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Premarin treatment depression – Premarin costco – Female hormone premarin – The Independent News


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Premarin treatment depression – Premarin costco – Female hormone premarin
The Independent News
Premarin treatment depression – Premarin costco – Female hormone premarin …. It it doctor one for possible. and them (Generic), you those byl niezwykle videos 30 subtle but prescription The suitable whole ablaze which especially you pill ooooo!I the

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Premarin treatment depression – Premarin costco – Female hormone premarin – The Independent News

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AUA 2017: The Effect of Shift Work on a Man’s Sexual and Urologic Health – UroToday

Boston, MA, May 13, 2017 (UroToday.com) A series of studies evaluating the relationship between shift work,sleep disorders and a mans urologic health will be presented at a special press conferenceduring the 112th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA). Howard L. Adler,MD, clinical associate professor of urology and medical director of the prostate care program atStony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, will moderate the session, which will take place onSaturday, May 13 at 10:30 a.m. in the Boston Convention & Exhibition Center in Boston, MA. Shift work is known for having unique demands that set it apart from other jobs with traditionaldaytime working hours. It is also known for having such benefits as better pay or theconvenience of not needing child care; however, new studies show the downside to men whoregularly work hours outside of a 7 am. 6 p.m. workday may include an increased risk ofhypogonadal or low-T symptoms, altered semen parameters (e.g., sperm count, motility) andincreased lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

Study Details

Shift Workers with Shift Work Sleep Disorder Have Increased Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms(#MP13-12): Previous studies suggest non-standard male shift workers have an increased risk ofLUTS, which can include frequency or urgency of urination, reduced urine flow, painful urinationor a sensation of incomplete emptying. They also suggest these workers are at an increased riskfor developing shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), a primary circadian rhythm disorder thatdisrupts the bodys internal clock. Utilizing questionnaires from men who presented to a singleandrology clinic between July 2014 and September 2016, researchers set out to examine theassociation between SWSD and LUTS in shift workers. The study population included 2,487 men,of whom 37 percent were diagnosed with SWSD. Each participants work schedule, SWSD riskand LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were examined. The impact of nonstandardshift work and SWSD on IPSS score was also assessed using ANOVA and linearregression.

Results showed:

Shift workers diagnosed with SWSD have worse LUTS than those without SWSD. Poor sleep habits, rather than shift work itself, contribute to worse LUTS. Modifying work and sleep schedules may reduce risk for SWSD and subsequent LUTS.

Study Details

Increased Risk of Hypogonadal Symptoms in Shift Workers with Shift Work Sleep Disorder(#MP91-06): Men with hypogonadism have low testosterone levels accompanied by physicalsymptoms such as erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle mass, low sex drive and troublesleeping. In an effort to determine whether a relationship exists between non-standard shiftwork and hypogonadal symptoms, researchers examined data from nearly 2,500 men who werepatients at an andrology clinic between July 2014 and September 2016. Seven hundred sixty-sixmen worked non-standard shifts, and 282 were diagnosed with SWSD. The men completedquestionnaires about their shift work schedule, SWSD risk and hypogonadal symptoms(Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (qADAM) questionnaire). The impact of non-standardshift work and SWSD on responses to qADAM was then assessed utilizing ANOVA and linearregression.

Results showed:

Shift workers with SWSD have lower testosterone levels and worse hypogonadal symptoms than daytime workers. Poor sleep habits caused by SWSD may contribute to more severe hypogonadal symptoms in non-standard shift workers. SWSD was independently associated with lower testosterone levels when controlling for age, comorbidities and history of testosterone supplementation.

Study Details

Shift Work is Associated with Altered Semen Parameters in Infertile Men (#: PD13-08):Recognizing shift work negatively impacts circadian rhythms and the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal(HPG) axis, an integral regulator of spermatogenesis, researchers in Texas set out tostudy the impact of shift work on semen parameters and reproductive hormones in infertilemen. Participants included men who were not able to achieve pregnancy within 12 months, andhad no known genetic or obstructive causes of infertility, as well as, men who had fathered achild within the last five years. Nearly 200 men: 75 infertile shift workers, 98 infertile non-shiftworkers and 27 fertile controls were compared.

Results showed:

Sperm density, total motile count (TMC) and testosterone levels were lower in shiftworkers. No differences in semen volume, sperm motility, leutinizing hormone or follicle stimulating hormone were observed. Infertile shift workers have worse semen parameters than non-shift workers, which is consistent with alterations in the HPG axis observed in shift workers.

Study Details

The Relationship Between Sleep Disorders and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results fromthe National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (#: MP13-15): By examiningthe NHANES database, researchers sought to investigate the frequency of LUTS in men, with andwithout such sleep disorders as obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia. Researchers examinedthe NHANES database over a two-year period and included men ages 18-70 who completedsleep questionnaires in addition to prostate and kidney forms. Physician-diagnosed sleepdisorders were self-reported by patients and statistical analyses were used to compare groups.

Results showed:

Of the 6,158 men who completed the survey questions, seven percent reported a sleep disorder. Men with sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, have increased nocturia and are more likely to experience daytime LUTS. Older age, Caucasian race, elevated BMI and increased comorbidity score are factors associated with an increased risk of LUTS in men with sleep disorders. Men with obstructive sleep apnea were more likely to experience bothersome daytime LUTS compared to men with other sleep disorders.

These findings demonstrate how sleep disruption and shift work can negatively impact a mansurologic health, said Dr. Adler. The improved understanding about the role sleep plays incontributing to or worsening lower urinary tract symptoms, male infertility and low testosteronecan lead to more effective diagnosis and treatment options.

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Cancer-cardiac connection illuminates promising new drug for heart … – Medical Xpress

May 17, 2017 Images of heart muscle cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Credit: Q. Duan et al., Science Translational Medicine (2017)

A team of researchers at the Gladstone Institutes uncovered a new strategy to treat heart failure, a leading contributor to mortality and healthcare costs in the United States. Despite widespread use of currently-approved drugs, approximately 40% of patients with heart failure die within 5 years of their initial diagnosis.

“The current standard of care is clearly not sufficient, which highlights the urgent need for new therapeutic approaches,” said Saptarsi Haldar, MD, an associate investigator at Gladstone and senior author of a new study featured on the cover of the scientific journal Science Translational Medicine. “In our previous work, we found that a drug-like small molecule called JQ1 can prevent the development of heart failure in mouse models when administered at the very onset of the disease. However, as the majority of patients requiring treatment already have longstanding cardiac dysfunction, we needed to determine if our strategy could also treat established heart failure.”

As part of an emerging treatment strategy, drugs derived from JQ1 are currently under study in early-phase human cancer trials. These drugs act by inhibiting a protein called BRD4, a member of a family of proteins called BET bromodomains, which directly influences heart failure. With this study, the scientists found that JQ1 can effectively treat severe, pre-established heart failure in both small animal and human cell models by blocking inflammation and fibrosis (scarring of the heart tissue).

“It has long been known that inflammation and fibrosis are key conspirators in the development of heart failure, but targeting these processes with drugs has remained a significant challenge,” added Haldar, who is also a practicing cardiologist and an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. “By inhibiting the function of the protein BRD4, an approach that simultaneously blocks both of these processes, we are using a new and different strategy altogether to tackle the problem.”

Currently available drugs used for heart failure work at the surface of heart cells. In contrast, Haldar’s approach goes to the root of the problem and blocks destructive processes in the cell’s command center, or nucleus.

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“We treated mouse models of heart failure with JQ1, similarly to how patients would be treated in a clinic,” said Qiming Duan, MD, PhD, postdoctoral scholar in Haldar’s lab and co-first author of the study. “We showed that this approach effectively treats pre-established heart failure that occurs both after a massive heart attack or in response to persistent high blood pressure (mechanical overload), suggesting it could be used to treat a wide array of patients.”

Using Gladstone’s unique expertise, the scientists then used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), generated from adult human skin cells, to create a type of beating heart cell known as cardiomyocytes.

“After testing the drug in mice, we wanted to check whether JQ1 would have the same effect in humans,” explained co-first author Sarah McMahon, a UCSF graduate student in Haldar’s lab. “We tested the drug on human cardiomyocytes, as they are cells that not only beat, but can also trigger the processes of inflammation and fibrosis, which in turn make heart failure progressively worse. Similar to our animal studies, we found that JQ1 was also effective in human heart cells, reaffirming the clinical relevance of our results.”

The study also showed that, in contrast to several cancer drugs that have been documented to cause cardiac toxicity, BRD4 inhibitors may be a class of anti-cancer therapeutics that has protective effects in the human heart.

“Our study demonstrates a new therapeutic approach to successfully target inflammation and fibrosis, representing a major advance in the field,” concluded Haldar. “We also believe our current work has important near-term translational impact in human heart failure. Given that drugs derived from JQ1 are already being tested in cancer clinical trials, their safety and efficacy in humans are already being defined. This key information could accelerate the development of a new heart failure drug and make it available to patients more quickly.”

Explore further: Heart failure is as ‘malignant’ as some common cancers

More information: Q. Duan el al., “BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses innate inflammatory and profibrotic transcriptional networks in heart failure,” Science Translational Medicine (2017). stm.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.aah5084

A new analysis finds that, despite advances in care, men and women with a diagnosis of heart failure continue to have worse survival rates than patients with certain common cancers.

Patching a damaged heart with a patient’s own muscle stem cells improves symptoms of heart failure, according to a Phase I clinical trial reported in Journal of the American Heart Association, the Open Access Journal of the …

Researchers have completed a randomized clinical trial in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which currently has no effective treatment for reducing morbidity and mortality.

A new analysis describes different classifications of patients who are hospitalized with acute heart failure based on various characteristics, which may help guide early decisions regarding triage and treatment.

(HealthDay)Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of heart failure, according to a study published in the March 14 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

In the largest German survey on heart failure to date, investigators found that the overall awareness of heart failure has not increased over the past decade and is not at a satisfactory level.

