations.

She also has recently published a critique of Case and Deatons perspective on deaths of despair, and in the interest of full disclosure, Im actually a co-author on that article. But she has a strong commitment to understanding the full play of what public health scholars refer to as the social determinants of health in contrast with genetic or behavioral or cultural factors.

Our third speaker is going to be Mario Luis Small, who is a deeply accomplished sociologist, urban sociologist at the interface between thinking about neighborhoods and communities as well as social networks. He is the Grafstein Family Professor of Sociology at Harvard.

And one of the things thats particularly impressive about his research productivity is that two of his books Villa Victoria and Unanticipated Gains both have received the C. Wright Mills Award. I think recently in some of his work, hes been most notably engaged in a nuanced reintroduction of cultural considerations in the analysis of race and sociology.

And then our final speaker is Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, one of my colleagues at Duke, also a deeply accomplished sociologist. Remarkably, he has recently served as president of the American Sociological Association and the Southern Sociological Society simultaneously. I think thats unprecedented.

He is the author of Racism Without Racists, among a number of books, but I want to mention Racism Without Racists because its now in its fourth edition. And it explores the difference between peoples attitudes about race thats expressed in short answer surveys versus in-depth interviews.

And what he demonstrates in that book is that if you rely upon short answer surveys to try to gauge variations in peoples attitudes on questions concerning race, youre going to miss the boat because theyre self-censored increasingly. And so, what you really want to do is engage them in long-term interviews, and in that environment you get much better information about what their beliefs really are. So, may we start. Daina Berry, please.

Daina Ramey Berry: All right, thank you so much for having me. Im going to start off my brief remarks to just talk a little bit about what the work looks like from an historians perspective. And as Dr. Darity said, my research is on enslaved people. And I was an economics major during undergrad, I dont know if Dr. Darity knew that, but I was a major in economics until my last year in undergrad, and I took an African American history class and decided thats what I wanted to change and do my work on.

But Ive always wanted to try to find a way to blend the work that I had done as an undergrad in economics. So, when I started doing this work on The Price for Their Pound of Flesh, my goal, maybe it was naive, but my goal was to allow the economists that are doing work on slavery, very big work on slavery, to have a more cohesive conversation with historians.

And one of the things that I was trying to do initially is I was trying to walk in the space that I thought economists do, and I was trying to find out whether or not I could show statistical significance in my findings. And as I was doing that and trying to search for that in the ways I was looking at how enslaved people are priced from the beginning, before theyre even conceived.

So, enslaved mothers were looked at for the fecundity to see what their value of their future laborers would cost, to see whether or not if they had given birth to children, did those children survive to age 5? Were they healthy? And if so, that particular woman received a higher valuation during pregnancy than other women. And so, I was doing research on that and trying to look at ways to bridge this gap between the two fields, and to make sure that my argument would be palatable in both spaces.

And what I learned in the process was that enslaved people spoke very loudly to me when I was looking at these records, and I was using datasets that Stanley Engerman and Robert Fogel created. Id also created my own dataset. Ive been doing research in Southern archives for about seven or eight years, and had this large data set of about 80,000 individuals enslaved peoples values, their prices, their monetary values and their appraised values.

But I realized as I was doing this work that enslaved people themselves had so much more to say about valuation and the values on their bodies. And that was really interesting to me, and I thought, Okay. Well, if I write this book that talks about it from the perspective, enslaved people participating in their thoughts about the value of their bodies, how will that change the way we talk about this in both economic and historical circles?

So, I dont know how its fully been received in economic circles. I have a very good economic historian friend who said to me, That is not the book I would have wrote, when I finished it, because theres a lot of testimony, theres a lot of stories of enslaved people saying, Oh, Im not worth $500, Im worth $200, or, Im not 40 years old, Im 20 years old.

So, this is an economic product thats put in a market space that has the ability to argue, to emote, to reject, to resist, and that is a very, very different product. And one of the things that Ive found, its a human product, right?

And when I was doing the research for the book, I saw that the work that Ive used from a number of economic historians did not acknowledge at all the humanity of enslaved people, and I thought, even if youre not writing about them as human beings, but youre putting them in formulas and they now become a person named John, now becomes an X with an exponential power and theres a formula to figure out how much that particular woman is worth or that particular man is worth, it doesnt take much.

