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The Genes Involved In Cell Division In Humans Identified By EMBL Scientists

Story Summary: This is the resource that researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, and their collaborators in the Mitocheck consortium are making freely available, as the result of a study in which they have identified the genes involved in mitosis – the most common form of cell division – in humans. Published in Nature, their work begins to unravel the molecular workings of one of the most fundamental processes of life: how one cell becomes two. In the mean time, the new methodology the EMBL scientists developed to silence all of an organisms genes in a fast and systematic manner is itself proving a boon to the scientific community. The current study looked at HeLa cells, a widely studied line of cancer cells. Now that they have narrowed the search from a daunting 22,000 to a more manageable 600 genes, the scientists would like to investigate how these same genes act in other cancers and in healthy cells, as such comparisons could help to identify markers which could be used for diagnosis or to help make better-informed treatment decisions. The study was carried out as part of the Mitocheck consortium, coordinated by Jan-Michael Peters at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna, Austria. Contact Our News EditorsFor any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form. Learning the right way to perform the Heimlich maneuver means you could be ready to save someones life. Taking a first aid class is the best way to learn life-saving techniques like the Heimlich maneuver….Read the Full Story

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Scientists uncover structure of key protein in common HIV subgroup

Story Summary: The team looked specifically at gp120 from what is known as clade C HIV-1. Clade B is the form of group M HIV-1 most often found in the United States and western Europe, and the one that is probably best-studied to date. Clade C, the clade studied by the Caltech team, is the one that is devastating Africa and Asia, says Diskin. Its the one that probably causes the largest number of infections worldwide. Turns out, says Diskin, the protein itself is not stiff enough for crystallization. This configuration facilitated crystallization, and allowed the scientists to look not only at gp120which, indeed, looks pretty much the same in clade C as in clade B, says Diskinbut to visualize the entire binding site and to see how the various components in the complex interact with one another. That was when they noticed something unusual: Antibody 21c was not only reacting toand thus making contact withthe gp120 protein sticking out from HIVs envelope, but also was reacting to the CD4 receptors on the bodys own T cells. It is the first time this sort of polyreactivitya response to more than one antigenhad been visualized in the 3-D structure of an HIV-targeting antibody. The most interesting aspect of our structure is the unexpected contact between the antibody and CD4, says Pamela Bjorkman, the Max Delbruck Professor of Biology at Caltech, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, and the Caltech teams leader. The body tends to eliminate autoreactive antibodies, in an attempt to keep autoimmune diseases at bay. In order to create a good vaccine to produce 21c-like antibodies, researchers will have to overcome this elimination mechanism. In addition, Diskin says, the team would like to try to resolve the structure of a gp120 trimera more complex, three-pronged version of the protein. D. , and colleagues released findings on a study of cross-clade neutralization patterns among HIV-1 strains from six major clades in the 5 Jun . . . com) — The brain is capable of holding and retrieving memories for specific fears, revealing a more sophisticated storage and recall capacity than previously thought, neuroscientists have found. com) — A mother walks her fussy baby around the house, singing and patting his back in time to the lullaby. She might not know it, but her rhythmic patting is her babys first experience of patterning, a mathematical . . ….Read the Full Story

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Gene Is Linked To Lung Cancer Development In Never Smokers

Story Summary: ROCHESTER, Minn. –A five-center collaborative study that scanned the genomes of thousands of never smokers diagnosed with lung cancer as well as healthy never smokers has found a gene they say could be responsible for a significant number of those cancers. In the March 22 on line issue of Lancet Oncology, the researchers reported that about 30 percent of patients who never smoked and who developed lung cancer had the same uncommon variant, or allele, residing in a gene known as GPC5. A never smoker is defined as a person who has smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime, and that describes 15 percent of men and 53 percent of women who develop lung cancer — accounting for 25 percent of all lung cancers worldwide, according to Dr. Yang. In the Western countries, between 10 and 15 percent of lung cancers occur among never smokers, but in Asian countries, 30 to 40 percent of lung cancers are never smokers, she says. Our suspicion all along is that this is a distinct disease, and that is why we undertook this study, Dr. Yang says. This was the first GWAS ever conducted solely among never smokers, and it involved scanning the entire genome of every participant, looking for differences among 300,000 markers or so-called single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). That involved using data from two more GWAS scans in independent populations — 328 never smoker lung cancer patients and 407 controls at MD Anderson Cancer Center, and 92 never smoker lung cancer patients and 161 controls at Harvard University. From this, the search was narrowed to just two hits. Both of these hits were adjacent to each other on the same gene, which the researchers then identified as a variant of GPC5. In the third stage of the study, the researchers used a different method to perform genotyping from the method used in stages 1 and 2 to look at the difference between 91 never smoker lung cancer patients and 439 controls at UCLA. The final stage of the study involved understanding the function of the gene. They found that the GPC5 transcription level was twofold lower in adenocarcinoma compared to normal lung tissue. They found that the GPC5 transcription level was twofold lower in adenocarcinoma compared to normal lung tissue. Interestingly, this reduced transcript expression level was not found in lung carcinoid tumors, Dr. Yang says. Interestingly, this reduced transcript expression level was not found in lung carcinoid tumors, Dr. Yang says. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Mayo Foundation. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Mayo Foundation….Read the Full Story

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Discovery Of On/Off Button On Plants Alarm System Has Potential Pharmaceutical Applications