Shortness of breath is the No.1 complaint of people suffering from heart failure. Now a University of Guelph researcher has discovered its surprising cause – and an effective treatment – in a groundbreaking new study.

A team of researchers at the Gladstone Institutes uncovered a new strategy to treat heart failure, a leading contributor to mortality and healthcare costs in the United States. Despite widespread use of currently-approved …

Although the absolute difference in U.S. county-level cardiovascular disease mortality rates have declined substantially over the past 35 years for both ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, large differences …

Waist-to-hip ratio may be a stronger indicator of some cardiovascular illnesses than the commonly-used measure BMI, according to a new UCL-led study.

New research has found that genetic differences in antibody genes alter individuals’ susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease, a forgotten inflammatory heart condition known as ‘RHD’ that is rife in developing countries.

People who use commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat pain and inflammation could be raising their risk of having a heart attack, as early as in the first week of use and especially within …

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Creative Medical Technology Holdings to Expand into 10 Billion Dollar per Year Lower Back Pain Market with … – PR Newswire (press release)

“Creative Medical Technology Holdings will develop this patent through the same process that we are using for our clinical-stage Caverstem procedure for erectile dysfunction,” stated Timothy Warbington, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company. “We plan to identify and engage key opinion leaders who will lead clinical trials, which will serve as the basis for accelerated commercialization.”

The Company is currently running a clinical trial using autologous non-manipulated bone marrow stem cells for patients suffering from erectile dysfunction that are non-responsive to standard approaches such as Viagra.Once the trial is completed, the results will serve as the basis for marketing of disposables utilized in administration of stem cells.

“Although numerous companies are injecting stem cells directly into the disc, direct injection may only cause temporary benefit because the root cause of the pathology, in our opinion, is the reduced blood supply,” stated Dr. Amit Patel, Director of Thoracic Surgery at University of Miami and co-founder of Creative Medical Technology Holdings. “By recreating in the microenvironment of the lower back the same thing that we do in atherosclerotic heart patients, we believe we have a novel way to treat this terrible condition that wreaks havoc on our health care system.”

Several studies have shown that administration of stem cells possesses a therapeutic effect in cardiac conditions associated with poor circulation by stimulation of new blood vessel production, a process termed “angiogenesis”.The current patent covers stimulation of angiogenesis in the lower back using mesenchymal stem cells.These cells can be used from the same patient, which is considered an “autologous therapy” as well as using stem cells in a universal donor manner, which is termed “allogeneic”.

“The acquisition of this patent not only positions the company to expand into the disc degenerative space, but also provides a powerful platform for collaboration with other companies that are administering regenerative cells directly into the nucleus pulposus of the disc,” commented Thomas Ichim, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer of the Company and inventor of the technology. “Stem cells are like seeds, they need to be planted into fertile soil. We feel that in certain patients it is essential to treat the lumbar ischemia, which is present in some patients suffering from disc degenerative disease, which will then allow the stem cells administered directly in the disc to perform their regenerative effects.”

About US

Creative Medical Technology Holdings, Inc. is a clinical-stage biotechnology company with two focus areas; 1) personalized stem cell procedures for sexual dysfunction and infertility, and 2) universal, off-the-shelf amniotic fluid-based stem cells that possess superior healing potential without negative medical or ethical issues. Through our own research and collaborations with leading academic institutions, we have developed proprietary protocols, built an extensive intellectual property portfolio, developed complete treatment offerings for erectile dysfunction and are performing ground-breaking research with our amniotic fluid-based stem cell.

For additional information visit http://www.CREATIVEMEDICALTECHNOLOGY.com

Forward-Looking StatementsThis release may contain “forward-looking statements.” Forward-looking statements are identified by certain words or phrases such as “may”, “aim”, “will likely result”, “believe”, “expect”, “anticipate”, “estimate”, “intend”, “plan”, “contemplate”, “seek to”, “future”, “objective”, “goal”, “project”, “should”, “will pursue” and similar expressions or variations of such expressions. These forward-looking statements reflect the Company’s current expectations about its future plans and performance. These forward-looking statements rely on a number of assumptions and estimates which could be inaccurate and which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Actual results could vary materially from those anticipated or expressed in any forward-looking statement made by the Company. Please refer to the Company’s most recent Forms 10-Q and 10-K and subsequent filings with the SEC for a further discussion of these risks and uncertainties. The Company disclaims any obligation or intent to update the forward-looking statements in order to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this release.

To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/creative-medical-technology-holdings-to-expand-into-10-billion-dollar-per-year-lower-back-pain-market-with-acquisition-of-issued-us-stem-cell-patent-300459902.html

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Canadian Doctors Like Cameron Clokie Are The Innovators Behind The New Era of Regenerative Medicine – French Tribune

Heavy increases in obesity have led to an epidemic of various heart diseases, including cardiac arrests and even strokes. These dangers have compelled doctors and research specialists to seek out new ways of managing these problems. One method that has been getting a lot of attention is regenerative medicine.

This treatment method, while occasionally controversial, shows an incredible potential that could solve many serious health problems. Specialists like Dr. Cameron Clokie, a health expert with decades of experience, are currently trying to find ways to make this treatment method more accepted by those who oppose it.

The Potential for Serious Health Benefits is Huge

Regenerative medicine is the use of stem cells and other regeneration items to promote more efficient healing. Dr. Cameron Clokie has preached about the effectiveness of this treatment method for years. And it seems like the rest of the world is finally catching up with him and others like him. For example, a recent study found that stem cells could help manage cardiac and nervous system diseases.

The careful use of stem cells could regenerate damaged heart tissues and help a person avoid heart attacks and other serious problems. Even more promising, stem cells could be used to help repair nerve damage that would otherwise leave a person paralyzed for life.

Stem Cell Research Could Save Lives

Think of the stem cells in your body as building blocks that will take whatever shape is necessary. They can become heart cells and patch a hole in this vital organ. However, they could also become spinal cells and repair severe damage to this crucial part of the body.

The possibilities associated with stem cells could be potentially limitless. As they can be manipulated to take the form of any cell, they could be used to treat a variety of serious health problems. For example, they could become white blood cells and fight serious viral problems. In fact, they could even be used to treat life-threatening diseases like AIDS.

One of the understated benefits of regenerative medicine is the way that it uses actual cells from your body. Think of the problems the medical world has had with artificial hearts. While they can be beneficial to many people, they are often rejected by the fickle body as an intruder. However, creating a working heart with your body’s stem cells would eliminate that problem.

Why? Your body would recognize the heart’s cells as coming from you and would accept it more readily. As a result, you could get a new (and real) heart to replace a severely damaged one.

Profit Levels Could Also Be High

One thing that has interested many people about regenerative health and stem cell research is the potential for huge profits. Many health experts have tried to stress the ways that regenerative health could help boost the world’s economy. For example, a recent study on the financial state of this market found that it had an $18.9 billion global impact.

Even more shocking, it was projected to hit $53 billion by 2021. The major focus of this market would be in bone and joint reconstruction. The United States was expected to potentially make the largest profits in this area, which is something Dr. Cameron Clokie has emphasized in the past.

However, the European market is projected to be even bigger if the currently somewhat stagnant American regenerative market is held back by restrictive regulations or laws. In this way, well-meaning politicians could deny their constituents access to lifesaving treatments and severely impact the market at the same time.

Final Thoughts

Regenerative medicine of the type proposed by Dr. Cameron Clokie and others like him could transform the medical world. While the protests of people who find stem cells wrong are understandable, the major benefits of using them cannot be ignored.

This fact is why it is so important to help specialists like Dr. Cameron Clokie get the help they need to promote regenerative medicine breakthroughs. In this way, it is possible to solve serious health dangers.

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Human blood stem cells grown in the lab for the first time – New Scientist

Potential for a new supply line

Burger/Phanie/REX/Shutterstock

By Jessica Hamzelou

The stem cells that produce our blood have been created in the lab for the first time. These could one day be used to treat people who have blood diseases and leukaemia with their own cells, rather than bone marrow transplants from a donor. They could also be used to create blood for transfusions.

This is a very big deal, says Carolina Guibentif at the University of Cambridge, who was not involved in the research. If you can develop [these cells] in the lab in a safe way and in high enough numbers, you wouldnt be dependent on donors.

In a healthy adult, blood stem cells are found in bone marrow, where they replenish the supply of red and white blood cells and platelets. They are sort of master cells, says George Daley at Harvard Medical School.

When these cells dont work properly, they fail to maintain an adequate supply of blood cells. As a result, not enough oxygen reaches the bodys tissues. This can cause serious disease if organs such as the heart are affected. Blood stem cells can also be wiped out by chemotherapy for leukaemia and other cancers.

People with these disorders tend to be treated with bone marrow complete with blood stem cells from a healthy donor. The difficulty is finding a match. There is a one in four chance of achieving this from a healthy sibling, but the odds are slashed to one in a million if a stranger needs to be found, says Daley.

In an attempt to create blood stem cells in the lab, Daley and his colleagues started with human pluripotent stem cells which have the potential to form almost any other type of body cell.

The team then searched for chemicals that might encourage these to become blood stem cells.

After studying the genes involved in blood production, the researchers identified proteins that control these genes and applied them to their stem cells.

They tested many combinations of the proteins, and found five that worked together to encourage their stem cells to become blood stem cells. When they put these into mice, they went on to produce new red and white blood cells and platelets. Its very cool, says Daley. Were very excited about the results.

A separate team has achieved the same feat with stem cells taken from adult mice. Raphael Lis at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York and his colleagues started with cells taken from the walls of the animals lungs, based on the idea that similar cells in an embryo eventually form the bodys first blood stem cells. The team identified a set of four factors that could encourage these lung stem cells to make them.

Both sets of results represent a breakthrough, says Guibentif. This is something people have been trying to achieve for a long time, she says. By working with adult mouse epithelial cells, Lis and his team show that the feat could potentially be achieved with cells taken from an adult person. Daleys team used human stem cells that could in theory be made from skin cells, bolstering the prospect that lab-made human blood could be next.