And I think youll have more historians engaging this work if you acknowledge that this was a family, and this person lived on this particular plantation, and they were worth this much, and this is what they felt about their documentation or how they responded to that particular moment of sale. And that was really what the book, the purpose of the book for me. But what I found later, and I think Dr. Darity mentioned this, was that the valuation of enslaved bodies went beyond preconception, but also to the postmortem space.

And that there was an illegal trade in cadavers of enslaved people and whites and free Blacks, but I was mostly interested in the enslaved cadavers their bodies were sold to medical schools, and so they still made money off of their bodies after they had passed away. Some of them the values were much lower, anywhere from $5 to $30.

So, the market rate wasnt as much, theyre valued more when theyre living because theyre producing more, right? Theyre producing more and bringing more financial resources to the families that theyre enslaved by, but in the afterworld, Okay, Im going to dispose of this body. If I can make some money off of the disposal, Ill make $30, and thats it.

There were some cases where enslaved people were valued at the moment right before they were hanged, and then the surviving relatives of the plantar family or the enslavers would receive compensation for the valuation of that enslaved person. So, theres a lot of spaces where we talk about slavery and enslaved people, and we talk about them in monetary ways, but the humanity is often missing and theyre objectified theyre treated like a backpack or a book on a shelf.

And I just feel like if economists and historians can come together and have conversations about the deep meanings that you guys find when you create formulas, you can take us to places that we cant go, but we can also bring you to records that might inform what youre seeing and how you analyze this work and make it for a much deeper conversation.

So, I will leave it at that. I dont know if Ive done my five minutes, Im trying to stay on it. If I have a little more time, I could say a few more things. Im good? All right, thank you. Im looking forward to the conversation.

Sandy Darity: Thank you. Arjumand, youre on mute. Okay, youre off now.

Arjumand Siddiqi: Great. Thanks everyone. I feel like I should put out a disclaimer that says some of my best friends are economists before I start my talk. So, as Sandy mentioned, Im a social epidemiologist, and our discipline is really quite related to medicine and to the study of distributions of disease from a sort of clinical perspective.

And so, as social epidemiology kind of evolved, we were starting to find our empirical legs around how to use population surveys and different kinds of data than the clinical data our discipline tends to use, how to use different statistical methods.

And in the early 2000s when I was doing my Ph.D., I remember sort of looking enviously from Boston over to Cambridge at the economics department because it was considered so rigorous of all the disciplines related to our field.

And then, I had this moment of pretty big dissonance when in the mid 2000s, I encountered a paper by three economists whose main argument was that Black/white differences in hypertension could be attributed to genetic selection for genes associated with salt retention.

And the narrative was that this genetic selection occurred during this transatlantic slave because of the survival advantage conferred by salt retention, and that it occurred during cheap-looking tests for salty skin done by slave traders to further determine what Blacks would be able to the demands of plantation work.

And this economist team also suggested that this salt retention hypothesis was really the best way to explain the Black/white life-expectancy gap as well. Its been a lot of years, and I actually had trouble finding the paper online now, but I just remember thinking that the evolutionary geneticists just probably were passing out at the notion that genetic selection would occur at that pace.

Something that occurs over thousands of years was essentially being proposed to happen over one or 200. The human genome scientist who had carefully explained to us by then that race was not a genetic construct, there was no genetic basis for race, and just thinking to myself, Surely, there is a geneticist amongst the authors, or, Surely, some of the genetics work on race has been cited, and it hadnt, and it was just really difficult to understand how a hypothesis that had no premise could receive so much traction.

The paper also was a little bit alarming because it hadnt cited any of the work from social epidemiology on racial inequalities in hypertension. And Im not just sort of suggesting that my field is the field that should be cited, but we really are the central field on racial health inequalities. And there are people who have specialized their whole careers on racial disparities and hypertension, none of them were cited.

And if they had been, you might find a very different story about Black/white differences in hypertension and in life expectancy. So the body of literature in our field thats been built up is both based on what we know race is not, as well as what we know race is. And the idea is that weve built up sort of a conceptual and theoretical basis, but also a lot of empirical tests of the propositions that have been made.