Story Summary: These defense responses require a great deal of the plants energy and reserves, which would otherwise be invested in growth and reproduction. So, its very important to strictly control the activity of defense genes. Until now, it has been unclear how the JAZ proteins are able to block the MYC2 proteins activity. In fact, they not only influence the regulation of a plants growth but also other hormonally driven processes by interacting with proteins like NINJA. This new insight reveals how stress- and growth-related signaling pathways use the same molecular mechanisms to regulate gene expression in plants and fills a major gap in our understanding of how plant hormones such as jasmonates regulate gene expression. Pharmaceutical applicationWhen plants turn on their defense mechanism, they start the production of secondary metabolites, a group of chemical substances exhibiting various therapeutic activities. Source: Joris Gansemans VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology) Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Learning the right way to perform the Heimlich maneuver means you could be ready to save someones life. Taking a first aid class is the best way to learn life-saving techniques like the Heimlich maneuver….Read the Full Story

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Drug-producing Yeast Are Not Equal

Story Summary: How they did it:To measure yeast productivity, the researchers used a technique that Love had previously developed and used to study immune cells, specifically B cells, called microengraving. Borrowing from an artistic engraving technique used for printmaking, the researchers use that array of cells to print the proteins produced by the cells onto the surface of multiple identical glass slides. By measuring how much protein each cell prints onto the slides, the researchers can determine the productivity of individual cells. The yeast in the study were engineered to produce a fragment of a human antibody molecule, but the researchers were surprised to find that a subset of the yeast population (about 35 percent) did not secrete measureable amounts of protein. Instead, the difference appears to be epigenetic – meaning that it involves differences in the processing that the proteins undergo after they are assembled, such as protein folding and secretion from the cell. It could be due to stressimposed on the cells that have been engineered to overproduce a product thats not a natural gene product for them, says Routenberg Love. When the cells get overloaded, they need to stop and reset. Next steps:The researchers hope to discover more about why there is such variability in yeast productivity, which could lead to new ways to improve drug yields by enhancing productivity in low-producing cells….Read the Full Story

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End of Gene Patents Will Help Patients, Force Companies to Change

Story Summary: Ravichers foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, and their supporters — including the American Medical Association, American Society of Human Genetics and March of Dimes — said this simply wasnt true. Beyond the absurdity of gene patents — imagine patenting gold, the human arm, or gravity — they said that patents had hurt patients, stifled business and stunted research. Myriads monopoly prevented women from getting second opinions on their breast-cancer gene tests. My hope is that this ruling stands and companies will need to actually innovate and create new advances based on genetic findings, not dependent on sole access to them, wrote Linda Avey, CEO of personalized genomics company 23andMe, in a comment on the Genetic Future blog. Rather than relying on obscure patent language and legal strategies, companies will need to develop products that are competitively positioned. Gene testers dont just plug a DNA sequence into a computer and wait for the result. They use an arsenal of interpretive techniques, and must update their approaches with new research. There are a lot of algorithms that each of us uses. Gene-testing companies will also compete to do the best job explaining often-ambiguous genetic results to their customers. Business relationships with insurance companies and health care providers will become even more important. Companies can compete on quality, speed and taking the burden off hospitals, said Robert Cook-Deegan, a Duke University gene policy expert. See Also:Comments (7)Not a member?If youre not yet registered with Wired. com, join now so you can share your thoughts and opinions. Your username and password will be sent to the e-mail address you provided usPatenting a gene is like patenting a newly discovered star. Massive investments are made to produce these discoveries, and stripping companies of protections could have a chilling effect on research. Whether or not you believe this good journalism should present both arguments….Read the Full Story

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Genes May Exert Opposite Effects In Diabetes And IBD

Story Summary: Some genes have opposing effects, raising the risk of one disease while protecting against the other. In other cases, a gene variant may act in the same direction, raising the risk for both diseases. We knew that multiple genes that interact with each other and with environmental factors are needed to bring on these complex diseases, and we are still detecting these genes and uncovering those interactions. The study team found overlaps among gene variants that conferred risk for both T1D and IBD. They also found four variants impacting the genes PTPN22, IL27, IL18RAP and IL10 that raised the risk of T1D while lowering the risk of Crohns disease. These opposing effects, said Hakonarson, could suggest a possible genetic switch on some biological pathways involved in both IBD and type 1 diabetes. He noted that a pathogen could interact with a gene that raises the risk for type 1 diabetes at the same time it confers protection from Crohns disease. Infections cause a lot of adaptation within the immune system, and could be exerting selective pressure in driving genomes to evolve, where the resulting disease risk or protection is more of a bystander, Hakonarson added. Funding for this study came from The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, through an Institute Development Award to the Center for Applied Genomics; from Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation; the Primary Childrens Medical Center Foundation; and the National Center for Research Resources of the National Institutes of Health. Comparative genetic analysis of inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes implicates multiple loci with opposite effects,Human Molecular Genetics, advance access published Feb. 22, 2010. 1093/hmg/ddq078 SourceThe Childrens Hospital of PhiladelphiaCopyright: Medical News Today Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News TodayAny medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Contact Our News EditorsFor any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form. What Causes Hypoglycemia?09 Oct 2009A person with abnormally low levels of blood sugar (glucose) has hypoglycemia. Glucose is the bodys main energy source….Read the Full Story

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Joining Forces to Unveil Cell Division

