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Archive for the ‘Biotechnology’ Category

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Prof James du Preez is professor of microbiology and former chairperson (2002 2014) of the Department of Microbial, Biochemical & Food Biotechnology at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. He obtained his PhD in microbiology from the above university in 1980 after completing a major part of his doctoral research at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zrich, which laid the foundation for his further work in the field of fermentation biotechnology. His special interests include continuous (chemostat) cultures, yeast physiology, the production of heterologous proteins and microbial metabolites, as well as bioethanol production from starchy and lignocellulosic feedstocks, including pentose fermentation by yeasts. The physiology of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ongoing interest.

James has authored close to 100 peer-reviewed articles as well as several other papers and book chapters. Involvement with the science community includes membership of the council of the South African Society for Microbiology and the International Commission for Yeasts. He was the American Society for Microbiologys ambassador to South Africa until 2014. He serves on the editorial board of FEMS Yeast Research and was a guest editor for a thematic issue of FEMS Yeast Research on yeast fermentations and other yeast bioprocesses. He was an associate editor for World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology until early 2015, currently is a joint editor-in-chief for Biotechnology for Biofuels and recently served on the Editors Advisory Group of BioMed Central. In 2014 he was appointed external expert on the Biological Production Systems panel of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and in 2015 served for a second term on a grant evaluation panel of the European Research Council. Among honours received are election as member of the Academy of Science of South Africa, the award of a silver medal for exceptional achievement from the South African Society for Microbiology and awards from his home university for research excellence.

Dr Michael Himmel has 30 years of progressive experience in conducting, supervising, and planning research in protein biochemistry, recombinant technology, enzyme engineering, new microorganism discovery, and the physicochemistry of macromolecules. He has also supervised research that targets the application of site-directed-mutagenesis and rational protein design to the stabilization and improvement of important industrial enzymes, especially glycosyl hydrolases.

Dr Himmel has functioned as PI for the DOE EERE Office of the Biomass Program (OBP) since 1992, wherein his responsibilities have included managing research designed to improve cellulase performance, reduce biomass pretreatment costs, and improve yields of fermentable sugars. He has also developed new facilities at NREL for biomass conversion research, including a Cellulase Biochemistry Laboratory, a Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory, a Protein Crystallography Laboratory, and a new Computational Science Team. Dr. Himmel also serves as the Principal Group Manger of the Biomolecular Sciences Group, where he has supervisory responsibly for 50 staff scientists.

Prof Debra Mohnen received her B.A. in biology from Lawrence University (Wisconsin) and her MS in botany and PhD in plant biology from the University of Illinois. Her PhD research was conducted at the Friedrich Miescher Institute in Basel, Switzerland. She held postdoctoral research associate positions at the USDA’s Richard Russell Research Center and at the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) in Athens, GA where she won an NIH National Research Service Award for her postdoctoral research. She was appointed to the CCRC faculty in September 1990 and is currently Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and also adjunct faculty member in the Department of Plant Biology and member of the Plant Center at UGA. Dr Mohnen has served on the Committee on the Status of Women in Plant Physiology of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, invited faculty sponsor for the UGA Association for Women in Science (AWIS), past member-at-large in the Cellulose and Renewable Materials Division of the American Chemical Society, and is currently a member of the Council for Chemical and Biochemical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. As Co-PI on the NSF-funded Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis Research Network Dr Mohnen established the originally NSF-funded service CarboSource Services, that provides rare substrates for plant wall polysaccharide synthesis to the research community. Her research centers on the biosynthesis, function and structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides is supported by funding from the USDA, NSF and DOE. Her emphasis is on pectin biosynthesis and pectin function in plants and human health, and on the improvement of plant cell wall structure so as to improve the efficiency of conversion of plant wall biomass to biofuels.

Prof Charles Wyman has devoted most of his career to leading advancement of technology for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. In the fall of 2005, he joined the University of California at Riverside as a Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and the Ford Motor Company Chair in Environmental Engineering with a research focus on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to produce reactive intermediates for conversion to fuels and chemicals. Before joining UCR, he was the Paul E. and Joan H. Queneau Distinguished Professor in Environmental Engineering Design at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. Dr. Wyman recently founded Vertimass LLC that is devoted to commercialization of novel catalytic technology for simple one-step conversion of ethanol to fungible gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel blend stocks. Dr. Wyman is also cofounder and former Chief Development Officer and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for Mascoma Corporation, a startup focused on biomass conversion to ethanol and other products.

Before joining Dartmouth College in the fall of 1998, Dr. Wyman was Director of Technology for BC International and led process development for the first cellulosic ethanol plant planned for Jennings, Louisiana. Between 1978 and 1997, he served as Director of the Biotechnology Center for Fuels and Chemicals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado; Director of the NREL Alternative Fuels Division; and Manager of the Biotechnology Research Branch. During that time, he held several other leadership positions at NREL, mostly focused on R&D for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. He has also been Manager of Process Development for Badger Engineers, an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of New Hampshire, and a Senior Chemical Engineer with Monsanto Company.

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Current Opinion in Biotechnology – Journal – Elsevier

The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. In Current Opinion in Biotechnology, we help the reader by providing in a systematic manner: 1. The views of experts on current advances in biotechnology in a clear and readable form. 2. Evaluations of the most interesting papers, annotated by experts, from the great wealth of original publications.

Division of the subject into sections The subject of biotechnology is divided into themed sections, each of which is reviewed once a year. The amount of space devoted to each section is related to its importance.

Analytical biotechnology Plant biotechnology Food biotechnology Energy biotechnology Environmental biotechnology Systems biology Nanobiotechnology Tissue, cell and pathway engineering Chemical biotechnology Pharmaceutical biotechnology

Selection of topics to be reviewed Section Editors, who are major authorities in the field, are appointed by the Editors of the journal. They divide their section into a number of topics, ensuring that the field is comprehensively covered and that all issues of current importance are emphasised. Section Editors commission reviews from authorities on each topic that they have selected.

Reviews Authors write short review articles in which they present recent developments in their subject, emphasising the aspects that, in their opinion, are most important. In addition, they provide short annotations to the papers that they consider to be most interesting from all those published in their topic over the previous year.

Editorial Overview Section Editors write a short overview at the beginning of the section to introduce the reviews and to draw the reader’s attention to any particularly interesting developments. This successful format has made Current Opinion in Biotechnology one of the most highly regarded and highly cited review journals in the field (Impact factor = 8.035).

Ethics in Publishing: General Statement

The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal ‘code of conduct’, these fundamental principles with respect to the authors’ paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors’ own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors’ own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a ‘code’ that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author’s institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author’s work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

For more information, please refer to: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorshome.authors/conflictsofinterest

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Current Opinion in Biotechnology – Journal – Elsevier

Best Master’s Degrees in Biotechnology 2016

Biotechnology is a top-notch field of study that emerged into the scientific world as a result of revolutions in Biology, Chemistry, Informatics, and Engineering. It is considered to be an applied branch of Biology. Biotechnology helps out this old and respectable field of science keep up with the pace of time and remain competitive in the contemporary world.

With a Master in Biotechnology, students will study the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in technology, engineering, medicine, agriculture and results in all kinds of bioproducts, from genetically modified food to serious cutting-edge devices used to carry out gene therapy. Students in Master in Biotechnology programs may also explore bioinformatics, which is the application of statistics and computer science to the field of molecular biology. Bioinformatics is extremely important for contemporary biological and molecular researches because the data amount there grows by geometric progression and it is necessary to have adequate technology to process it. Bioinformatic methods are widely used for mapping and analyzing DNA and protein samples, as well as for the study of genetics and molecular modeling. Biotechnology and Bioinformatics do a great favour to traditional fields of study, refreshing them with new methods of research, which allows their drastic development, and you can make your contribution with a Master in Biotechnology degree.

Find out about various Master in Biotechnology programs by following the links below. Don’t hesitate to send the “Request free information” form to come in contact with the relevant person at the school and get even more information about the specific Master in Biotechnology program you are interested in.

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Best Master’s Degrees in Biotechnology 2016

Biotechnology – Wikipedia for Schools

Background Information

SOS Children offer a complete download of this selection for schools for use on schools intranets. SOS Children is the world’s largest charity giving orphaned and abandoned children the chance of family life.

Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as:

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Biotechnology is often used to refer to genetic engineering technology of the 21st century, however the term encompasses a wider range and history of procedures for modifying biological organisms according to the needs of humanity, going back to the initial modifications of native plants into improved food crops through artificial selection and hybridization. Bioengineering is the science upon which all biotechnological applications are based. With the development of new approaches and modern techniques, traditional biotechnology industries are also acquiring new horizons enabling them to improve the quality of their products and increase the productivity of their systems.

Before 1971, the term, biotechnology, was primarily used in the food processing and agriculture industries. Since the 1970s, it began to be used by the Western scientific establishment to refer to laboratory-based techniques being developed in biological research, such as recombinant DNA or tissue culture-based processes, or horizontal gene transfer in living plants, using vectors such as the Agrobacterium bacteria to transfer DNA into a host organism. In fact, the term should be used in a much broader sense to describe the whole range of methods, both ancient and modern, used to manipulate organic materials to reach the demands of food production. So the term could be defined as, “The application of indigenous and/or scientific knowledge to the management of (parts of) microorganisms, or of cells and tissues of higher organisms, so that these supply goods and services of use to the food industry and its consumers.

Biotechnology combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, which are in turn linked to practical disciplines like chemical engineering, information technology, and robotics. Patho-biotechnology describes the exploitation of pathogens or pathogen derived compounds for beneficial effect.

The most practical use of biotechnology, which is still present today, is the cultivation of plants to produce food suitable to humans. Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. The processes and methods of agriculture have been refined by other mechanical and biological sciences since its inception. Through early biotechnology, farmers were able to select the best suited and highest-yield crops to produce enough food to support a growing population. Other uses of biotechnology were required as crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain. Specific organisms and organism by-products were used to fertilize, restore nitrogen, and control pests. Throughout the use of agriculture farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants–one of the first forms of biotechnology. Cultures such as those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Pakistan developed the process of brewing beer. It is still done by the same basic method of using malted grains (containing enzymes) to convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer. In this process the carbohydrates in the grains were broken down into alcohols such as ethanol. Ancient Indians also used the juices of the plant Ephedra Vulgaris and used to call it Soma. Later other cultures produced the process of Lactic acid fermentation which allowed the fermentation and preservation of other forms of food. Fermentation was also used in this time period to produce leavened bread. Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteurs work in 1857, it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into another form.

Combinations of plants and other organisms were used as medications in many early civilizations. Since as early as 200 BC, people began to use disabled or minute amounts of infectious agents to immunize themselves against infections. These and similar processes have been refined in modern medicine and have led to many developments such as antibiotics, vaccines, and other methods of fighting sickness.

In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products. In 1917, Chaim Weizmann first used a pure microbiological culture in an industrial process, that of manufacturing corn starch using Clostridium acetobutylicum to produce acetone, which the United Kingdom desperately needed to manufacture explosives during World War I.

The field of modern biotechnology is thought to have largely begun on June 16, 1980, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genetically-modified microorganism could be patented in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty. Indian-born Ananda Chakrabarty, working for General Electric, had developed a bacterium (derived from the Pseudomonas genus) capable of breaking down crude oil, which he proposed to use in treating oil spills.

Revenue in the industry is expected to grow by 12.9% in 2008. Another factor influencing the biotechnology sector’s success is improved intellectual property rights legislation — and enforcement — worldwide, as well as strengthened demand for medical and pharmaceutical products to cope with an ageing, and ailing, U.S. population .

Rising demand for biofuels is expected to be good news for the biotechnology sector, with the Department of Energy estimating ethanol usage could reduce U.S. petroleum-derived fuel consumption by up to 30% by 2030. The biotechnology sector has allowed the U.S. farming industry to rapidly increase its supply of corn and soybeans — the main inputs into biofuels — by developing genetically-modified seeds which are resistant to pests and drought. By boosting farm productivity, biotechnology plays a crucial role in ensuring that biofuel production targets are met.

Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities ( bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for example:

In medicine, modern biotechnology finds promising applications in such areas as

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her bodys response to drugs. It is a coined word derived from the words pharmacology and genomics. It is hence the study of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics. The vision of pharmacogenomics is to be able to design and produce drugs that are adapted to each persons genetic makeup.

Pharmacogenomics results in the following benefits:

1. Development of tailor-made medicines. Using pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical companies can create drugs based on the proteins, enzymes and RNA molecules that are associated with specific genes and diseases. These tailor-made drugs promise not only to maximize therapeutic effects but also to decrease damage to nearby healthy cells.

2. More accurate methods of determining appropriate drug dosages. Knowing a patients genetics will enable doctors to determine how well his/ her body can process and metabolize a medicine. This will maximize the value of the medicine and decrease the likelihood of overdose.

3. Improvements in the drug discovery and approval process. The discovery of potential therapies will be made easier using genome targets. Genes have been associated with numerous diseases and disorders. With modern biotechnology, these genes can be used as targets for the development of effective new therapies, which could significantly shorten the drug discovery process.

4. Better vaccines. Safer vaccines can be designed and produced by organisms transformed by means of genetic engineering. These vaccines will elicit the immune response without the attendant risks of infection. They will be inexpensive, stable, easy to store, and capable of being engineered to carry several strains of pathogen at once.