And what the field has found is that racial inequalities in health manifest through processes of structural or institutional racism, as well as what is often called everyday discrimination. So Black people are systematically denied access to material resources and are subjected to chronically stressful experiences of daily life, and those things together put them at a higher risk of a wide range of illnesses and death.

So, social epidemiologists would and have told a very different story about Black/white inequalities and hypertension and life expectancy. Lately, my colleagues and I have been working on the noted rise in white mortality in the U.S., whats been called the deaths of despair phenomenon, the paper that Sandy mentioned earlier. There are a lot of teams working on this, including economists Anne Case and Angus Deaton, and youd better believe we take their work very seriously.

We have carefully looked at their hypotheses, we have carefully cited them and so on. And in some ways I think I live in fear of making facile arguments simply because Ive been both careless or dismissive of work from other disciplines. And Im increasingly of the mind that maybe this fear is a good way to approach scientific inquiry, and Im increasingly weary when I read work that sort of doesnt cite anyone else outside their own discipline, especially when its topics that are not central to their discipline and their expertise.

So, back to that deaths of despair work. So, in that piece we propose that status threat, group status threat, the sense from whites that they are losing relative status compared to Black and brown people is accounting for the rise in white mortality. And we use, in this paper, both theoretical and empirical findings from social psychology and from political science to suggest that at the population level we can actually measure, or proxy status threat by measuring the rise in the vote share going to Republicans in any given county.

So, our model essentially tested whether rise in Republican vote share at the county level as a proxy of status threat could predict the rise in white mortality accounting for about 17 social and economic indicators, fixed effects and so on that might also be involved in the processes. So, we received quite a bit of pushback on this paper in two ways, and the first was that it was just a bridge too far to equate Republican vote share with status threat.

And the other was that because of our statistical model again, 18 variables, county time, et cetera, fixed effects because the model did not account for unobserved confounding, that we couldnt interpret the association as being causal.

So, the fundamental problem I see with this argument is not that it suggests there might be an alternative explanation, I totally concur that there might be, but its the idea that an unknown alternative explanation that no one is proposing, its just the idea that there might be an alternative explanation is given equal weight to a model that tests basically everything we know about how the world works. And so, I worry a lot that this notion of unobserved confounding is actually overtaking or being weighted equally with the preponderance of evidence that we have, and Im not sure that thats a great way to go.

You also see it, as Sandy mentioned, in models where there are residuals and accounting for race-based differences and the implication given the preponderance of the evidence would be that these are discrimination effects. And yet, theres a reticence to think about that or at least to weight it equally with the idea that theres some unobserved confounding, theres this sort of unobserved confounding boogeyman out there that we think live by too closely.

A final anecdote about our field, and I think what it says about economics. So, I had a graduate student who wanted to work on racial differences in the distribution of birth weight. And in fact, she wanted to look at whether Canada and the U.S. have different inequalities in the distribution of birth weight. And the idea was that if we compare countries in their inequalities, we might start to point to some of the societal factors that are modifying inequalities, that are mitigating them or exacerbating them.

And I spoke to an economist colleague of mine, whos a lovely person, and he said, Im a little worried that were not going to get very far in terms of a causal association if we pursue this line of questioning, that youll really only be able to say associational things. Why dont we look at how prenatal care affects racial inequalities in birth weight? Which is a fine question, Im not disparaging the role of prenatal care. But imagine the difference in the size of the question and the focus of the question between something that talks about how societies produce, fundamentally produce, inequalities down to something that deals with a fairly circumscribed issue.

And so, my worry is that this chase after causal inference precludes us from looking at a lot of really important questions. Im not suggesting we go down the road of looking at those questions and imply causality when it isnt there, but I do think that we can pursue those questions and say something about what the causal inference issues are and how to push ourselves, but not to completely ignore what I think are really, really important questions for society. And Ill leave it there.

Sandy Darity: Thank you. Mario, please.