Story Summary: Although it has long been possible to watch dividing cells under a microscope, scientists did not know exactly which genes are involved in the process and how. The project MitoCheck was coordinated by the IMP and received 8. The results of the combined effort have now been published. The result of this international teamwork is the first catalogue of all human genes required for cell division. At the same time, the MitoCheck-team has published the most relevant results in the two journals Scienceand Nature. In the long run, scientists want to fully understand how cell division works and to use this knowledge for the development of causal therapies for cancer. This ambitious goal will require a lot more basic research in the near future. MitoSys, as it is called, will also be coordinated by the IMP and will start later this year. 2The paper Phenotypic profiling of the human genome by time-lapse microscopy reveals cell division genes by the EMBL team (Neumann et al. ) will be published in Natureon April 1st, 2010. Keywords:Contact InformationAvailable for logged-in reporters onlyDescriptionThe EU-funded project MitoCheck, which started in 2004, has now been successfully rounded off. Eleven European research teams and companies, coordinated by the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna, studied the genetic basis of cell division….Read the Full Story

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Researchers Investigate the Origins of Cancer

Story Summary: That suggests strategies to stop the cancers spread might include blocking the site where estrogen binds to its receptor or inhibiting the gene that controls production of estrogen. We are investigating LRH1 because it binds to sequences of DNA and activates the gene that produces estrogen, says Sewer. Although LRH1 is not typically present in normal breast tissue, it is present at high levels in breast cancer cells. If we can figure out what the ligand is and design some analog of the ligand that would inhibit its ability to bind to DNA and produce estrogen, we may discover a better anti-cancer therapy method, explains Sewer. Since vitamin D levels have been shown to be much lower in breast cancer patients and studies have linked insufficient vitamin D to an increased risk for breast cancer, we are investigating sphingolipid molecules that increase the presence of the genes that produce the active form of vitamin D, notes Sewer. Graduate student Tenzing Phanthok and undergraduate student Viniya Patidar are investigating the role of 1-deoxysphinganine in increasing vitamin D production and in turn preventing cancer cells from multiplying. Since these 1-deoxysphinganines are naturally produced in the body, it is possible that cancer progression is a result of altered production of 1-deoxysphinganine. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the researcher and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NIGMS, the National Institutes of Health or the NSF. Many epigenetic changes may appear prior to the development of invasive cancer, so I think that doctors might one day be able to detect epigenetic markers for cancer before a tumor appears. Epigenetic studies concentrate on the way the genome is marked and packaged inside a cells nucleus. Much of Fans research focuses on the role of H1 linker histones, a family of 10 proteins that helps to package the DNA within chromosomes. The work showed that H1 histones are important to an organisms normal development. EXAMINING HOW OVARIAN CANCER DEVELOPSUnlike many cancer biology researchers who investigate general processes underlying many cancers, John McDonald focuses his investigations broadly on one type of cancer – ovarian. One focus of McDonalds research is to determine how cancer cells develop in the ovaries. Expanding on these results, McDonald, Bowen and postdoctoral fellows Roman Mezencev and Lijuan Wang are currently examining the sensitivity of ovarian cancer stem cells and differentiated cancer cells to existing chemotherapy agents. This work was supported by the Ovarian Cancer Institute, Georgia Cancer Coalition, Golfers Against Cancer Foundation, Ovarian Cycle Foundation, Robinson Family Foundation and Deborah Nash Harris Foundation. Biologists typically believed that double-strand breaks could only be repaired by homologous intact DNA – until recently, when Francesca Storici, an assistant professor in Georgia Techs School of Biology, showed that RNA could be used as a template to directly repair DNA in yeast cells. Using RNA that naturally resides inside a cell to repair damaged DNA could represent an additional line of defense against DNA damage, says Storici, who is also a Georgia Cancer Coalition Scholar. To test the tool she develops, Storici is working with and constructing different human cell lines, and monitoring the repair of specific genetic defects with a simple flow cytometry assay. Given the ability of RNA to transfer genetic information to chromosomal DNA and the possibility of amplifying RNA within cells at will, Storici plans to continue investigating new directions in gene targeting and treatment of cancer and other genetic diseases. Today, his expertise lies in a subgroup of lipids called sphingolipids, which influence cell structure, signaling and interaction. During this process, a cell forms a vesicle that encapsulates its cytoplasm and some of the organelles and then fuses with digestive enzymes that degrade the contents of the vesicle and make them available for cell nutrition. Interestingly, autophagy has been implicated in both cancer cell death and survival. Autophagy promotes cancer cell survival by allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions, such as nutrient deprivation. Merrills laboratory found that a number of anti-cancer agents promote the formation of these vesicles through sphingolipid signaling. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the researcher and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NIGMS or the National Institutes of Health. Significant funding to support this research was also provided by the Smithgall Endowment to Georgia Tech. INVESTIGATING THE COMPLEXITY OF CHROMOSOME BREAKSEveryone has fragile sites on their chromosomes that are particularly prone to breaking, making them hot spots for rearrangements that can lead to hereditary diseases and cancer. Georgia Tech School of Biology associate professor Kirill Lobachev is trying to understand whats special about these regions, the consequences of the breaks, and the pathways that are involved in promoting and repairing these breaks. It is becoming clear that the fragile sites often contain unstable repetitive sequences that can adopt unusual DNA structures, says Lobachev. Determining whether a particular chromosomal region is predisposed to breakage requires knowledge about the structural parameters of the unstable sequences that make chromosomes fragile, such as their size or composition of the genetic sequences they contain. Long palindromes were known to change the shape of DNA from a double helix into a hairpin or cruciform structure, but this was one of the first studies to show that these changes could affect DNA integrity, explains Lobachev. They showed that gene amplification depends on the location of an oncogene relative to the break – called a hairpin-capped double strand break – and the end of the chromosome. The study indicated that restricting breakage of the unstable sequences may be a promising strategy for pharmaceutical cancer prevention and treatment. In concert with Georgias academic universities, the GCC supports the recruitment of national leaders in cancer research to Georgia. At Georgia Tech, 11 researchers have been named Distinguished Cancer Scholars, including:- Ravi Bellamkonda, professor, biomedical engineering- Nathan Bowen, senior research scientist, biology- Erin Dickerson, research scientist, biology- Yuhong Fan, assistant professor, biology- Melissa Kemp, assistant professor, biomedical engineering- Valeria Tohver Milam, assistant professor, materials science and engineering- Shuming Nie, professor, biomedical engineering- Marion Sewer, associate professor, biology- Francesa Storici, assistant professor, biology- Dongmei May Wang, assistant professor, biomedical engineering- Ming Yuan, assistant professor, industrial and systems engineeringThe Georgia Cancer Coalition has also awarded seven Cancer Research Awards to Georgia Tech faculty members investigating how to prevent, treat and cure breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. Michelle Dawson, an assistant professor in Georgia Techs School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, recently received one of these grants for her research into the development of specialized cells designed as gene delivery vehicles to target and treat breast cancer….Read the Full Story

