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Archive for the ‘Skin Stem Cells’ Category

What are Stem Cells?

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What are Stem Cells?

Stem Cell Basics I. | stemcells.nih.gov

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.

Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic “somatic” or “adult” stem cells. The functions and characteristics of these cells will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures. When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be “reprogrammed” genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), will be discussed in a later section of this document.

Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all of the many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lungs, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease.

Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potentials for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, much work remains to be done in the laboratory and the clinic to understand how to use these cells for cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is also referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.

Laboratory studies of stem cells enable scientists to learn about the cells essential properties and what makes them different from specialized cell types. Scientists are already using stem cells in the laboratory to screen new drugs and to develop model systems to study normal growth and identify the causes of birth defects.

Research on stem cells continues to advance knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell research is one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but, as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries.

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Stem Cell Basics I. | stemcells.nih.gov

China-based Grand Fan Group acquires leading French skincare brand – Markets Insider

GUANGZHOU, China, Sept. 5, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — Chinese Grand Fan Group formally signed the agreement to acquire the French CICABEL brand on September 4th. Grand Fan Group is openly optimistic about CICABEL’s technology and development prospects, while the investment into the French brand represents the first step in the execution of the strategy behind the group’s entry into the skin care market. The signing ceremony took place in France.

Santinov is a 130-year-old French traditional pharmaceutical manufacturer founded in 1887. Santinov created and launched the CICABEL Mask, a three-step revitalizing and hydration face mask set using stem cells as the principal component, following years of research and development on the back of strong technological competence. At variance with traditional skin care products, the set is expected to become a disruptor and transform the public’s expectations from the beauty industry.

A Grand Fan Group executive said “By adopting the management and operations model commonly deployed by international brands, we put in place partnerships with several leading international beauty and health brands based on our own brand, achieving a diversified brand scenario as well as access to advanced technology R&D. These moves will serve to offer more and better choices to consumers.”

With the enhancement of the general public’s awareness of skin care, traditional skin care products no longer meet the basic expectations and needs of consumers. Brands with an ill-defined image or a hodge-podge of seemingly unrelated products, uneven quality, inadequate supervision and other issues have led the industry to be subject to a high level of criticism. To add insult to injury, most traditional skin care products actually do little for the skin. In line with accepted biotechnology and medical standards, the CICABEL Mask is expected to reverse the perception.

Through the activation of skin stem cells, the mask provides nutrition that penetrates deep into the dermis and promotes the regeneration of new cells, delivering an in-depthreplenishment effect. Put in another way, CICABEL uses the body’s own multifunctional cells to achieve a new level of skin beauty. The CICABEL Mask from France is expectedto become the “Terminator” of traditional masks available in the market.

CICABEL will formally go on sale in China soon, with plans for roll outs in several global markets shortly thereafter.

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China-based Grand Fan Group acquires leading French skincare brand – Markets Insider

What is microneedling and why is the skin treatment so popular? – Miami Herald

Microneedling has quickly become one of the most popular skin rejuvenation treatments. If youre considering trying it, here is what you need to know.

Microneedling, also called collagen-induction therapy, uses small needles that pierce the outermost layer of skin to create tiny microchannels. These microchannels help stimulate the production of collagen and elastin within the skin. They also promote new capillaries.

This can lead to an improved skin texture, reduction of acne or other scarring and help with discoloration, such as brown spots caused by sun damage. Microneedling may be combined with platelet-rich plasma, stem cells, or pure hyaluronic acid to enhance results further.

Microneedling can also be used on the scalp to help stimulate hair rejuvenation.

Prior to your first microneedling session, you will be asked to avoid sun exposure for at least 24 hours. Some doctors will tell you to avoid blood-thinning medications and herbal supplements like aspirin, ibuprofen and St. Johns wort to reduce bruising.

Each microneedling session takes about 20 to 30 minutes. First, your face will be cleansed and a numbing cream will be applied. Multiple treatment sessions, spaced a few weeks apart, are recommended. Most doctors recommend three to six treatments but many will notice an improvement in the tone and texture of their skin after just one treatment.

Immediately after your microneedling session, you will likely notice some redness that can last for several days. In my practice, we recommend that patients do not touch their face for at least four hours after treatment and do not apply anything to the face for 24 hours. It is crucial to avoid sun exposure for three days after the procedure.

You should avoid strenuous activity and exercise for the first 12 hours after treatment to prevent redness and bruising. For the first three days after treatment, you should use a gentle non-foaming cleanser, a barrier repair moisturizer, and a physical SPF. If swelling or bruising are a concern, you can take arnica supplements both before and after treatment to help minimize these side effects.

Once any redness or swelling diminishes, you should notice an immediate improvement in the way your skin looks and feels. Over the next several weeks, your skins appearance should continue to improve.

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What is microneedling and why is the skin treatment so popular? – Miami Herald

This New, Cutting-Edge Treatment Could Be the End of Baldness – Reader’s Digest

docent/ShutterstockWhether or not theres a scientific benefit to being baldwell let the follically challenged among us be the judge of thatscientists continue to search for a balding cure. According to UCLA researchers, that isnt completely out of the question. A team, led by Heather Christofk, PhD, and William Lowry, PhD, found a new way to activate the stem cells in the hair follicle to make hair grow. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Cell Biology, may lead to new drugs to promote hair growth or work as a cure for baldness or alopecia (hair loss linked to factors like hormonal imbalance, stress, aging or chemotherapy).

Working at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, the researchers discovered that the metabolism of the stem cells embedded in hair follicles is different from the metabolism of other cells of the skin. When they altered that metabolic pathway in mice, they discovered they could either stop hair growth, or make hair grow rapidly. They did this by first blocking, then increasing, the production of a metabolitelactategenetically.

Before this, no one knew that increasing or decreasing the lactate would have an effect on hair follicle stem cells, says Dr. Lowry, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology, as reported on ScienceDaily. Once we saw how altering lactate production in the mice influenced hair growth, it led us to look for potential drugs that could be applied to the skin and have the same effect.

Two drugs in particularknown by the generic designations of RCGD423 and UK5099influenced hair follicle stem cells in distinct ways to promote lactate production. The use of both drugs to promote hair growth are covered by provisional patent applications. However, they are experimental drugs and have been used in preclinical tests only. They wont be ready for prime time until theyve been tested in humans and approved by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective. (While youre waiting for a male pattern baldness cure, check out these natural remedies for hair loss.)

So while it may be some time before these drugs are availableif everto treat baldless or alopecia, researchers are optimistic about the future. Through this study, we gained a lot of interesting insight into new ways to activate stem cells, says Aimee Flores, a predoctoral trainee in Lowrys lab and first author of the study. The idea of using drugs to stimulate hair growth through hair follicle stem cells is very promising given how many millions of people, both men and women, deal with hair loss. I think weve only just begun to understand the critical role metabolism plays in hair growth and stem cells in general; Im looking forward to the potential application of these new findings for hair loss and beyond.

This 7-year-old girl living with alopecia will inspire you.

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This New, Cutting-Edge Treatment Could Be the End of Baldness – Reader’s Digest

Human blood and skin cells used to treat Parkinson’s in monkeys – New Scientist

Parkinsons stem cell breakthrough

Miodrag Stojkovic/Science Photo Library

By Helen Thomson

MONKEYS with a Parkinsons-like disease have been successfully treated with stem cells that improved their movement for up to two years after transplant. A similar trial is now being prepared for people.

Parkinsons destroys dopamine-producing cells in the brain, leading to tremors and difficulty moving. Previous experiments using stem cells from embryos have shown promise in replacing lost cells, but the use of these is controversial.

Jun Takahashi at Kyoto University, Japan, and colleagues wondered whether they could treat monkeys with a disease like Parkinsons using induced pluripotent stem cells, which are made by coaxing blood or skin cells into becoming stem cells.

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The team generated stem cells from three people with Parkinsons and four without the disease. They then transformed these into dopamine-producing brain cells.

All the monkeys who received injections of these cells showed a 40 to 55 per cent improvement in their movements, matching results from previous experiments with embryonic stem cells. Monkeys who had a control injection minus the cells didnt improve (Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature23664).

Stem cells from people with and without Parkinsons were equally effective. The monkeys became more active and showed less tremor, says Takahashi. Their movements became smoother.

After the transplant, the monkeys were given immunosuppressive drugs to prevent the new cells from being rejected and observed for up to two years. No serious side effects appeared during this time.

This study shows that the stem cells behave as you would like them to and they appear safe, says Roger Barker of the University of Cambridge. All of which gives one greater confidence in moving to human studies.