Most traditional pharmaceutical drugs are relatively simple molecules that have been found primarily through trial and error to treat the symptoms of a disease or illness. Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules known as proteins and these usually target the underlying mechanisms and pathways of a malady (but not always, as is the case with using insulin to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, as that treatment merely addresses the symptoms of the disease, not the underlying cause which is autoimmunity); it is a relatively young industry. They can deal with targets in humans that may not be accessible with traditional medicines. A patient typically is dosed with a small molecule via a tablet while a large molecule is typically injected.

Small molecules are manufactured by chemistry but larger molecules are created by living cells such as those found in the human body: for example, bacteria cells, yeast cells, animal or plant cells.

Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances like synthetic insulin or antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn. Genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, are also used to manufacture certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology application is the development of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

Biotechnology is also commonly associated with landmark breakthroughs in new medical therapies to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cancers, arthritis, haemophilia, bone fractures, multiple sclerosis, and cardiovascular disorders. The biotechnology industry has also been instrumental in developing molecular diagnostic devices than can be used to define the target patient population for a given biopharmaceutical. Herceptin, for example, was the first drug approved for use with a matching diagnostic test and is used to treat breast cancer in women whose cancer cells express the protein HER2.

Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and cheaply. The first genetically engineered products were medicines designed to treat human diseases. To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli. Insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes, was previously extracted from the pancreas of abattoir animals (cattle and/or pigs). The resulting genetically engineered bacterium enabled the production of vast quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost, although the cost savings was used to increase profits for manufacturers, not passed on to consumers or their healthcare providers. According to a 2003 study undertaken by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) on the access to and availability of insulin in its member countries, synthetic ‘human’ insulin is considerably more expensive in most countries where both synthetic ‘human’ and animal insulin are commercially available: e.g. within European countries the average price of synthetic ‘human’ insulin was twice as high as the price of pork insulin. Yet in its position statement, the IDF writes that “there is no overwhelming evidence to prefer one species of insulin over another” and “[modern, highly-purified] animal insulins remain a perfectly acceptable alternative.

Modern biotechnology has evolved, making it possible to produce more easily and relatively cheaply human growth hormone, clotting factors for hemophiliacs, fertility drugs, erythropoietin and other drugs. Most drugs today are based on about 500 molecular targets. Genomic knowledge of the genes involved in diseases, disease pathways, and drug-response sites are expected to lead to the discovery of thousands more new targets.

Genetic testing involves the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. A scientist scans a patients DNA sample for mutated sequences.

There are two major types of gene tests. In the first type, a researcher may design short pieces of DNA (probes) whose sequences are complementary to the mutated sequences. These probes will seek their complement among the base pairs of an individuals genome. If the mutated sequence is present in the patients genome, the probe will bind to it and flag the mutation. In the second type, a researcher may conduct the gene test by comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patients gene to disease in healthy individuals or their progeny.

Genetic testing is now used for:

Some genetic tests are already available, although most of them are used in developed countries. The tests currently available can detect mutations associated with rare genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, and Huntingtons disease. Recently, tests have been developed to detect mutation for a handful of more complex conditions such as breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. However, gene tests may not detect every mutation associated with a particular condition because many are as yet undiscovered, and the ones they do detect may present different risks to different people and populations.

Several issues have been raised regarding the use of genetic testing:

1. Absence of cure. There is still a lack of effective treatment or preventive measures for many diseases and conditions now being diagnosed or predicted using gene tests. Thus, revealing information about risk of a future disease that has no existing cure presents an ethical dilemma for medical practitioners.

2. Ownership and control of genetic information. Who will own and control genetic information, or information about genes, gene products, or inherited characteristics derived from an individual or a group of people like indigenous communities? At the macro level, there is a possibility of a genetic divide, with developing countries that do not have access to medical applications of biotechnology being deprived of benefits accruing from products derived from genes obtained from their own people. Moreover, genetic information can pose a risk for minority population groups as it can lead to group stigmatization.

At the individual level, the absence of privacy and anti-discrimination legal protections in most countries can lead to discrimination in employment or insurance or other misuse of personal genetic information. This raises questions such as whether genetic privacy is different from medical privacy.

3. Reproductive issues. These include the use of genetic information in reproductive decision-making and the possibility of genetically altering reproductive cells that may be passed on to future generations. For example, germline therapy forever changes the genetic make-up of an individuals descendants. Thus, any error in technology or judgment may have far-reaching consequences. Ethical issues like designer babies and human cloning have also given rise to controversies between and among scientists and bioethicists, especially in the light of past abuses with eugenics.

4. Clinical issues. These centre on the capabilities and limitations of doctors and other health-service providers, people identified with genetic conditions, and the general public in dealing with genetic information.

5. Effects on social institutions. Genetic tests reveal information about individuals and their families. Thus, test results can affect the dynamics within social institutions, particularly the family.

6. Conceptual and philosophical implications regarding human responsibility, free will vis–vis genetic determinism, and the concepts of health and disease.

Gene therapy may be used for treating, or even curing, genetic and acquired diseases like cancer and AIDS by using normal genes to supplement or replace defective genes or to bolster a normal function such as immunity. It can be used to target somatic (i.e., body) or germ (i.e., egg and sperm) cells. In somatic gene therapy, the genome of the recipient is changed, but this change is not passed along to the next generation. In contrast, in germline gene therapy, the egg and sperm cells of the parents are changed for the purpose of passing on the changes to their offspring.

There are basically two ways of implementing a gene therapy treatment:

1. Ex vivo, which means outside the body Cells from the patients blood or bone marrow are removed and grown in the laboratory. They are then exposed to a virus carrying the desired gene. The virus enters the cells, and the desired gene becomes part of the DNA of the cells. The cells are allowed to grow in the laboratory before being returned to the patient by injection into a vein.

2. In vivo, which means inside the body No cells are removed from the patients body. Instead, vectors are used to deliver the desired gene to cells in the patients body.

Currently, the use of gene therapy is limited. Somatic gene therapy is primarily at the experimental stage. Germline therapy is the subject of much discussion but it is not being actively investigated in larger animals and human beings.

As of June 2001, more than 500 clinical gene-therapy trials involving about 3,500 patients have been identified worldwide. Around 78% of these are in the United States, with Europe having 18%. These trials focus on various types of cancer, although other multigenic diseases are being studied as well. Recently, two children born with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) were reported to have been cured after being given genetically engineered cells.

Gene therapy faces many obstacles before it can become a practical approach for treating disease. At least four of these obstacles are as follows:

1. Gene delivery tools. Genes are inserted into the body using gene carriers called vectors. The most common vectors now are viruses, which have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner. Scientists manipulate the genome of the virus by removing the disease-causing genes and inserting the therapeutic genes. However, while viruses are effective, they can introduce problems like toxicity, immune and inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting issues.

2. Limited knowledge of the functions of genes. Scientists currently know the functions of only a few genes. Hence, gene therapy can address only some genes that cause a particular disease. Worse, it is not known exactly whether genes have more than one function, which creates uncertainty as to whether replacing such genes is indeed desirable.

3. Multigene disorders and effect of environment. Most genetic disorders involve more than one gene. Moreover, most diseases involve the interaction of several genes and the environment. For example, many people with cancer not only inherit the disease gene for the disorder, but may have also failed to inherit specific tumor suppressor genes. Diet, exercise, smoking and other environmental factors may have also contributed to their disease.

4. High costs. Since gene therapy is relatively new and at an experimental stage, it is an expensive treatment to undertake. This explains why current studies are focused on illnesses commonly found in developed countries, where more people can afford to pay for treatment. It may take decades before developing countries can take advantage of this technology.

The Human Genome Project is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that aims to generate a high-quality reference sequence for the entire human genome and identify all the human genes.

The DOE and its predecessor agencies were assigned by the U.S. Congress to develop new energy resources and technologies and to pursue a deeper understanding of potential health and environmental risks posed by their production and use. In 1986, the DOE announced its Human Genome Initiative. Shortly thereafter, the DOE and National Institutes of Health developed a plan for a joint Human Genome Project (HGP), which officially began in 1990.

The HGP was originally planned to last 15 years. However, rapid technological advances and worldwide participation accelerated the completion date to 2003 (making it a 13 year project). Already it has enabled gene hunters to pinpoint genes associated with more than 30 disorders.

Cloning involves the removal of the nucleus from one cell and its placement in an unfertilized egg cell whose nucleus has either been deactivated or removed.

There are two types of cloning:

1. Reproductive cloning. After a few divisions, the egg cell is placed into a uterus where it is allowed to develop into a fetus that is genetically identical to the donor of the original nucleus.

2. Therapeutic cloning. The egg is placed into a Petri dish where it develops into embryonic stem cells, which have shown potentials for treating several ailments.

In February 1997, cloning became the focus of media attention when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute announced the successful cloning of a sheep, named Dolly, from the mammary glands of an adult female. The cloning of Dolly made it apparent to many that the techniques used to produce her could someday be used to clone human beings. This stirred a lot of controversy because of its ethical implications.

Using the techniques of modern biotechnology, one or two genes may be transferred to a highly developed crop variety to impart a new character that would increase its yield (30). However, while increases in crop yield are the most obvious applications of modern biotechnology in agriculture, it is also the most difficult one. Current genetic engineering techniques work best for effects that are controlled by a single gene. Many of the genetic characteristics associated with yield (e.g., enhanced growth) are controlled by a large number of genes, each of which has a minimal effect on the overall yield (31). There is, therefore, much scientific work to be done in this area.

Crops containing genes that will enable them to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses may be developed. For example, drought and excessively salty soil are two important limiting factors in crop productivity. Biotechnologists are studying plants that can cope with these extreme conditions in the hope of finding the genes that enable them to do so and eventually transferring these genes to the more desirable crops. One of the latest developments is the identification of a plant gene, At-DBF2, from thale cress, a tiny weed that is often used for plant research because it is very easy to grow and its genetic code is well mapped out. When this gene was inserted into tomato and tobacco cells (see RNA interference), the cells were able to withstand environmental stresses like salt, drought, cold and heat, far more than ordinary cells. If these preliminary results prove successful in larger trials, then At-DBF2 genes can help in engineering crops that can better withstand harsh environments (32). Researchers have also created transgenic rice plants that are resistant to rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). In Africa, this virus destroys majority of the rice crops and makes the surviving plants more susceptible to fungal infections (33).

Proteins in foods may be modified to increase their nutritional qualities. Proteins in legumes and cereals may be transformed to provide the amino acids needed by human beings for a balanced diet (34). A good example is the work of Professors Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer on the so-called Goldenrice(discussed below).

Modern biotechnology can be used to slow down the process of spoilage so that fruit can ripen longer on the plant and then be transported to the consumer with a still reasonable shelf life. This improves the taste, texture and appearance of the fruit. More importantly, it could expand the market for farmers in developing countries due to the reduction in spoilage.

The first genetically modified food product was a tomato which was transformed to delay its ripening (35). Researchers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam are currently working on delayed-ripening papaya in collaboration with the University of Nottingham and Zeneca (36).

Biotechnology in cheese production: enzymes produced by micro-organisms provide an alternative to animal rennet a cheese coagulant – and an alternative supply for cheese makers. This also eliminates possible public concerns with animal-derived material, although there is currently no plans to develop synthetic milk, thus making this argument less compelling. Enzymes offer an animal-friendly alternative to animal rennet. While providing comparable quality, they are theoretically also less expensive.

About 85 million tons of wheat flour is used every year to bake bread. By adding an enzyme called maltogenic amylase to the flour, bread stays fresher longer. Assuming that 10-15% of bread is thrown away, if it could just stay fresh another 57 days then 2 million tons of flour per year would be saved. That corresponds to 40% of the bread consumed in a country such as the USA. This means more bread becomes available with no increase in input. In combination with other enzymes, bread can also be made bigger, more appetizing and better in a range of ways.

Most of the current commercial applications of modern biotechnology in agriculture are on reducing the dependence of farmers on agrochemicals. For example, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that produces a protein with insecticidal qualities. Traditionally, a fermentation process has been used to produce an insecticidal spray from these bacteria. In this form, the Bt toxin occurs as an inactive protoxin, which requires digestion by an insect to be effective. There are several Bt toxins and each one is specific to certain target insects. Crop plants have now been engineered to contain and express the genes for Bt toxin, which they produce in its active form. When a susceptible insect ingests the transgenic crop cultivar expressing the Bt protein, it stops feeding and soon thereafter dies as a result of the Bt toxin binding to its gut wall. Bt corn is now commercially available in a number of countries to control corn borer (a lepidopteran insect), which is otherwise controlled by spraying (a more difficult process).

Crops have also been genetically engineered to acquire tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicide. The lack of cost-effective herbicides with broad-spectrum activity and no crop injury was a consistent limitation in crop weed management. Multiple applications of numerous herbicides were routinely used to control a wide range of weed species detrimental to agronomic crops. Weed management tended to rely on preemergence that is, herbicide applications were sprayed in response to expected weed infestations rather than in response to actual weeds present. Mechanical cultivation and hand weeding were often necessary to control weeds not controlled by herbicide applications. The introduction of herbicide tolerant crops has the potential of reducing the number of herbicide active ingredients used for weed management, reducing the number of herbicide applications made during a season, and increasing yield due to improved weed management and less crop injury. Transgenic crops that express tolerance to glyphosate, glufosinate and bromoxynil have been developed. These herbicides can now be sprayed on transgenic crops without inflicting damage on the crops while killing nearby weeds (37).