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NexBio(R) Publishes Preclinical Study Showing DAS181 (Fludase(R)) Anti-Influenza Therapy Protects Against Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia

Story Summary: DAS181 is a broad spectrum host-targeted investigational drug candidate for treatment and prevention of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and has shown preclinical activity against numerous strains of influenza and parainfluenza virus. DAS181 blocks entry of these viruses into cells of the respiratory tract. Secondary infection with bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae(pneumococcus), occurring after influenza virus (IFV) infection, is a major public health concern associated with an increased risk of death. Indeed, CDC showed early on in the H1N1 pandemic that concurrent bacterial infection was seen in 29% of fatal cases, particularly with pneumococcus, commented Dr. Fang Fang, NexBios President of Research & Development. Unique among licensed influenza drugs and those in clinical development, DAS181 uses a Host-Oriented Therapeutic strategy. We are encouraged by these preclinical findings that suggest that the significant anti-viral activity offered by this approach is also associated with protection from potentially lethal bacterial infection, Dr. Fang added. DAS181 (Fludase(r)) is an investigational drug undergoing phase II clinical development, directed to the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza-like illness caused by any and all strains of influenza, including pandemic strains, and parainfluenza (which may cause serious respiratory illness similar to influenza and for which there is no approved vaccine or therapeutic). TOSAP(r) is a technology invented and developed by NexBio and is used to formulate DAS181 for inhalation, as well as to make microparticles from virtually any type of molecule. TOSAP is offered for the formulation of compounds of partners, under license. SAFRAN is a technology invented and developed by NexBio, used to formulate siRNA for parenteral delivery. DISCLOSURE NOTICE:This release contains forward-looking information about the research and development program of NexBio and the potential efficacy of product candidates that might result from programs that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Source: NexBio, Inc Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Contact Our News EditorsFor any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form. Please send any medical news or health news press releases to: These are the most read articles from this news category for the last 6 months: What Is Bronchitis? Lung Reduction SurgeryWhat happens during lung reduction surgery?…Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

MDRNA, Inc. Complies With NASDAQ Marketplace Rule 5250(b)(2)

Story Summary: MDRNA Forward-Looking StatementsStatements made in this news release may be forward-looking statements within the meaning of Federal Securities laws that are subject to certain risks and uncertainties and involve factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those projected or suggested. MDRNA assumes no obligation to update and supplement forward-looking statements because of subsequent events. Important Additional Information about the Merger will be filed with the SEC This press release may be deemed to be solicitation material regarding the proposed merger of MDRNA and Cequent. In connection with the proposed merger, MDRNA intends to file relevant materials and documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including a proxy statement, which will be mailed to the stockholders of MDRNA. gov. In addition, investors and the public may obtain free copies of the documents filed with the SEC by MDRNA by directing a written request to MDRNA, Inc. , 3830 Monte Villa Parkway, Bothell, Washington 98021, Attention: Investor Relations. Information regarding the special interests of these directors, executive officers and employees in the proposed transaction, if any, will be included in the proxy statement referred to above. Contact: MDRNA, Inc. : Pete Garcia Chief Financial Officer (425) 908-3603 pgarcia@mdrnainc….Read the Full Story

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Ayman El-Hattab, M.D., is awarded the 2010 Genzyme/ACMG Foundation Genetics Fellowship