This article appeared in print under the headline Parkinsons stem cell breakthrough

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Human blood and skin cells used to treat Parkinson’s in monkeys – New Scientist

Study shows human stem cells restore mobility in Parkinson’s monkeys – Borneo Bulletin Online

| Marlowe Hood |

PARIS (AFP) Lab monkeys with Parkinsons symptoms regained significant mobility after neurons made from human stem cells were inserted into their brains, researchers reported Wednesday in a study hailed as groundbreaking.

The promising results were presented as the last step before human clinical trials, perhaps as early as next year, the studys senior author, Jun Takahashi, a professor at Kyoto University, told AFP.

Parkinsons is a degenerative disease that erodes motor functions. Typical symptoms include shaking, rigidity and difficulty walking. In advanced stages, depression, anxiety and dementia are also common.

Worldwide, about 10 million people are afflicted with the disease, according to the Parkinsons Disease Foundation.

Earlier experiments had shown improvements in patients treated with stem cells taken from human foetal tissue and likewise coaxed into the dopamine-producing brain cells that are attacked by Parkinsons.

Dopamine is a naturally occurring chemical that plays several key roles in the brain and body.

But the use of foetal tissue is fraught with practical and ethical problems.

So Takahashi and his colleagues, in a medical first, substituted so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can be easily made from human skin or blood. Within a year, some monkeys who had could barely stand up gradually recovered mobility.

They became more active, moving more rapidly and more smoothly, Takahashi said by email. Animals that had taken to just sitting start walking around in the cage.

These findings are strong evidence that human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons can be clinically applicable to treat Parkinsons patients, he said.

Experts not involved in the research described the results as encouraging.

The treatment, if proven viable, has the potential to reverse Parkinsons by replacing the dopamine cells that have been lost a groundbreaking feat, said David Dexter, deputy research director at Parkinsons UK.

Not only did the new cells survive but they also integrated with the existing neuronal network, he said.

Neurons made from foetal tissue grafted into brains have been known to survive for more than a decade, and the researchers said they expected those derived from iPSCs to last just as long.

Tilo Kunath, Parkinsons Senior Research Fellow at the University of Edinburgh, said the outcome was extremely promising, and highlighted the advantage of avoiding stem cells extracted from human foetal tissue.

It means that this therapy can be used in any country worldwide, including Ireland and most of South America, where medical use of human embryonic stem cells is banned.

The results, reported in the journal Nature, were not the same for the dozen monkeys in the experiment, each of which received donor neurons from a different person.

Some were made with cells from healthy donors, while others were made from Parkinsons disease patients, said lead author Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, also from Kyoto University.

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Study shows human stem cells restore mobility in Parkinson’s monkeys – Borneo Bulletin Online

Is the 1k facial that helps you retain your summer glow worth it? – Telegraph.co.uk

Evans applies a creamy layer of plant stem cells followed by an ultra-sound treatment, which pushes the nutrients into the skin 4,000 times deeper than they would reach by hand. Then the gloopy soothing mask which contains vitamins and minerals in an alginate base. It covers the eyes, nose and mouth before setting into rubbery contours for 20 minutes; Im feeling like the jelly inside a mould, setting for a party.

Just to ramp up the sci-fi element, Evans attaches galvanic currents at the top which make my forehead tingle and improve blood flow. It might feel a bit lonely behind the mask, but Evans is massaging my neck and shoulders, and Sandra Felicio, one of her colleagues, is suddenly at my feet, providing a reflexology treatment.

Once the mask is peeled off, theres still time for a facial massage with a copper wand for stress reduction and gentle face lifting, and an Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) PL laser treatment which stimulates collagen, evens out skin tone, and gets to work on pigmentation spots caused by sun damage. After 150 minutes of dedicated work, I now know how my car feels in the MOT garage.

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Is the 1k facial that helps you retain your summer glow worth it? – Telegraph.co.uk

Human Stem Cells Fight Parkinson’s Disease in Monkeys – Scientific American

LONDON (Reuters)Scientists have successfully used reprogrammed stem cells to restore functioning brain cells in monkeys, raising hopes the technique could be used in future to help patients with Parkinsons disease.

Since Parkinsons is caused by a lack of dopamine made by brain cells, researchers have long hoped to use stem cells to restore normal production of the neurotransmitter chemical.

Now, for the first time, Japanese researchers have shown that human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) can be administered safely and effectively to treat primates with symptoms of the debilitating disease.

So-called iPS cells are made by removing mature cells from an individualoften from the skinand reprogramming them to behave like embryonic stem cells. They can then be coaxed into dopamine-producing brain cells.

The scientists from Kyoto University, a world-leader in iPS technology, said their experiment indicated that this approach could potentially be used for the clinical treatment of human patients with Parkinsons.

In addition to boosting dopamine production, the tests showed improved movement in affected monkeys and no tumors in their brains for at least two years.

The human iPS cells used in the experiment worked whether they came from healthy individuals or Parkinsons disease patients, the Japanese team reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday.

This is extremely promising research demonstrating that a safe and highly effective cell therapy for Parkinsons can be produced in the lab, said Tilo Kunath of the MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, who was not involved in the research.

The next step will be to test the treatment in a first-in-human clinical trial, which Jun Takahashi of Kyoto University told Reuters he hoped to start by the end of 2018.

Any widespread use of the new therapy is still many years away, but the research has significantly reduced previous uncertainties about iPS-derived cell grafts.

The fact that this research uses iPS cells rather human embryonic stem cells means the treatment would be acceptable in countries such as Ireland and much of Latin America, where embryonic cells are banned.

Excitement about the promise of stem cells has led to hundreds of medical centers springing up around the world claiming to be able to repair damaged tissue in conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons.

While some treatments for cancer and skin grafts have been approved by regulators, many other potential therapies are only in early-stage development, prompting a warning last month by health experts about the dangers of stem-cell tourism.

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Human Stem Cells Fight Parkinson’s Disease in Monkeys – Scientific American

Chinese hair and personal care distributor acquires Cicabel – CosmeticsDesign-Asia.com

Grand Fan Group, a supplier of hair, body wash and care brands, has bought the Cicabel brand from French pharmaceutical producer, Santinov.

The deal

The Chinese distributor held a press conference and officially announced the acquisition on 27th August 2017.

Grand Fan Group acquired both the Cicabel brand and all of the medical products maker’stechnologies. To kickstart its position within the Chinese marketplace, Grand Fan Group will also introduce its first peptide-based Cicabel face mask to consumers in September 2017.

This arrangement is the Chinese distributors first move into the skin care sector and is part of its wider strategic plan to improve its brands for Chinas make up and skin care industries, along with advancing its three existing hair and personal care names.

Stem cell R&D

French medical products manufacturer, Santinov, first brought its Cicabel name to the beauty-loving market 130 years ago with its facial masks. The label conducted extensive research and development and used stem cells to create skin care masks.

In today’s market, biotechnology is having a considerable influence over cosmetic product launches. As a result, medical standards are a core component of facial mask production as Cicabel is using biomedical technologies to launch new innovations.

Medical skin care move

In recent years, consumers have sought high-tech skin care therapies with high-achieving performance. To combine both medical and beauty developments, Cicabelssoon-to-be-launched mask concentrates on skin care and rejuvenation using advanced technologies.

The brands facial mask contains purified ingredients that provide energy to the skin stem cells. These selected elements also protect and activate the cells and promote the proliferation of skin epidermal cells and the anagenesis of skin fibrosis, the company stated in a recent press release.

As facial rejuvenation becomes a key interest in skin care, the brand hopes that its proprietary technologies can propel it into high-tech medical skin care.

Made for high-end consumption

As Chinese consumers favour luxury products, the brands first release following the acquisition aims to reach premium product status.

With our strong confidence in high-tech approaches when it comes to improving one’s appearance, we decided to take over Cicabel, an executive at Grand Fan Group stated.

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Chinese hair and personal care distributor acquires Cicabel – CosmeticsDesign-Asia.com

FDA steps up scrutiny of stem cell therapies – Reuters

(Reuters) – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is stepping up efforts to better regulate an emerging field of medicine that holds significant promise for curing some of the most troubling diseases by using the body’s own cells.

A small number of “unscrupulous actors” have seized on the promise of regenerative medicine and stem cell therapies to mislead patients based on unproven, and in some cases, dangerously dubious products, the FDA said on Monday. (bit.ly/2iB4Xls)

Regenerative medicine makes use of human cells or tissues that are engineered or taken from donors. Health regulators have approved some types of stem cell transplants that mainly use blood and skin stem cells after clinical trials found they could treat certain types of cancer and grow skin grafts for burn victims.

But many potential therapies are still in the earliest stages of development. These therapies are sometimes advertised with the promise of a cure, but they often have scant evidence backing their efficacy or safety.