From 1996 to 2001, herbicide tolerance was the most dominant trait introduced to commercially available transgenic crops, followed by insect resistance. In 2001, herbicide tolerance deployed in soybean, corn and cotton accounted for 77% of the 626,000 square kilometres planted to transgenic crops; Bt crops accounted for 15%; and “stacked genes” for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance used in both cotton and corn accounted for 8% (38).

Biotechnology is being applied for novel uses other than food. For example, oilseed can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals. Potatos, tomatos, rice, tobacco, lettuce, safflowers, and other plants have been genetically-engineered to produce insulin and certain vaccines. If future clinical trials prove successful, the advantages of edible vaccines would be enormous, especially for developing countries. The transgenic plants may be grown locally and cheaply. Homegrown vaccines would also avoid logistical and economic problems posed by having to transport traditional preparations over long distances and keeping them cold while in transit. And since they are edible, they will not need syringes, which are not only an additional expense in the traditional vaccine preparations but also a source of infections if contaminated. In the case of insulin grown in transgenic plants, it is well-established that the gastrointestinal system breaks the protein down therefore this could not currently be administered as an edible protein. However, it might be produced at significantly lower cost than insulin produced in costly, bioreactors. For example, Calgary, Canada-based SemBioSys Genetics, Inc. reports that its safflower-produced insulin will reduce unit costs by over 25% or more and reduce the capital costs associated with building a commercial-scale insulin manufacturing facility by approximately over $100 million compared to traditional biomanufacturing facilities.

There is another side to the agricultural biotechnology issue however. It includes increased herbicide usage and resultant herbicide resistance, “super weeds,” residues on and in food crops, genetic contamination of non-GM crops which hurt organic and conventional farmers, damage to wildlife from glyphosate, etc.

Biotechnological engineering or biological engineering is a branch of engineering that focuses on biotechnologies and biological science. It includes different disciplines such as biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, bio-process engineering, biosystem engineering and so on. Because of the novelty of the field, the definition of a bioengineer is still undefined. However, in general it is an integrated approach of fundamental biological sciences and traditional engineering principles.

Bioengineers are often employed to scale up bio processes from the laboratory scale to the manufacturing scale. Moreover, as with most engineers, they often deal with management, economic and legal issues. Since patents and regulation (e.g. FDA regulation in the U.S.) are very important issues for biotech enterprises, bioengineers are often required to have knowledge related to these issues.

The increasing number of biotech enterprises is likely to create a need for bioengineers in the years to come. Many universities throughout the world are now providing programs in bioengineering and biotechnology (as independent programs or specialty programs within more established engineering fields)..

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Biotechnology – Wikipedia for Schools

Biotechnology News — ScienceDaily

New Placenta Model Could Reveal How Birth Defect-Causing Infections Cross from Mom to Baby Mar. 4, 2016 Researchers have devised a cell-based model of the human placenta that could help explain how pathogens that cause birth defects cross from mother to unborn … read more Mar. 3, 2016 Scientists have developed an animal model for breast cancer that faithfully captures the disease. Tested on human breast tissue, this the most clinically realistic model of breast cancer to … read more Mar. 2, 2016 A faster, less expensive method has been developed and used to learn the DNA sequence of the male-specific Y chromosome in the gorilla. The research reveals that a male gorilla’s Y chromosome is … read more Mar. 2, 2016 DNA does not always adopt the form of the double helix which is associated with the genetic code; it can also form intricate folds and act as an enzyme: a deoxyribozyme. Scientists have solved the … read more Mar. 2, 2016 Every cell in our bodies has its proper place, but how do they get there? A research group has discovered the mechanism for a mosaic pattern formation of two different cell types. Their discovery has … read more Need for Better Characterized Genomes for Clinical Sequencing Mar. 1, 2016 Challenges in benchmarking difficult, but clinically important regions of the genome have been reported. The results underscore the need to extend benchmarking references against which sequencing … read more A New Way to Stretch DNA Mar. 1, 2016 Researchers have recently developed a new way to controllably manipulate materials, in this case biomolecules that are too small to see with the naked eye. By stretching molecules like DNA and … read more Mar. 1, 2016 This is a story about spit. Not just any spit, but the saliva of cyst nematodes, a parasite that literally sucks away billions in profits from soybean and other crops every year. Scientists find how … read more Mar. 1, 2016 Our innate immune system uses two mechanisms. The first kills foreign bodies within the phagocyte itself. The second kills them outside the cell. Microbiologists have discovered that a social amoeba … read more Preserved Siberian Moose With the DNA of Ancient Animal Discovered Mar. 1, 2016 Scientists have found preserved moose in Western Siberia that have unique features of DNA structure. This discovery will help determine the origin and path of moose movement in the last few tens of … read more Unlocking the Secrets of Squid Sucker Ring Teeth Feb. 29, 2016 A squid has more in common with a spider than you may think. The razor-sharp ‘teeth’ that ring the suckers found on some squid tentacles are made up entirely of proteins remarkably similar … read more Female Fertility Is Dependent on Functional Expression of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Feb. 29, 2016 Protein ubiquitination is known to result in its proteasomal degradation or to serve as a signal for tissue-specific cellular functions. Here it is reported that mice with a mutant form of the E3 … read more Cell Biology: Nuclear Export of Opioid Growth Factor Receptor Is CRM1 Dependent Feb. 29, 2016 The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) interacts with a specific opioid growth factor ligand (OGF), chemically termed [Met5]-enkephalin, to maintain homeostasis in a wide variety of normal and … read more Feb. 29, 2016 DNA is made from four nucleosides, each known by its own letter — A, G, C, and T. However, since the structure of DNA was deciphered in 1953, scientists have discovered several other variants that … read more Feb. 29, 2016 Researchers have engineered microbes that can’t run away from home. Any refugees that do quickly die without protective proteins produced by their peers. Dubbed ‘swarmbots’ for their … read more Blood Vessels Sprout Under Pressure Feb. 29, 2016 It is blood pressure that drives the opening of small capillaries during angiogenesis. A team of researchers has observed the process for the first … read more Feb. 29, 2016 A team of researchers has identified a new mechanism that regulates the effect of the satiety hormone leptin. The study identified the enzyme HDAC5 as key factor in our control of body weight and … read more Making Better Enzymes and Protein Drugs Feb. 29, 2016 Natural selection results in protein sequences that are only soluble to the level that is required to carry out its physiological function. However, in biotechnological applications, we need these … read more Feb. 29, 2016 The development of every animal in the history of the world began with a simple step: the fusion of a spermatozoon with an oocyte. Despite the ubiquity of this process, the actual mechanisms through … read more Preventing Protein Unfolding Feb. 26, 2016 A computational model shows that polymers can reinforce proteins to prevent them from unfolding under mechanical … read more

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Biotechnology News — ScienceDaily

Home | Master of Science in Biotechnology | Northwestern’s …

Biotechnology is a young, vibrant and diverse discipline, whose tenet is to use microorganisms for the manufacturing of biological therapeutics, foods, chemicals, and other products benefitting people. It includes agrobiotechnology, biopharmaceuticals, diagnostics, and bioremediation. The future of biotechnology lies in advances in healthcare, industrial biotechnology, biofuels, and cleantech.

Graduates of the Master of Biotechnology program at Northwestern University possess:

Read a message from the director Learn more about the curriculum Meet the faculty

Degree Name

Master of Science in Biotechnology

Duration

15 months, full-time, without internship 21 months, full-time, with internship

Start Date

September 2016

Program Structure

Program Features

Location

Evanston campus

Cost

$14,292 tuition fee per quarter, plus cost of living, textbooks, and other miscellaneous fees

Scholarships of up to $10,000 available to domestic students

Tuition and funding information

Application opens

September 1

Application deadlines

The majority of MBP students are recent graduates seeking careers in biotechnology and associated professions, as well as the competitive advantage a higher degree provides. At least half are typically biology majors; the rest are engineers, biotechnologists, and other science majors. The expected class size is 3540 students per year.

Learn more about our student body

Northwestern’s program is distinguished from other MS in biotechnology programs by the integration of biology and engineering combined with extensive hands-on research in Northwestern University faculty laboratories.

In addition to research experience, students benefit from:

The program also offers multiplecertificate and minor options for students seeking to complement their technical skills.

Our interdisciplinary approach provides students with the flexibility and knowledge to pursue a number of biotechnology professions. In addition to becoming research and process development specialists, MBP graduates have taken up roles as consultants, regulatory affairs associates, and analysts.

Our program can also prepare students to meet the demands of doctoral programs. MBP graduates have pursued PhDs in Chemical Engineering and the Biological Sciences while others have gone on to work towards their MD or JD.

Learn more about career opportunities

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Biotechnology – University of WisconsinRiver Falls

Mission Statement

The mission of the Biotechnology Program at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls is to provide its students with an education that establishes a strong foundation and appreciation for understanding developments in the rapidly advancing field of biotechnology, to develop the technical and critical thinking skills necessary for success in the field, to foster ethical behavior, and to promote outreach.

The field of modern biotechnology was born of molecular biology and biochemistry. Modern Biotechnology provides a set of tools that allow scientists to modify and harness the genetic capabilities of organisms. This has led to rapid advances in many areas including pharmaceutical development, agriculture, food microbiology, medical devices and environmental sciences.

Some examples of the products of biotechnology include herbicide, drought and insect resistant crops, drugs targeted specifically to disease processes resulting in fewer side effects, and bioremediation capable of removing greater amounts of environmental toxins at reduced cost.

The Biotechnology major at UWRF is an interdepartmental program with an emphasis on the molecular basis of life and the techniques utilized to study and control these processes under in vivo, in vitro, and commercial production conditions. UWRF LogoThe Biotechnology curriculum is an integrated sequence of courses selected from the curricula of the departments of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Animal and Food Science, and Plant and Earth Science. It includes both traditional offerings of the departments involved and courses that reflect advances in biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology. The Biotechnology major is designed to provide students interested in pursuing careers in this rapidly expanding field with the academic background required to either secure entry level positions in industry or to continue their education in graduate or professional schools. A student may complete a B.S. degree in Biotechnology in the College of Arts and Sciences or the College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences.

Current curriculum check list (2008-2009)

Planning sheets

A scholarship has been established that is awarded to an outstanding junior or senior biotechnology major that either has worked on a research project, or will be participating in a research project during the year of the scholarship award. Follow the link above for information regarding scholarship criteria, recipients of the scholarship, and contributing to the scholarship fund.

Assessment of student learning is important to the University, the Colleges and the Biotechnology Program. Through appropriate assessment practices, we maintain a strong, current degree program and improve the quality of the education our students receive.

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Biotechnology – University of WisconsinRiver Falls

Biotechnology – Shoreline Community College

Pharmaceutical labs

Dina Kovarik, M.S., Ph.D. (Program Chair)

206-546-4747

dkovarik@shoreline.edu

Joyce Fagel, M.A. (Advisor, Science Division)

206-546-6984

jfagel@shoreline.edu

Biotechnology is an exciting and rapidly expanding field. Biologists and other scientists working in research and development use biotechnology techniques for the production of genetically engineered drugs, gene therapy, microbiology, virology, forensic science, agriculture and environmental science. Shoreline’s Biotechnology Lab Specialist Program opens the door to a field filled with opportunity.

Weprovide practical, “hands-on” learning with cutting edge techniques, technologies, and equipment.You willgain a working knowledge of molecular biology, recombinant DNA, immunology, protein purification and tissue culture. The curriculum also provides a foundation in a variety of math and science disciplines including algebra, statistics, chemistry, biology, microbiology and computer science.

* Both options include an internship in local biotechnology labs.

Both degree and certificate students must submit an application in the Spring prior to beginning thesecond year (core) Biotechcourses. Students accepted into the program will receive notification by the first week of June. Acceptance into the program guarantees you a space in all of the Biotech core courses in the second year of the program.

Link:
Biotechnology – Shoreline Community College

Biotechnology, Undergraduate Programs, SUNY-ESF

Information for Enrolled Students Learn More

Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, cells, or molecules to create products or services for the betterment of humans. The bachelor of science degree in biotechnology prepares students to tackle environmental, natural resource, agricultural and medical problems through training in molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetic engineering and related biological disciplines. As biotechnology is increasingly used to address such issues, it offers diverse career opportunities. The curriculum emphasizes the basic sciences with a strong foundation in biology, chemistry, calculus, and physics that prepares students for upper-level biology and chemistry courses, but encourages elective breadth in the social sciences, humanities, and environmental studies. The degree program provides sufficient breadth for a student to enter a clinical medical career, or other health profession. Students who complete this major will be qualified to enter the growing biotechnology-related job market or continue their studies in graduate or professional school.

The biotechnology major features a strong practical experience component. Each student is required to fulfill an internship, which could be in a local, national, or international company, medical unit, or government research laboratory. The objective of this internship is to give students experience working outside a purely academic setting. In addition, each student is required to perform one independent research project in a local, national, or international academic laboratory. The objective of the research requirement is to teach the student to develop and meet a research goal using the scientific method. During the senior year, each student is required to complete a senior project synthesis in which the results from either the internship or independent researchor bothwill be organized and presented as a seminar or poster.