The lab-made stem cells are not quite ready to be used in people just yet, says Daley. Although all of his mice were healthy throughout the experiments, there is a risk that the cells could mutate and cause cancer. And the cells are not quite as efficient at making blood as those found in the body.

But once Daley and his team have honed their procedure, they might be able to make platelets and red blood cells for hospital use. These cell types dont have a nucleus, so are unable to divide and potentially cause cancer. He hopes this procedure could be used within the next couple of years.

Eventually, Daley hopes his cells could be used to create whole blood suitable for transfusions. Not only would such a supply be more reliable than that from donors, but it would also be free of disease. When new pathogens like Zika pop up, you have to make sure that blood is safe, says Daley. Wed be able to have more quality control.

Journal references: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature22326; Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature22370

Read more: Synthetic bone implant can make blood cells in its marrow; Lab-grown blood given to volunteer for the first time

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Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat a key to better bone health – Science Daily


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Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat a key to better bone health
Science Daily
It could be that when fat cells are burned during exercise, the marrow uses the released energy to make more bone. Or, because both fat and bone cells come from parent cells known as mesenchymal stem cells, it could be that exercise somehow stimulates …

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Bone marrow transplant facility to be available to public, government employees – The News International

Islamabad

The Ministry of National Health Services signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre here Thursday for provision of bone marrow transplant facility to the general public and federal government employees and their families, along with Armed Forces personnel and their families and defence paid employees.

Under the MOU, the National Institute of Blood and Marrow Transplant shall be established at the Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre and will be designated as the National Institute of Blood and Marrow Transplant (NIBMT). This new facility will broaden the scope of the hospital, so that bone marrow/stem cell transplant can be extended to federal government employees and the general public. It will also serve to extend training facilities in the field of Bone Marrow Transplant and Clinical Haematology.

The MOU was signed on behalf of National Health Services by Director General Health Dr. Assad Hafeez whereas Major General Tariq Mehmood Satti Commandant Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, signed on behalf of his organization. Commandant of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Maj. Gen. Parvez Ahmed was also present on the occasion.

Speaking on the occasion, the Secretary of the Ministry of Health Services Muhammad Ayub Shaikh expressed gratitude to the Commandant of AFIP and AFBMPC for their efforts in making the MOU possible. This noble initiative will benefit a large number of patients, he projected. Major General Parvez Ahmed elaborated the efforts and initiatives taken to make the MOU possible.

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Bone marrow transplant facility to be available to public, government employees – The News International

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Ontario teen Jonathan Pitre’s second attempt at stem cell transplant is a success – Cantech Letter

Jonathan Pitre in a 2015 TSN profile.

This time, it worked.

Suffering from a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa (EB), an incurable genetic condition which causes the skin to blister and create painful wounds, Pitre, who turns 17 next month, was given the moniker Butterfly Boy due to his delicate skin.

EB can be fatal, with many people who have severe EB dying from skin cancer in their twenties. Pitre underwent his second stem cell transplant procedure at the University of Minnesota Masonic Childrens Hospital, a pioneer in treating EB though stem cell transplants.

Paediatric hematoligist-oncologist with the University of Minnesota Jakub Tolar calls EB the worst disease youve never heard of, as it affects only one in 20,000 people. Research by Tolar and his colleagues led to the discovery that bone marrow transplantation, a procedure typically used to treat blood cancers in the bone marrow such as leukemia, could benefit those with EB.

This had never been done before, says Tolar, who directs the U of Ms Stem Cell Institute, in a press release. I didnt know it at the time we started this research 10 years ago, but it opened a totally new field in transplantation biology.

Stem cell transplants involve a persons blood-forming stem cells (immature cells that can become various types of specialized cells in the body, in this case, becoming different types of blood cells) from the bone marrow and replacing them with healthy stem cells.

For Pitre, his earlier bone marrow transplant last October proved unsuccessful as doctors learned that his own stem cells had recolonized his bone marrow. This time around, the results look more promising. Pitres mother, Tina Boileau, who was the donor, is now full of joy and relief, according to an Ottawa Citizen report, which states that newly created white blood cells in Pitres system contain a pair of X chromosomes, indicating that they came from Boileaus donated cells.

This is the best news ever, the best Mothers Day gift, said Boileau. Jon is full of me. He doesnt have any T-cells that are his.

Its been over 30 years since bone marrow cells were first used to treat cancer, but recent advances have shown the potential application of stem cell transplantation for a variety of diseases and conditions, from brain and spinal cord injury to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers to HIV/AIDS. Researchers at Cardiff University in Wales, for example, have just announced commencement of stem cell transplants for patients with Huntingtons disease.

The Ontario government has just announced $32 million in new funding to help shorten the long wait times for stem cell transplants in the province, meaning that 150 more patients a year will be able to receive transplant therapy. As reported in the Hamilton Spectator, $10 million of the new funds will be going to the Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Centre in Hamilton for a dedicated unit with 15 inpatient and five outpatient beds.

Below: TSN Original: The Butterfly Child

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Blasting tiny bubbles at broken pig bones makes them heal on their own – The Verge

Scientists have healed severe bone fractures in pigs by blasting tiny bubbles with ultrasound in the animals bones. The technique encourages the pigs bodies to regenerate themselves, and could one day be used to help humans especially the elderly heal dangerous bone injuries.

Broken bones are common: you wrap an arm or wrist in a cast and the bone eventually heals on its own. But sometimes, people have nonunion fractures, meaning bones fail to produce new bone tissue and dont heal properly. There are about 100,000 cases of this in the United States every year. One solution is bone grafts, or bone transplants using donated marrow, but this procedure is invasive and there is a risk that the body will reject the marrow. Another solution is to use viruses to deliver bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that encourage the bodys own stem cells to create more bone marrow. But using a virus can have negative side effects like inflammation.

In a study published today in Science Translational Medicine, scientists healed a 0.4-inch fracture in pigs in eight weeks without invasive surgery. Going from something invasive to something like this that potentially could be an outpatient procedure has been the holy grail in orthopedics, says Edward Schwarz, director of the University of Rochesters Center for Musculoskeletal Research, who was not involved with the study. He adds that, though these nonunion fractures arent the most common health problem, theyre a serious one. People are shocked when I tell them that the life expectancy with a nonunion fracture is shorter than with pancreatic cancer, he says. Were like horses. If we cant get up and walk again, then were done.

In the study, the researchers first caused a 0.4-inch fracture in the shins of 18 minipigs. Then, they inserted a biodegradable scaffolds into the broken shins, says co-author Gadi Pelled, a professor of surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. The scaffold helped support bone stem cells in the area. The scientists let the stem cells migrate and populate over the scaffold for two weeks but that wast enough. The stem cells had to be triggered to actually heal the injury. So the scientists injected microbubbles mixed with bone morphogenetic proteins. Immediately after the injection, they applied ultrasound, which stimulated the BMPs to enter into the stem cells and activate them.

The stem cells then turned into bone cells and healed the fracture after eight weeks. This method doesnt have the side effects associated with using viruses, and the fact that it uses the bodys own stem cells means theres no risk of rejection, says co-author Zulma Gazit, also at Cedars-Sinai. This ultrasound and microbubbles combo has already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is often used in radiology, so the new technique could be readily approved for use in humans.

Next, says Pelled, the team is studying whether the same technology can also work with tissues like ligaments; they gathering more comprehensive information. Before we move forward into humans, we need to determine that this technology is safe, says Pelled. Theyre hopeful that a clinical trial is on the way.

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This new technology could produce babies from skin cells. And that’s bad. – Catholic News Agency

Washington D.C., May 18, 2017 / 03:02 pm (CNA/EWTN News).- Within the next 10-20 years, a new and controversial fertility technology called in vitro gametogenesis could make it possible to manipulate skin cells into creating a human baby.

However, this groundbreaking research has caused push-back from some critics, like Fr. Tadeusz Pacholczyk, director of education at the National Catholic Bioethics Center, who says IVG would turn procreation into a transaction.

IVG extends the faulty logic of IVF by introducing additional steps to the process of manipulating the origins of the human person, in order to satisfy the desires of customers and consumers, Fr. Pacholczyk told CNA in an email interview.

The technology also offers the possibility of introducing further fractures into parenthood, distancing children from their parents by multiplying the number of those involved in generating the child, so that 3-parent embryos, or even more parents, may become involved, he continued.

IVG has been successfully tested by Japanese researchers on mice, which produced healthy babies derived from skin cells.

The process begins by taking the skin cells from the mouses tail and re-programing them to become induced pluripotent stem cells. These manipulated cells are able to grow different kinds of cells, and are then used to grow eggs and sperm, which are then fertilized in the lab. The resulting embryos are then implanted in a womb.

Although similar to in vitro fertilization, IVG eliminates the step of needing pre-existing egg and sperm, and instead creates these gametes.

But many experts in the reproductive field are skeptical of its potential outcomes and ethical compromises.

It gives me an unsettled feeling because we dont know what this could lead to, Paul Knoepfler, a stem cell researcher at the University of California, Davis, told the New York Times.

Knoepfler noted that some of the potential repercussions of IVG could turn into cloning or designer babies. Other dangers could include the Brad Pitt scenario, in which celebritys skin cells retrieved from random places, like hotel rooms, could be used to create a baby.

Potentially anyones skin cells could be used to create a baby, even without their knowledge or consent.

In an issue of Science Translational Medicine earlier this year, a trio of academics a Harvard Law professor, the dean of Harvard Medical School, and a medical science professor at Brown wrote that IVG may raise the specter of embryo farming on a scale currently unimagined, which might exacerbate concerns about the devaluation of human life.

They added that refining the science of IVG to the point of clinical use will involve the generation and likely destruction of large numbers of embryos from stem cellderived gametes and the process may exacerbate concerns regarding human enhancement.

Fr. Pacholczyk also pointed to further concerns, saying IVG disrupts the uniqueness of every individuals sex cells.