The FDA said it had taken steps to tackle the problem of some “troubling products” being marketed in Florida and California.

Federal officials on Friday seized from San Diego-based StemImmune Inc vials containing hundreds of doses of a vaccine reserved only for people at high risk for smallpox, the FDA said. (bit.ly/2wC1DMU)

The seizure followed recent FDA inspections that confirmed the vaccine was used to create an unapproved stem cell product, which was then given to cancer patients, the agency added.

The FDA also sent a warning letter to a Sunrise, Florida-based clinic for marketing stem cell products without regulatory approval and for major deviations from current good manufacturing practices. (bit.ly/2giGlx9)

The health regulator will present a new policy framework this fall that will more clearly detail the “rules of the road” for regenerative medicine, FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, a cancer survivor, said in a statement.

Reporting by Natalie Grover in Bengaluru; Additional reporting by Tamara Mathias; Editing by Sai Sachin Ravikumar

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FDA steps up scrutiny of stem cell therapies – Reuters

Three Medical Spa Procedures to Reverse Your Summer Skin Damage – LaSalle News Tribune

Soon we will be closing the pool, putting away the patio furniture, and getting jackets out of the closet. As summer comes to an end, our skin is usually in need of some tender loving care and it is a good time to think about repairing your summer skin damage.

Nicole Norris MD Medical Spa, in Peru, Illinois, provides medical-grade professional cosmetic treatments for the skin. We asked them to give their opinion on the top 3 procedures they do to reverse sun damage. Dr. NicoleNorris says Microneedling, Laser Photofacial and Chemical peels are by far the most effective ways to reverse damage from thermal energy safely and effectively.

We all know that UVA and UVB radiation from the sun is stronger in the summer, although it affects our skin all year long. This radiation produces free radicals in our skin and slows our skins ability to repair itself. When damage persists and the skin cannot keep up with the repair backlog, wrinkles, poor texture and skin laxity are formed. Microneedling, also referred to as collagen induction therapy, utilizes a device with multiple small needles which penetrate the skin, stimulating the skin to repair itself. Through these new open channels in the skin, products can also be introduced into the dermis without any barrier. Dr. Norris comments, At our office, we like to put hyaluronic acid, a building block of collagen, into the skin while the microneedling channels are still open. We are also seeing great results with a new product on the market that stimulates brand new skin stem cells. When we are born, a certain number of skin stem cells are activated that we use our whole lives to repair injured skin. These old stem cells get tired out, so activating new ones is really at the forefront of skin rejuvenation . Microneedling is done with topical numbing medicine making it very tolerable. There is some initial redness after the procedure but special make-up can be applied, if necessary, to cover it. Results are gradually seen over time as it takes our bodies about 3 to 6 months to make new collagen. The degree of skin damage determines how many treatments are needed.

When it heats up outside, we are not only exposed to UVA and UVB radiation that directly contributes to older looking skin, but also to heat. Heat stimulates our pigment cells which produce pigment or melanin. These pigment deposits create our tan, but also freckles, and worse yet, age spots. A laser treatment called Photofacial or Intense Pulse Light (IPL) is the most effective way to destroy pigment that has accumulated in the skin. The treatment is quick and feels like a few warm rubber band snaps. There is no downtime. In 7-14 days, you begin to see the pigment slough off. Depending how deep the pigment is deposited, determines how many IPL treatments you will need.

Medical-grade chemical peels are performed to treat unwanted pigment deposits in the skin as well as lines, skin texture and skin laxity. A combination of acids are applied to the skin for a brief period of time in multiple layers. The acids stimulate the skin to repair itself. A medium to deep chemical peel stimulates skin cell turnover which is important in treating aging skin. When we are 20 years old, our skin cell turnover to repair damaged skin is 10 days. Every 10 years, the time it takes to produce new skin goes up by 10 days. This is the physiologic reason that we gradually look older. Chemical peels decrease our time for new skin production resulting in reversal of facial aging states Tamara Smith, RN at Nicole Norris MD Medical Spa. Chemical peels are usually done in a series and are customized to each patient. If done correctly, chemical peels are not painful and you may experience a few days of mild flaking after the procedure.

I think many patients are fearful of these medical-grade skin rejuvenation procedures because of what they see on reality television and what they read on the internet. I encourage anyone interested in improving their appearance, repairing their summer sun damage, or deciding to not age gracefully to try these procedures under the supervision of a qualified physician, advises Dr. Norris. At Nicole Norris MD Medical Spa, they are offering a Flight of Medical Spa Procedures Package. This is a great way to rejuvenate your summer skin while sampling some new procedures. The flight includes 1 Microneedling procedure, 1 IPL Photofacial, and 1 Chemical Peel and is being offered for $300 off through September 30, 2017. Call 815-780-8264 for your appointment today. Mention Medical Spa Flight when you call. Procedures are typically done 3-4 weeks apart.

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Three Medical Spa Procedures to Reverse Your Summer Skin Damage – LaSalle News Tribune

French CICABEL Mask Launched, Changing Traditional Mask Products – Markets Insider

– Meeting medical and beauty standards, the mask focuses on skincare and rejuvenation with advanced technologies

GUANGZHOU, China, Aug. 23, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — French traditional medicine manufacturer Santinov has developed and launched its CICABEL mask using stem cells as the main material, through its strong technological power and years of research. The mask focuses on daily skincare based on advanced technologies, and meets medical standards, aiming to become a premium beauty product.

Based on 130 years of French brand heritage

In 1887, the great-grandfather of M.D. Jean-Pierre, the owner of the CICABEL brand, founded medical institutions and laboratories for skin wound healing. In 2007, M.D. Jean-Pierre founded a laboratory specializing in the research on facial skin based on more than 130 years of experience in skin rejuvenation and wound healing, and officially created the CICABEL brand. The CICABEL mask is the first mask product under the brand, and is one of the few beauty products on the market that feature bio-medical technologies.

Bold breakthrough, aiming to create revolutionary skin aesthetics

In terms of ingredients, the CICABEL mask selects purified elements that can provide energy for skin stem cells, to protect and activate the cells and promote the proliferation of skin epidermal cells and the anagenesis of skin fibrosis. This improves facial skin’s self-healing and rejuvenation speed, achieving the goal of deep skincare.

Future mask innovator goes global

Facial rejuvenation is becoming the main theme of skincare, which provides a huge development space for CICABEL’s proprietary technologies and drives the brand to go global. The brand is expected to set off an upsurge in the high-tech medical skincare sector.

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French CICABEL Mask Launched, Changing Traditional Mask Products – Markets Insider

Eti Elison, Skin Care Expert, Talks About Stem Cell Therapy in New Interview with Business Innovators Magazine – Digital Journal

During a recent with interview with Business Innovators, Skin Care Expert Eti Elison of Skin By Eti Elison discussed advancements in stem cell technology for skin care and how she helps her clients improve their skin with the technology.

Eti Elison, Skin Care Expert, was recently interviewed by Business Innovators Magazine about how she helps her clients improve the look of their skin using stem cell therapy.

Eti has mastered the art of healthy, vibrant, glowing skin. As a licensed skin therapist in three different countries: Israel, Switzerland and USA, she has been immersed in the skin care industry for over 25 years. She provides cutting edge treatments, the result of many years of experience in clinical skincare. Her facials are meticulously customized to each patients individual needs.

During the interview Elison stated, When it comes to skin care there are many products on the market that mention stem cells in their labeling, but in most cases, those stem cells function as antioxidants, growth factors or peptides. But they are not actually effecting the stem cells that are in the skin.

When asked about how she uses stem cell technology Elison Stated: in my skin care procedures I use a product called Tensage Stem Cell Cream formulated with Cellpro technology. It is the only product that I know of that increases the skins ability to turn stem cells into new skin cells.

Eti Elison is based in Los Angeles, CA and can be contacted to for help for improving skin conditions or the appearance of aging.

To read the full interview, visithttp://businessinnovatorsmagazine.com/skin-care-expert-eti-elison-talks-about-new-stem-cell-technology-for-skin-care/

To learn more about Eti Elison please visit: https://www.skinbyetielison.com

Media ContactCompany Name: Skin By Eti ElisonContact Person: Eti ElisonEmail: etigelison@yahoo.comPhone: (310) 922-5110Country: United StatesWebsite: https://www.skinbyetielison.com/

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Eti Elison, Skin Care Expert, Talks About Stem Cell Therapy in New Interview with Business Innovators Magazine – Digital Journal

This Chip Uses Electricity to Reprogram Cells for Healing – Singularity Hub

It sounds like science fiction: with a light zap of electricity, a tiny stamp-like device transforms your skin cells into reservoirs of blood vessels or brain cells, ready to heal you from within.