In addition to ESF courses, below is a list of other courses offered at Syracuse University that can satisfy the directed electives requirement:

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Biotechnology, Undergraduate Programs, SUNY-ESF

Biotechnology | Define Biotechnology at Dictionary.com

British Dictionary definitions for biotechnology Expand

/batknld/

(in industry) the technique of using microorganisms, such as bacteria, to perform chemical processing, such as waste recycling, or to produce other materials, such as beer and wine, cheese, antibiotics, and (using genetic engineering) hormones, vaccines, etc

Derived Forms

biotechnological (batknldkl) adjectivebiotechnologically, adverbbiotechnologist, noun

Word Origin and History for biotechnology Expand

also bio-technology, 1947, “use of machinery in relation to human needs;” 1972 in sense of “use of biological processes in industrial production,” from bio- + technology.

biotechnology in Medicine Expand

biotechnology biotechnology (b’-tk-nl’-j) n.

The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes. Applications include production of certain drugs, synthetic hormones, and bulk foodstuffs.

The application of the principles of engineering and technology to the life sciences.

biotechnology in Science Expand

The use of a living organism to solve an engineering problem or perform an industrial task. Using bacteria that feed on hydrocarbons to clean up an oil spill is one example of biotechnology.

The use of biological substances or techniques to engineer or manufacture a product or substance, as when cells that produce antibodies are cloned in order to study their effects on cancer cells. See more at genetic engineering.

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Biotechnology | Define Biotechnology at Dictionary.com

Elsevier Current Opinion – Current Opinion in Biotechnology

IMPACT FACTOR: 7.117 5-Year Impact Factor: 7.983 Issues per year: 6 issues Editorial Board

The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. In Current Opinion in Biotechnology, we help the reader by providing in a systematic manner: 1. The views of experts on current advances in biotechnology in a clear and readable form. 2. Evaluations of the most interesting papers, annotated by experts, from the great wealth of original publications.

Division of the subject into sections The subject of biotechnology is divided into themed sections, each of which is reviewed once a year. The amount of space devoted to each section is related to its importance.

Analytical biotechnology Plant biotechnology Food biotechnology Energy biotechnology Environmental biotechnology Systems biology Nanobiotechnology Tissue, cell and pathway engineering Chemical biotechnology Pharmaceutical biotechnology

Selection of topics to be reviewed Section Editors, who are major authorities in the field, are appointed by the Editors of the journal. They divide their section into a number of topics, ensuring that the field is comprehensively covered and that all issues of current importance are emphasised. Section Editors commission reviews from authorities on each topic that they have selected.

Reviews Authors write short review articles in which they present recent developments in their subject, emphasising the aspects that, in their opinion, are most important. In addition, they provide short annotations to the papers that they consider to be most interesting from all those published in their topic over the previous year.

Editorial Overview Section Editors write a short overview at the beginning of the section to introduce the reviews and to draw the reader’s attention to any particularly interesting developments. This successful format has made Current Opinion in Biotechnology one of the most highly regarded and highly cited review journals in the field (Impact factor = 8.035).

Ethics in Publishing: General Statement

The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal ‘code of conduct’, these fundamental principles with respect to the authors’ paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors’ own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors’ own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a ‘code’ that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author’s institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author’s work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

For more information, please refer to: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorshome.authors/conflictsofinterest

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Elsevier Current Opinion – Current Opinion in Biotechnology

Careers in Biotechnology – List of various options

Various biotechnology careers include forensic DNA analyst, scientist, clinical research associate job, laboratory assistant, microbiologist, greenhouse and field technician, bioinformatics specialist, animal caretaker and many more.

Biotechnology is combining knowledge about life and living organisms with modern technology to create new systems, devices, materials, foodthat could improve human life and help preserve environment. Most biotechnology products are associated with agriculture, food industry and medicine, and logically – careers in those fields are most popular.

Average Salary (per month) for a Green House and Field Technician may range from: US $2500-3000 In India, salaries may range between: INR 15,000-30,000 (or more, depending upon the experience)

This position is usually associated with crime laboratories where DNA analysis is performed to solve legal issues. Urine, saliva, blood, semen, hairthose are the samples that could be used for DNA analysis. After sample collection, DNA is extracted and analyzed using couple methods (PCR, electrophoresis). Final results are further compared with the already known DNA profiles. Methodology is strict: properly collected and stored evidence, documentation on technical laboratory details and well written final reports are essential for successful prosecution. Depending on the laboratory size, employees could be more or less specialized.

Average Salary (per month) for a Clinical Research Associate may range from: US $4500-5000 In India, salaries may range between: INR 20,000-25,000 (or more, depending upon the experience and repute of the firm)

Average Salary (per month) for a Bioinformatics Specialist may range from: US $5000-6000 In India, salaries may range between: INR 30,000-45,000 (or more, depending upon the experience and repute of the firm)

Animal caretaker is nurturing animals used in biotech research. List of species used is long: all the way from mice and rats to cows and chimps. Water and food supplies, cage cleaning, animal health monitoring, relocation, milking, artificial insemination a lot of duties need to be performed and not all tasks are representative. If you put aside that animals have specific odor (and different bodily fluids and excretions) keep in mind that watching animal suffer during experiments isnt easy or nice thing to do. Average Salary (per month) for an Animal Caretaker may range from: US $1000-1200 In India, salaries may range between: INR 10,000-15,000

Average Salary (per month) for a Production Engineer may range from: US $6000-7000 In India, salaries may range between: INR 30,000-50,000 (depending upon experience, institute of study and company as well)

Average Salary (per month) for a QA engineer may range from: US $5000-6000 In India, salaries may range between: INR 25,000-30,000 (depending upon experience, institute of study and company as well)

Average Salary (per month) for a Consultant may range from: US $6000-8000 In India, salaries may range between: INR 30,000-1,00,000 (depending upon experience, institute of study and company as well)

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Careers in Biotechnology – List of various options

Biotechnology Conferences| Industrial Biotechnology Events …

Track-1: Industrial Biotechnology

Industrial biotechnology is one of the best encouraging new techniques to contamination evasion, asset protection, and cost lessening. It is much of the time said to as the third wave in biotechnology. On the off chance that created to its full forthcoming, mechanical biotechnology might have a higher impact on the World than human services and agrarian biotechnology. Mechanical biotechnology has molded proteins for use in our everyday lives and for the assembling division. Modern biotechnology organizations use numerous particular strategies to find and enhance nature’s chemicals. Data from genomic concentrates on microorganisms is supporting specialists misuse on the abundance of hereditary differing qualities in microbial group.

Modern Biotechnology is a Multidisciplinary plan proposed to experience plant based biomass for the assembling of vitality and mass and claim to fame chemicals. “Open Innovation Cluster” for bioeconomy with consideration on mechanical biotechnology. It is anticipated that mechanical biotechnology will be continuously actualized by compound, pharmaceutical, sustenance, and farming commercial ventures.

The Global biotechnology market size was esteemed at USD 270.5 billion in 2013 and is required to develop at a CAGR of 12.3% inferable from the expanding interest for diagnostics and therapeutics arrangements. Rising government activities attributable to high importance towards development of the economy are relied upon to help the biotechnology market development over the gauge period.

Related Biotechnology Conferences | Industrial Biotechnology Events | Bioeconomy Congress

Related Conferences

6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Track-2: Bioprocess engineering

Bioprocess building is the adjustment or utilization of renewable constituents to create esteem included yields. It incorporates revelation, exploration, advance and the assembling and improvement of items. Bioprocess/biochemical/biotechnology/biotechnical building is a bureau of synthetic building, It decreases by the outline and development of types of gear and methods for the assembling of items, for example, agribusiness, nourishment, bolster, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, polymers then paper from living materials and examination of waste water.

Bioprocess Engineering, research accentuations on expansion of new biotechnological rehearses for creation of pharmaceuticals, solid nourishment components, mass chemicals and biofuels. Our experience is to create high esteem bio-based items in a legitimate and modest mode to stop decrease of regular assets and to expansion advancement of a bio-experimental industry.

Worldwide business sector for bioprocessing is reflecting the sensational development of the biotechnology business around the globe. Europe speaks to around 25% of Global business sector with 1,880 organizations with incomes roughly $13.5 billion.

Related Biotechnology Conferences | Industrial Biotechnology Events | Bioeconomy Congress

Related Conferences

6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Track-3: Industrial Fermentation

Fermentation process devours microorganisms to change strong or fluid substrates into different items. Aging determined items show gigantic quality. Mechanical aging is the planned utilization of maturation by organisms, for example, microbes other than growths to style items valuable to people. Matured items require order as sustenance and additionally in far reaching industry.

Some important chemicals, identical as acidic corrosive, citrus extract, in addition to ethanol are readied by aging. The proportion of aging relies on upon the compacting of organisms, cells, cell sections, and proteins furthermore temperature, pH and now vigorous aging Oxygen. Item recovery as often as possible embroils the assimilation of the weaken arrangement. Around all industrially fabricated catalysts, for example, lipase, invertase then rennet, are readied by maturation through hereditarily adjusted MI Fermentation process devours microorganisms to change strong or fluid substrates into different items. Aging inferred items show colossal quality. Mechanical aging is the purposeful utilization of aging by organisms, for example, microorganisms other than parasites to style items valuable to people. Aged items require demand as sustenance and in addition in far reaching industry.

Some significant chemicals, comparable as acidic corrosive, citrus extract, in addition to ethanol are readied by aging. The proportion of aging relies on upon the compacting of microorganisms, cells, cell sections, and compounds furthermore temperature, pH and now high-impact maturation Oxygen. Item recovery much of the time involves the ingestion of the weaken arrangement. Roughly all economically produced compounds, for example, lipase, invertase then rennet, are readied by aging through hereditarily altered microorganisms. In by and large, maturations can be separated into three sorts: Production of biomass, Production of extracellular metabolites, and Transformation of substrate.

Worldwide maturation chemicals market interest was 51.83 million tons in 2013. Expanding worldwide ethanol and methanol creation levels because of developing interest from liquor industry is likewise anticipated that would drive aging chemicals market. High assembling expense is likewise anticipated that would ruin the business sector development throughout the following six years.

Related Biotechnology Conferences | Industrial Biotechnology Events | Bioeconomy Congress

Related Conferences

6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Related Biotechnology Conferences | Industrial Biotechnology Events | Bioeconomy Congress

Track-4: Microbial Biotechnology

Microorganisms have stayed persecuted for their unmistakable natural and physical properties from the beginning periods for heating, preparing, nourishment safeguarding and more as of late to manufacture anti-microbials, solvents, amino acids, bolster supplements, and engineered feedstuffs. Current advancements in Molecular Biology and hereditary building may offer novel elucidation to long-standing confusions. Over the wiped out decade, analysts have added to the practices to exchange a quality starting with one creature then onto the next, taking into account advancements of how microorganisms store, copy, and exchange inherited material.

As of late, aging procedures relied on upon uncommon sorts of crude materials and on accessible strains of microorganisms. Presently microorganisms can be hereditarily adjusted to capacity all the more advantageously and to hone a comprehensive assortment of substrates. As these microorganisms are re-built and their aging capacities completely persecuted, we expediently close to the day when substances can be delivered actually and financially.

Related Biotechnology Conferences | Industrial Biotechnology Events | Bioeconomy Congress

Related Conferences

6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Track-5: Fermentation Technology

Fermentation technology consolidate a wide field, yet inside this profile we focus on the utilization of organisms and proteins for development of intensifies that discover application in the vitality, substance, material, restorative and the sustenance portion. In spite of the fact that maturation hones have been utilized for eras, the need for biological generation of vitality and materials is testing creation and change of inventive aging hypotheses. Our efforts are coordinated both to the improvement of cell organizations and chemicals and also of configuration of novel practice ideas and advances for maturation routines.

Mechanical aging systems are progressively predominant, and are measured an essential innovative advantage for dropping our reliance on chemicals and items made from fossil energizes. Be that as it may, despite the fact that their expanding acknowledgment, maturation movements have not yet broadened the comparative advancement as conventional substance methodology, mostly when it emerges to utilizing building devices, for example, numerical representation and streamlining techniques.

Maturation innovation goal is to enhance aging systems for solutions e.g. anti-toxins, drug intermediates, chemicals, amino acids and different biotransformations.

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6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Track-6: Biopharmaceuticals

Biopharmaceuticals may be made from microbial cells (recombinant E. coli or yeast societies), mammalian cell lines and plant cell societies and greenery plants in bioreactors of various designs, comprehensive of photograph bioreactors. Biopharmaceuticals can contain of proteins or extra sorts of items, for example, nucleic acids, viral quality treatment vectors , peptides, lipids and sugars, alone or in mix. The prevalence of biopharmaceuticals available these days are proteins, and in this way this idea concentrates on those activities required essentially for extension of protein-based therapeutics and wont make a difference to alternate classes of biopharmaceuticals.

In the course of recent years, rich new sorts of test biologic treatment have set up business enlistment, however the presence of bio-similarities means the greatest change in the biologic endorsement scene. The Bio pharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is not just a significant device for picking up waivers vivo bioequivalence concentrates additionally for conclusion making in the advancement and early improvement of new medicines. Measurement of solvency and penetrability in the revelation/change foundations is depicted. The experimental premise and information necessities for dossiers at adjusted phases of advancement of biopharmaceuticals will be imparted for the perfection, preclinical and clinical parts of controlling entries.

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6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Track -7: Molecular Biotechnology

Molecular biotechnology is the act of research center techniques to ponder and in addition change proteins and nucleic acids for applications in ranges for example creature wellbeing and human wellbeing, the earth and Agriculture. Atomic biotechnology results from the joining of various scopes of exploration, for example, microbiology, sub-atomic science, immunology, natural chemistry, cell science and hereditary qualities. It is an elating field driven by the capacity to exchange hereditary material between life forms with the point of comprehension noteworthy organic movements or making a significant item. The end of the human genome venture has opened an innumerable of prospects to make new medications and medicines, and techniques to enhance current pharmaceuticals. Atomic biotechnology is a quickly changing and dynamic field. As the pace of advancements quickens, its centrality will rise. The unmistakable quality and impact of atomic biotechnology is being detected the country over.