Story Summary: The objective of the Genzyme/ACMGF Award is to support a national fellowship program to encourage the recruitment and training of clinicians in the field of clinical biochemical genetics and especially in the diagnosis, management and treatment of individuals with metabolic diseases. This award grants $75,000 per year to a recipient selected by the ACMG Foundation through a competitive process and will provide for the sponsorship of a trainees first year of fellowship following residency in a genetics fellowship on biochemical genetic diseases. net) advances the practice of medical genetics by providing education, resources and a voice for more than 1400 biochemical, clinical, cytogenetic, medical and molecular geneticists, genetic counselors and other healthcare professionals committed to the practice of medical genetics. net) offers a variety of resources including Policy Statements, Practice Guidelines variety of resources including Policy Statements, Practice Guidelines, Educational Resources, and a Medical Geneticist Locator. The educational and public health programs of the American College of Medical Genetics are dependent upon charitable gifts from corporations, foundations, and individuals. org) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization dedicated to funding the Colleges diverse efforts to translate genes into health. About Genzyme With many products and services helping patients in nearly 90 countries, Genzyme is a leader in the effort to develop and apply the most advanced technologies in the life sciences. About Genzyme With many products and services helping patients in nearly 90 countries, Genzyme is a leader in the effort to develop and apply the most advanced technologies in the life sciences….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Treatment resistance in some cancer cells may be reversible

Story Summary: In each of the lines they examined, a small number of tumor cells survived exposure to concentrations of drug 100 times greater than levels that killed the vast majority of the cells. The researchers found that a particular chromatin-modifying enzyme was required for the development of tolerance, and while no currently available drug inhibits that protein, agents that block an associated group of enzymes did cause the death of drug-tolerant but not drug-sensitive cells. We believe this kind of reversible drug resistance may be a fundamental property of many tumor cell populations, says Settleman. Determining whether what we see in cell cultures will translate into what happens in patients is essential, and weve already started a clinical trial to see if combining a chromatin-modifying agent with the targeted lung-cancer drug erlotinib Tarceva may prevent or delay the development of resistance. Additional co-authors are Diana Lee, Bihua Li, Margaret Quinlan, Fumiyuki Takahashi, Shyamala Maheswaran, PhD, Ultan McDermott, Nancy Azizian, Lee Zou, PhD, Michael Fischbach, PhD, Ben Wittner, PhD, and Sridhar Ramaswamy, MD, MGH Cancer Center; and Kwok-Kin Wong, MD, and Kathleyn Brandstetter, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. The work was supported by grants from the LUNGevity Foundation, Goldman Philanthropic Partnerships, and the National Institutes of Health. Massachusetts General Hospital, established in 1811, is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School….Read the Full Story

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VARI study could improve treatments for prostate cancer

Story Summary: D. , whose laboratory published the findings recently in the Journal of Biological Chemistry,where it was named Paper of the Week by the journal. When activated by hormones, androgen receptor binds to DNA in the cell nucleus and regulates gene expression with the help of molecules called coactivators, including SRC3. As a result, genes create more or less of specific proteins in the cell, which can affect cell behavior. Although androgen receptor needs coactivators such as SRC3 to have an effect, little has been known about precisely how androgen receptor interacts with its coactivators. This publication was made possible in part by Grant Numbers DK071662, DK066202, and HL089301 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, respectively. This work was supported by a Prostate Cancer Research Program Idea Development Award from the Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) of the U. S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. VARI, the research arm of VAI, is dedicated to probing the genetic, cellular and molecular origins of cancer, Parkinson and other diseases and working to translate those findings into effective therapies….Read the Full Story

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Reportlinker Adds Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016