Mario Luis Small: Thank you very much. This has been very interesting so far. So, Ill tell you that the main reason that Im here is probably because a couple of months ago I published a paper along with Devah Pager and the Journal of Economic Perspectives titled Sociological Perspectives on Race Discrimination, and the point of the paper was to make a case for six ideas in our field, sociology, that economists havent, but probably should, take seriously. So, what Im going to do is give you three of these ideas and then after of course the last talk just open it up.

So, everybody here knows better than I do that traditionally economics, kind of two standard models are the taste discrimination and the statistical discrimination model when people study race discrimination, and I dont have to tell you what those models are. But one thing I will say is that from our perspective, there are a couple of quite important problems with those models.

And I guess you could sum them up with the idea that a model or a set of models that studies discrimination by focusing on the potentially racially motivated actions of an actor making decisions today, will probably understate a lot of the ways discrimination actually happens and has consequences for even the things that economists care about.

And this is the case for at least three reasons, the first Ill say is that it ignores the possibility of institutional discrimination. And Im going to use that term in a very narrow sense to refer to differential treatment by race that is either perpetrated by an organization or qualified into law.

And I am not using the term structural racism or institutional racism, or a lot of stuff that other sociologists have used and a lot of people in the media have used because theres sort of ambiguity in some of these uses of the terms, and they dont always mean what we were meaning, what were referring to, but just very narrow the idea that differential treatment by race can be perpetrated by the organizations recorded according to law.

And so, to give you a very simple example, sort of take an organization in which nobody, as Becker would say, nobody wants to pay a price to not associate with people of a different race, so nobody has a taste for discrimination. And in addition, nobody is willing to make statistical inferences about the behavior or likely performance of an employee on the basis of the employees group, so nobody statistically discriminates.

Now, lets assume that that firm, as many do, hires new employees on the basis of referrals, that they have an incentive system. For example, depending on the level at which youre hired, for entry-level employees, youll get a hundred if you refer somebody and they get hired. Now, lets assume we also know sociologists have shown that theres racial homophily.

I think in economics, this is called a sort of mating-by-race and friendship formation, but basically the idea that people tend to have friends of the same race. Now, if this firm is racially homogeneous, whats going to happen is all of the people who come in applying for jobs are going to be other people of the same race because of the pattern in the world, and we could see the strong incentives made for people to be hired on the basis of the people you already have.

In this model, no employer has to have a taste for discrimination or to discriminate, and yet a highly qualified person of a different race from outside the firm is going to have a very small chance of getting a job there. Thats a form of discrimination that we believe deserves attention.

The second point Ill make is that, again, the reason its a bad idea to just focus, or yeah, just a bad idea to only limit the story of discrimination to only the actions of our contemporary actor is that a lot of forms of historical discrimination, particularly forms that have been codified into law or become institutional parts of how organizations operate, continue to have effects today.

And therefore, even if today everybody stopped being discriminatory either by race or statistically or whatever the case may be, wed still have a lot of reason to study historic discrimination to understand the present. I wont go too much into this other than to say that a very clear example of this is redlining that many of you are familiar with. There have really been quite a few papers, including a couple by economists in recent years, showing that redlining practices back in the 30s can be shown to have likely had a causal impact on long-term homeownership rates among African Americans and segregation detectable even today.

And so, there have been papers that, for example, have looked at the boundary line for redlining and units on either side of it, theyve looked at federal policies that had cutoffs for the size of the town and looked at towns slightly older and slightly bigger and smaller than that through multiple indication strategies, such as quite a bit of evidence that it matters.

The last point Ill make is that, again, a different reason to not limit the study of the discrimination to sort of statistical and taste-based discrimination is that perception of discrimination matters, a lot. And what Ill say when Im saying this is that I am not saying that perception is an effective substitute for actual discrimination, and Im also not saying that we should not continue having a healthy skepticism for what people say over what they do, but what I am saying is that there are many contexts in which the perception that an employer or a doctor or take your pick, has or will or has had discriminated, this can affect your behavior in ways that matter for where you apply for jobs, how far you go in school and sort of what your health outcomes are, that we can not capture, again, by focusing on the employer or the banker as a prototypical racial or potentially racially motivated actor.