The instruments of atomic biotechnology can be connected to enhance and grow, drugs , demonstrative tests, treatments, and antibodies that will expand creature and human wellbeing. Sub-atomic biotechnology has apparatus in creature and plant farming, Forestry, and nourishment preparing, Aquaculture, concoction and material assembling. Each normal for our lives in the up and coming times will be influenced by this dynamic stadium.

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Track-8: Biofuels and Biorefinery

Biorefining commercial ventures produce heat, fuel, power and diverse chemicals. The items are readied from biomass, for example, backwoods based materials and sustenance waste. A bio refinery is an ability that acclimatizes biomass change forms and hardware to create heat, powers, control and esteem included chemicals from biomass, generation, new methodologies are in exploration and advancements are made each day. The bio-refinery model is like today’s petroleum refinery, which yield different items and fills from petroleum. Feasible financial development requires safe assets for modern assembling, as bio refineries consolidates the fundamental advancements stuck between mechanical intermediates, bio-crude materials and last items.

Improvement and Research in ahead of schedule field of biorefinery are most extreme noticeable in United States, Europe (Kamm et al. 1998, 2000) to give no less than 25% natural carbon-based mechanical feedstock chemicals, 10%liquid fills from bio-based item industry. BCC Research assesses that the overall interest for bio items will ascend at a twofold digit compound yearly development extent (CAGR) of 12.6% over the accompanying five years to reach $700.7 billion in 2018 from $387.6 billion in 2013, when it will achieve a business sector scattering rate of 5.5% in 2018, from an anticipated rate of 4.2% in 2013. Blue Marble Energy, set up in 2007, is a U.S. based organization which misuses hybridized microbial relationship to create claim to fame renewable and biochemical biogas. Their organization operation is to dislodge oil with totally renewable, carbon impartial substitutes using nature-based elucidations.

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Track-9: Genetically Modified Organisms

Late advancements in engineered science, the enthusiasm for hereditarily altered life forms (GMOs) is exponentially expanding and their applications for existent life show up adequately unending, going from the production of drugs and immunization to their utilization in the agro-nourishment field.

Many existing sensors, named cell-based bioassays and entire cell biosensors , have been in point of interest created in light of hereditarily adjusted cells, discovering applications in a few fields, running from natural checking to nourishment control, from criminological science to medication screening.

Absolutely this stances genuine administrative concerns and embodies a nonstop test for analysts, particularly concerning the potential spreading of GMOs into the earth. This GMO “duality” speaks to a captivating element and this Research Topic is planned to bear the cost of the analysts a look in this interesting field.

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6thWorld Congress onBiotechnology, October 05-07, 2016, New Delhi India; 10thAsia PacificBiotechCongress July 25-27, 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; 11thEuro BiotechnologyCongress, November 07-09,2016, Alicante Spain; 12thBiotechnologyCongress, Nov 14-15, 2016, San Francisco, USA; BIO IPCC Conference, Cary, North Carolina, USA; World Congress onIndustrial Biotechnology, April 17-20, 2016, San Diego, CA; 6thBiobased Chemicals:Commercialization&Partnering, November 16-17, 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA; The European Forum forIndustrial Biotechnologyand theBioeconomy, 27-29 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium; 4thBiotechnologyWorld Congress, February 15th-18th, 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; International Conference on Advances inBioprocess EngineeringandTechnology, 20th to 22nd January 2016,Kolkata, India; Global BiotechnologyCongress 2016, May 11th – 14th 2016, Boston, MA, USA

Track-10: Cell Culture

Cell society alludes to the expulsion of cells from a creature or plant and their consequent development in an ideal fake environment. The cells might be expelled from the tissue straightforwardly and disaggregated by enzymatic or mechanical means before development, or they might be gotten from a cell line or cell strain that has as of now been set up.

Critical development inside of the biopharmaceuticals business is impelling phenomenal advancement and interest for cell society items for the reasons of medication revelation and wellbeing testing. While 2D cell societies have been in research facility use following the 1950s, the business sector for 3D societies, which all the more precisely model human tissue in vivo without using creature test subjects, has seen fantastic development over the previous decade. Without a doubt, this business sector is ready to experience hazardous development inside of the figure period, and additionally make ripe ground for combinations, mergers, and acquisitions for some sorts and sizes of organizations.

Powered by poisonous quality testing and expanded biopharmaceutical creation, the test packs class is the speediest moving fragment of the general business sector, moving at a colossal 42% CAGR. Request here is driven by the way that test units contain all the important reagents and particular conventions bundled for research center use.

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Track-11: Biomaterials

In the cutting edge society, because of advancements in innovation and industry, there are expanding instances of defunctionalisation or harm to tissues or organs from different mishaps, sicknesses, and maturing, and as the human body achieves its breaking points in self-recovery capacity, the requirement for appropriate and viable treatment strategies is expanding quickly. In like manner, studies on biomaterials valuable in tissue recovery are effectively being directed to outline materials that can actuate the recovery of the harmed tissue or organ. Examination is likewise right now being done on undifferentiated cell separation inside of platforms and instruments of the tissue recovery on transplant to the human body and endeavors on the improvement and use of its remedial system. Be that as it may, it is exceptionally hard to shape three-dimensional fake organ like the fundamentally complex tissue inside of the human body because of as far as possible in the biomaterial advancement.

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Track-12: Enzymes from Extreme Environments

Enzymes are nature’s biocatalysts engaged with high synergist power and noteworthy substrate specificity. Catalysts perform an extensive variety of capacities all through nature, and guide the organic chemistry of existence with awesome exactness. The lion’s share of proteins perform under conditions considered ordinary for mesophilic, neutrophilic, physical microorganisms. Notwithstanding, the Earth’s biosphere contains a few districts that are amazing in examination, for example, hypersaline lakes and pools, aqueous vents, chilly seas, dry deserts and regions presented to concentrated radiation. These zones are possessed by a substantial number of extremophilic microorganisms which create compounds equipped for working in bizarre conditions.

There is an expanding biotechnological and modern interest for catalysts steady and working in cruel conditions, and over the previous decade screening for, disconnection and generation of chemicals with one of a kind and amazing properties has gotten to be one of the preeminent ranges of biotechnology examination. The improvement of cutting edge sub-atomic science apparatuses has encouraged the journey for creation of chemicals with streamlined and amazing components. These instruments incorporate expansive scale screening for potential qualities utilizing metagenomics, building of chemicals utilizing computational strategies and site-coordinated mutagenesis and atomic advancement methods.

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Track-13: Agriculture Biotechnology

Late advances in rural biotechnology have empowered the field of plant science to advance in extraordinary a wide margin. plant genomics and crop science have realized an outlook change of thought with respect to the way by which plants can be used both in agribusiness and in drug. Other than the all the more understood upgrades in agronomic attributes of harvests, for example, ailment resistance and dry spell resilience, plants can now be connected with points as different as biofuel generation, phytoremediation, the change of nourishing qualities in consumable plants, the recognizable proof of mixes for restorative purposes in plants and the utilization of plants as remedial protein creation stages. This expansion of plant science has been joined by the colossal plenitude of new licenses issued in these fields and, the same number of these developments approach business acknowledgment, the consequent increment in horticulturally based commercial enterprises. While this survey part is composed principally for plant researchers who have awesome enthusiasm for the new headings being brought regarding applications in farming biotechnology, those in different orders, for example, therapeutic specialists, ecological researchers and designers, might discover critical worth in perusing this article too.

The survey endeavors to give a review of the latest licenses issued for plant biotechnology concerning both farming and drug. The section finishes up with the suggestion that the consolidated main impetuses of environmental change, and additionally the regularly expanding requirements for clean vitality and nourishment security will assume a urgent part in driving the course for connected plant biotechnology research later on.

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Track-14: Biotechnology Market

The development of Biotechnology industry according to Transparency Market Research is evaluated to watch significant development amid 2010 and 2017 as ventures from around the globe are expected to rise, particularly from rising temperate districts of the world. The report expresses that the worldwide business sector for biotechnology, concentrated on as per its application ranges, might develop at a normal yearly development rate of CAGR 11.6% from 2012 to 2017 and achieves a quality worth USD 414.5 billion before the end of 2017. This business sector was esteemed roughly USD 216.5 billion in 2011. The business sector of bio agriculture, consolidated with that of bio seeds, is anticipated to achieve a quality worth USD 27.46 billion by 2018. The field of biopharmaceuticals ruled the worldwide biotechnology advertise and represented 60% shares of it in the year 2011. Numerous biotechnological commercial ventures prospered by the innovative progressions prompting new revelations and rising requests from the pharmaceutical and farming parts.

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Track-15: Global Bioeconomy

The Bioeconomy envelops the generation of renewable natural assets and their change into nourishment, bolster, bio-based items and bioenergy through creative and productive advancements gave by Industrial Biotechnology. It is now a reality and one that offers extraordinary open doors and answers for a developing number of major societal, natural and monetary difficulties, including environmental change moderation, vitality and sustenance security and asset effectiveness. The objective is a more creative and low-outflows economy, accommodating requests for maintainable farming and fisheries, nourishment security, and the reasonable utilization of renewable organic assets for modern purposes, while guaranteeing biodiversity and ecological insurance.

A definitive point of the bioeconomy is to keep Europe focused, imaginative and prosperous by giving practical, keen and comprehensive monetary development and employments, and by addressing the necessities of a developing populace whilst securing our surroundings and resources.Europe is a pioneer in the improvement of the bioeconomy, yet rivalry and enthusiasm for this field keeps on developing the world over.

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Track-16: New Biomedical device

The part of restorative gadgets in social insurance is fundamental. A restorative gadget is an instrument, contraption, insert, in vitro reagent, or comparative that is utilized to analyze, avoid, or treat sickness or different conditions. This classification incorporates news on item reviews, item wellbeing, inserts and prosthetics, new innovative improvements, automated surgery, restorative gadgets for use by therapeutic experts or patients.

Biomechanical designing is the consolidated utilization of mechanical building principals and natural information to better see how these territories cross and how they can be utilized together to possibly enhance people groups’ personal satisfaction. Biomechanics research in the office centers upon mechanics at the cell, tissue, and joint level with applications in orthopedics and musculoskeletal and cardiovascular frameworks. Bioengineering offers a multi-disciplinary, cross-collaborative program that is focused on a new view of human health and disease. Biomedical Engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic). This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering has only recently emerged as its own study, compared to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common as a new field transitions from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself.

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USDA APHIS | Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS)

Last Modified: Mar 24, 2016

A person may petition the agency that a particular regulated article is unlikely to pose a plant pest risk, and, therefore, is no longer regulated under the plant pest provisions of the Plant Protection Act or the regulations at 7 CFR part 340. The petitioner is required to provide information under 340.6(c)(4) related to plant pest risk that the agency may use to determine whether the regulated article is unlikely to present a greater plant pest risk than the unmodified organism. A GE organism is no longer subject to the regulatory requirements of 7 CFR part 340 or the plant pest provisions of the Plant Protection Act when APHIS determines that it is unlikely to post a plant pest risk.

For more information on BRS’ enhanced petition process, including information on transitioning pending petitions, please see our Petition Process Improvements Web page.

APHIS’ Improved Petition Process In November 2011, APHIS announced plans to improve the agency’s process for making determinations on petitions for nonregulated status for GE organisms. To learn more about APHIS’ improved petition process, click here.

Petition Status

Guidance for Petitions

Additional Resources

Additional Information

If you can’t find answers to your questions about the petition process here, please contact a BRS biotechnologist by sending your questions to biotechquery@aphis.usda.gov.

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USDA APHIS | Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS)

Biotechnology Jobs Hundreds of Jobs in Biotechnology in the …

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Biotechnology jobs in the US, Canada, Europe and Asia for postdocs, researchers, and faculty. Explore more jobs in biomedical engineering, genomics and bioengineering.

Saint Louis, Missouri (US) Salary commensurate with experience as well as an excellent benefit package. vwertich@danforthcenter.org

The Director is responsible for developing and directing efforts to improve agriculture and food security in developing regions of the world.

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GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel GEOMAR Centre for Marine Biotechnology (GEOMAR-Biote E13 (TVD-Bund) Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel GEOMAR: RD 3 Marine Natural Products Chemistry

Analytical marine natural product chemist Deadline: 27th May 2016 GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel is a foundation of public law j…

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Boston, Massachusetts (US) Salary + Equity Lumio Health

Join a hybrid biotech + software STARTUP as employee #1 on the founding team! Seeking antibody-DNA bioconjugation and immunoassay expertise.

Bonn, Germany (DE) Undisclosed Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

The award targets outstanding talent and a creative approach to research.

Singapore (SG) Commensurate with qualifications and experience Nanyang Technological University

Nanyang Technological University invites applicants to apply for tenure-track faculty positions at the Associate/Assistant Professor level.