Recently, a team of medical mavericks at the Ohio State University introduced a device that does just that. The technology, dubbed tissue nanotransfection (TNT), is set to blow up the field of organ regeneration.

When zapped with a light electrical jolt, the device shoots extra bits of DNA code from its nanotube arrays directly into tiny pores in the skin. There, the DNA triggers the cells to shed their identity and reprograms them into other cell types that can be harvested to repair damaged organs.

Remarkably, the effect spreads with time. The rebooted cells release tiny membrane bubbles onto their neighboring skin cells, coaxing them to undergo transformation. Like zombies, but for good.

So far, the device has already been used to generate neurons to protect the brains of mice with experimental stroke. The team also successfully healed the legs of injured mice by turning the skin cells on their hind limbs into a forest of blood vessels.

While still a ways from human use, scientists believe future iterations of the technology could perform a myriad of medical wonders: repairing damaged organs, relieving brain degeneration, or even restoring aged tissue back to a youthful state.

By using our novel nanochip technology, injured or compromised organs can be replaced. We have shown that skin is a fertile land where we can grow the elements of any organ that is declining, says lead author Dr. Chandan Sen, who published the result in Nature Nanotechnology.

In my lab, we have ongoing research trying to understand the mechanism and do even better, adds Dr. L. James Lee, who co-led the study with Sen. So, this is the beginning, more to come.

The Ohio teams research builds on an age-old idea in regenerative medicine: that even aged bodies have the ability to produce and integrate healthy, youthful cellsgiven the right set of cues.

While some controversy remains on whether replacement cells survive in an injured body, scientistsand some rather dubious clinicsare readily exploring the potential of cell-based therapies.

All cells harbor the same set of DNA; whether they turn into heart cells, neurons, or back into stem cells depend on which genes are activated. The gatekeeper of gene expression is a set of specialized proteins. Scientists can stick the DNA code for these proteins into cells, where they hijack its DNA machinery with orders to produce the protein switchesand the cell transforms into another cell type.

The actual process works like this: scientists harvest mature cells from patients, reprogram them into stem cells inside a Petri dish, inject those cells back into the patients and wait for them to develop into the needed cell types.

Its a cumbersome process packed with landmines. Researchers often use viruses to deliver the genetic payload into cells. In some animal studies, this has led to unwanted mutations and cancer. Its also unclear whether the reprogrammed stem cells survive inside the patients. Whether they actually turn into healthy tissue is even more up for debate.

The Ohio teams device tackles many of these problems head on.

Eschewing the need for viruses, the team manufactured a stamp-sized device out of silicon that serves as a reservoir and injector for DNA. Microetched onto each device are arrays of nanochannels that connect to microscopic dents. Scientists can load DNA material into these tiny holding spots, where they sit stably until a ten-millisecond zap shoots them into the recipients tissue.

We based TNT on a bulk transfection, which is often used in the lab to deliver genes into cells, the authors explain. Like its bulk counterpart, the electrical zap opens up tiny, transient pores on the cell membrane, which allows the DNA instructions to get it.

The problem with bulk transfection is that not all genes get into each cell. Some cells may get more than they bargained for and take up more than one copy, which increases the chance of random mutations.

We found that TNT is extremely focused, with each cell receiving ample DNA, the authors say.

The device also skips an intermediary step in cell conversion: rather than turning cells back into stem cells, the team pushed mouse skin cells directly into other mature cell types using different sets of previously-discovered protein factors.

In one early experiment, the team successfully generated neurons from skin cells that seem indistinguishable from their natural counterparts: they shot off electrical pulses and had similar gene expression profiles.

Surprisingly, the team found that even non-zapped cells in the skins deeper layers transformed. Further testing found that the newly reprogrammed neurons released tiny fatty bubbles that contained the molecular instructions for transformation.

When the team harvested these bubbles and injected them into mice subjected to experimental stroke, the bubbles triggered the brain to generate new neurons and repair itself.

We dont know if the bubbles are somehow transforming other brain cell types into neurons, but they do seem to be loaded with molecules that protect the brain, the researchers say.

In an ultimate test of the devices healing potential, the researchers placed it onto the injured hind leg of a handful of mice. Three days prior, their leg arteries had been experimentally severed, whichwhen left untreatedleads to tissue decay.

The team loaded the device with factors that convert skin cells into blood vessel cells. Within a week of conversion, the team watched as new blood vessels sprouted and grew beyond the local treatment area. In the end, TNT-zapped mice had fewer signs of tissue injury and higher leg muscle metabolism compared to non-treated controls.

This is difficult to imagine, but it is achievable, successfully working about 98 percent of the time, says Sen.

A major draw of the device is that its one-touch-and-go.

There are no expensive cell isolation procedures and no finicky lab manipulations. The conversion happens right on the skin, essentially transforming patients bodies into their own prolific bioreactors.

This process only takes less than a second and is non-invasive, and then youre off. The chip does not stay with you, and the reprogramming of the cell starts,says Sen.

Because the converted cells come directly from the patient, theyre in an immune-privileged position, which reduces the chance of rejection.

This means that in the future, if the technology is used to manufacture organs immune suppression is not necessary, says Sen.

While the team plans to test the device in humans as early as next year, Sen acknowledges that theyll likely run into problems.

For one, because the device needs to be in direct contact with tissue, the skin is the only easily-accessible body part to do these conversions. Repairing deeper tissue would require surgery to insert the device into wounded areas. And to many, growing other organ cell types is a pretty creepy thought, especially because the transformation isnt completely localnon-targeted cells are also reprogrammed.

That could be because the body is trying to heal itself, the authors hypothesize. Using the chip on healthy legs didnt sprout new blood vessels, suggesting that the widespread conversion is because of injury, though (for now) there isnt much evidence supporting the idea.

For another, scientists are still working out the specialized factors required to directly convert between cell types. So far, theyve only had limited success.

But Sen and his team are optimistic.

When these things come out for the first time, its basically crossing the chasm from impossible to possible, he says. We have established feasibility.

Image Credit: Researchers demonstrate tissue nanotransfection,courtesy of The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

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This Chip Uses Electricity to Reprogram Cells for Healing – Singularity Hub

Mouse model of human immune system inadequate for stem cell … – Medical Xpress

Credit: Martha Sexton/public domain

A type of mouse widely used to assess how the human immune system responds to transplanted stem cells does not reflect what is likely to occur in patients, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. The researchers urge further optimization of this animal model before making decisions about whether and when to begin wide-scale stem cell transplants in humans.

Known as “humanized” mice, the animals have been engineered to have a human, rather than a murine, immune system. Researchers have relied upon the animals for decades to study, among other things, the immune response to the transplantation of pancreatic islet cells for diabetes and skin grafts for burn victims.

However, the Stanford researchers found that, unlike what would occur in a human patient, the humanized mice are unable to robustly reject the transplantation of genetically mismatched human stem cells. As a result, they can’t be used to study the immunosuppressive drugs that patients will likely require after transplant. The researchers conclude that the humanized mouse model is not suitable for studying the human immune response to transplanted stem cells or cells derived from them.

“In an ideal situation, these humanized mice would reject foreign stem cells just as a human patient would,” said Joseph Wu, MD, PhD, director of Stanford’s Cardiovascular Institute and professor of cardiovascular medicine and of radiology. “We could then test a variety of immunosuppressive drugs to learn which might work best in patients, or to screen for new drugs that could inhibit this rejection. We can’t do that with these animals.”

Wu shares senior authorship of the research, which will be published Aug. 22 in Cell Reports, with Dale Greiner, PhD, professor in the Program in Molecular Medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, and Leonard Shultz, PhD, professor at the Jackson Laboratory. Former postdoctoral scholars Nigel Kooreman, MD, and Patricia de Almeida, PhD, and graduate student Jonathan Stack, DVM, share lead authorship of the study.

“Although these mice are fully functional in their immune response to HIV infection or after transplantation of other tissues, they are unable to completely reject the stem cells,” said Kooreman. “Understanding why this is, and whether we can overcome this deficiency, is a critical step in advancing stem cell therapies in humans.”

“Humanized mice are critical preclinical models in many biomedical fields helping to bring basic science into the clinic, but as this work shows, it is critical to frame the question properly,” said Greiner. “Multiple laboratories remain committed to advancing our understanding and enhancing the function of engrafted human immune systems.”

Greiner and Shultz helped to pioneer the use of humanized mice in the 1990s to model human diseases and they provided the mice used in the study.