So, Ill just leave it at that. And Ill say, if youre interested in more of this, Ill refer you to the JEP Paper. But the bottom line is I appreciate, actually, I find quite interesting a lot of what economists have done in this. I think the issue is expanding beyond whats been done as opposed to remaining tied to these two very traditional ways of looking at discrimination. Thank you.

Eduardo Bonilla-Silva: Okay, its my turn. So, economists begin with this notion of the free market invisible hand, and we need to be clear that the hand has a color its a white hand, let me say white male hand. I will not address the gender components of the market, Ill leave that to others, so I will only talk about the racialized aspects of the market. Yeah?

And like Daina, I also will say that I was a major in sociology and economics, and that was the main thing I ended up choosing sociology, in part because of the foundation of economics is assumptions about the rational actor making decisions on a cost benefit basis in something called efficient market. And we all know that the homo sapiens theyre a complex animal shaped by multiple social forces and group divisions.

I do believe, I mean that my masters and my old magazine remains with me, so economic factors account for a lot of what happens in life, but cannot explain everything because the material component of life cannot be defined in these narrow economics way in which many of you sort of structure your analysis. So, the white homo economicus, for example, as we have learned, cares about access to parks, control of neighborhoods and schools, and their culture.

They are willing to fight tooth and nail to keep certain status in place. They like to feel good about themselves because Blacks, as Mara will argue a long time ago, have served as the symbolic index for whites, they can always say, At least I am not Black. And that element of feeling good about yourself is important in life. So, whites are so invested in whiteness that many are willing to die for it as Jonathan Metzl outlined in his recent book.

So, this is the stuff of history. Yeah? We have modernity, and modernity was not just driven by capitalism because in capitalism, as Eric Williams, Cedric Robinson and many others have argued, you cannot undo the connection between slavery, genocide, land theft and the economic model production.

In the case of the U.S., we had slavery, we had genocide, we had land theft, we had and we still have colonialism. As a Puerto Rican, I know that this person doesnt represent my interests, and two days ago we learned he was wondering about selling Puerto Rico. And of course, workers of color have allowed capitalism or capitalist to extract separate super profits from us.

So, that means that the society structure and culture were racialized on the get go, and I suggest not only produce systemic racism, but that system remains. So what is systemic racism? It used to be so easy: Its the bad guys. Its the new bad guys, its the rotten apple theory of life. This people having a taste for discrimination.

The trick is understanding that systemic racism ultimately cannot exist without the actions and inactions of the green apples, that is most whites participate consciously or unconsciously in the systemic racism stuff. And lately, literally two months ago, everybody seems to be talking about systemic racism, but I think most folks talking about it dont know what theyre talking about.

So, for example they say, Police departments have systemic racism, I mean, merely with the caveat, but most police officers are not racist, therefore reversing or reverting to the theory of life of the bad apples. In truth, the way that we select officers, the training, the culture, all these things shape the actions and beliefs of the officer.

So, even the good ones, and I put that in quotation marks, carry out race-based policing. And I wanted to give you a liminal example. So, this is a young African American college student who was brutalized in Atlanta recently by six police officers, and you can see only one of the officers was white.

So some of you may be thinking, But can Black people enforce white supremacy? And since slavery, many Blacks have been selected to participate in the enforcement of white supremacy. And although, historically, the main people in charge of enforcing boundaries happen to wear the white uniform, and not only white police officers, but regular white folks, in truth, thats the way that the system works.

And thankfully, because we humans, our subjectivity is shaped by multiple factors, there is always a space, a possibility for change. So, what we need is a historically specific view of racism that allows us to also understand that the systems share basic features. Whether theyre wearing Panama, Puerto Rico, Haiti, or the U.S., all the systems share basic features.

But we need to be specific about how racism is structured in a particular society. In a society, you can have regional variations, if you think about the U.S., the South, North, West, and we need to be also time specific. Dont assume that there is one racism throughout history racism can change.

The rules and regulations of the slavery regime were different than Jim Crow, and they are different from what we have today that Ive called in my work, the new racism. Secondly, the systemic racism forms a structure. Systemic, collective practice, behaviors and culture that reproduce disadvantage for some and advantages for others.