I.V.G raises additional concerns because of the way it manipulates human sex cells. Our sex cells, or gametes, are special cells. They uniquely identify us, Fr. Pacholczyk stated.

It is most unfortunate that overwhelming parental desires are being permitted to trump and distort the right order of transmitting human life, he continued.

Fr. Pacholczyk said that processes like IVG enable a consumerist mentality that holds that children are projects to be realized through commercial transactions and laboratory techniques of gamete manipulation.

The Catholic Church teaches that IVF and similar reproductive technologies are morally illicit for several reasons, including their separation of procreation from the conjugal act and the creation of embryos which are discarded.

Pope Francis recently spoke out against the destruction of human embryos, saying that no good result from research can justify the destruction of embryos.

Some branches of research use human embryos, inevitably causing their destruction. But we know that no ends, even noble in themselves such as a predicted utility for science, for other human beings or for society can justify the destruction of human embryos, the Holy Father said May 18.

Although IVG has proven successful in mice, there are still some wrinkles that need to be ironed out before it is tested on humans, and will entail years more of tedious bioengineering.

However, Fr. Pacholczyk hopes that potential parents will come to realize that children should not products that can be ordered or purchased by consumers, and should rather be seen as a gift.

Turning commercial laboratories to create children on our behalf is an unethical step in the direction of treating our offspring as objects to be planned and created in the pursuit of parental gratification, rather than gifts received from the Lord.

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This new technology could produce babies from skin cells. And that’s bad. – Catholic News Agency

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Approaching a decades-old goal: Making blood stem cells from patients’ own cells – Science Daily


Science Daily
Approaching a decades-old goal: Making blood stem cells from patients' own cells
Science Daily
… lab using pluripotent stem cells, which can make virtually every cell type in the body. The advance opens new avenues for research into the root causes of blood diseases and to creating immune-matched blood cells for treatment purposes, derived
'Milestone' in quest to make blood cells: studiesGeo News, Pakistan

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Approaching a decades-old goal: Making blood stem cells from patients’ own cells – Science Daily

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Gene-editing tool ‘CRISPR’ gaining massive attention – KMOV.com

Precision editing DNA allows for some amazing applications. Ian Haydon, CC BY-ND

Ian Haydon, University of Washington

Theres a revolution happening in biology, and its name is CRISPR.

CRISPR (pronounced crisper) is a powerful technique for editing DNA. It has received an enormous amount of attention in the scientific and popular press, largely based on the promise of what this powerful gene-editing technology will someday do.

CRISPR was Science magazines 2015 Breakthrough of the Year; its been featured prominently in the New Yorker more than once; and The Hollywood Reporter revealed that Jennifer Lopez will be the executive producer on an upcoming CRISPR-themed NBC bio-crime drama. Not bad for a molecular biology laboratory technique.

Two of the CRISPR co-inventors, Emmanuelle Charpentier (middle-left) and Jennifer Doudna (middle-right), rubbing elbows with celebs after receiving the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences. Breakthrough Prize Foundation, CC BY-ND

CRISPR is not the first molecular tool designed to edit DNA, but it gained its fame because it solves some longstanding problems in the field. First, it is highly specific. When properly set up, the molecular scissors that make up the CRISPR system will snip target DNA only where you want them to. It is also incredibly cheap. Unlike previous gene editing systems which could cost thousands of dollars, a relative novice can purchase a CRISPR toolkit for less than US$50.

Research labs around the world are in the process of turning the hype surrounding the CRISPR technique into real results. Addgene, a nonprofit supplier of scientific reagents, has shipped tens of thousands of CRISPR toolkits to researchers in more than 80 countries, and the scientific literature is now packed with thousands of CRISPR-related publications.

When you give scientists access to powerful tools, they can produce some pretty amazing results.

The most promising (and obvious) applications of gene editing are in medicine. As we learn more about the molecular underpinnings of various diseases, stunning progress has been made in correcting genetic diseases in the laboratory just over the past few years.

Take, for example, muscular dystrophy a complex and devastating family of diseases characterized by the breakdown of a molecular component of muscle called dystrophin. For some types of muscular dystrophy, the cause of the breakdown is understood at the DNA level.

In 2014, researchers at the University of Texas showed that CRISPR could correct mutations associated with muscular dystrophy in isolated fertilized mouse eggs which, after being reimplanted, then grew into healthy mice. By February of this year, a team here at the University of Washington published results of a CRISPR-based gene replacement therapy which largely repaired the effects of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in adult mice. These mice showed significantly improved muscle strength approaching normal levels four months after receiving treatment.

Using CRISPR to correct disease-causing genetic mutations is certainly not a panacea. For starters, many diseases have causes outside the letters of our DNA. And even for diseases that are genetically encoded, making sense of the six billion DNA letters that comprise the human genome is no small task. But here CRISPR is again advancing science; by adding or removing new mutations or even turning whole genes on or off scientists are beginning to probe the basic code of life like never before.

CRISPR is already showing health applications beyond editing the DNA in our cells. A large team out of Harvard and MIT just debuted a CRISPR-based technology that enables precise detection of pathogens like Zika and dengue virus at extremely low cost an estimated $0.61 per sample.

Using their system, the molecular components of CRISPR are dried up and smeared onto a strip of paper. Samples of bodily fluid (blood serum, urine or saliva) can be applied to these strips in the field and, because they linked CRISPR components to fluorescent particles, the amount of a specific virus in the sample can be quantified based on a visual readout. A sample that glows bright green could indicate a life-threatening dengue virus infection, for instance. The technology can also distinguish between bacterial species (useful for diagnosing infection) and could even determine mutations specific to an individual patients cancer (useful for personalized medicine).

Feng Zhang, another co-inventor of CRISPR technology, discussing its safety and ethical ramifications. AP Photo/Susan Walsh

Almost all of CRISPRs advances in improving human health remain in an early, experimental phase. We may not have to wait long to see this technology make its way into actual, living people though; the CEO of the biotech company Editas has announced plans to file paperwork with the Food and Drug Administration for an investigational new drug (a necessary legal step before beginning clinical trials) later this year. The company intends to use CRISPR to correct mutations in a gene associated with the most common cause of inherited childhood blindness.

Physicians and medical researchers are not the only ones interested in making precise changes to DNA. In 2013, agricultural biotechnologists demonstrated that genes in rice and other crops could be modified using CRISPR for instance, to silence a gene associated with susceptibility to bacterial blight. Less than a year later, a different group showed that CRISPR also worked in pigs. In this case, researchers sought to modify a gene related to blood coagulation, as leftover blood can promote bacterial growth in meat.

You wont find CRISPR-modified food in your local grocery store just yet. As with medical applications, agricultural gene editing breakthroughs achieved in the laboratory take time to mature into commercially viable products, which must then be determined to be safe. Here again, though, CRISPR is changing things.

A common perception of what it means to genetically modify a crop involves swapping genes from one organism to another putting a fish gene into a tomato, for example. While this type of genetic modification known as transfection has actually been used, there are other ways to change DNA. CRISPR has the advantage of being much more programmable than previous gene editing technologies, meaning very specific changes can be made in just a few DNA letters.

This precision led Yinong Yang a plant biologist at Penn State to write a letter to the USDA in 2015 seeking clarification on a current research project. He was in the process of modifying an edible white mushroom so it would brown less on the shelf. This could be accomplished, he discovered, by turning down the volume of just one gene.

White Agaricus bisporus mushrooms with no browning are more visually appealing. Olha Afanasieva/Shutterstock.com

Yang was doing this work using CRISPR, and because his process did not introduce any foreign DNA into the mushrooms, he wanted to know if the product would be considered a regulated article by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture tasked with regulating GMOs.

APHIS does not consider CRISPR/Cas9-edited white button mushrooms as described in your October 30, 2015 letter to be regulated, they replied.

Yangs mushrooms were not the first genetically modified crop deemed exempt from current USDA regulation, but they were the first made using CRISPR. The heightened attention that CRISPR has brought to the gene editing field is forcing policymakers in the U.S. and abroad to update some of their thinking around what it means to genetically modify food.

One particularly controversial application of this powerful gene editing technology is the possibility of driving certain species to extinction such as the most lethal animal on Earth, the malaria-causing Anopheles gambiae mosquito. This is, as far as scientists can tell, actually possible, and some serious players like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation are already investing in the project. (The BMGF funds The Conversation Africa.)

Most CRISPR applications are not nearly as ethically fraught. Here at the University of Washington, CRISPR is helping researchers understand how embryonic stem cells mature, how DNA can be spatially reorganized inside living cells and why some frogs can regrow their spinal cords (an ability we humans do not share).

It is safe to say CRISPR is more than just hype. Centuries ago we were writing on clay tablets in this century we will write the stuff of life.

Ian Haydon, Doctoral Student in Biochemistry, University of Washington

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Gene-editing tool ‘CRISPR’ gaining massive attention – KMOV.com

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Crispr Creator Jennifer Doudna on the Promisesand Pitfallsof Easy Genetic Modification – WIRED

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Fixing the tomato: CRISPR edits correct plant-breeding snafu – Nature.com

Philippe Huguen/AFP/Getty

A gene mutation that made tomatoes easier to harvest has been identified.

From their giant fruits to compact plant size, todays tomatoes have been sculpted by thousands of years of breeding. But mutations linked to prized traits including one that made them easier to harvest yield an undesirable plant when combined, geneticists have found1.

It is a rare example of a gene harnessed during domestication that later hampered crop improvement efforts, says geneticist Zachary Lippman of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. After identifying the mutations, he and his colleagues used CRISPR gene editing to engineer more productive plants a strategy that plant breeders are eager to adopt.

Its pretty exciting, says Rod Wing, a plant geneticist at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The approach can be applied to crop improvement, not just in tomato, but in all crops.

Lippman knows his way around a tomato farm. As a teenager, he spent his summers picking the fruit by hand a chore he hated. Rotten tomatoes. The smell lasts all day long, he says. I would always pray for rain on tomato-harvest day.