Understanding stem cell transplants

The researchers were studying pluripotent stem cells, which can become any tissue in the body. They tested the animals’ immune response to human embryonic stem cells, which are naturally pluripotent, and to induced pluripotent stem cells. Although iPS cells can be made from a patient’s own tissues, future clinical applications will likely rely on pre-screened, FDA-approved banks of stem cell-derived products developed for specific clinical situations, such as heart muscle cells to repair tissue damaged by a heart attack, or endothelial cells to stimulate new blood vessel growth. Unlike patient-specific iPS cells, these cells would be reliable and immediately available for clinical use. But because they won’t genetically match each patient, it’s likely that they would be rejected without giving the recipients immunosuppressive drugs.

Humanized mice were first developed in the 1980s. Researchers genetically engineered the mice to be unable to develop their own immune system. They then used human immune and bone marrow precursor cells to reconstitute the animals’ immune system. Over the years subsequent studies have shown that the human immune cells survive better when fragments of the human thymus and liver are also implanted into the animals.

Kooreman and his colleagues found that two varieties of humanized mice were unable to completely reject unrelated human embryonic stem cells or iPS cells, despite the fact that some human immune cells homed to and were active in the transplanted stem cell grafts. In some cases, the cells not only thrived, but grew rapidly to form cancers called teratomas. In contrast, mice with unaltered immune systems quickly dispatched both forms of human pluripotent stem cells.

The researchers obtained similar results when they transplanted endothelial cells derived from the pluripotent stem cells.

A new mouse model

To understand more about what was happening, Kooreman and his colleagues created a new mouse model similar to the humanized mice. Instead of reconstituting the animals’ nonexistent immune systems with human cells, however, they used immune and bone marrow cells from a different strain of mice. They then performed the same set of experiments again.

Unlike the humanized mice, these new mice robustly rejected human pluripotent stem cells as well as mouse stem cells from a genetically mismatched strain of mice. In other words, their newly acquired immune systems appeared to be in much better working order.

Although more research needs to be done to identify the cause of the discrepancy between the two types of animals, the researchers speculate it may have something to do with the complexity of the immune system and the need to further optimize the humanized mouse model to perhaps include other types of cells or signaling molecules. In the meantime, they are warning other researchers of potential pitfalls in using this model to screen for immunosuppressive drugs that could be effective after human stem cell transplants.

“Many in the fields of pluripotent stem cell research and regenerative medicine are pushing the use of the humanized mice to study the human immune response,” said Kooreman. “But if we start to make claims using this model, assuming that these cells won’t be rejected by patients, it could be worrisome. Our work clearly shows that, although there is some human immune cell activity, these animals don’t fully reconstitute the human immune system.”

The researchers are hopeful that recent advances may overcome some of the current model’s limitations.

“The immune system is highly complex and there still remains much we need to learn,” said Shultz. “Each roadblock we identify will only serve as a landmark as we navigate the future. Already, we’ve seen recent improvements in humanized mouse models that foster enhancement of human immune function.”

Explore further: Study provides hope for some human stem cell therapies

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Mouse model of human immune system inadequate for stem cell … – Medical Xpress

Researcher Seeks to Unravel the Brain’s Genetic Tapestry to Tackle Rare Disorder – University of Virginia

In 2013, University of Virginia researcher Michael McConnell published research that would forever change how scientists study brain cells.

McConnell and a team of nationwide collaborators discovered a genetic mosaic in the brains neurons, proving that brain cells are not exact replicas of each other, and that each individual neuron contains a slightly different genetic makeup.

McConnell, an assistant professor in the School of Medicines Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, has been using this new information to investigate how variations in individual neurons impact neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and epilepsy. With a recent $50,000 grant from the Bow Foundation, McConnell will expand his research to explore the cause of a rare genetic disorder known as GNAO1 so named for the faulty protein-coding gene that is its likely source.

GNAO1 causes seizures, movement disorders and developmental delays. Currently, only 50 people worldwide are known to have the disease. The Bow Foundation seeks to increase awareness so that other probable victims of the disorder can be properly diagnosed and to raise funds for further research and treatment.

UVA Today recently sat down with McConnell to find out more about how GNAO1 fits into his broader research and what his continued work means for all neuropsychiatric disorders.

Q. Can you explain the general goals of your lab?

A. My lab has two general directions. One is brain somatic mosaicism, which is a finding that different neurons in the brain have different genomes from one another. We usually think every cell in a single persons body has the same blueprint for how they develop and what they become. It turns out that blueprint changes a little bit in the neurons from neuron to neuron. So you have slightly different versions of the same blueprint and we want to know what that means.

The second area of our work focuses on a new technology called induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs. The technology permits us to make stem cell from skin cells. We can do this with patients, and use the stem cells to make specific cell types with same genetic mutations that are in the patients. That lets us create and study the persons brain cells in a dish. So now, if that person has a neurological disease, we can in a dish study that persons disease and identify drugs that alter the disease. Its a very personalized medicine approach to that disease.

Q. Does cell-level genomic variety exist in other areas of the body outside the central nervous system?

A. Every cell in your body has mutations of one kind or another, but brain cells are there for your whole life, so the differences have a bigger impact there. A skin cell is gone in a month. An intestinal cell is gone in a week. Any changes in those cells will rarely have an opportunity to cause a problem unless they cause a tumor.

Q. How does your research intersect with the goals of the Bow Foundation?

A. Let me back up to a little bit of history on that. When I got to UVA four years ago, I started talking quite a lot with Howard Goodkin and Mark Beenhakker. Mark is an assistant professor in pharmacology. Howard is a pediatric neurologist and works with children with epilepsy. I had this interest in epilepsy and UVA has a historic and current strength in epilepsy research.

We started talking about how to use iPSCs the technology that we use to study mosaicism to help Howards patients. As we talked about it and I learned more about epilepsy, we quickly realized that there are a substantial number of patients with epilepsy or seizure disorders where we cant do a genetic test to figure out what drug to use on those patients.

Clinical guidance, like Howards expertise, allows him to make a pretty good diagnosis and know what drugs to try first and second and third. But around 30 percent of children that come in with epilepsy never find the drug that works, and theyre in for a lifetime of trial-and-error. We realized that we could use iPSC-derived neurons to test drugs in the dish instead of going through all of the trial-and-error with patients. Thats the bigger project that weve been moving toward.

The Bow Foundation was formed by patient advocates after this rare genetic mutation in GNAO1 was identified. GNAO1 is a subunit of a G protein-coupled receptor; some mutations in this receptor can lead to epilepsy while others lead to movement disorders.

Were still trying to learn about these patients, and the biggest thing the Bow Foundation is doing is trying to address that by creating a patient registry. At the same time, the foundation has provided funds for us to start making and testing iPSCs and launch this approach to personalized medicine for epilepsy.

In the GNAO1 patients, we expect to be able to study their neurons in a dish and understand why they behave differently, why the electrical activity in their brain is different or why they develop differently.

Q. What other more widespread disorders, in addition to schizophrenia and epilepsy, are likely to benefit from your research?

A. Im part of a broader project called the Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network that is conducting research on diseases that span the neuropsychiatric field. Our lab covers schizophrenia, but other nodes within that network are researching autism, bipolar disorder, Tourette syndrome and other psychiatric diseases where the genetic cause is difficult to identify. Thats the underlying theme.

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Researcher Seeks to Unravel the Brain’s Genetic Tapestry to Tackle Rare Disorder – University of Virginia

New Launch of EGA Antiaging Cream and EGA Antiaging Serum to Change the Face of OTC Cosmetics – Benzinga

Chaster Skin Care Ltd., a leading manufacturer of high-quality anti-aging skincare solutions, recently announced the launch of its highly anticipated EGA Antiaging Cream, a lightweight, fast absorbing anti-aging cream features auto-adapting technology to provide the ultimate comfort and protection in all climates and EGA Antiaging Serum, a revolutionary new product that fights inflammation by soothing irritated skin and reducing skin sensitivity using Probiotics to restore the skin’s self-renewal to reduce moisture loss and boost skin immunity.

St. Petersburg, FL (PRWEB) August 23, 2017

Chaster Skin Care Ltd., a leading manufacturer of high-quality anti-aging skincare solutions, recently announced the launch of its highly anticipated EGA Antiaging Cream, a lightweight, fast absorbing anti-aging cream features auto-adapting technology to provide the ultimate comfort and protection in all climates and EGA Antiaging Serum, a revolutionary new product that fights inflammation by soothing irritated skin and reducing skin sensitivity using Probiotics to restore the skin’s self-renewal to reduce moisture loss and boost skin immunity.