Story Summary: Reportlinker Adds Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016NEW YORK, April 1 Reportlinker. html Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016 Summary GlobalData, the industry analysis specialists new report, Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016 is an essential source of information and analysis on the global macular degeneration market. html Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016 Summary GlobalData, the industry analysis specialists new report, Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016 is an essential source of information and analysis on the global macular degeneration market. The report identifies the key trends shaping and driving the global macular degeneration market. The report identifies the key trends shaping and driving the global macular degeneration market. The report identifies the key trends shaping and driving the global macular degeneration market. The report also provides insight on the prevalent competitive landscape and the emerging players expected to bring significant shift in the market positioning of the existing market leaders. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insight on the pipeline products within the global macular degeneration sector. This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in house analysis by GlobalDatas team of industry experts. Scope The report analyzes market opportunities and challenges for the global macular degeneration market. Its Scope includes – Annualized global macular degeneration market revenues data from 2001 to 2009, forecast forward for seven years to 2016. – Geographic markets covered in this report include the US, the UK, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, and Japan. – Pipeline analysis data provides a split across different phases, mechanism of actions being developed and emerging trends. – Pipeline analysis data provides a split across different phases, mechanism of actions being developed and emerging trends. Key classes of mechanism of action include as VEGF targetors, angiogenesis inhibitors, photosensitizers, antioxidants, C5 inhibitors, choroidal neovascularization inhibitors, multi-kinase angiogenesis inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, FKBP12 binders, mTOR inhibitors, and visual cycle inhibitors. – Analysis of the current and future market competition in the global macular degeneration market. Key market players covered are Alcon Inc. , Miravant Pharmaceuticals, Novartis AG, BioInvent International AB, MacuSight, Inc. , Ophthotech Corporation, Acucela Inc. , Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc. , Inotek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , Jerini AG, Neurotech Usa, Inc. , Oxford BioMedica, sanofi-Aventis, Paloma Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , Pfizer Inc. , PhiloGene Inc. , pSivida Corporation, Resolvyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , Targa Therapeutics Corp. , and Tracon Pharma Inc. – Insightful review of the key industry drivers, restraints and challenges. Key market players covered are Alcon Inc. , Miravant Pharmaceuticals, Novartis AG, BioInvent International AB, MacuSight, Inc. , Ophthotech Corporation, Acucela Inc. , Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc. , Inotek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , Jerini AG, Neurotech Usa, Inc. , Oxford BioMedica, sanofi-Aventis, Paloma Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , Pfizer Inc. , PhiloGene Inc. , pSivida Corporation, Resolvyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , Targa Therapeutics Corp. , and Tracon Pharma Inc. – Insightful review of the key industry drivers, restraints and challenges. Each trend is independently researched to provide qualitative analysis of its implications. – Key topics covered include strategic competitor assessment, market characterization, unmet needs and implications for future market associated with macular degeneration. Reasons to buy The report will enhance your decision making capability in a more rapid and time sensitive manner. It will allow you to: – Develop and design your in-licensing and out-licensing strategies through review of pipeline products and technologies and by identifying companies with the most robust pipeline. It will allow you to: – Develop and design your in-licensing and out-licensing strategies through review of pipeline products and technologies and by identifying companies with the most robust pipeline. It will allow you to: – Develop and design your in-licensing and out-licensing strategies through review of pipeline products and technologies and by identifying companies with the most robust pipeline. – Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving the global macular degeneration market. – Drive revenues by understanding key trends, innovative products and technologies, market segments and companies likely to impact the global macular degeneration market in future. – Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and by analyzing the performance of various competitors. – Identify emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage. – Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present maximum opportunities for consolidations, investments and strategic partnerships. – Whats the next big thing in the global macular degeneration market landscape? 6 Key Takeaway 10 3 Macular Degeneration Market: Competitive Assessment 11 3. 1 Overview 11 3. 3 Product Profile for the Major Marketed Products in the Macular Degeneration Market 12 3. 3. 1 Lucentis 12 3. 1 Overview 17 4. 2. 1 Technology Trends Analytical Framework 17 4. 5 Macular Degeneration Therapeutic Market – Clinical Pipeline by Mechanism of Action 21 4. 8 Key Takeaway 27 5 Global Macular Degeneration Market: Implications for Future Market Competition 28 6 Macular Degeneration Market: Future Players in the Macular Degeneration Disease Market 30 6. 1 List of Tables Table 1: Macular Degeneration Market, Global, Revenues ($m), 2001-2009 7 Table 2: Macular Degeneration Market, Global, Revenues ($m), 2009-2016 7 Table 3: Major Marketed Products Comparison in Macular Degeneration Market, 2010 15 Table 4: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – Most Promising Drugs Under Clinical Development, 2010 18 Table 5: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – NDA Filed, 2010 22 Table 6: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – Phase III Clinical Pipeline, 2010 22 Table 7: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – Phase II Clinical Pipeline, 2010 23 Table 8: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – Phase I Clinical Pipeline, 2010 24 Table 9: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – Preclinical Pipeline, 2010 25 Table 10: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics – Discovery Pipeline 26 Table 11: List of Discontinued/Suspended Drugs for Macular Degeneration, 2010 26 Table 12: Alcon Inc. – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 33 Table 13: Novartis AG – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 35 Table 14: BioInvent International – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 36 Table 15: MacuSight. – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 36 Table 16: Ophthotech Corporation – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 37 Table 17: Pfizer AG – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 38 Table 18: Acucela Inc. – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 38 Table 19: Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc. – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 39 Table 20: Sanofi-Aventis – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 40 Table 21: Psivida Corporation – Macular Degeneration Pipeline, 2010 41 1. 2 List of Figures Figure 1: Global Macular Degeneration Market Revenues and Forecast ($m), 2001-2016 7 Figure 2: Opportunity and Unmet Need in the Macular Degeneration Market, 2010 9 Figure 3: Strategic Competitor Assessment of the Major Marketed Products in Macular Degeneration Therapeutics, 2010 12 Figure 4: Technology Trends Analytic Framework – Macular Degeneration Market, 2010 17 Figure 5: Technology Trends Analytic Framework of the Macular Degeneration Pipeline – Description, 2010 18 Figure 6: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics Market – Clinical Pipeline by Mechanism of Action, 2010 21 Figure 7: Macular Degeneration Pipeline by Phase of Clinical Development, 2010 22 Figure 8: Implications for Future Market Competition in Macular Degeneration, 2010 28 Figure 9: Macular Degeneration Therapeutics Market – Clinical Pipeline by Company, 2010 30 Figure 10: Macular Degeneration, Global, Companies That Have the Highest Number of Molecules in the Pipeline, 2010 31 Figure 11: GlobalData Methodology 43 Figure 12: GlobalData Market Forecasting Model 46 Companies mentioned Alcon Inc. Novartis AG BioInvent International MacuSight, Inc. Ophthotech Corporation Pfizer AG Acucela Inc. Alexion Pharmaceuticals Sanofi-Aventis pSivida Corporation To order this report: Pharmaceutical Industry: Macular Degeneration – Drug Pipeline Analysis and Market Forecasts to 2016 More Market Research Report Check our Company Profile, SWOT and Revenue Analysis!…Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Duplicated DNA unlikely to play role in common disease