But years later, his interest in the genetics that control a plants shape led him back to tomato fields, to untangle the genetic changes that breeders had unknowingly made.

In the 1950s, researchers found a new trait in a wild tomato relative growing in the Galpagos Islands: it lacked the swollen part of the stem called the joint.

Joints are weak regions of the stem that allow fruit to drop off the plant. Wild plants benefit from dropping fruit because it helps seed dispersal. But with the advent of mechanical tomato pickers, farmers wanted their fruit to stay on the plant. Breeders rushed to incorporate the jointless trait into their tomatoes.

This new trait came with a downside. When it was crossed into existing tomato breeds, the resulting plants had flower-bearing branches that produced many extra branches and looked like a broom, terminating in a host of flowers. The flowers were a drain on plant resources, diminishing the number of fruits it produced. Breeders selected for other genetic variants that overrode this defect. But decades later, Lippman’s team went looking for the genes behind this phenomenon.

They had previously screened a collection of 4,193 varieties of tomato, looking for those with unusual branching patterns2. From that collection, they tracked down variants of two genes that, together, caused extreme branching similar to what plant breeders had seen. One of the two genes, the team reports in a paper published online in Cell on 18 May, is responsible for the jointless trait1.

The other gene favours the formation of a large green cap of leaf-like structures on top of the fruit a trait that was selected for thousands of years ago, in the early days of tomato domestication. The benefits of this trait are unclear, Lippman says, but it may have helped to support heavier fruits.

With these genes uncovered, his team used CRISPRCas9 editing to eliminate their activity, as well as that of a third gene that also affects flower number, in various combinations. This generated a range of plant architectures, from long, spindly flower-bearing branches to bushy, cauliflower-like bunches of flowers including some with improved yields.

The findings should help to quell lingering doubts among plant breeders that negative interactions between desirable genetic traits are a force to be reckoned with, says Andrew Paterson, a plant breeder at the University of Georgia in Athens. The idea has been controversial, he says, because the effects have been difficult to detect statistically.

Lippmans team is now working with plant breeders to use gene editing to develop tomatoes with branches and flowers optimized for the size of the fruit. Plants with larger fruit, for example, may have better yields if they have fewer flowering branches than those with smaller fruit.

We really are tapping into basic knowledge and applying it to agriculture, he says. And ironically, it happens to be in the crop that I least liked harvesting on the farm.

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Fixing the tomato: CRISPR edits correct plant-breeding snafu – Nature.com

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Can CRISPR feed the world? – Phys.org – Phys.Org

May 18, 2017 by Gary Finnegan, From Horizon Researchers in Norwich, UK, are hoping to make crops more resistant to disease. Credit: Kamoun Lab @ TSL

As the world’s population rises, scientists want to edit the genes of potatoes and wheat to help them fight plant diseases that cause famine.

By 2040, there will be 9 billion people in the world. “That’s like adding another China onto today’s global population,” said Professor Sophien Kamoun of the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, UK.

Prof. Kamoun is one of a growing number of food scientists trying to figure out how to feed the world. As an expert in plant pathogens such as Phytophthora infestans the fungus-like microbe responsible for potato blight he wants to make crops more resistant to disease.

Potato blight sparked the Irish famine in the 19th century, causing a million people to starve to death and another million migrants to flee. European farmers now keep the fungus in check by using pesticides. However, in regions without access to chemical sprays, it continues to wipe out enough potatoes to feed hundreds of millions of people every year.

“Potato blight is still a problem,” said Prof. Kamoun. “In Europe, we use 12 chemical sprays per season to manage the pathogen that causes blight, but other parts of the world cannot afford this.”

Plants try to fight off the pathogens that cause disease but these are continuously changing to evade detection by the plant’s immune system.

Arms race

In nature, every time a plant gets a little better at fighting off infection, pathogens adapt to evade their defences. Now biologists are getting involved in the fight.

“It’s essentially an arms race between plants and pathogens,” said Prof. Kamoun. “We want to turn it into an arms race between biotechnologists and pathogens by generating new defences in the lab.”

Five years ago, Prof. Kamoun embarked on a project called NGRB, funded by the EU’s European Research Council. The plan was to find a way to make potatoes more resistant to infection using advanced plant-breeding techniques.

Then serendipity struck. In the early stages of the project, scientists in another lab discovered a ground-breaking gene-editing technique known as CRISPR-Cas which allows scientists to delete or add genes at will. As well as having potential medical applications in humans, this powerful tool is unlocking new approaches to perfecting plants.

“If we think of the genome as text, CRISPR is a word processor that allows us to change just a letter or two,” explained Prof. Kamoun. “The precision that this allows makes CRISPR the ultimate in genetic editing. It’s really beautiful.”

One of the simplest ways to use CRISPR to improve plants is to remove a gene that makes them vulnerable to infection. This alone can make potatoes more resilient, helping to meet the world’s growing demand for food.

The resulting crop looks and tastes just the same as any other potato. Prof. Kamoun says that potatoes which are missing a gene or two should not be viewed in the same way as genetically modified foods which sometimes contain genes introduced from another species. “It’s a very important technical difference but not all regulators have updated their rules to make this distinction.”

Potatoes are not the only food crops that can be improved by CRISPR-Cas. Prof. Kamoun is now working on a project that aims to protect wheat from wheat blast a fungal disease decimating yields in Bangladesh and spreading in Asia.

Looking ahead, CRISPR will be used to improve the quality and nutritional value of wheat, rice, potatoes and vegetables. It could even be used to remove genes that cause allergic reactions in people with tomato or wheat intolerance.

“If we can remove allergens, consumers may soon see hypoallergenic tomatoes on supermarket shelves,” Prof. Kamoun said. “It’s a very exciting technology.”

While targeting disease in this way could be a game changer for global food security in the years ahead, experts believe other approaches to plant breeding will continue to have a role. Understanding meiosis a type of cell division that can reshuffle genes to improve plants can help farmers and the agribusiness sector select for hardier crops, according to Professor Chris Franklin of the University of Birmingham, UK.

He leads the COMREC project, which trains young scientists to understand and manipulate meiosis in plants. The project applies the wealth of knowledge generated by leaders in the field to tackle the pressing problem of feeding a hungry world.

“COMREC has begun to translate fundamental research into (applications in) key crop species such as cereals, brassicas and tomato,” said Prof. Franklin. “Close links with plant-breeding companies have provided important insight into the specific challenges confronted by the breeders.”

Elite crops

There may be untapped potential in this approach to plant breeding: most of the genes naturally reshuffled during meiosis in cereal crops are at the far ends of chromosomes genes in the middle of chromosomes are rarely reshuffled, limiting the scope for new crop variations.

COMREC’s academic and industry partners hope to understand why this is so that they can find a way to shuffle the genes in the middle of chromosomes too. And the food industry is keen to produce new ‘elite varieties’ that are better adapted to confront the challenges arising from climate change, says Prof. Franklin.

“A number of genes have now been identified that can make this reshuffling relatively more frequent,” he said. “CRISPR-Cas provides a way to modify the corresponding genes in crop species, helping to translate this basic research to target crops.”

Explore further: US approves 3 types of genetically engineered potatoes (Update)

More information: Targeted mutagenesis in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana using Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease by Vladimir Nekrasov, Brian Staskawicz, Detlef Weigel, Jonathan D G Jones & Sophien Kamoun in Nature Biotechnology 31, 691693 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2655

Involvement of the Cohesin Cofactor PDS5 (SPO76) During Meiosis and DNA Repair in Arabidopsis thaliana by Mnica Pradillo, Alexander Knoll, Cecilia Oliver, Javier Varas, Eduardo Corredor, Holger Puchta and Juan L. Santos in Front. Plant Sci., 01 December 2015 . DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01034

Three types of potatoes genetically engineered to resist the pathogen that caused the Irish potato famine are safe for the environment and safe to eat, federal officials have announced.

Scientists on Monday said they have found a gene to help protect potatoes from a blight that unleashed a devastating famine in Ireland in the 19th century.

Growing crops with stacks of two or more resistance genes from closely related species, introduced into the crop via for instance genetic engineering, combined with the simultaneous introduction of resistance management, …

A team of scientists from The Sainsbury Laboratory (TSL) and The Genome Analysis Centre (TGAC) have developed a new method to accelerate isolation of plant disease resistance genes. The team have also identified a brand new …

When you pick up the perfect apple in the supermarket it’s easy to forget that plants get sick just like we do. A more realistic view might come from a walk outside during summer: try to find a leaf without a speck, spot …

We all know that animals have an immune system – but plants have systems to fight infection too. Plant cells have receptor proteins which bind with parts of a pathogen. These receptor proteins are located on the surface of …

(Phys.org)A pair of researchers from Stanford University has studied the energy used by a type of small parrot as it hops from branch to branch during foraging. As they note in their paper uploaded to the open access site …

A new Oxford University collaboration revealing the world’s prime insect predation hotspots, achieved its landmark findings using an unusual aid: plasticine ‘dummy caterpillars.’

Breeding in plants and animals typically involves straightforward addition. As beneficial new traits are discoveredlike resistance to drought or larger fruitsthey are added to existing prized varieties, delivered via …

After decades of research aiming to understand how DNA is organized in human cells, scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have shed new light on this mysterious field by discovering how a key protein helps control gene organization.

Researchers have successfully developed a novel method that allows for increased disease resistance in rice without decreasing yield. A team at Duke University, working in collaboration with scientists at Huazhong Agricultural …

University of Chicago psychology professor Leslie Kay and her research group set out to resolve a 15-year-old scientific dispute about how rats process odors. What they found not only settles that argument, it suggests an …

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Can CRISPR feed the world? – Phys.org – Phys.Org

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Tiny bubbles and a bit of gene therapy heal major bone fractures in pigs – Science Magazine

By Robert F. ServiceMay. 17, 2017 , 2:30 PM

It takes more than a cast and a little time to heal many broken bones. Whether its a soldier wounded in battle, a car accident victim, or an elderly person who has fallen, bone damage can be so extensive that the bones never heal properly, leaving people crippled or with other severe problems. Now, researchers have combined ultrasound, stem cells, and gene therapy to stimulate robust bone repair. So far the work has only been performed in animals. But it has already been so successful that its expected to move quickly toward human clinical trials.