“This new product launch is the culmination of years of clinical research and testing,” explains Charles Brown, Vice President of Marketing, “EGA Antiaging Cream and EGA Antiaging Serum can visibly reduce fine lines and wrinkles for anyone interested in reversing the signs of aging.”

EGA Antiaging Cream is a lightweight, fast-absorbing cream provides the hydrating benefits of a moisturizer with the power of an anti-aging concentrate. Anogeissus Leiocarpa Bark Extract and Vitamin C work synergistically to increase the incorporation of Vitamin C in the skin, significantly boosting antioxidant capability and collagen synthesis. EGA Antiaging Cream contains powerful, bioavailable peptides rebuild and restore skin from the inside out to lift, fill, and smooth out wrinkles. The cream features comfrey stem cells and a probiotic to speed skin renewal and turnover while tomato-derived carotenoids fight UV damage and lighten skin. Sandalwood and Barley Extract reduce water loss and stimulates lipids found naturally in skin. EGA Antiaging Cream addresses signs of aging caused by UV damage, glycation, gravity, and dryness. This rich, luxurious cream “turns back the clock” to reveal smooth, supple and healthy skin.

EGA Antiaging Serum is a lightweight, fast absorbing anti-aging serum features auto-adapting technology to provide the ultimate comfort and protection in all climates. The serum’s marine-based neuro-soother addresses one of the root causes of aging and wrinkles — inflammation. EGA Antiaging Serum fights inflammation by soothing irritated skin and reducing skin sensitivity. Probiotics restores skin’s self-renewal to increase skin thickness, reduce moisture loss, and boost skin immunity. EGA Antiaging Serum counteracts photoaging with soybean seed extract and olive fruit revealing an increase in skin smoothness, firmness, hydration, and elasticity while decreasing wrinkle depth. Anogeissus Leiocarpa Bark Extract increases the incorporation of Vitamin C in the skin, significantly boosting antioxidant capability and collagen synthesis.

“We have gotten tremendous feedback from our earliest adopters some saying these incredible creams are like a facelift in a box or Botox in bottle, we are very excited to bring these new products to market for our customers,” says Brown.

About Chaster Skin Care Ltd.

Chaster Skin Care Ltd., based in St. Petersburg, Florida is one of the world’s leading manufacturers and marketers of high-quality anti-aging skincare solutions. To learn more about Chaster Skin Care Ltd., visit https://www.chasterskincareltd.com or learn more about the products at https://www.egaskin.com.

For the original version on PRWeb visit: http://www.prweb.com/releases/EGA-Antiaging-Cream/EGA-Antiaging-Serum/prweb14617279.htm

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New Launch of EGA Antiaging Cream and EGA Antiaging Serum to Change the Face of OTC Cosmetics – Benzinga

Suffering from hair loss? Scientists may have found a solution – TheCable

Researchers say they have discovered a new way to activate the stem cells in the hair follicle to stimulate hair growth.

According to researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, the experiment, conducted on mice, may lead to new drugs that could promote hair growth for people with baldness or alopecia.

After initially blocking, and subsequently increasing the production of lactate genetically in mice, the researchers identified two drugs that, when applied to the skin of mice, influenced hair follicle stem cells in distinct ways to promote lactate production.

According to them, the first drug, called RCGD423, activates a cellular signaling pathway called JAK-Stat, which transmits information from outside the cell to the nucleus of the cell.

The findings showed that JAK-Stat activation leads to the increased production of lactate and this, in turn, drives hair follicle stem cell activation and quicker hair growth.

The other drug, called UK5099, blocks pyruvate from entering the mitochondria, which forces the production of lactate in the hair follicle stem cells and accelerates hair growth in mice.

Before this, no one knew that increasing or decreasing the lactate would have an effect on hair follicle stem cells, said William Lowry, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology.

Once we saw how altering lactate production in the mice influenced hair growth, it led us to look for potential drugs that could be applied to the skin and have the same effect.

The researchers explained that the experimental drugs were used in preclinical tests only and have not been tested in humans or approved by the food and drug administration as safe and effective for use in humans

The research was published in the journal Nature Cell Biology.

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Suffering from hair loss? Scientists may have found a solution – TheCable

UCLA scientists identify a new way to activate stem cells to make hair grow – UCLA Newsroom

UCLA researchers have discovered a new way to activate the stem cells in the hair follicle to make hair grow. The research, led by scientists Heather Christofk and William Lowry, may lead to new drugs that could promote hair growth for people with baldness or alopecia, which is hair loss associated with such factors as hormonal imbalance, stress, aging or chemotherapy treatment.

The research was published in the journal Nature Cell Biology.

Hair follicle stem cells are long-lived cells in the hair follicle; they are present in the skin and produce hair throughout a persons lifetime. They are quiescent, meaning they are normally inactive, but they quickly activate during a new hair cycle, which is when new hair growth occurs. The quiescence of hair follicle stem cells is regulated by many factors. In certain cases they fail to activate, which is what causes hair loss.

In this study, Christofk and Lowry, of Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, found that hair follicle stem cell metabolism is different from other cells of the skin. Cellular metabolism involves the breakdown of the nutrients needed for cells to divide, make energy and respond to their environment. The process of metabolism uses enzymes that alter these nutrients to produce metabolites. As hair follicle stem cells consume the nutrient glucose a form of sugar from the bloodstream, they process the glucose to eventually produce a metabolite called pyruvate. The cells then can either send pyruvate to their mitochondria the part of the cell that creates energy or can convert pyruvate into another metabolite called lactate.

Our observations about hair follicle stem cell metabolism prompted us to examine whether genetically diminishing the entry of pyruvate into the mitochondria would force hair follicle stem cells to make more lactate, and if that would activate the cells and grow hair more quickly, said Christofk, an associate professor of biological chemistry and molecular and medical pharmacology.

The research team first blocked the production of lactate genetically in mice and showed that this prevented hair follicle stem cell activation. Conversely, in collaboration with the Rutter lab at University of Utah, they increased lactate production genetically in the mice and this accelerated hair follicle stem cell activation, increasing the hair cycle.

Before this, no one knew that increasing or decreasing the lactate would have an effect on hair follicle stem cells, said Lowry, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology. Once we saw how altering lactate production in the mice influenced hair growth, it led us to look for potential drugs that could be applied to the skin and have the same effect.

The team identified two drugs that, when applied to the skin of mice, influenced hair follicle stem cells in distinct ways to promote lactate production. The first drug, called RCGD423, activates a cellular signaling pathway called JAK-Stat, which transmits information from outside the cell to the nucleus of the cell. The research showed that JAK-Stat activation leads to the increased production of lactate and this in turn drives hair follicle stem cell activation and quicker hair growth. The other drug, called UK5099, blocks pyruvate from entering the mitochondria, which forces the production of lactate in the hair follicle stem cells and accelerates hair growth in mice.

Through this study, we gained a lot of interesting insight into new ways to activate stem cells, said Aimee Flores, a predoctoral trainee in Lowrys lab and first author of the study. The idea of using drugs to stimulate hair growth through hair follicle stem cells is very promising given how many millions of people, both men and women, deal with hair loss. I think weve only just begun to understand the critical role metabolism plays in hair growth and stem cells in general; Im looking forward to the potential application of these new findings for hair loss and beyond.

The use of RCGD423 to promote hair growth is covered by a provisional patent application filed by the UCLA Technology Development Group on behalf of UC Regents. The use of UK5099 to promote hair growth is covered by a separate provisional patent filed by the UCLA Technology Development Group on behalf of UC Regents, with Lowry and Christofk as inventors.

The experimental drugs described above were used in preclinical tests only and have not been tested in humans or approved by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective for use in humans.

The research was supported by a California Institute for Regenerative Medicine training grant, a New Idea Award from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, the National Cancer Institute (R25T CA098010), the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (R01-GM081686 and R01-GM0866465), the National Institutes of Health (RO1GM094232), an American Cancer Society Research Scholar Grant (RSG-16-111-01-MPC), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (5R01AR57409), a Rose Hills Foundation Research Award and the Gaba Fund. The Rose Hills award and the Gaba Fund are administered through the UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center.

Further research on the use of UK5099 is being funded by the UCLA Technology Development Group through funds from California State Assembly Bill 2664.

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UCLA scientists identify a new way to activate stem cells to make hair grow – UCLA Newsroom

Scientists Discover New Hair Growth Technique Using Stem Cells – TrendinTech

Those suffering from hair loss problems could soon be worry free thanks to a bunch of researchers at UCLA. The team found that by activating the stem cells in the hair follicles they could make it grow. This type of research couldnt come soon enough for some. We may have finally found a cure for patients suffering from alopecia or baldness.