Story Summary: This type of genetic variation had been proposed as a possible source of some of the inherited risk of developing these conditions. The research, by a large international team including scientists from the University of Oxford and funded by the Wellcome Trust, is published online today in the journal Nature. For example, there are now around thirty genetic variants known to influence susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, but these only account for about 10 per cent of the known inherited risk of developing this condition. By comparison, this original technique used in the original WTCCC study identified 24 genetic regions. None of the three regions including a CNV is believed to contribute to disease. It seems unlikely that common CNVs play a major role in the genetic basis of common diseases, either through particular CNVs having a strong effect or through a large number of CNVs each contributing a small effect, says Dr Matt Hurles from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Understanding bipolar disorder and other complex diseases is as much about ruling out possible suspects as it is about identifying new ones, says Nick Craddock, Professor of Psychiatry at Cardiff University and a researcher involved in the study. We now know that we can likely focus our attention away from common CNVs and focus on other common and rare genetic variations, which we hope will provide biological insights that will lead to important advances in human physical and mental health. Researchers involved in the WTCCC will now try to better understand the collective role of both rarer SNPs and rarer CNVs. Researchers involved in the WTCCC will now try to better understand the collective role of both rarer SNPs and rarer CNVs. Researchers involved in the WTCCC will now try to better understand the collective role of both rarer SNPs and rarer CNVs. One such study recently received funding from the Wellcome Trust and the National Institutes of Health in the US….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Powerful HIV drugs inhibit retrovirus linked to prostate cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome

Story Summary: These results offer hope to infected persons, but we are still at the early stages of our understanding of the potential link between XMRV and these diseases, said Ila R. Singh, M. D. , Ph. Three other drugs, L-00870812, Zidovudine (ZDV or AZT), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), also effectively prevented virus replication. Singh and Schinazi are currently investigating the development of viral resistance to raltegravir and other active drugs. XMRV, a retrovirus discovered in 2006 by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, and at the Cleveland Clinic, is one of three retroviruses known to infect people. Other retroviruses that are closely related to XMRV are known to cause leukemia and sarcomas in animals. Last fall, Singh led a study that demonstrated the presence of XMRV in malignant human prostate cancer cells. Last fall, Singh led a study that demonstrated the presence of XMRV in malignant human prostate cancer cells….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Tissue engineering, imaging neuronal circuits featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols

Story Summary: , April 1, 2010) The goal of tissue engineering is to recapitulate healthy human organs and tissue structures in culture, and then transplant them into patients, where they are fully integrated. edu/star/?PMID=3157) present a protocol for the use of The Mouse Cornea as a Transplantation Site for Live Imaging of Engineered Tissue Constructs. This is a modified version of the classical corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay, which employs it as a live imaging window to monitor angiogenic hydrogel tissue constructs. Neurons are organized into anatomical and functional groups called circuits. The activity of these circuits is traditionally monitored using conventional electrophysiological techniques. But some cells, such as the submandibular ganglia, are difficult to impale for intracellular recordings. Instead, viral vectors can be used to deliver fluorescent calcium sensors for detecting activity in a living animal. edu/labs/enquist/), provides detailed instructions for the use of the pseudorabies virus (PRV) as a vector for imaging connectivity and activity of neuronal circuits. PRV has a broad host range but does not infect higher-order primates, and it travels along chains of synaptically connected neurons. The PRV strain used in this procedure encodes G-CaMP2, a sensitive fluorescent calcium sensor protein. dtl), the method allows for reliable detection of endogenous circuit activity at single-cell resolution. Life science researchers can access the entire collection via institutional site licenses, and can add their suggestions and comments to further refine the techniques. About Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press:Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press is an internationally renowned publisher of books, journals, and electronic media, located on Long Island, New York. Since 1933, it has furthered the advance and spread of scientific knowledge in all areas of genetics and molecular biology, including cancer biology, plant science, bioinformatics, and neurobiology. It is a division of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, an innovator in life science research and the education of scientists, students, and the public….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

OHSU research explains repeated infection by some viruses

Story Summary: The research involves cytomegalovirus (CMV), which infects 50 percent to 80 percent of the U. S. population before age 40. Details of the new findings are printed in this weeks online edition of the journal Science. When most viruses infect a host, the immune system remembers the disease and protects against re-infection. CMV evades these alert systems by making genes that disrupt the MHC-I molecules ability to communicate an ongoing infection to the T cells. In essence, CMV is able to cutoff an infected cells call for elimination. D. , a senior scientist at the VGTI and a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology in the OHSU School of Medicine. The results of this study primarily illustrate the significant barriers to creating a vaccine that will prevent CMV infection. Because of their ability to overcome vector-directed immunity, CMV viral vectors may be used repeatedly to stimulate an immune response against a variety of pathogens, including other viruses such as HIV and hepatitis C, but also malaria parasites and tuberculosis bacteria. This research may therefore help aid in the development of such vaccines….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Researchers discover weak link in Alzheimers drug candidates

Story Summary: Researchers discover weak link in Alzheimers drug candidatesSome current therapies being investigated for Alzheimers disease may cause further neural degeneration and cell death, according to a breakthrough discovery by UC San Diego researchers. The researchers found that the nonamyloidgenic peptides formed active ion channels that caused the cells to take in very high levels of calcium ions, which damaged synaptic efficiency and eventually killed neurons, neurons that are linked to memory loss in human brain. Through our research we have provided a structure and mechanism (an ion channel) that can account for the pathology. Lal said the use of advanced nanotechnology and biology combined with a multi disciplinary approach, aided in the researchers breakthrough discovery….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

NYSCF fellow lead author on study that derives floor plate tissue from embryonic stem cells

Story Summary: Floor plate development is essential in the development of the brain. For the first time we are able to create this unique population of cells that exists in the very early developing human brain, says Dr. Fasano. Understanding how the brain develops will be key in understanding how brain diseases occur such as Parkinsons disease. NYSCF is very proud to fund the work of young scientists that contributes so significantly to future healthcare. It is a privilege to have Dr. Fasano in our fellowship program. Embryonic stem cells are still the gold standard for monitoring pluripotency and differentiation capabilities. Chris is one of the premier young scientists in the field of stem cell research and we are excited to have him in our fellowship program. About The New York Stem Cell FoundationFounded in 2005, The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) is dedicated to accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through stem cell research….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