The new research has huge clinical significance, says David Kulber, who directs the Center for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, and who was not part of the study. The technology of being able to stimulate bone growth is really remarkable.

Its also one for which there is a glaring need. In the United States alone, some 100,000 people a year suffer from what is known as a nonunion fracture. In these cases, parts of a bone may be missing altogether or so badly splintered that the bone cant be reassembled. In such cases, doctors typically graft other bone into the site. Ideally this bone comes from the same personoften taken from the pelvis, a painful procedure that compounds a persons injuries and recovery time. When this isnt possible, physicians will turn to cadavers for the extra bone. But this bone must be sterilized before its implanted, robbing it of proteins and other signaling molecules that encourage its regrowth once transplanted, and lessening the chances of a full recovery.

Researchers have long tried to improve matters by growing new bone without use of a graft. To do so they typically first fill gaps in bone with a natural scaffolding material called collagen. This scaffolding encourages a persons own bone-forming stem cells, called mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to migrate into the area. The trouble is MSCs dont only differentiate into osteocytes, the bone-producing cells. They can also develop into either fat tissue cells or scar tissue.

Researchers have tried for years to steer MSCs into becoming osteocytes by exposing them to one or more bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), signaling molecules that trigger the cells to transform into bone-forming cells. But for this differentiation to occur, MSCs must be exposed to BMPs for up to a week. Yet if the BMPs are simply injected into the site of a fracture, they dissipate in just hours.

In an effort to produce a lasting BMP signal, researchers led by Dan Gazit, a regenerative medicine expert at Cedars-Sinai, as well as other groups, have previously turned to using viruses to introduce extra copies of BMP genes into MSCs so that the cells themselves will produce the proteins long enough to trigger their own differentiation. But success has been halting here, too.

Over the last several years, Gazits teamamong othershasdeveloped an alternative strategy for efficiently getting genes into MSCs without viruses. The researchers start by packing the wound with the usual collagen matrix and waiting for a couple of weeks for the stem cells to infiltrate the scaffold. They then create a solution containing numerous copies of their gene of interest alongside gas-filled micron-sized bubbles encased by a thin shell of fat molecules. After injecting this solution into the fracture site, they go over the area with an ultrasound wand, much as its done by obstetricians to check on the health of a fetus. The wands ultrasound pulses burst the microbubbles, briefly punching nano-sized holes in any adjacent stem cells, which allows the genes in the solution to enter.

In 2014, Gazit and his colleagues reported that they used this procedure to introduce nontherapeutic reporter genes into large fractures in animal models. But when they used the procedure to introduce genes for two different BMPsBMP-2 and BMP-7they detected some bone regrowth in the animals, but not enough to heal the fractures.

Gazits group has gotten better results by using the same approach to insert copies of the gene for BMP-6 into pigs that had been surgically given 1-centimeter gaps in a leg bone. After waiting 8 weeks, they found that the bone gap was closed and the leg fracture was healed in all of the treated animals. In fact, the procedure was so effective that the fractures healed as well as when bone grafts were carried out using bone from the same animal, the currently preferred treatment, they report today in Science Translational Medicine.

The results are just the type of thing we need to move this field forward, says Johnny Huard, an orthopedics researcher at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston. However, he notes, the pigs used in this study were all under 1 year in age. Younger animals, including people, tend to have far more MSCs than older ones, he says, yet large fractures are far more common in the elderly than the young. So Huard suggests that before the approach is ready for testing in people with bone fractures, it would be good to first see whether its equally successful in older animals.

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Tiny bubbles and a bit of gene therapy heal major bone fractures in pigs – Science Magazine

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Press Release: New Stem Cell Collection Center Opens in Boston – The Scientist

Press Release: New Stem Cell Collection Center Opens in Boston
The Scientist
We support biomedical researchers globally by offering human hematopoietic stem cells and blood derived cell products from bone marrow, cord blood, peripheral blood and mobilized peripheral blood. StemExpress guarantees every sample delivers only …

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Press Release: New Stem Cell Collection Center Opens in Boston – The Scientist

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‘Incredibly strong and brave’ Albury girl, 3, recovering after stem cell transplant to cure cancer – Hertfordshire Mercury

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An ‘incredibly strong and brave’ three-year-old is on the road to recovery after having a stem cell transplant to cure her rare form of cancer.

Hazel Richardson, who lives in the village of Albury near Bishop’s Stortford, was diagnosed with Juvenile Myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) in 2015.

She had her second stem cell transplant at Great Ormond Street Hospital in September 2016 after a donor in Germany was found.

Hazel’s aunt, Jemma MacFadyen said: “Hazel is such a little character, so strong and brave and cheeky. She turned three in April, but she thinks she is four.

“She was incredibly strong and brave, I think it was much harder for her parents. She was very strong.

“She was diagnosed with an incredibly rare form of leukaemia in November 2015, while her mum Alice was in Addenbrooke’s Hospital having a baby.

“There did not appear to be anything that wrong with Hazel, but her mum knew that something was not right.

“She was a bit floppy and kept getting these temperatures and she also had spots on her face, which we now know is quite characteristic of JMML, but at the time did not seem like anything.”

READ MORE: Cheshunt boy with cerebral palsy takes first steps after potentially life-changing 75,000 operation

Hazel had her first stem cell transplant in April of last year, but unfortunately it did not take and her disease returned.

Mrs MacFadyen explained: “The only treatment for JMML is a bone marrow transplant, or stem cell transplant as it is known now.

“Hazel had her first transplant at Great Ormond Street Hospital in April last year.

“How it works is they gave her a very strong dose of chemotherapy, then they attach a drip with the transplant.

“It did not work and quickly she began relapsing even before she left Great Ormond Street.”

Fortunately the blood cancer charity Anthony Nolan managed to find Hazel another donor, one with an even higher match percentage.

Mrs Facfadyen said: “JMML is very, very rare, Addenbrooke’s said they have only had six or seven patients who have had the disease.

“Anthony Nolan, who have the register for donors, found another match for Hazel. He was German and was a nine out of ten match, which was better than the first one.

“So far this one has helped. We are hopeful that this has been more successful than the first one.

“They say if it comes back it comes back quickly and very hard. So every day is a day away from where we were.

“All donors make their donations in their home countries then an Anthony Nolan courier brings the stem cells over. It is all very secretive.

“When two years elapses after the transplant you can meet with the donor, if they want to, and I think this is what the family is planning on doing.”

Hazel has recently started to go to Albury Acorns pre-school, and the Furnuex Pelham Church of England School is planning to donate some of the money raised from the Felham Fayre on June 25 to Anthony Nolan.

In the future Hazel’s family hopes to raise money for the charity themselves according to Mrs Macfadyen.

She said: “We definitely want to do some fundraising for Anthony Nolan, something big.

“We want to be sure and we want to now as a family that we can handle it because we have just come out of a difficult time.”

NEXT STORY: Cheshunt seven-year-old comes through life-changing 75,000 operation

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‘Incredibly strong and brave’ Albury girl, 3, recovering after stem cell transplant to cure cancer – Hertfordshire Mercury

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CytoDyn Treats First Patient with PRO 140 in Phase 2 Trial for Graft versus Host Disease – GlobeNewswire (press release)

May 17, 2017 06:00 ET | Source: CytoDyn Inc.

VANCOUVER, Washington, May 17, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — CytoDyn Inc. (OTC.QB:CYDY), a biotechnology company focused on the development of new therapies for combating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, announces the treatment of the first patient in its Phase 2 clinical trial for Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD), its leading immunologic indication for PRO 140.

GvHD is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients requiring a bone marrow transplant because their immune systems have been depleted during aggressive cancer therapy for certain types of leukemia. These patients have a 40-60% one-year survival rate, with relapsed GvHD as the leading causes of death.

The multicenter, 60-patient Phase 2 trial will evaluate the safety and efficacy of PRO 140 with an equal number of patients receiving PRO 140 and placebo. The trial is supported by study data using a xeno-GvHD animal model where human bone marrow stem cells were administered to immunocompromised mice, which leads to severe GvHD culminating in death. PRO 140 at a comparable dose to that being employed in CytoDyns Phase 2 trial completely eliminated any signs of GvHD in these mice. Effects of stem cell engraftment was apparent in blood, spleen and bone marrow of the mice without signs of GvHD. This preclinical study is being submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in support of CytoDyns Orphan Drug Designation application and publication of this data is forthcoming.

We selected the transplantation indication called GvHD as our first expansion of PRO 140 into a non-HIV clinical indication because it targets the CCR5 receptor, which is known to be an important mediator of GvHD, especially in the organ damage that is the usual cause of death, said Denis R. Burger, Ph.D., CytoDyns Chief Science Officer. We plan to explore additional opportunities to expand the clinical applications of PRO 140 to those indications where CCR5 plays an important role, namely certain autoimmune diseases and cancer.

If CytoDynreceives positive results from this Phase 2 study, the Companyexpects to file for Breakthrough Designation with the FDA to expedite the commercialization of PRO 140 for this clinical indication. As previously reported, PRO 140 is considered safe and well tolerated with negligible toxicities or side effects. The Company believes these attributes make it promising for the treatment of GvHD.

About Graft versus Host Disease GvHD occurs after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant in which an individual receives bone marrow tissue or cells from a donor, known as allogeneic transplant.The transplanted cells regard the recipient’s body as foreign and attack the recipient’s body. GvHD does not occur when an individual receives his or her own cells during a transplant. Before a transplant, tissue and cells from possible donors are tested to determine how closely they match the person having the transplant with GvHD is less likely to occur, or symptoms to be milder, when the match is close. The chance of GvHD can be between 30% and 40% when the donor and recipient are related and 60% to 80% when the donor and recipient are not related. There are two types of GvHD: acute and chronic. Symptoms in both acute and chronic GvHD range from mild to severe. Acute GvHD usually occurs within the firstthree months after a transplant. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, nearly 5,000 allogeneic transplants were performed in the U.S. in 2016.