Hair loss is often caused by the hair follicle stem cells inability to activate and induce a new hair growth cycle. In doing the study, researchers Heather Christofk and William Lowry, of Eli Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA discovered that the metabolism of hair follicle stem cells is far different to any other cell found within the skin. They found that as hair follicle stem cells absorb the glucose from the bloodstream they use it to produce a metabolite called pyruvate. The pyruvate is then either sent to the cells mitochondria to be converted back into energy or is converted into another metabolite called lactate.

Christofk is an associate professor of biological chemistry and molecular and medical pharmacology and he says, Our observations about hair follicle stem cell metabolism prompted us to examine whether genetically diminishing the entry of pyruvate into the mitochondria would force hair follicle stem cells to make more lactate and if that would activate the cells and grow hair more quickly. First, the team demonstrated how blocking the lactate production in mice prevented the hair follicle stem cells from activating. Then, with the help of colleagues at the Rutter lab at the University of Utah, they increased the lactate production in the mice and as a result saw an accelerated hair follicle stem cell activation and therefore an increase in the hair cycle.

Once we saw how altering lactate production in the mice influenced hair growth, it led us to look for potential drugs that could be applied to the skin and have the same effect, confirms Lowry, a professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology. During the study, the team found two drugs in particular that influenced hair follicle stem cells to promote lactate production when applied to the skin of mice. The first is called RCGD423. This drug is responsible for allowing the transmission of information from outside the cell right to the heart of it in the nucleus by activating the cellular signaling pathway called JAK-Stat. The results from the study did, in fact, prove that JAK-Stat activation will lead to an increased production of lactate which will enhance hair growth. UK5099 was the second drug in question, and its role was to block the pyruvate from entering the mitochondria, forcing the production of lactate and accelerating hair growth as a result.

The study brings with it some very promising results. To be able to solve a problem that affects millions of people worldwide by using drugs to stimulate hair growth is brilliant. At the moment there is a provisional patent application thats been filed in respect of using RCGD423 in the promotion of hair growth and a separate provisional patent in place for the use of UK5099 for the same purpose. The drugs have not yet been tested in humans or approved by the Food and Drug Administration as fit for human consumption.

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Scientists Discover New Hair Growth Technique Using Stem Cells – TrendinTech

Nanotechnology May Be Used to Heal Wounds, Repair Organs – Healthline

Researchers in Ohio are using skin cells and small chips to develop treatments that can repair damage from wounds, stroke, and organ failure.

Your skin cells are programmable, allowing them to be converted into other types of cells.

And now researchers have discovered how to reprogram them, making your body a potential gold mine of cells that can be used to heal wounds, treat stroke damage, and even restore function to aging organs.

A recent study published in Nature Nanotechnology describes the development of Tissue Nanotransfection (TNT), a technology that can convert an adult cell from one type to another.

The study was led by Chandan Sen, PhD, and L. James Lee, PhD, researchers at The Ohio State University. Sen and his colleagues applied the chip to the injured legs of mice, reprogramming the mices skin cells into vascular cells.

Within weeks, active blood vessels formed, saving the legs of the mice.

The technology is expected to be approved for human trials within a year.

This breakthrough in gene therapy is made possible by nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at a size at which unique properties of material emerge.

That means the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of materials are different at the atomic scale than at the larger scale were seeing on an everyday basis.

A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. A DNA molecule is 2 nanometers in diameter. Nanotechnologys scale is roughly 1 to 100 nanometers.

At the nanoscale, gold reflects colors other than what it does at the scale visible to the unaided eye. This physical property can be used in medical tests to indicate infection or disease.

Gold is yellow in color at the bulk level, but at the nanoscale level gold appears red, said Dr. Lisa Friedersdorf, director of the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) of the National Nanotechnology Initiative.

The NNCO coordinates the nanotechnology efforts of 20 federal government agencies.

We now have tools to enable us to fabricate and control materials at the nanoscale, Friedersdorf told Healthline. Researchers can create a nanoparticle with a payload inside to deliver a concentrated drug release directly to targeted cells, for instance. Soon well be able to identify and treat disease with precision. We could have personalized medicine and be able to target disease very carefully.

TNT works by delivering a specific biological cargo (DNA, RNA, and plasma molecules) for cell conversion to a live cell using a nanotechnology-based chip.

This cargo is delivered by briefly zapping a chip with a small electrical charge.

Nanofabrication enabled Sen and his colleagues to create a chip that can deliver a cargo of genetic code into a cell.

Think of the chip as a syringe but miniaturized, Sen told Healthline. Were shooting genetic code into cells.

The brief (one-tenth of a second) electrical charge of the postage stamp-sized device creates a pathway on the surface of the target cell that allows for the insertion of the genetic load.

Imagine the cell as a tennis ball, Sen said. If the entire surface is electrocuted, the cell is damaged and its abilities are suppressed. Our technology opens up just 2 percent of the surface of the tennis ball. We insert the active cargo into the cell through that window, and then the window closes, so there is no damage.

Cell reprogramming isnt new, but scientists have previously focused on converting primarily stem cells into other types of cells. The process took place in labs.

We disagreed with this approach, Sen said. When switching a cell in the lab, its in an artificial, sterile, and simple environment such as a petri dish. When its introduced into the body, it doesnt perform as intended.

We went upside-down. We bypassed the lab process and moved the reprogramming process to the live body, he explained.

This point-of-action capability will allow hospitals to adopt TNT sooner than if the process was limited to research facilities.

Sens teams approach was to act first, figure it out second.

There are a number of procedures and processes at play, Sen said. We dont understand all of them, but we achieved our goal. Now that weve achieved our goal, we can get into the details of how it works.

The healing of injuries by converting skin cells into vascular cells to regenerate blood vessels is one proven application of TNT.

Sens team also created nerve cells by the conversion process, injecting the newly formed neurotissue from the skin of a mouse with brain damage from stroke into its skull. The replacement rescued brain function that would otherwise have been lost.

Sen envisions additional uses for TNT, including organ recovery.

We could go into a failing organ via an endoscopic catheter with a chip to reprogram cells and restore organ function, Sen said. It doesnt have to be a skin cell. It could be excessive fat tissue.

TNT could improve our quality of life as we age, too.

Im a runner, so I have joint issues, Friedersdorf said. Nanotechnology could enable the regeneration of cartilage. Im hoping these technologies will be available when Im in need of them.

Sen and his team are currently searching for an industrial partner to manufacture chips designed to work for humans.

Then comes testing.

Ultimately, Sen hopes to drive rapid advancement in nanoscience and health.

Im a scientist, but this was inspired by the need to make an impact on health, Sen said. Our main goal is impact.

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Nanotechnology May Be Used to Heal Wounds, Repair Organs – Healthline

Stem cell technique could reverse a major type of infertility – New Scientist

Fertile sperm are rare in men with an extra sex chromosome

Dennis Kunkle Microscopy/SPL

By Andy Coghlan

Turning skin cells into sperm may one day help some infertile men have babies. Research in mice has found a way to make fertile sperm from animals born with too many sex chromosomes.

Most men have two sex chromosomes one X and one Y but some have three, which makes it difficult to produce fertile sperm. Around 1 in 500 men are born with Klinefelter syndrome, caused by having an extra X chromosome, while roughly 1 in 1000 have Double Y syndrome.

James Turner of the Francis Crick Institute in London and his team have found a way to get around the infertility caused by these extra chromosomes. First, they bred mice that each had an extra X or Y chromosome. They then tried to reprogram skin cells from the animals, turning them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), which are capable of forming other types of cell.

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To their surprise, this was enough to make around a third of the skin cells jettison their extra chromosome. When these cells were then coaxed into forming sperm cells and used to fertilise eggs, 50 to 60 per cent of the resulting pregnancies led to live births.

This suggests that a similar technique might enable men with Klinefelter or Double Y-related infertility to conceive. But there is a significant catch.

We dont yet know how to fully turn stem cells into sperm, so the team got around this by injecting the cells into mouse testes for the last stages of development. While this led to fertile sperm, it also caused tumours to form in between 29 and 50 per cent of mice.

What we really need to make this work is being able to go from iPS cells to sperm in a dish, says Turner.

It has to be done all in vitro, so only normal sperm cells would be used to fertilise eggs, says Zev Rosenwaks of the Weill Cornell Medical College in New York. The danger with all iPS cell technology is cancer.

Journal reference: Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9046

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Stem cell technique could reverse a major type of infertility – New Scientist

Two-step process leads to cell immortalization and cancer – UC Berkeley

A mutation that helps make cells immortal is critical to the development of a tumor, but new research at UC Berkeley suggests that becoming immortal is a more complicated process than originally thought.