And here comes the hardest part, which is understanding that this system, as material foundation, it remains in place like capitalism, patriarchy, because systemic racism, because folks benefit from it. Again, I already showed or suggested that there are fractures in the white communities of possibilities for change, but we need to understand the big implication which is that racial domination depends on nice, good white people who participate in various ways and to different degrees in maintaining the racial order of things.

Borrowing the work from Marx and Poulantzas, the whites are personifications of systemic racism. So, they receive mostly in passive or neutral ways what David Roediger called the wages of whiteness. They follow the dominant racial script. So, contemporary whites, they live in white neighborhoods, they have only white friends, white schools, white ideas, white everything. Yeah? They even eat white bread. Thats a joke.

And lastly, they keep trucking along as if racism was a prerogative of the races. They input signs in their yard saying, We believe black lives matter, but we live in a totally segregated neighborhood. So, final out words. If racism is systemic, then as Mario was articulating, it cannot be just a taste or a matter of statistical discrimination. Its not an individual phenomenon, but a collective practice.

And I think that you also need to understand that the actors, and thats the reason why I moved from economics sociology because economics focus on the individual actor, sociology is more likely to see sort of collective behavior. So, actors belong to groups and experience life in group-structured condition. So, many of our explanation, for example, for the status of people of color, and Im doing what William Ryan called eons ago, blaming the victims, and by doing so they ignore the system. For example, they claim that Blacks dont do well in life because of their culture.

So, Oscar Lewis wrote one of his first books on Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans, La Vida, claiming that the reason why poor Puerto Ricans here in the world, actually why Puerto Ricans here in the world, he defines us, the population, was because we have the culture of poverty.

And that argument, the culture of poverty, is like Freddy Krueger. You think you have killed the culture of poverty and it comes back with a new attire. Or the claim, Youre not doing well because of female-headed households, or, Its class, or as Daina was talking about, it is They have salt in their bodies.

And a lot of people were using that little graph as evidence because presumably it shows a slave master tasting a Black person to see if they are salty. Alternatively, and we dont know what this person had in mind, but weve got to think that person was a pervert. And theres a lot of work showing that slavery included the abuse, sexual and otherwise, of both women and men.

So, it is anything but racism. I think its time for us to take racism seriously analytically, politically and morally as many folks are doing right now in the mean streets, to cite Piti Thomas, of America. So, thats it for me.

Suresh Naidu: Thanks.

Sandy Darity: Suresh, its in your hands now.

Suresh Naidu: Yeah, so thanks to all of our panelists, that was really interesting. So, now wed like to take questions from everyone. So, if you want to raise your hand, and I will do my best to keep up, we dont have the questions function here so its going to be a bit of a So Im clear I wont see everyone, but if you want to use the raise hand function in the tab and I can take questions and call on you. Peter.

Peter: Yeah. I just want to say thank you all so much for these really excellent presentations. And Mario, my students and I read your paper, and I think that we as economists certainly have to broaden our perspective. My own view is that we tend to rely a lot on models, and so the call to action really is to think about new models of discrimination as a way of trying to instantiate some of these ideas into the profession.

And then the second piece, too, is whenever we write models, they need to be historically accurate, right? Like for some reason, its like we write models with really terrible assumptions that have no basis in history, for example, that discrimination happens on the margin, when in fact you had signs saying No Blacks, regardless of your socioeconomic status.

So, thank you all for organizing this panel, thank you for your work. I look forward to continuing to read and to engage with your work, and I certainly hope that the ideas here really permeate our profession in a foundational way.

Suresh Naidu: Great. Okay. Does anyone want to respond, or I can keep taking questions? Felix.

Felix: Hey, everybody. Thank you everybody who is participating for your thoughtful words and for organizing. I guess I wanted to ask a little bit Im a Ph.D. student who does research on race and my training is in economics, my degree is in public policy. I have, as I think some people have mentioned, Ive faced pushback, right?

I think when you think about who is in economics, Ive had the experience of people being in that room who think differently about these things and dont sort of take the standard economic view as given and are looking at these other disciplines, thinking about those things.

Those things are not received well, right, which is I think why you dont see them published or sort of like being sort of the output that you see off the field, and some things that are on their face ridiculous, end up being received better because of sort of power.