Ottawa, Ontario Competitive Thermo Fisher Scientific

As a member of our Sales Team, you will work in a team environment to manage and exceed budget in a growing and dynamic territory. The territory may

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Directly and through Inside Sales Reps, drives the process of selling designated products and services to customers and prospects.Meet or exceed busi

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PLEASE SUBMIT YOUR RESUME IN ENGLISH ONLY Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (NYSE: TMO) is the world leader in serving science, with revenues of $17 bill

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Ottawa, Ontario Competitive Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Lead and develop a team of regional Sales Development Specialists to drive sales strategy by bringing together the total company value to the respect

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Palm Beach State – Biotechnology

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Palm Beach State College offers two degree programs in biotechnology. Students may choose to enroll inthe Associate in Science (AS) degree, which prepares students for entry into the biotechnology workforce, academic research, and related industries; or a dual Associate in Arts (AA)/(AS) degree option, designed for pre-med and other students planning to transfer to a four-year university. Both the AS and dual AA/AS programs require students to complete a 4-month Biotech internship outside of the College that provides training in real-world academic or industry research.

Our award winning program is taught byPhD level scientific faculty and researchers committed to providing challenging courses to meet the needs of the growing biotech industry.

We also offera 19-credit Biotechnology College Credit Certificate (CCC) for studentswho already have a bachelor’s degree and want to gain the in-demand skills employers require and the internship needed to get a high-tech job orto strengthen anapplication to graduate or medical school.

Palm Beach State’s biotech business partnership, consisting of over 25 different biotech firms, allows our students unique internship opportunities which develop the skills and experience required for a successful career in the biotechnology field.

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Biotechnology – The New York Times

Latest Articles

Efforts to expand use of biotechnology to crops other than corn, soybeans, cotton and canola have been hindered by opposition from consumer and environmental groups.

By ANDREW POLLACK

Federal officials have approved a cheaper version of Johnson & Johnsons blockbuster drug Remicade, a biotech medicine for inflammatory diseases.

General Mills said on Friday that it would start labeling all products that contain genetically modified ingredients to comply with a law set to go into effect in Vermont.

The salary, bonus and stock awards given to Fords chief executive, Mark Fields, jumped 17 percent in 2015.

The senators will consider whether the government should require labeling on foods containing genetically engineered ingredients, an issue that has split the food industry.

By JENNIFER STEINHAUER and STEPHANIE STROM

A diverse biotechnology company hopes its genetically engineered mosquitoes can help stop the spread of a devastating virus. But thats just a start.

By ANDREW POLLACK

States should be free to require the labeling of genetically modified food if they want to.

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

Bioengineers at Rice University recently found that different drops from single fingerpricks on multiple subjects varied substantially.

By DONALD G. McNEIL Jr.

With the success of growing the body parts in a lab, bioengineers are taking a step toward creating replacement organs that can be transplanted into people.

By NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR

Marc Tessier-Lavigne, who will leave Rockefeller University to lead Stanford University, has also worked as an executive in the biotech industry,

The two biotech companies initial public offerings are testing the waters after a recent sell-off in biotech.

Businesses allow parents to leverage their wealth, contacts and the hope of investors to jump-start research into the diseases that afflict their children.

By PAUL SULLIVAN

Scientists have shown that DNA molecules can be the basis for a long-term storage system potentially capable of holding all of the worlds digital information in a tiny space.

By JOHN MARKOFF

The herbicide, which contains the old herbicide 2,4-D, was to be used on crops genetically modified to be resistant to it.

The Food and Drug Administration said that the salmon would not have to be labeled as genetically engineered, consistent with its broader stance on widely eaten genetically modified foods.

Senator Orrin G. Hatch objects to language that would limit brand-name drug makers monopoly protections abroad for their cutting-edge medicines known as biologics.

By JACKIE CALMES

The case is significant because it indicates that cell therapies might not have to be customized for each patient.

By ANDREW POLLACK

An irrational phobia of genetically modified crops is causing real harm.

By MARK LYNAS

A confluence of factors, including Chinas slowing growth, falling commodity prices and trouble in the biotech sector, sent the markets lower.

Readers explain why they disagree with Dr. Ezekiel J. Emanuels proposed solutions for rising drugs costs.

Efforts to expand use of biotechnology to crops other than corn, soybeans, cotton and canola have been hindered by opposition from consumer and environmental groups.

By ANDREW POLLACK

Federal officials have approved a cheaper version of Johnson & Johnsons blockbuster drug Remicade, a biotech medicine for inflammatory diseases.

General Mills said on Friday that it would start labeling all products that contain genetically modified ingredients to comply with a law set to go into effect in Vermont.

The salary, bonus and stock awards given to Fords chief executive, Mark Fields, jumped 17 percent in 2015.

The senators will consider whether the government should require labeling on foods containing genetically engineered ingredients, an issue that has split the food industry.

By JENNIFER STEINHAUER and STEPHANIE STROM

A diverse biotechnology company hopes its genetically engineered mosquitoes can help stop the spread of a devastating virus. But thats just a start.

By ANDREW POLLACK

States should be free to require the labeling of genetically modified food if they want to.

By THE EDITORIAL BOARD

Bioengineers at Rice University recently found that different drops from single fingerpricks on multiple subjects varied substantially.

By DONALD G. McNEIL Jr.

With the success of growing the body parts in a lab, bioengineers are taking a step toward creating replacement organs that can be transplanted into people.

By NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR

Marc Tessier-Lavigne, who will leave Rockefeller University to lead Stanford University, has also worked as an executive in the biotech industry,

The two biotech companies initial public offerings are testing the waters after a recent sell-off in biotech.

Businesses allow parents to leverage their wealth, contacts and the hope of investors to jump-start research into the diseases that afflict their children.

By PAUL SULLIVAN

Scientists have shown that DNA molecules can be the basis for a long-term storage system potentially capable of holding all of the worlds digital information in a tiny space.

By JOHN MARKOFF

The herbicide, which contains the old herbicide 2,4-D, was to be used on crops genetically modified to be resistant to it.

The Food and Drug Administration said that the salmon would not have to be labeled as genetically engineered, consistent with its broader stance on widely eaten genetically modified foods.

Senator Orrin G. Hatch objects to language that would limit brand-name drug makers monopoly protections abroad for their cutting-edge medicines known as biologics.

By JACKIE CALMES

The case is significant because it indicates that cell therapies might not have to be customized for each patient.

By ANDREW POLLACK

An irrational phobia of genetically modified crops is causing real harm.

By MARK LYNAS

A confluence of factors, including Chinas slowing growth, falling commodity prices and trouble in the biotech sector, sent the markets lower.

Readers explain why they disagree with Dr. Ezekiel J. Emanuels proposed solutions for rising drugs costs.

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Biotechnology – The New York Times

UAH – College of Science – Departments & Programs – Biotechnology

Welcome to Biotechnology at UAH.

The Graduate Program in Biotechnology Science and Engineering is an Interdisciplinary Program with faculty from the Departments of Chemistry, Biological Sciences and Chemical Engineering. Adjunct faculty from the Marshall Space Flight Center and local biotechnology research centers and companies are also involved in the program.

The program’s mission is to provide Ph.D. level graduates who are broadly trained in the areas of science and engineering pertinent to biotechnology and who will benefit the economic, educational, and cultural development of Alabama. Graduates of the program are expected to be able to make significant contributions to biotechnology in academic, governmental, and business settings.

The interdisciplinary program in Biotechnology Science and Engineering provides broad training in sciences and engineering dealing with the handling and the processing of macromolecules and living systems. Students receive advanced training in one of three specializations: Structural Biology, Biomolecular Sciences or Bioprocess Engineering. The principal core of instructors and research advisors are drawn from the Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and Chemical and Materials Engineering. The program includes significant involvement from local biotechnology companies as well as NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

Biotechnology is not a single area of study, but a multidisciplinary field concerned with the practical application of biological organisms and their subcellular components to industrial or service manufacturing, to environmental management and health, and to medicine. It is a series of enabling technologies drawn from the fields of microbiology, cellular biology, molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, fermentation technology, environmental science and engineering which allow one to synthesize, breakdown or transform materials to suit human needs. Biotechnology (“Current Trends in Chemical Technology, Business, and Employment,” American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 1998) can therefore be defined as the safe study and manipulation of biological molecules for development of products or techniques for medical and industrial application. Although biotechnology in the broadest sense is not new, the current ability and demand for manipulating living organisms or their subcellular components to provide useful products, processes or services has reached new heights. Modern biotechnology has resulted from scientific scrutiny of old and familiar processes and from new advances in molecular biology, genetic engineering and fermentation technologies.

The future industrial landscape will continue to include research, development and the manufacturing of products such as proteins and nucleic acids that will be based wholly or in large part on biological processes.

Shelby Center,Room 369J The University of Alabama in Huntsville301 Sparkman Drive Huntsville, AL 35899

Dr. Joseph D. Ng email: uahbiotechnology@gmail.com phone: 256.824.6166 fax: 256.824.6305

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UAH – College of Science – Departments & Programs – Biotechnology

Master of Science in Biotechnology | Advanced Academic …

The Johns Hopkins MS in Biotechnology offers a comprehensive exploration of basic science, applied science, and lab science, with an industry focus. The program gives you a solid grounding in biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, genomics, and proteomics.

This 10-course degree program is thesis-optional, part-time, and can be completed fully online. Our curriculum will prepare you to engage in research, lead lab teams, make development and planning decisions, create and apply research modalities to large projects, and take the reins of management and marketing decisions.

Many students like the flexibility of the general degree; it allows them to tailor the coursework to meet their individual career goals. The program also offers five different concentrations: biodefense, bioinformatics, biotechnology enterprise, regulatory affairs, or drug discovery.

Onsite courses are taught during evenings or weekends at either the universitys Homewood Campus in Baltimore, MD or the Montgomery County Campus in Rockville, MD. Courses are also offered in our state-of-the-art lab.

Each year, students of the MS in Biotechnology have the opportunity to apply for a fellowship with the National Cancer Institute at NIH. This fellowship, which requires onsite research as well as onsite courses for the Molecular Targets and Drug Discovery Technologies concentration at the Montgomery Count Campus, awards students with a stipend while providing them with useful experience in the arena of cancer research. Learn more about this fellowship and apply here.

Note: We currently are not accepting applications to the online Master of Science in Biotechnology from students who reside in Kansas. Students should be aware of additional state-specific information for online programs.

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Master of Science in Biotechnology | Advanced Academic …

What is Biotechnology? | North Carolina Biotech Center

Simply put, biotechnology is a toolbox that solves problems.

Biotechnology leverages our understanding of the natural sciences to create novel solutions for many of our world problems. We use biotechnology to grow our food to feed our families. We use biotechnology to make medicines and vaccines to fight diseases. And we are now turning to biotechnology to find alternatives to fossil-based fuels for a cleaner, healthier planet.

We often think of biotechnology as a new area for exploration, but its rich history actually dates back to 8000 B.C when the domestication of crops and livestock made it possible for civilizations to prosper. The 17th century discovery of cells and later discoveries of proteins and genes had a tremendous impact on the evolution of biotechnology.

Biotechnology is grounded in the pure biological sciences of genetics, microbiology, animal cell cultures, molecular biology, embryology and cell biology. The discoveries of biotechnology are intimately entwined in the industry sectors for development in agricultural biotechnology, biofuels, biomanufacturing, human health, nanobiotechnology, regenerative medicine and vaccines.

The foundation of biotechnology is based in our understanding of cells, proteins and genes.

Biologists study the structure and functions of cellswhat cells do and how they do it. Biomedical researchers use their understanding of genes, cells and proteins to pinpoint the differences between diseased and healthy dells. Once they discover how diseased cells are altered, they can more easily develop new medical diagnostics, devices and therapies to treat diseases and chronic conditions.*

*Paraphrased from How Biology Drives Biotechnology; Amgen Scholarsthe Scientist.

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What is Biotechnology? | North Carolina Biotech Center

Biotechnology – Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana

The biotechnology program at Ivy Tech is taught by instructors with real-world experience. Students will use state-of-the-art laboratories that are equipped with instrumentation, supplies and equipment for an effective hands-on laboratory experience.

Classes focus on teaching a variety of procedures necessary to execute laboratory projects assigned in the students chosen field. Students will spend a significant amount of class time working hands-on doing laboratory activities either by themselves or in small groups with the ability to have one-on-one time with the instructor.

The Biotechnology Program prepares students for careers in a variety of life science and manufacturing settings including research, quality control, pharmaceuticals, and medical devise manufacturing.

Graduates will have the foundation needed to transfer to earn a bachelors degree or move right in to local, high-paying jobs in the community, including with some of our industry partners like Dow Agroscience, Eli Lilly, Cook Pharmica, Midwest Compliance Laboratories, and more. These great partnerships lead to our graduates high job placement rate.

*According to a Battelle/Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) Report State Biosciences Jobs, Investments and Innovation 2014.

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Biotechnology – Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana

Bachelor’s Degree in Biotechnology | UMUC

Professionals in biotechnology come up with answers to a host of humanity’s problemsfrom Ebola to failing crops. With a bachelor’s degree in biotechnology from University of Maryland University College, you can become a part of the solution.

For this program, you are required to have already gained technical and scientific knowledge of biotechnology through transferred credit and direct experience in the field.

The major combines laboratory skills and applied coursework with a biotechnology internship experience and upper-level study and helps prepare you to enter the pharmaceutical, agricultural, or biomedical research industries and organizations as a laboratory technician, quality control technician, assay analyst, chemical technician, or bioinformatician.

In your courses, you’ll study biological and chemical sciences, biotechniques, bioinstrumentation, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular biology, and cell biology.

Through your coursework, you will learn how to

In past projects, students have had the opportunity to

Our curriculum is designed with input from employers, industry experts, and scholars. You’ll learn theories combined with real-world applications and practical skills you can apply on the job right away.