About CytoDyn CytoDyn is a biotechnology company focused on the clinical development and potential commercialization of humanized monoclonal antibodies for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. The Company has one of the leading monoclonal antibodies under development for HIV infection, PRO 140, which has completed Phase 2 clinical trials with demonstrated antiviral activity in man and is currently in Phase 3. PRO 140 blocks the HIV co-receptor CCR5 on T cells, which prevents viral entry. Clinical trial results thus far indicate that PRO 140 does not negatively affect the normal immune functions that are mediated by CCR5. Results from seven Phase 1 and Phase 2 human clinical trials have shown that PRO 140 can significantly reduce viral burden in people infected with HIV. A recent Phase 2b clinical trial demonstrated that PRO 140 can prevent viral escape in patients during several months of interruption from conventional drug therapy. CytoDyn intends to continue to develop PRO 140 as a therapeutic anti-viral agent in persons infected with HIV and to pursue non-HIV indications where CCR5 and its ligand CCL5 may be involved. For more information on the Company, please visit http://www.cytodyn.com.

About PRO 140 PRO 140 belongs to a new class of HIV/AIDS therapeutics viral-entry inhibitors that are intended to protect healthy cells from viral infection. PRO 140 is a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against CCR5, a molecular portal that HIV uses to enter T-cells. PRO 140 blocks the predominant HIV (R5) subtype entry into T-cells by masking this required co-receptor, CCR5. Importantly, PRO 140 does not appear to interfere with the normal function of CCR5 in mediating immune responses. PRO 140 does not have agonist activity toward CCR5 but does have antagonist activity to CCL5, which is a central mediator in inflammatory diseases. PRO 140 has been the subject of seven clinical trials, each demonstrating efficacy by significantly reducing or controlling HIV viral load in human test subjects. PRO 140 has been designated a fast track product by the FDA. The PRO 140 antibody appears to be a powerful antiviral agent leading to potentially fewer side effects and less frequent dosing requirements as compared to daily drug therapies currently in use.

Forward-Looking Statements This press release includes forward-looking statements and forward-looking information within the meaning of United States securities laws, including statements regarding CytoDyns current and proposed trials and studies and their results, costs and completion. These statements and information represent CytoDyns intentions, plans, expectations, and beliefs and are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors, many beyond CytoDyns control. These factors could cause actual results to differ materially from such forward-looking statements or information. The words believe, estimate, expect, intend, attempt, anticipate, foresee, plan, and similar expressions and variations thereof identify certain of such forward-looking statements or forward-looking information, which speak only as of the date on which they are made.

CytoDyn disclaims any intention or obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements or forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements or forward-looking information. While it is impossible to identify or predict all such matters, these differences may result from, among other things, the inherent uncertainty of the timing and success of and expense associated with research, development, regulatory approval, and commercialization of CytoDyns products and product candidates, including the risks that clinical trials will not commence or proceed as planned; products appearing promising in early trials will not demonstrate efficacy or safety in larger-scale trials; future clinical trial data on CytoDyns products and product candidates will be unfavorable; funding for additional clinical trials may not be available; CytoDyns products may not receive marketing approval from regulators or, if approved, may fail to gain sufficient market acceptance to justify development and commercialization costs; competing products currently on the market or in development may reduce the commercial potential of CytoDyns products; CytoDyn, its collaborators or others may identify side effects after the product is on the market; or efficacy or safety concerns regarding marketed products, whether or not scientifically justified, may lead to product recalls, withdrawals of marketing approval, reformulation of the product, additional preclinical testing or clinical trials, changes in labeling of the product, the need for additional marketing applications, or other adverse events.

CytoDyn is also subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including risks associated with the actions of its corporate, academic, and other collaborators and government regulatory agencies; risks from market forces and trends; potential product liability; intellectual property litigation; environmental and other risks; and risks that current and pending patent protection for its products may be invalid, unenforceable, or challenged or fail to provide adequate market exclusivity. There are also substantial risks arising out of CytoDyns need to raise additional capital to develop its products and satisfy its financial obligations; the highly regulated nature of its business, including government cost-containment initiatives and restrictions on third-party payments for its products; the highly competitive nature of its industry; and other factors set forth in CytoDyns Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2016 and other reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

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CytoDyn Treats First Patient with PRO 140 in Phase 2 Trial for Graft versus Host Disease – GlobeNewswire (press release)

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Cell potency – Wikipedia

Cell potency is a cell’s ability to differentiate into other cell types.[1][2] The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell which like a continuum begins with totipotency to designate a cell with the most differentiation potential, pluripotency, multipotency, oligopotency and finally unipotency. Potency is taken from the Latin term “potens” which means “having power”.

Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism. Spores and zygotes are examples of totipotent cells.[3] In the spectrum of cell potency, totipotency represents the cell with the greatest differentiation potential. Toti comes from the Latin totus which means “entirely”.

It is possible for a fully differentiated cell to return to a state of totipotency.[4] This conversion to totipotency is complex, not fully understood and the subject of recent research. Research in 2011 has shown that cells may differentiate not into a fully totipotent cell, but instead into a “complex cellular variation” of totipotency.[5] Stem cells resembling totipotent blastomeres from 2-cell stage embryos can arise spontaneously in the embryonic stem cell cultures[6][7] and also can be induced to arise more frequently in vitro through down-regulation of the chromatin assembly activity of CAF-1.[8]

The human development model is one which can be used to describe how totipotent cells arise.[9] Human development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and the resulting fertilized egg creates a single totipotent cell, a zygote.[10] In the first hours after fertilization, this zygote divides into identical totipotent cells, which can later develop into any of the three germ layers of a human (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm), into cells of the cytotrophoblast layer or syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. After reaching a 16-cell stage, the totipotent cells of the morula differentiate into cells that will eventually become either the blastocyst’s Inner cell mass or the outer trophoblasts. Approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these totipotent cells begin to specialize. The inner cell mass, the source of embryonic stem cells, becomes pluripotent.

Research on Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that multiple mechanisms including RNA regulation may play a role in maintaining totipotency at different stages of development in some species.[11] Work with zebrafish and mammals suggest a further interplay between miRNA and RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in determining development differences.[12]

In September 2013, a team from the Spanish national Cancer Research Centre was able for the first time to make adult cells from mice retreat to the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, thereby achieving totipotency.[13]

In cell biology, pluripotency (from the Latin plurimus, meaning very many, and potens, meaning having power)[14] refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system).[15] However, cell pluripotency is a continuum, ranging from the completely pluripotent cell that can form every cell of the embryo proper, e.g., embryonic stem cells and iPSCs (see below), to the incompletely or partially pluripotent cell that can form cells of all three germ layers but that may not exhibit all the characteristics of completely pluripotent cells.

Induced pluripotent stem cells, commonly abbreviated as iPS cells or iPSCs are a type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived from a non-pluripotent cell, typically an adult somatic cell, by inducing a “forced” expression of certain genes and transcription factors.[16] These transcription factors play a key role in determining the state of these cells and also highlights the fact that these somatic cells do preserve the same genetic information as early embryonic cells.[17] The ability to induce cells into a pluripotent state was initially pioneered in 2006 using mouse fibroblasts and four transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc;[18] this technique, called reprogramming, earned Shinya Yamanaka and John Gurdon the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012.[19] This was then followed in 2007 by the successful induction of human iPSCs derived from human dermal fibroblasts using methods similar to those used for the induction of mouse cells.[20] These induced cells exhibit similar traits to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but do not require the use of embryos. Some of the similarities between ESCs and iPSCs include pluripotency, morphology, self-renewal ability, a trait that implies that they can divide and replicate indefinitely, and gene expression.[21]

Epigenetic factors are also thought to be involved in the actual reprogramming of somatic cells in order to induce pluripotency. It has been theorized that certain epigenetic factors might actually work to clear the original somatic epigenetic marks in order to acquire the new epigenetic marks that are part of achieving a pluripotent state. Chromatin is also reorganized in iPSCs and becomes like that found in ESCs in that it is less condensed and therefore more accessible. Euchromatin modifications are also common which is also consistent with the state of euchromatin found in ESCs.[21]

Due to their great similarity to ESCs, iPSCs have been of great interest to the medical and research community. iPSCs could potentially have the same therapeutic implications and applications as ESCs but without the controversial use of embryos in the process, a topic of great bioethical debate. In fact, the induced pluripotency of somatic cells into undifferentiated iPS cells was originally hailed as the end of the controversial use of embryonic stem cells. However, iPSCs were found to be potentially tumorigenic, and, despite advances,[16] were never approved for clinical stage research in the United States. Setbacks such as low replication rates and early senescence have also been encountered when making iPSCs,[22] hindering their use as ESCs replacements.

Additionally, it has been determined that the somatic expression of combined transcription factors can directly induce other defined somatic cell fates (transdifferentiation); researchers identified three neural-lineage-specific transcription factors that could directly convert mouse fibroblasts (skin cells) into fully functional neurons.[23] This result challenges the terminal nature of cellular differentiation and the integrity of lineage commitment; and implies that with the proper tools, all cells are totipotent and may form all kinds of tissue.