I guess my question is, number one, is economics just weird or particularly, say Im white and its power structure or some other thing that makes us very susceptible to things, are these kinds of things in ways that you guys might not be in the disciplines that you sit in or do you guys have strategies that have allowed you to do this kind of courageous work that challenges power in important ways and still sort of make it out on the other side?

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Berkeley Talks transcript: Why racial equity belongs in the study of economics - UC Berkeley

Women answer town government’s call to serve in Shutesbury – The Recorder

Editors Note: This story was written prior to Shutesburys annual town election on June 27. During the election, Rita Farrell beat out Jeffrey Lacy for the seat on the Selectboard vacated by Elaine Puleo, who is interviewed here. With Farrells election, Shutesbury has maintained its status as the only town in Franklin County to have an all-female Selectboard. Additionally, Town Clerk Susie Mosher has since been replaced by newly elected Grace Bannasch.

Certainly, 44-year-old Melissa Makepeace-ONeils blonde hair and brown eyes are hereditary, but she has another trait that she believes is influenced by genetics: an eagerness to volunteer and serve her town.

Both Makepeace-ONeils mother and grandmother served on the Shutesbury Council on Aging, a role shed later fill herself, continuing the three-generation chain. Her grandmother also worked in the cafeteria at the town elementary school, and her grandfather was police chief.

Elaine Puleo, 68 (who was replaced by Rita Farrell in this years election), and Janet April Stein, 67, share similar backgrounds in which volunteerism has seemed as natural as breathing. Thats what brought the three women together to serve Shutesbury as Franklin Countys only all-female Selectboard.

Women are no strangers to Franklin County Selectboards. In fact, their involvement in the role dates back to 1932, when Monroe voters became the first in the county to elect a woman, Inga Koksvik, to their towns Board of Selectmen.

As of the end of May, of Franklin Countys 24 municipalities with a three-member Selectboard (not including the city of Greenfield, which is run by its City Council and mayor, and Orange, which has a five-member Selectboard), nine of them had one female member on their Selectboard and three had two. However, 11 boards still consisted entirely of men. These figures may change following the ongoing local elections.

The increase of women in government has led many towns to officially change their governing bodys name from Board of Selectmen to the more gender neutral Selectboard in recent years.

Still, only one town has an entirely female Selectboard, which also happens to be supported by a female town administrator, Rebecca Torres, and a female administrative secretary, Linda Avis Scott. Puleo, who decided not to seek re-election on June 27 after eight years on the board, believes this is just the beginning of a trend.

More and more women are stepping up and running things locally, said Puleo, who considered it a natural progression to run for Selectboard after serving on the Finance Committee and School Committee. I hope thatll trickle up.

We need more women involved in running government, said Stein, a self-proclaimed feminist since the age of 10. It will happen. It is happening.

The movement can also be demonstrated at the state level, with Makepeace-ONeil, Puleo and Stein pointing to the election of Rep. Natalie Blais to the 1st Franklin District seat in 2018, replacing Rep. Steve Kulik. Likewise, the same year, Sen. Jo Comerford was elected to replace Sen. Stan Rosenberg in the Hampshire/Franklin/Worcester District.

On the local level, Shutesbury has become the right place to test out an all-female governance model, Makepeace-ONeil believes, because of its highly educated population of roughly 1,800 residents who seek to be involved in the towns inner workings. Puleo believes the large number of women involved in government may relate to Town Hall and the Shutesbury Elementary School being the only gathering places in town outside of the Shutesbury Athletic Club.

If youre going to be connected in this town, you dont go to Starbucks, Puleo said.

Prior to Farrells recent election, the Shutesbury Selectboard had consisted of Makepeace-ONeil, Puleo and Stein for the past two years. For some, joining the Selectboard was a very deliberate decision.

For me, the idea of being on an all-women Selectboard was the driving factor, Stein said, recounting how she had previously served on the Personnel Board and Finance Committee.

Like Makepeace-ONeil, volunteerism seems to be in Steins blood, with her father having served on the Hingham Advisory Committee and school committee, and her mother leading a Girl Scout Troop and lending a hand at the library. Additionally, both of Steins grandmothers were suffragettes, with her maternal grandmother also being the first woman to teach while pregnant in the state of New Hampshire.