Arts and Humanities Classes | 6 Credits

Classes must be from different disciplines.

Technological Transformations (3 Credits, HIST 125)

A 3-credit class in ARTH or HIST

Introduction to Humanities (3 Credits, HUMN 100)

A 3-credit class in ARTH, ARTT, ASTD, ENGL, GRCO, HIST, HUMN, MUSC, PHIL, THET, dance, literature, or foreign language

Behavioral and Social Science Classes | 6 Credits

Classes must be from different disciplines.

Economics in the Information Age (3 Credits, ECON 103)

Technology in Contemporary Society (3 Credits, BEHS 103)

Biological and Physical Sciences Classes | 7 Credits

Introduction to Biology (4 Credits, BIOL 103)

Introduction to Physical Science (3 Credits, NSCI 100)

Computing Classes | 6 Credits

Overall Bachelor’s Degree Requirements

In addition to the general education requirements and the major, minor, and elective requirements, the overall requirements listed below apply to all bachelor’s degrees.

Double majors: You can earn a dual major upon completion of all requirements for both majors, including the required minimum number of credits for each major and all related requirements for both majors. The same class cannot be used to fulfill requirements for more than one major. Certain restrictions (including use of credit and acceptable combinations of majors) apply for double majors. You cannot major in two programs with excessive overlap of required coursework. Contact an admissions counselor before selecting a double major.

Second bachelor’s degree: To earn a second bachelor’s degree, you must complete at least 30 credits through UMUC after completing the first degree. The combined credit in both degrees must add up to at least 150 credits. You must complete all requirements for the major. All prerequisites apply. If any of these requirements were satisfied in the previous degree, the remainder necessary to complete the minimum 30 credits of new classes should be satisfied with classes related to your major. Contact an admissions counselor before pursuing a second bachelor’s degree.

Electives: Electives can be taken in any academic discipline. No more than 21 credits can consist of vocational or technical credit. Pass/fail credit, up to a maximum of 18 credits, can be applied toward electives only.

Lower-level coursework must be taken as part of an appropriate degree program at an approved community college or other institution. Coursework does not have to be completed prior to admission, but it must be completed prior to graduation. Transfer coursework must include 4 credits in general microbiology with a lab, 4 credits in general genetics with a lab, and 7 credits in biotechnology applications and techniques with a lab. Additional required related science coursework (17 credits) may be applied anywhere in the bachelor’s degree.

The BTPS is only available to students who have completed the required lower-level coursework for the major either within an Associate of Applied Science degree at a community college with which UMUC has an articulation agreement or within another appropriate transfer program. Students should consult an admissions counselor before selecting the BTPS.

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Bachelor’s Degree in Biotechnology | UMUC

Biotechnology – News – Times Topics – The New York Times

Biotechnology companies are saving on taxes by transferring patents on their lucrative and expensive drugs to foreign subsidiaries; tactic is not as advantageous as an inversion, but provides substantial tax benefit. MORE

Bioengineers for the first time create functional three-dimensional brain-like tissue, discovery that could eventually be used to study brain disease, injury and treatment; research is published in the journal PNAS, and is the latest example of biomedical engineering being used to make realistic models of organs such as the heart, lungs and liver. MORE

Michael Behar article examines growing field of bioelectronics, in which implants are thought to be able to communicate directly with the nervous system in order to try to fight wide variety of diseases; notes that GlaxoSmithKline runs newly formed Bioelectronics R & D Unit, which has partnerships with 26 independent research groups in six countries. MORE

Scientists at Scripps Research Institute create first living organism with artificial DNA, taking significant step toward altering the fundamental alphabet of life; accomplishment could lead to new antibiotics, vaccines and other products, though a lot more work needs to be done before this is practical; research, published online in journal Nature, is bound to raise safety concerns and questions about whether humans are playing God. MORE

Jeff Sommer Strategies column argues that while recent surge in Internet and biotech stock values may recall notorious bubble of 2000, overall Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index remains far more tethered to reality than it was in that period. MORE

Harlem Biospace, new business incubator focused on biotechnology, will provide start-up lab space in renovated former confectionery research lab on West 127th Street in Harlem, near City College and Columbia University; incubator represents new investment in a neighborhood that has for decades struggled to restore its former economic and social vitality. MORE

Dr Shoukhrat Mitalipov has shaken field of genetics with development of process in which nucleus can be removed from one human egg and placed into another; procedure, intended to help women conceive children without passing on genetic defects in their cellular mitochondria, has drawn ire of bioethicists and scrutiny of federal regulators. MORE

Food and Drug Administration’s new proposal to purge artery-clogging trans fats from foods could ease marketing of genetically modified soybean, which has been manipulated to be free of trans fat; new beans, developed by Monsanto and DuPont Pioneer, could help image of biotechnology industry because they are among the first genetically modified crops with a trait that benefits consumers, as opposed to farmers. MORE

California Gov Jerry Brown vetoes bill that would have allowed biosimilar versions of biologic drugs to be substituted by pharmacists if Food and Drug Administration deemed them ‘interchangeable’ with the brand-name reference product. MORE

Hawaii has become hub for development of genetically engineered corn and other crops that are sold to farmers worldwide, and seeds are state’s leading agricultural commodity; activists opposed to biotech crops have joined with residents who say corn farms expose them to dust and pesticides, and they are trying to drive companies away, or at least rein them in. MORE

Some farmers are noticing soil degradation after using glyphosate, while others argue that the herbicide, along with biotech crops, produces yields too profitable to give up; some critics warn that glyphosate may be producing herbicide-resistant ‘superweeds’; issue is part of larger debate over long-term effects of biotech crops, which account for 90 percent of corn, soybeans and sugar beets grown in the United States. MORE

David Blech, who was once considered biotechnologys top gunslinger and was worth about $300 million, is about to begin a four-year prison term, having pleaded guilty to stock manipulation; Blech’s downfall reflects maturation of biotechnology from get-rich-quick days to sophisticated, multibillion dollar industry. MORE

Researchers at laboratories around world are experimenting with bioprinting, process of using 3-D printing technology to assemble living tissue; while research has made great progress, there are still many formidable obstacles to overcome. MORE

Researchers at University of Illinois have used 3-D printer to make small hybrid ‘biobots’–part part gel, part muscle cell–that can move on their own; research may someday lead to development of tiny devices that could travel within body, sensing toxins and delivering medication. MORE

Developers of biotechnology crops, facing increasing pressure to label genetically modified foods, begin campaign to gain support for products by promising openness; centerpiece of effort is Web site to answer questions posed by consumers about genetically engineered crops and will include safety data similar to that submitted to regulatory agencies. MORE

The rise of personalized medicine has spurred giant pharmaceutical companies to home in on small biotechnology firms. MORE

Physician and tissue engineer Mark Post is attempting to grow so-called in vitro meat, or cultured meat, in Netherlands laboratory through use of stem cells and techniques adapted from medical research for growing tissues and organs; arguments in favor of such technology include both animal welfare and environmental issues, but questions of cost, safety and taste remain. MORE

Group of hobbyists and entrepreneurs begin project to develop plants that glow, potentially leading way for trees that can replace electric streetlamps and potted flowers to read by; project, which will use sophisticated form of genetic engineering called synthetic biology, is unique in that it is not sponsored by corporate or academic interests, and may give rise to similar do-it-yourself ventures. MORE

Interview with Nick Goldman, British molecular biologist who led study that successfully stored digital information in synthetic DNA molecules and then recreated it without error; study, suggesting the possibility of a storage medium of immense scale and longevity, was published in journal Nature. MORE

Craig Venter, controversial scientist and the head of Synthetic Genomics Inc, is convinced that synthetic biology holds the key to solving many of the world’s problems, and his company has been actively trying to find and use new microbes for wildly varied purposes. MORE

Obama administration will announce a broad plan to foster development of the nation’s bioeconomy, including the use of renewable resources and biological manufacturing methods to replace harsher industrial methods. MORE

Firms are racing to cut the cost of sequencing the human genome, as hope rises for faster development of medical advances; promise is that low-cost gene sequencing will lead to a new era of personalized medicine, yielding new approaches for treating cancers and other serious diseases. MORE

Central New Jersey, with its concentration of pharmaceutical giants and academic powerhouses has long had the potential to be a major center for life sciences business, but has never lived up to that potential; now, signs of a small revival are apparent; the number of biotechnology companies has grown to 335 from 10 in 1998; a 64,000-square-foot specialized office building leased to Elementis PLC is being built on spec in a new Woodmont Properties development called SciPark. MORE

Essay by Stanford University bioengineer Drew Endy discusses the outlook for biological computers that could operate at the cellular and even genetic level. MORE

Geron, the company conducting the world’s first clinical trial of a therapy using human embryonic stem cells, says it is halting that trial and leaving the stem cell business entirely; company says its move does not reflect a lack of promise for the controversial field, but a refocusing of its limited resources. MORE

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Biotechnology – News – Times Topics – The New York Times

Biotechnology – American Chemical Society

Chemists in biotechnology generally work in a laboratory setting in an industrial or academic environment. A single laboratory may be involved in 510 projects, and the scientists will have varying degrees of responsibility for each project. Teamwork is vital, and it is unusual to work alone on tasks. Most chemists in biotech positions say they work more than 40 hours a week, although they add that this is largely an individual choice and not necessarily required.

Most biotechnologists today began their careers working for small, innovative biotech companies that were founded by scientists. However, as the field has developed, many major drug companies added or acquired biotech divisions. Chemical companies with large agricultural chemical businesses also have substantial biotech labs. Biotech companies are generally located near universities. The industry began in a few major areas such as San Francisco and Boston (the traditional homes of biotech firms), Chicago, Denver/Boulder, San Diego, Seattle, and Research Triangle Park, NC, but there are now biotech companies all across the country.

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Biotechnology – American Chemical Society

Biotechnology – Science Tracer Bullet

Biotechnology is that “branch of technology concerned with modern forms of industrial production utilizing living organisms, especially micro-organisms, and their biological processes,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The actual term applies to a wide variety of uses of such biological technology, including the development of new breeds of plants and animals, the creation of therapeutic drugs and preventive vaccines, the growing of more nutritious and naturally pest-resistant crops as a food source, and the production of biofuels as an alternative energy source.

The basic idea of biotechnology has existed since prehistoric times. When early humans learned that they could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, and realized that they could selectively breed plants and livestock, they were practicing biotechnology. It was in 1919 that the actual term, “Biotechnologie” or “biotechnology,” was coined by Karl Ereky, a Hungarian engineer. Since the end of World War II, biotechnology has also been used for large-scale waste management, chemotherapy drug production, ore leaching, and other commercial operations.

The discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953 pushed the field of biotechnology to the DNA level. Since the 1970s, using the techniques of gene splicing and recombinant DNA, scientists have been able to combine the genetic elements of two or more living organisms. Completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, as well as the availability of the entire genome sequences of various organisms and of advanced molecular techniques and tools (bioinformatics, comparative genomics, cloning, gene splicing, recombinant DNA), has paved the way for further biotechnological developments in agriculture, medicine, and other areas. Yet, as more novel uses of biotechnology are explored, ethical issues and controversies arise.

While the term “biotechnology” covers a very broad area, this guide focuses on the most recent uses of biotechnology in its four major fields: 1. medicine (vaccine development, chemotherapy drugs, stem cell therapy, gene therapy, and pharmacogenomics); 2. agriculture (genetically modified organisms and cloning); 3. energy and environment (biofuel and waste management); and 4. the bioethical and legal implications of biotechnology. This guide updates and replaces TB 84-7, and furnishes a review of the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on the topic. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed–as the name of the series implies–to put the reader “on target.”