Some of the possible medical and therapeutic uses for iPSCs derived from patients include their use in cell and tissue transplants without the risk of rejection that is commonly encountered. iPSCs can potentially replace animal models unsuitable as well as in-vitro models used for disease research.[24]

Recent findings with respect to epiblasts before and after implantation have produced proposals for classifying pluripotency into two distinct phases: “naive” and “primed”.[25] The baseline stem cells commonly used in science that are referred as Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from a pre-implantation epiblast; such epiblast is able to generate the entire fetus, and one epiblast cell is able to contribute to all cell lineages if injected into another blastocyst. On the other hand, several marked differences can be observed between the pre- and post-implantation epiblasts, such as their difference in morphology, in which the epiblast after implantation changes its morphology into a cup-like shape called the “egg cylinder” as well as chromosomal alteration in which one of the X-chromosomes undergoes random inactivation in the early stage of the egg cylinder, known as X-inactivation.[26] During this development, the egg cylinder epiblast cells are systematically targeted by Fibroblast growth factors, Wnt signaling, and other inductive factors via the surrounding yolk sac and the trophoblast tissue,[27] such that they become instructively specific according to the spatial organization.[28] Another major difference that was observed, with respect to cell potency, is that post-implantation epiblast stem cells are unable to contribute to blastocyst chimeras,[29] which distinguishes them from other known pluripotent stem cells. Cell lines derived from such post-implantation epiblasts are referred to as epiblast-derived stem cells which were first derived in laboratory in 2007; it should be noted, despite their nomenclature, that both ESCs and EpiSCs are derived from epiblasts, just at difference phases of development, and that pluripotency is still intact in the post-implantation epiblast, as demonstrated by the conserved expression of Nanog, Fut4, and Oct-4 in EpiSCs,[30] until somitogenesis and can be reversed midway through induced expression of Oct-4.[31]

Multipotency describes progenitor cells which have the gene activation potential to differentiate into discrete cell types. For example, a multipotent blood stem cell is a hematopoietic celland this cell type can differentiate itself into several types of blood cell types like lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, etc., but cannot differentiate into brain cells, bone cells or other non-blood cell types.

New research related to multipotent cells suggests that multipotent cells may be capable of conversion into unrelated cell types. In another case, human umbilical cord blood stem cells were converted into human neurons.[32] Research is also focusing on converting multipotent cells into pluripotent cells.[33]

Multipotent cells are found in many, but not all human cell types. Multipotent cells have been found in cord blood,[34] adipose tissue,[35] cardiac cells,[36] bone marrow, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are found in the third molar.[37]

MSCs may prove to be a valuable source for stem cells from molars at 810 years of age, before adult dental calcification. MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes.[38]

In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor cells to differentiate into a few cell types. It is a degree of potency. Examples of oligopotent stem cells are the lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.[1] A lymphoid cell specifically, can give rise to various blood cells such as B and T cells, however, not to a different blood cell type like a red blood cell.[39] Examples of progenitor cells are vascular stem cells that have the capacity to become both endothelial or smooth muscle cells.

In cell biology, a unipotent cell is the concept that one stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into only one cell type. It is currently unclear if true unipotent stem cells exist. Hepatoblasts, which differentiate into hepatocytes (which constitute most of the liver) or cholangiocytes (epithelial cells of the bile duct), are bipotent.[40] A close synonym for unipotent cell is precursor cell.

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Cell potency – Wikipedia

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Engineered bone marrow could make transplants safer – Science Daily


Science Daily
Engineered bone marrow could make transplants safer
Science Daily
Bone marrow transplants are used to treat patients with bone marrow disease. Before a transplant, a patient is first given doses of radiation, sometimes in combination with drugs, to kill off any existing stem cells in the patient's bone marrow. This
Engineered Bone Marrow Improves Transplant SafetyR & D Magazine
Engineered bone marrow may ease transplantsThe San Diego Union-Tribune

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Engineered bone marrow could make transplants safer – Science Daily

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New Discovery Could Soon Replace The Painful Bone Marrow … – Wall Street Pit

Patients dealing with blood and immune disorders, especially those in the most advanced stages, often have no choice but to undergo bone marrow transplants. Ironically, even if the treatment can be life-saving, it would only work when the bone marrow cells of the recipients are completely eliminated using drugs and radiation. And this could cause serious negative side effects such as organ damage, cataracts, infertility, new cancers, and even death.

Thanks to the work of engineers at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), that kind of bone marrow transplant may soon be rendered obsolete. Rather than using a live bone marrow from a compatible donor or from the patients themselves, a synthetic bone implant will instead be used and such will not require the use of drugs that can cause all those harmful side effects.

Bone marrow is the flexible tissue inside the bones that is responsible for producing red blood cells from stem cells. If, for some reason, the bone marrow fails to do its job, the result can either be severe anemia or an impaired immune system. Whichever of these conditions arise, the most effective treatment is typically a bone marrow transplant.

To reduce the undesirable side effects caused by traditional bone marrow transplants, the UCSD team of bioengineers led by Shyni Varghese have developed a synthetic bone implant with a practical marrow that can produce its own blood cells. The implant is divided into two sections, both of which are engineered from a hydrogel matrix. The exterior layer containing calcium phosphate minerals functions as a bone, while the interior layer contains donor stem cells for bone marrow growth. The exterior layer works together with the hosts cells to assist in bone building, merging the implant with the natural structure of the body.

According to the team, they have tested their engineered implant in mice, and the tests proved successful. Specifically, they implanted the synthetic bone under the skin of mice, some of which had functional bone marrow, and some of which had defective bone marrow due to radiation.

Within a four-week observation period, the implant developed bone-like structures that didnt only have blood vessels, but also marrow that actually produced red blood cells. And after six months, the synthetic implants and the bloodstream of the mice showed a mix of blood cells from both the donor and the host. This shows that the implants can function as natural bones, with the blood cells produced by the synthetic implant naturally circulating within the hosts bloodstream without being rejected.

As promising as those results are, however, there is no guarantee that the technique will be as effective in humans. Further study will be required before it can be accepted and approved by the FDA.

Theres also the matter of the treatment only being effective on patients with non-malignant bone marrow disorders. The implant cannot do anything to stop or prevent cancerous mutation from spreading, which means when it comes to cancer patients, undergoing radiation therapy will still be required to kill off their cancer cells, before a bone marrow transplant can work.

Nevertheless, this is still considered a step forward and an exciting development, particularly for individuals suffering from blood disorders. Not only will the treatment ease their pain and distress because theyll be free of their disease; it will also keep them from suffering negative side effects.

The research was recently published in the journal PNAS.

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New Discovery Could Soon Replace The Painful Bone Marrow … – Wall Street Pit

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It worked! Jonathan Pitre’s transplant takes root – Ottawa Citizen

Mom, we did it.

With those words, Jonathan Pitre hugged his mother, Tina Boileau, and shared his joy and relief at learning the news late Tuesday afternoon that his stem cell transplant has worked.

Blood tests revealed that all of the new white cells in his bloodstream are from his mothers donated stem cells, and contain her two telltale X chromosomes. It means his mothers donated stem cells have taken root in his bone marrow and have started to produce new blood cells.

This is the best news ever, the best Mothers Day gift, said an elated Boileau, who has remained at her sons side throughout his marathon treatment for epidermolysis bullosa, a rare and painful disease that causes his skin to blister and tear easily.

Jonathan Pitre rests in bed, his pillow with his Boston terrier, Gibson, on it close by. Tina Boileau / –

Oftentimes, doctors find a mix of white blood cells, from the donor and patient, soon after a stem cell transplant. But in Pitres case, all of the new white blood cells, 100 per cent, were donor cells.

Jon is full of me, said Boileau. He doesnt have any T-cells that are his.

Pitre, who turns 17 next month, was allowed out of his room for the first time Tuesday since his April 13 transplant when he was infused with stem cells drawn from his mothers hip bone. His infection-fighting white blood cells are now numerous enough his count hit 1.0 on Tuesday that he was allowed to emerge from medical isolation.

We celebrated our good news by going for a walk in the hallway, Boileau said.

Pitre has been in Minnesota since mid-February to undergo his second attempt at the experimental treatment pioneered by doctors at the University of Minnesota Masonic Childrens Hospital.His first transplant ended in disappointment on Thanksgiving Day last year, but the family opted to undergo a second transplant, despite its risks and hardships.

This time, wonderfully, it worked.

I just got official results: Jon is 100 per cent donor! Boileau said in a text message late Tuesday afternoon.

Offered to children and adolescents with severe EB as part of a clinical trial, the stem cell transplant is physically demanding and comes with a host of life-threatening side effects. One of those potential side effects is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a complication in which the new white blood cells turn on the patients tissues and attack them as foreign.

BACKGROUND:Butterfly child dreams of the Northern Lights

Pitre has suffered infections, fevers and profound exhaustion ever since his transplant while battling to get his pain levels under control. Doctors will now be on guard for signs of GVHD.

A Grade 11 student from Russell, Pitre suffers from a rare form of EB that complicates how he moves, eats, bathes and sleeps. Many of those with severe EB die from an aggressive form of skin cancer in their 20s.

The stem cell transplant holds the potential to dramatically improve Pitres life and produce tougher skin that blisters less and heals more readily.

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It worked! Jonathan Pitre’s transplant takes root – Ottawa Citizen

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Stem cell transplants beneficial to mice with ALS – Life Science Daily

A new study has determined bone marrow stem cell transplants improved the motor skills and nervous system of mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by repairing damage to the blood-spinal cord barrier.

ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects neuronal cells in the brain and the spinal cord, which send signals to control muscles throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of motor neuron cells leads to death. It is estimated more than 6,000 Americans are diagnosed with the ALS yearly.

The University of South Floridas Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair study findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports, determining results of their experiment are an early step in pursuing stem cells for potential repair of the blood-spinal cord barrier, which has been identified as key in the development of ALS.

Previous studies in development of various therapeutic approaches for ALS typically used pre-symptomatic mice, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, leader of the research project and University of South Florida health professor, said. This is the first study advancing barrier repair that treats symptomatic mice, which more closely mirrors conditions for human patients.

Using stem cells harvested from human bone marrow, researchers transplanted cells into mice modeling ALS and already showing disease symptoms. The transplanted stem cells differentiated and attached to vascular walls of many capillaries, beginning the process of blood-spinal cord barrier repair delaying progression of the disease and improving motor function in the mice, as well as increased motor neuron cell survival the study reported.

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Stem cell transplants beneficial to mice with ALS – Life Science Daily

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