MSU scientists find bacterium can halt dengue virus transmission

Story Summary: New research by Michigan State University entomologists has found that a bacterium can stop dengue viruses from replicating in the mosquitoes. The Wolbachia bacterium cant be passed from mosquitoes to humans. The strain the Australian researchers used causes the mosquitoes to die a bit sooner. The strain the Australian researchers used causes the mosquitoes to die a bit sooner. There are advantages to both. The longer the mosquitoes live, the more likely they are to pass on the Wolbachia infection to their offspring and infect the entire population in a shorter timeframe. The longer the mosquitoes live, the more likely they are to pass on the Wolbachia infection to their offspring and infect the entire population in a shorter timeframe. But if the mosquitoes die earlier, they cant bite people and transmit the dengue virus. But if the mosquitoes die earlier, they cant bite people and transmit the dengue virus. In both instances, the results demonstrate the potential using the Wolbachia bacterium as a control method for dengue virus. In both instances, the results demonstrate the potential using the Wolbachia bacterium as a control method for dengue virus. Only when we know the mechanisms underlying Wolbachia-mediated viral interference, will we will be able to why its happening and further improve the efficiency of the viral interference, he said. Only when we know the mechanisms underlying Wolbachia-mediated viral interference, will we will be able to why its happening and further improve the efficiency of the viral interference, he said. While dengue fever is rare in the continental United States, Hawaii was the site of a dengue epidemic in 2001….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

If suppressed for 12 months, low risk of viral rebound above 1,000 copies

Story Summary: However, they found that during the first year of HIV treatment, viral load was above the threshold of 1,000 copies/ml associated with onward transmission for approximately 5% of the time. In this nationwide population-based cohort study of Danish HIV-infected patients on HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy with more than six months of suppressed viral load, we found that the risk of experiencing a viral load above 1000 copies/ml and thereby transmitting HIV sexually was very low, comment the investigators. Danish HIV physicians wished to assess the likelihood of viral load increasing to levels associated with onward transmission in patients taking suppressive HIV treatment. The risk of transmission was especially high during the first six months of HIV therapy, when 8% of the time was spent with a viral load above 1000 copies/ml. During the next six months, viral load was at potentially infectious levels for a little over 1% of the time. Thereafter, viral load was above the potentially infectious threshold for an average of 0. 03% of follow-up was spent with a viral load above 1000 copies. This was attributed to poorer treatment adherence in this population. Assuming that there is a viral threshold of infectiousness, our results indicate that the risk of viraemia is very low in patients on successful antiretroviral treatment, write the investigators. Noting that HIV-infected patients have, however, an increased risk of abrupt viraemia in not just the first six months but the first twelve months of episodes with undetectable viral load, the investigators recommend there would be a substantial gain in reducing the risk of infecting the sexual partner, if the time limit recommended by the Swiss was extended from six months to at least twelve months. Noting that HIV-infected patients have, however, an increased risk of abrupt viraemia in not just the first six months but the first twelve months of episodes with undetectable viral load, the investigators recommend there would be a substantial gain in reducing the risk of infecting the sexual partner, if the time limit recommended by the Swiss was extended from six months to at least twelve months. ReferenceEngsig FN et al. Risk of high-level viraemia in HIV-infected patients on successful antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months. ReferenceEngsig FN et al. Risk of high-level viraemia in HIV-infected patients on successful antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months. 2009….Read the Full Story

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Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

Human Gene Patents Invalidated

Basing his decision on legal arguments that human genes are products of nature and hence cannot be patented, in March of 2010 a U.S. District Court judge invalidated several patents held by a company called Myriad Genetics on the human breast cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Myriad Genetics sells a kit used to test for the two genes for about $3,000. The company tried to argue that their method of isolating the genes changed the genes, and thus made them patentable. But the judge ruled that such an argument was just a trick to circumvent the prohibition on the direct patenting of DNA.

About 20% of human genes have already been patented. A number of biotech companies were planning to make a hefty profit by developing and selling patent-protected genetic tests or by selling the patent rights to others. Whether all of those patents could ultimately be invalidated is unclear. With potentially billions of dollars at stake, the decision is likely to be appealed.

Medical and research organizations and patients are pleased by the decision. If it holds up on appeal it should provide wider access to human genes currently under patent protection, and ultimately make genetic tests like those for BRCA1 and BRCA2 less expensive.

Recommendation and review posted by Bethany Smith

In Southeast Community Hospitals Clostridium Difficile Is More Common Than MRSA

Story Summary: Previous studies were based on estimates using hospital ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes. To better understand and identify infection trends, researchers also examined 949 other cases of HAIs. They found bloodstream infections occurred in 481 patients on general hospital wards and device-related infections occurred in 468 patients in intensive care units (ICU). Source: Sharon Reis Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Contact Our News EditorsFor any corrections of factual information, or to contact the editors please use our feedback form. Where to Go When You Cant Get a Good Nights SleepWhen you cant get a good nights sleep on a regular basis, a sleep center can help you figure out whats keeping you up. At a sleep center, doctors measure different body functions while you sleep to figure out if you have a sleep disorder….Read the Full Story

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