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Hoyle, Brian. Biotechnology. In Gale encyclopedia of science. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, editors. 4th ed. v. 1. Detroit, Thomson Gale, c2008. p. 579-581. Q121.G37 2008

Shmaefsky, Brian. The definition of biotechnology. In his Biotechnology 101. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2006. p. 1-17. TP248.215.S56 2006

Smith, J. E. Public perception of biotechnology. In Basic biotechnology. Edited by Colin Ratledge and Bjrn Kristiansen. 3rd ed. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 3-33. TP248.2.B367 2006

Zaitlin, Milton. Biotechnology. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology. 10th ed. v. 3. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2007. p. 127-130. Q121.M3 2007

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Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on biotechnology can be found include the following:

HIGHLY RELEVANT

RELEVANT

RELATED

MORE GENERAL

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Basic biotechnology. Edited by Colin Ratledge and Bjrn Kristiansen. 3rd ed. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2006. 666 p. TP248.2.B367 2006

Batiza, Ann. Bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics: getting the big picture. Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publishers, c2006. 196 p. Bibliography: p. 181-188. QH324.2.B38 2006

Gazit, Ehud. Plenty of room for biology at the bottom: an introduction to bionanotechnology. London, Imperial College Press; Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific Pub., c2007. 183 p. Bibliography: p. 171-179. QP514.2.G39 2007

An Introduction to molecular biotechnology: molecular fundamentals, methods and applications in modern biotechnology. Edited by Michael Wink, translated by Renate Fitzroy. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, c2006. 768 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.2.I6813 2006

Nicholl, Desmond S. T. An introduction to genetic engineering. 3rd ed. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008. 336 p. Includes bibliographical references. QH442.N53 2008

Renneberg, Reinhard. Biotechnology for beginners. Edited by Arnold L. Demain. Berlin, Boston, Springer-Verlag, c2008. 360 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.2.R45 2008

Shmaefsky, Brian. Biotechnology 101. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2006. 251 p. Bibliography: p. 235-245. TP248.215.S56 2006

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Biotechnology: changing life through science. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, editors. Detroit, Thomson Gale, c2007. 3 v. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.218.B56 2007

Brown, T. A. Gene cloning and DNA analysis: an introduction. 5th ed. Oxford, Malden, MA, Blackwell Pub., 2006. 386 p. Includes bibliographical references. QH442.2.B76 2006

Daugherty, Ellyn. Biotechnology: science for the new millennium. St. Paul, MN, Paradigm Publishers, c2007. 420 p. + 1 CD-ROM. TP248.2.D38 2007 FT MEADE

McGloughlin, Martina, and Edward Re. The evolution of biotechnology: from Natufians to nanotechnology. Dordrecht, Springer, c2006. 262 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.2.M434 2006

Pimentel, David, and Marcia H. Pimentel. Food, energy, and society. 3rd ed. Boca Raton, CRC Press, c2008. 380 p. Includes bibliographical references. HD9000.6.P55 2008

Shmaefsky, Brian. Biotechnology on the farm and in the factory: agricultural and industrial applications. Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publishers, c2006. 158 p. Bibliography: p. 145-149. S494.5.B563S53 2006

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Agriculture, Genetically Modified Organisms, and Food Biotechnology

Andre, Peter. Genetically modified diplomacy: the global politics of agricultural biotechnology and the environment. Vancouver, UBC Press, c2007. 324 p. Includes bibliographical references. S494.5.B563A53 2007

Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops. Edited by Richard E. Litz. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Eng., Cambridge, MA, CABI Pub., c2005. 723 p. (Biotechnology in agriculture series, no. 29) Includes bibliographical references. SB359.3.B549 2005

Food biotechnology. Edited by Kalidas Shetty and others. 2nd ed. New York, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2006. 1982 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.65.F66F6482 2006

Food biochemistry and food processing. Editor, Y. H. Hui; Associate editors, Wai-Kit Nip and others. Ames, IA, Blackwell Pub. Professional, 2006. 769 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP370.8.F66 2006

The Gene revolution: GM crops and unequal development. Edited by Sakiko Fukuda-Parr. London, Sterling, VA, Earthscan, 2007. 248 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.65.F66G44 2007

Herren, Ray V. Introduction to biotechnology: an agricultural revolution. Clifton Park, NY, Delmar Learning, c2005. 413 p. S494.5.B563H47 2005

Labeling genetically modified food: the philosophical and legal debate. Edited by Paul Weirich. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2007. 249 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.65.F66L33 2007

Murphy, Denis J. Plant breeding and biotechnology: societal context and the future of agriculture. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007. 423 p. Includes bibliographical references. SB123.M77 2007

Safety of genetically engineered foods: approaches to assessing unintended health effects. Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health, Board on Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Institute of Medicine. Washington, National Academies Press, 2004. 235 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.65.F66S245 2004

Sanderson, Colin J. Understanding genes and GMOs. Singapore, Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, c2007. 345 p. Includes bibliographical references. QH442.6.S26 2007

Thompson, Paul B. Food biotechnology in ethical perspective. 2nd ed. Dordrecht, Springer, c2007. 340 p. (The International library of environmental, agricultural and food ethics, 10) Bibliography: p. 309-334. TP248.65.F66T47 2007

Biotechnology Ethics and Law

Bailey, Ronald. Liberation biology: the scientific and moral case for the biotech revolution. Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2005. 332 p. Bibliography: p. 247-310. TP248.23.B35 2005

Biotechnology and the law. Hugh B. Wellons and others. Chicago, American Bar Association, c2006. l957 p. Includes bibliographical references. KF3133.B56B56 2006

Bohrer, Robert A. A guide to biotechnology law and business. Durham, NC, Carolina Academic Press, c2007. 341 p. Includes bibliographical references. KF3133.B56 B64 2007

Cohen, Cynthia B. Renewing the stuff of life: stem cells, ethics, and public policy. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2007. 311 p. Bibliography: p. 244-295. QH588.S83C46 2007

Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: the scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues. Edited by Kristen Renwick Monroe, Ronald B. Miller, and Jerome S. Tobis. Berkeley, University of California Press, c2008. 218 p. Includes bibliographical references. QH588.S83F86 2008

Morris, Jonathan. The ethics of biotechnology. Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publishers, c2006. 158 p. Bibliography: p. 142-144. TP248.23.M67 2006

Energy and Environment: Biofuels and Waste Management

Biofuels for transport: global potential and implications for sustainable energy and agriculture. Worldwatch Institute. London, Sterling, VA, Earthscan, 2007. 452 p. Bibliography: p. 407-443. TP339.B5435 2007

Biofuels refining and performance. Ahindra Nag, editor. New York, McGraw-Hill, c2008. 312 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP339.B5437 2008

Biomass: energy from plants and animals. Amanda de la Garza, book editor. Detroit, Greenhaven Press, c2007. 120 p. Bibliography: p. 109-113. TP339.B5646 2007

Bitton, Gabriel. Wastewater microbiology. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley-Liss, John Wiley & Sons, c2005. 746 p. Includes bibliographical references. QR48.B53 2005

Logan, Bruce E. Microbial fuel cells. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley-Interscience, c2008. 200 p. Bibliography: p. 189-198. TP339.L64 2008

Materials, chemicals, and energy from forest biomass. Dimitris S. Argyropoulos, editor. Washington, American Chemical Society; Distributed by Oxford University Press, c2007. 591 p. (ACS symposium series, 954) Includes bibliographical references. TP339.M367 2007

Progress in biomass and bioenergy research. Steven F. Warnmer, editor. New York, Nova Science Publishers, c2007. 217 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP360.P768 2007

Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Autologous and cancer stem cell gene therapy. Editors, Roger Bertolotti, Keiya Ozawa. Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, c2008. 446 p. (Progress in gene therapy, v. 3) Includes bibliographical references. QH588.S83A98 2008

Biotechnology in personal care. Edited by Raj Lad. New York, Taylor & Francis, 2006. 454 p. (Cosmetic science and technology series, v. 29) Includes bibliographical references. TP983.B565 2006

Cancer biotherapy: an introductory guide. Edited by Annie Young, Lewis Rowett, David Kerr. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, c2006. 323 p. Includes bibliographical references. RC271.I45C33 2006

Kelly, Evelyn B. Stem cells. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2007. 203 p. Bibliography: p. 193-198. QH588.S83K45 2007

The National Academies guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Washington, National Academies Press, c2007. 36 p. Includes bibliographical references. “2007 amendments.” QH442.2.N38 2007

Newton, David E. Stem cell research. New York, Facts On File, c2007. 284 p. Includes bibliographical references. QH588.S83N49 2007

Panno, Joseph. Stem cell research: medical applications and ethical controversy. New York, Facts On File, c2005. 178 p. Bibliography: p. 157-161. QH588.S83P36 2005

Pharmaceutical biotechnology. Edited by Michael J. Groves. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Taylor & Francis, 2006. 411 p. Includes bibliographical references. RS380.P475 2005

Pharmaceutical biotechnology: fundamentals and applications. Edited by Daan J. A. Crommelin, Robert D. Sindelar, Bernd Meibohm. 3rd ed. New York, Informa Healthcare, c2008. 466 p. Includes bibliographical references. RS380.P484 2008

Sasson, Albert. Medical biotechnology: achievements, prospects and perceptions. Tokyo, New York, United Nations University Press, c2005. 154 p. Bibliography: p. 143-148. TP248.2.S273 2005

Schacter, Bernice. Biotechnology and your health: pharmaceutical applications. Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publishers, c2006. 178 p. Bibliography: p. 163-167. RS380.S33 2006

Stem cells and cancer. Devon W. Parsons, editor. New York, Nova Biomedical Books, c2007. 284 p. Includes bibliographical references. RC269.7.S74 2007

Stem cells: from bench to bedside. Editors, Ariff Bongso and Eng Hin Lee. Singapore, Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, c2005. 565 p. Includes bibliographical references. QH588.S83B66 2005

Stephenson, Frank Harold. DNA: how the biotech revolution is changing the way we fight disease. Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2007. 333 p. Bibliography: p. 303-312. TP248.215.S74 2007

Walsh, Gary. Pharmaceutical biotechnology: concepts and applications. Chichester, Eng., Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, c2007. 480 p. Includes bibliographical references. RS380.W35 2007

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Glazer, Alexander N., and Hiroshi Nikaido. Microbial biotechnology: fundamentals of applied microbiology. 2nd ed. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007. 554 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.27.M53G57 2007

Globalization, biosecurity, and the future of the life sciences. Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats, Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs Division, Board on Global Health, Institute of Medicine, Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of the National Academies. Washington, National Academies Press, c2006. 299 p. Includes bibliographical references. HV6433.3.G56 2006

Landecker, Hannah. Culturing life: how cells became technologies. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2007. 276 p. Bibliography: p. 239-271. QH585.2.L36 2007

Okafor, Nduka. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Enfield, NH, Science Publishers, c2007. 530 p. Includes bibliographical references. QR53.O355 2007

Principles of tissue engineering. Edited by Robert P. Lanza, Robert Langer, Joseph Vacanti. 3rd ed. Amsterdam, Boston, Elsevier/Academic Press, c2007. 1307 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.27.A53P75 2007

Sunder Rajan, Kaushik. Biocapital: the constitution of postgenomic life. Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 2006. 343 p. Bibliography: p. 315-326. HD9999.B442S86 2006

Ullmanns biotechnology and biochemical engineering. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, c2007. 2 v. (855 p.) Includes bibliographical references. TP248.2.U44 2007

Zimmer, Marc. Glowing genes: a revolution in biotechnology. Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2005. 221 p. Includes bibliographical references. QP552.G73Z56 2005

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Bains, William. Biotechnology from A to Z. 3rd ed. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2004. 413 p. Bibliography: p. 387. TP248.16.B33 2004

Encyclopedia of genetics. Editor, revised edition, Bryan D. Ness; editor, first edition, Jeffrey A. Knight. Rev. ed. Pasadena, CA, Salem Press, c2004. 2 v. Includes bibliographical references. QH427.E53 2004

Kahl, Gnter. The dictionary of gene technology: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics. 3rd ed. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, c2004. 2 v. (1290 p.) QH442.K333 2004

Kent and Riegel’s handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. Edited by James A. Kent. 11th ed. New York, Springer, c2007. 1 v. Includes bibliographical references. Rev. ed. of Riegels handbook of industrial chemistry. 2003. TP145.R53 2007

Nill, Kimball R. Glossary of biotechnology and nanobiotechnology terms. 4th ed. Boca Raton, Taylor & Francis, 2006. 402 p. TP248.16.F54 2006

Plunkett’s biotech & genetics industry almanac. Houston, TX, Plunkett Research, c2001- . Annual. HD9999.B44P57

Steinberg, Mark, and Sharon D. Cosloy. The Facts on File dictionary of biotechnology and genetic engineering. 3rd ed. New York, Facts on File, 2006. 275 p. Not yet in LC

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Challenges and risks of genetically engineered organisms. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, c2004. 223 p. Includes bibliographical references. Proceedings of a workshop on “Challenges and Risks of GMOs-What Risk Analysis is Appropriate?” held in Maastricht, Netherlands, 16-18 July 2003. QH450.C45 2004

European Society of Animal Cell Technology. General Meeting (19th, 2005, Harrogate, England). Cell technology for cell products: proceedings of the 19th ESACT Meeting, Harrogate, UK, June 5-8, 2005. Edited by Rodney Smith. Dordrecht, Springer, c2007. 821 p. Includes bibliographical references. TP248.27.A53E93 2005

European Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology (2004, Oostende, Belgium). European Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology–ESEB 2004: proceedings of the European Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology, ESEB 2004, 25-28 April 2004, Oostende, Belgium. Edited by W. Verstraete. Leiden, Balkema, 2004. 909 p. Includes bibliographical references. TD192.5.E965 2004

Food Innovation: Emerging Science, Technologies and Applications (FIESTA) conference. Edited by Peter Roupas. In Innovative food science & emerging technologies, v. 9, Apr. 2008: 139-254. TP248.65.F66I55

Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference (2nd, 2007, Irvine, Calif.). Proceedings of the 2nd Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference–2007: presented at the Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference, June 7-8, 2007, Irvine, California, USA. New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, c2007. 160 p. Includes bibliographical references. R857.M3F76 2007

International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (2006, Jeju, Korea). Experimental mechanics in nano and biotechnology. Edited by Soon-Bok Lee, Yun-Jae Kim. etikon Zrich, Switzerland; Enfield, NH, Trans Tech Publications, Ltd., 2006. 2 v. (Key engineering materials, v. 326-328) Includes bibliographical references. Proceedings of the International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM 2006) and the 5th Asian Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ACEM5), September 26-29, 2006, Jeju, Korea; organized by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Asian Committee for Experimental Mechanics (ACEM). TA349.I478 2006

Symposium of the Tohoku University 21st Century Center of Excellence Program (2007, Tohoku University, Japan). Future medical engineering based on bionanotechnology: proceedings of the final symposium of the Tohoku University 21st Century Center of Excellence Program, Sendai International Center, Japan 7-9 January 2007. Editors, Esashi Masayoshi and others. London, Imperial College Press, 2006. 1115 p. Includes bibliographical references. R857.N34S94 2007

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