The key to immortalization is an enzyme called telomerase, which keeps chromosomes healthy in cells that divide frequently. The enzyme lengthens the caps, or telomeres, on the ends of chromosomes, which wear off during each cell division.

This skin section shows a benign mole or nevus that is transitioning into a melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. New experiments by UC Berkeley and UCSF researchers suggest that immortalization of skin cells, which is essential to turning them cancerous, is a two-step process: a mutation in nevus cells slightly raises levels of telomerase, which keep the cells alive long enough for a second change, still unknown, that up-regulates telomerase to make the cells immortal and malignant. (Image by Dirk Hockemeyer/UC Berkeley and Boris Bastian/UCSF)

When the telomeres get too short, the ends stick to one another, wreaking havoc when the cell divides and in most cases killing the cell. The discovery of telomerase and its role in replenishing the caps on the ends of the chromosomes, made by Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol Greider at UC Berkeley and John Szostak at Harvard University in the 1980s, earned them a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009.

Because telomeres get shorter as cells age, scientists theorized that cancer cells which never age become immortalized by turning on production of telomerase in cells that normally dont produce it, allowing these cells to keep their long telomeres indefinitely. An estimated 90 percent of all malignant tumors use telomerase to achieve immortality, and various proposed cancer therapies focus on turning down the production of telomerase in tumors.

The new research, which studied the immortalization process using genome-engineered cells in culture and also tracked skin cells as they progressed from a mole into a malignant melanoma, suggests that telomerase plays a more complex role in cancer.

Our findings have implications for how to think about the earliest processes that drive cancer and telomerase as a therapeutic target. It also means that the role of telomere biology at a very early step of cancer development is vastly under-appreciated, said senior author Dirk Hockemeyer, a UC Berkeley assistant professor of molecular and cell biology. It is very likely that what we find in melanoma is true for other cancer types as well, which would warrant that people look more carefully at the role of early telomere shortening as a tumor-suppressing mechanism for cancer.

The results were reported online August 17 as a first release publication from the journal Science.

From nevus to cancerHockemeyer and his UC Berkeley colleagues, in collaboration with dermatopathologist Boris Bastian and his colleagues at UCSF, found that immortalization is a two-step process, driven initially by a mutation that turns telomerase on, but at a very low level. That mutation is in a promoter, a region upstream of the telomerase gene referred to as TERT that regulates how much telomerase is produced. Four years ago, researchers reported that some 70 percent of malignant melanomas have this identical mutation in the TERT promoter.

The TERT promoter mutation does not generate enough telomerase to immortalize the pre-cancerous cells, but does delay normal cellular aging, Hockemeyer said, allowing more time for additional changes that turn telomerase up. He suspects that the telomerase levels are sufficient to lengthen the shortest telomeres, but not to keep them all long and healthy.

If cells fail to turn up telomerase, they also fail to immortalize, and eventually die from short telomeres because chromosomes stick together and then shatter when the cell divides. Cells with the TERT promoter mutation are more likely to up-regulate telomerase, which allows them to continue to grow despite very short telomeres. The marginal levels of telomerase in the cell, Hockemeyer said, result is some unprotected chromosome ends in the surviving mutant cells, which could cause mutations and further fuel tumor formation.

Before our paper, people could have assumed that the acquisition of just this one mutation in the TERT promoter was sufficient to immortalize a cell; that any time when that happens, the telomere shortening is taken out of the equation, Hockemeyer said. We are showing that the TERT promoter mutation is not immediately sufficient to stop telomeres from shortening.

It is still unclear, however, what causes the eventual up-regulation of telomerase that immortalizes the cell. Hockemeyer says that its unlikely to be another mutation, but rather an epigenetic change that affects expression of the telomerase gene, or a change in the expression of a transcription factor or other regulatory proteins that bind to the promoter upstream of the telomerase gene.

Nevertheless, we have evidence that the second step has to happen, and that the second step is initiated by or is occurring at a time when telomeres are critically short and when telomeres can be dysfunctional and drive genomic instability, he said.

In retrospect, not a surpriseThough most cancers seem to require telomerase to become immortal, only some 10 to 20 percent of cancers are known to have a single-nucleotide change in the promoter upstream of the telomerase gene. However, these include about 70 percent of all melanomas and 50 percent of all liver and bladder cancers.

Hockemeyer said that the evidence supporting the theory that the TERT promoter mutation up-regulated telomerase has always been conflicting: Cancer cells tend to have chromosomes with short telomeres, yet have higher levels of telomerase, which should produce longer telomeres.

According to the new theory, the telomeres are short in precancerous cells because telomerase is turned on just enough to maintain but not lengthen the telomeres.

Our paper reconciles contradictory information about the cancers that carry these mutations, Hockemeyer said.

The finding also resolves another recent counterintuitive finding: that people with shorter telomeres are more resistant to melanoma. The reason, he said, is that if a TERT promoter mutation arises to push a precancerous lesion the mole or nevus toward a melanoma, the chances are greater in someone with short telomeres that the cell will die before it up-regulates telomerase and immortalizes the cells.

The study also involved engineering TERT promoter mutations in cells differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells and following their progression toward cellular immortality. The results were identical to the progression seen in human skin lesions obtained from patients in UCSFs Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center and examined in the Clinical Cancer Genomics Laboratory, which Bastian directs.

Other co-authors of the Science paper are UC Berkeley graduate students Kunitoshi Chiba and Franziska Lorbeer, who contributed equally to the research, Hunter Shain of UCSF, David McSwiggen, Eva Schruf and Xavier Darzacq of UC Berkeley, and Areum Oh and Jekwan Ryu of the Santa Clara firm Optical Biosystems. The work was supported by the Siebel Stem Cell Institute, California Institute of Regenerative Medicine and National Institutes of Health.RELATED INFORMATION

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Two-step process leads to cell immortalization and cancer – UC Berkeley

We Just Figured out How to Activate Stem Cells to Treat Baldness – Futurism

In BriefResearchers from UCLA have found a way to successfully reactivate stem cells in dormant hair follicles to promote hair growth in mice. Through this research, they’ve developed two drugs that could help millions of people worldwide treat conditions that lead to abnormal hair growth and retention.

Researchers have already explored ways to use stem cells totreat everything from diabetes toaging, and now, ateam from UCLAthinks they could potentially offer some relief for people suffering from baldness.

During their study, which has beenpublished in Nature, the researchers noticedthat stem cells found in hair follicles undergo a different metabolic process than normal skin cells. After turning glucose into a molecule known as pyruvate, these hair follicle cells then do one of two things: send the pyruvateto the cells mitochondria to be used as energy or convert it into another metabolite known as lactate.

Based on these findings, the researchers decided to see if inactive hair follicles behaved differently depending on the path of the pyruvate.

To that end, the UCLA team compared mice that had been genetically engineered so that they wouldnt produce lactate with mice that had been engineered to produce more lactate than normal. Obstructing lactate production stopped the stem cells in the follicles from being activated, while more hair growth was observed on the animals who were producing more of the metabolite.

No one knew that increasing or decreasing the lactate would have an effect on hair follicle stem cells, co-lead on the study and professor of molecular, cell, and developmental biology William Lowry explained in a UCLA press release. Once we saw how altering lactate production in the mice influenced hair growth, it led us to look for potential drugs that could be applied to the skin and have the same effect.

Based on their study, the researchers were able to discovertwo different drugs that could potentially help humans jumpstart the stem cells in their hair follicles to increase lactate production.

The first is called RCGD423, and it works by establishing a JAK/STAT signalling pathway between the exterior of a cell and its nucleus. This puts the stems cells in an active state and contributes to lactate production, encouraging hair growth.

The other drug, UK5099, takes the opposite approach. It stops pyruvate from being converted into energy by the cells mitochondria, which leaves the molecules with no choice but to take the alternate path of creating lactate, which, in turn, promotes hair growth.

Both of the drugs have yet to be tested on humans, but hopes are high that if tests are successful, they could provide relief for the estimated 56 million people in the U.S. alonesuffering from a range of conditions that affect normal hair growth and retention, including alopecia, hormone imbalances, stress-related hair loss, and even old age.

However, as undoubtedly pleased as many of those people would be to stimulate their hair growth, the potential relevance of this research stretches far beyond hair loss. The new knowledge gained regarding stem cells, specifically their relation to the metabolism of the human body, provides a very promising basis for future study in other realms.

I think weve only just begun to understand the critical role metabolism plays in hair growth and stem cells in general, noted Aimee Flores, first author of the study and a predoctoral trainee in Lowrys lab. Im looking forward to the potential application of these new findings for hair loss and beyond.

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We Just Figured out How to Activate Stem Cells to Treat Baldness – Futurism

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