It was rather serendipitous that Stein first got involved in government by joining the Finance Committee in the 1990s, after then-Finance Committee member Jonathan Klate called Steins house to see if her husband might be interested in joining. When Stein answered the phone instead, Klate unexpectedly found his newest member.

In a similar thread, Makepeace-ONeil hadnt necessarily bargained on joining the Selectboard back in 2016. But, given her familys lengthy history in town, she had name recognition going for her when a friend asked if she could vote for Makepeace-ONeil as a write-in candidate during a time when no one was running for a vacant Selectboard seat.

I said, If you can spell my name right, you can write me in, recalled Makepeace-ONeil, who had served on the Council on Aging and Memorial Day Committee. With 56 write-in votes, she earned the vacant seat.

When considering why an all-female board has fallen into place now, Stein believes that perhaps the wheels were set in motion after Torres was hired for town administrator 10 years ago, acting as a sort of magnet to other women considering running for office.

Maybe weve been mentoring each other or women-toring each other, she said.

These two hold us together, Puleo said of Torres and Avis Scott. We could not do this job with as much fun and as much camaraderie without them.

The camaraderie between the five women running Shutesburys Selectboard meetings was tangible during a joint meeting with the Finance Committee and Personnel Board earlier this year. The 12 officials sat in a circle rather than in rows, and when the meeting ended, they chatted about potholes on the drive ahead of them and what theyd focus on in retirement. An abundant supply of bite-sized brownies and carrot sticks peppered the meeting tables.

The snacks are strategic, the five women explained, as they grew accustomed to arriving to meetings directly from their jobs without stopping home for dinner. Finding a way to balance their time between work, caring for their families and serving the town is something the Selectboard members believe inhibits other women from getting involved in town government.

But in the past three years, thats where the Women of Positive Presence come in. Puleo explained the ad-hoc group of Shutesbury residents delivers a hot meal to the three mothers who serve on the School Committee on nights when they have meetings, ensuring that they dont have to worry about feeding their families as well as serving their community.

It helps keep the juggling down and lets them know their volunteerism is appreciated, Puleo said. Its stressful for moms to do it all.

The Women of Positive Presence has also played a key role in ensuring that women feel comfortable in local government, explained Susie Mosher (town clerk prior to the election of Grace Bannasch), who originally connected the group of over 20 women. Their goal was to increase the number of women involved in town government and to disseminate information about available seats, while also providing community support during meetings by filling the audience.

Attending meetings was really our very first effort, Mosher explained. Having an audience of residents creates a positive presence.

In the beginning, the group would use a calendar to ensure participants could attend each of the towns board meetings, but now its efforts focus more on recruiting. Additionally, Mosher, who was largely responsible for the Selectboards snacks, said even residents who dont want to attend meetings can get involved by providing food.

Being on an all-female board, Puleo said, changes the dynamic between members in a way that she believes is often for the better.

In the past, when weve had mixed gender boards, we used to have some contentious meetings, she recalled. Its kind of petered out since weve had all women in the room.

The board members certainly face similar issues, Puleo said, but their interactions dont feel as charged when they disagree. The key, she believes, lies in listening.

Women tend to listen longer to issues on all sides. I have found that in all of our interactions, when you give a problem to a man, they want to fix it immediately, she said. We tend to mull. We dont tend to solve problems quickly.

While quick action may seem beneficial, Puleo and Makepeace-ONeil believe taking the time to look at a problem from all sides works better.

Men are very solution-focused, Makepeace-ONeil agreed. Maybe thats where the two balance out well.

Another benefit of their relationship, the women agree, is simply acknowledging that they will not always share the same opinion.

We dont always agree, but theres a level of mutual respect thats really strong, Stein said. Were able to listen to each other and not be rigid.

When differences do arise, Makepeace-ONeil said the three women are able to put them aside to come to decisions that are best for the town.

When we walk into this room, were not wearing a liberal or conservative hat, or a Democratic or Republican hat, Puleo said. Were wearing a Shutesbury hat.

Reach Shelby Ashline at 413-772-0261, ext. 270 or

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Women answer town government's call to serve in Shutesbury - The Recorder